# Chapter 16: Energy in Transition: Thermodynamics Form A 1. A) B) C) D) E) 2. A) B) C) D) E) 3. A) B) C) D) E) 4. A) B) C) D) E) 5. A) B) C) D) E) 6.

Calculate ∆ U for a system that does 300 kJ of work on the surroundings when 150 kJ of heat are absorbed by the system. +450 kJ 0 kJ -450 kJ -150 kJ +150 kJ Calculate ∆ U for a system that absorbs 325 kJ of heat and has 65 kJ of work done on the system. -260 kJ +390 kJ 0 kJ -390 kJ +260 kJ Calculate ∆ U for a system that loses 225 kJ of heat and has 150 kJ of work done on the sysyem. +375 kJ -375 kJ +75 kJ 0 kJ -75 kJ Calculate ∆ U for a system that loses 325 kJ of heat while doing 200 kJ of work on the surroundings. +125 kJ -525 kJ 0 kJ -125 kJ +525 kJ In a certain exothermic reaction at constant pressure, ∆ H = -75 kJ and 35 kJ of work was required to make room for products. What is ∆ U? -40 kJ 0 kJ -110 kJ +110 kJ +40 kJ In a certain endothermic reaction at constant pressure, ∆ H = +175 kJ and 45 kJ of

A) B) C) D) E) 7. A) B) C) D) E) 8. A) B) C) D) E) 9. A) B) C) D) E) 10.

work was required to make room for products. What is ∆ U? +220 kJ -220 kJ -130 kJ 0 kJ +130 kJ For a certain reaction at constant pressure, ∆ U = -125 kJ and 22 kJ of expansion work is done by the system. What is ∆ H for this process? -125 kJ +147 kJ +103 kJ -147 kJ -103 kJ For a certain reaction at constant pressure, ∆ U = +45 kJ and 14 kJ of expansion work is done by the system. What is ∆ H for this process? -59 kJ +59 kJ +31 kJ +45 kJ -31 kJ Calculate the work needed to make room for products in the combustion of 1 mole of CH4(g) to carbon dioxide and water vapor at STP (1 L * atm = 101 J). -4.52 kJ -2.26 kJ -6.79 kJ -11.3 kJ no work is needed Calculate the work needed to make room for products in the combustion of 1 mole of C3H8(g) to carbon dioxide and water vapor where reactants and products are brought to STP (1 L * atm = 101 J). no work is needed -15.8 kJ -13.6 kJ -4.52 kJ -2.26 kJ Which of the following reactions leads to a decrease in entropy of the system? 2H2O(l) −−> 2H2(g) + O2(g) C(s) + H2O(g) −−> CO(g) + H2(g)

A) B) C) D) E) 11. A) B)

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This means that the change from white to gray tin is predicted to be spontaneous on the basis of the entropy change. Cl2(g). A) B) C) D) E) Which of the following has the largest entropy at 298 K? I2(g) Cl2(g) Br2(l) F2(g) Br2(g) Which of the following has the largest entropy at 298 K? Xe(g) Ne(g) Kr(g) He(g) Ar(g) Which of the following has the largest entropy at 298 K? CH3Cl(l) CH4(g) CCl4(l) CCl4(g) CH3Cl(g) All of the following changes give a positive ∆ Sro except H2O(s) −−> H2O(l) H2O(l. 1 atm) −−> He(g. white tin is more ordered than gray tin. gray tin has a higher molar entropy than white tin. 20oC) −−> H2O(l. A) B) C) D) E) 15. gray) Sn(s. Which of the following reactions has the largest positive molar entropy change? N2(g) + 3H2(g) −−> 2NH3(g) KClO4(s) + 4C(s) −−> KCl(s) + 4CO(g) CH4(g) + 2O2(g) −−> CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) PCl5(g) −−> PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) H2O(s) −−> H2O(g) Which of the following has the smallest molar entropy at 298 K? S(s.5 J * K-1. 10 atm) 2NO(g) −−> N2O4(g) H2(g) + I2(s) −−> 2HI(g) NH3(g) −−> NH3(aq) Pb(s) + Br2(l) −−> PbBr2(s) When 1 mole of white tin changes to gray tin at 13. HCl(g). A) B) C) 21. A) B) C) D) E) Which of the following reactions has the largest positive molar entropy change? 6Li(s) + N2(g) −−> 2Li3N(s) 2Na(l) + H2(g) −−> 2NaH(s) NH3(g) + HCl(g) −−> NH4Cl(s) CaSO4*2H2O(s) −−> CaSO4(s) + 2H2O(g) 2Mg(s) + CO2(g) −−> 2MgO(s) + C(s) 18. Cl(g) HCl(aq) > Cl(g) > HCl(g) > Cl2(g) Cl2(g) > Cl(g) > HCl(g) > HCl(aq) 17.0oC. diamomd) Sn(s. 12. the change in entropy is -7. 50oC) N2(g) + 3H2(g) −−> 2NH3(g) A) B) C) D) E) 19.5 J * K-1. A) B) .C) D) E) PCl5(s) −−> PCl3(l) + Cl2(g) C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g) −−> 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) N2(g) + 3H2(g) −−> 2NH3(g) D) E) H2O(l) −−> H2O(g) Na(l) −−> Na(g) Which of the following processes would have a positive ∆ Sro? He(g. A) B) C) D) E) 16. 13. A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E) 14. gray tin is more ordered than white tin. rhombic) C(s. white) CaCO3(s) List the following in order of decreasing molar entropy at 298 K. A) B) C) D) E) 20. gray tin has an entropy of -7. HCl(aq).

has nothing to do with the universe. is 38. A) B) C) D) E) 25. given the molar enthalpy and molar entropy of vaporization of 30.7 kJ * mol-1 at its normal boiling point. is also decreasing. 26. respectively. A) B) C) D) E) 29.0 J * K-1 * mol-1.1 J * K-1 -6.0 J * K-1 139 J * K-1 235 J * K-1 373 J * K-1 423 J * K-1 Estimate the normal boiling point of Br2(l). calculate ∆ So for freezing 1 mole of water at this temperature. A) B) C) D) E) +6.00 ∗ 103 J * K-1 -22. C2H5OH.9 kJ * mol-1. 100oC 78. calculate ∆ So for vaporization of one mole of H2O(l) at 100oC.03 ∗ 103 J * K-1 5. given the molar enthalpy and entropy of vaporization of 38. C2H5OH.7 ∗ 103 J * K-1 If the enthalpy of fusion of water at its normal melting point is 6. Calculate ∆ So for vaporization of 1 mole of ethanol at its normal boiling point.0 J * K-1 The entropy of the universe is always increasing.03 ∗ 103 J * K-1 -4. A) B) C) D) E) -109 J * K-1 -40. 78oC. ∆ Ssurroundings is less than ∆ Ssystem ∆ Ssurroundings is greater than ∆ Ssystem ∆ Ssurroundings = ∆ Ssystem (∆ Ssurroundings + ∆ Ssystem) is less than zero ∆ Ssurroundings is negative If the enthalpy of vaporization of water at 100oC is 40.7 kJ * mol-1 and 110 J * K-1 * mol-1. Page 3 . 96.0oC 352oC 284oC The enthalpy of vaporization of ethanol. If the enthalpy of vaporization of benzene is 33. 57oC 303oC 100oC 30oC 330oC Estimate the normal boiling point of ethanol.8oC 11.0 J * K-1 22. If ∆ Ho = -1202 kJ and ∆ So = -217 J * K-1 for the combustion of 2 moles of magnesium.00 kJ * mol-1. 136 J * K-1 109 J * K-1 40. A) B) C) D) E) 27.7 kJ * mol-1 and 93. 23.7 kJ * mol-1. A) B) C) D) E) 28.00 ∗ 103 J * K-1 24. -20.7 ∗ 103 J * K-1 A) B) C) D) E) 217 J * K-1 -217 J K-1 4. respectively.54 ∗ 103 J * K-1 22. is zero. calculate the molar entropy of vaporization at its boiling point.C) D) E) HCl(g) > HCl(aq) > Cl2(g) > Cl(g) Cl(g) > Cl2(g) > HCl(g) > HCl(aq) Cl2(g) > HCl(g) > Cl(g) > HCl(aq) For the freezing of water at 0oC. remains constant. the change in entropy of the surroundings at 298 K is A) B) C) D) E) 30. The normal boiling point of benzene is 80oC.

Consider the following reaction. 103 J * K-1 292 J * K-1 496 J * K-1 110 J * K-1 142 J * K-1 E) 35.314)(25)ln(0. 24 Torr) at 25oC is therefore 0 8. ∆ S < 0 ∆ H < 0. This reaction will be driven by the enthalpy.8 kJ at 298 K.A) B) C) D) E) 31. be spontaneous at all temperatures. A) B) C) D) E) 38. be spontaneous at high temperatures. A) B) C) D) E) 34. not be spontaneous at any temperature.0316) +(8. ∆ Hro is negative.0316) A) Consider the following reaction N2H4(l) + 2H2O2(l) −−> N2(g) + 4H2O(g) If ∆ Hro = -530 kJ at 298 K. B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E) 36.0316 atm. A) B) C) D) E) 32. Reactions with positive values of ∆ Sro always become spontaneous at high temperatures. ∆ Sro must be given. ∆ Gro is negative at high temperatures. A) B) C) D) E) 33. ∆ Gro is negative at low temperatures. All of these statements are false. CaCO3(s) −−> CaO(s) + CO2(g) If this reaction is endothermic. then the reaction will only be spontaneous at very low temperatures. ∆ S > 0 ∆ H > 0. 37. ∆ S > 0 ∆ H > 0. ∆ Gro for the reaction H2O(l) −−> H2O(g.56 kJ 20.314)(298)ln(0. the reaction is spontaneous at all temperatures. A) B) C) D) A) B) C) D) E) . Spontaneous reactions always have ∆ Gro > 0.314)(25)ln(0. Spontaneous reactions always have ∆ Hro > 0. The vapor pressure of water at 25oC is 24 Torr. ∆ S = 0 Consider the following reaction. the reaction will only be spontaneous at very high temperatures. not be spontaneous at high temperatures. PCl5(g) −−> PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) Which statement is true for this reaction? ∆ S>0 ∆ S=0 ∆ G = ∆ H + T∆ S Smo = 0 for Cl2(g) ∆ S<0 For the reaction 2SO3(g) −−> 2SO2(g) + O2(g) ∆ Hro = 197. Which of the following conditions will result in a spontaneous reaction at all temperatures? ∆ H < 0. 7 Which one of the following statements is true? Spontaneous reactions always have ∆ Hro < 0. 24 Torr) at 25oC is therefore 0 -(8. the reaction is not spontaneous at any temperature.87 kJ The vapor pressure of water at 25oC is 0. ∆ S < 0 ∆ H > 0.7 kJ -7. ∆ G for the reaction H2O(l) −−> H2O(g.0316) +(8. to determine if the reaction will be spontaneous.314)(298)ln(0. which one of the following statements is true at 298 K and 1 atm? ∆ Gor is positive at all temperatures. ∆ Sro is negative.56 kJ -8.0316) -(8.

CS2(l) has a negative entropy.0 J * K-1.02 A) B) C) D) E) +246. kJ * mol-1 Smo. no catalyst can be found to decompose CS2(l) into its elements.85 -285. Calculate ∆ Gro for the decomposition of mercury(II) oxide at 298 K. kJ * mol-1 -365.2 kJ -64. 2HgO(s) −−> 2Hg(l) + O2(g) ∆ Hfo. Calculate ∆ Gro at 400 K.83 70. a common solvent. at temperatures above 464 K.300 kJ -111 kJ -157 kJ -73 kJ -85 kJ For the following reaction CuO(s) + H2(g) −−> Cu(s) + H2O(g) at 298 K. ∆ Hro = -206 kJ and ∆ Sro = -363 J * K-1. is 65. -24. this reaction will be spontaneous at no temperature. at all temperatures. J * K-1 * mol-1 -90. Calculate the value of ∆ Gro for this reaction at 25oC.56 Smo. A) B) C) D) E) 40.45 kJ 82.14 76. +19. NH4NO3(s) −−> N2O(g) + 2H2O(l) ∆ Hfo.05 kJ +120. -106 kJ -18. For the following reaction C6H6(g) + 3H2(g) −−> C6H12(g) at 298 K.9 kJ -68. This means that at 298 K CS2(l) is thermodynamically unstable.83 69. Consider the following compounds and their standard free energies of formation: (1) (2) (3) (4) C6H6(l) Ccl4(l) CS2(l) PCl3(g) 124 kJ * mol-1 -268 kJ * mol-1 -65 kJ * mol-1 65 kJ * mol-1 A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E) 44. CS2(l) is thermodynamically stable.22 kJ and ∆ Sro = 198.27 kJ * mol-1 at 298 K. A) B) C) D) E) 46. A) B) C) D) E) 42.1 kJ For a reaction. A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) Page 5 .75 J * K-1 at 298 K.5 kJ +117.21 kJ -332.8 kJ +74. at 273 K. Calculate ∆ Gro for the decomposition of ammonium nitrate at 298 K.08 -186.05 219.6 kJ -487 kJ -157 kJ The standard free energy of formation of CS2(l). With all reactants and products in their standard states.1 kJ -246. J * K-1 * mol-1 151.91 43.0 kJ and ∆ Sro = 47. Hro = -87.39.9 kJ +106 kJ 45.62 kJ -124. ∆ Hro = -92 kJ and ∆ Sro = -65 J * K-1.64 kJ +99.2 kJ +18. CS2(l) will not spontaneously form C(s) + 2S(s). Calculate ∆ Gro at 500oC.2 kJ -117. Which of these compounds is/are thermodynamically unstable? (1) and (3) (2) and (4) (4) (1) (2) For the reaction 2NH3(g) −−> 3H2(g) + N2(g) ∆ Hro = 92.5 kJ -97.29 205. 41.

calculate ∆ Gr for an SO3(g) pressure of 20 atm at this temperature.3 J * K-1 3. . CaCO3(s) −−> CaO(s) + CO2(g). (b) at 250oC? 2NaF(s) + Cl2(g) −−> 2NaCl(s) + F2(g) ∆ Hfo. at temperatures below 463 K. respectively.05 kJ -4.21 kJ -218. calculate the boiling point of carbon tetrachloride. 260 K 347oC 61. H2S(g) −−> H2(g) + S(s).65 -411. kJ * mol-1 -573.15 Smo.7 J * K-1 * mol-1. and as the blue pentahydrate.2 kJ 15 kJ Consider the following reaction CuSO4(s) −−> CuO(s) + SO3(g) If ∆ Go = -14. calculate ∆ Gro for the reaction below. Calculate ∆ Gro at 100oC.46 +72.69 kJ +42. 2. -128.23 J * K-1 at 298. ∆ Hro = -49 kJ. Assume the product is the pentahydrate.6 kJ at 950oC for this reaction.46 kJ -252.4 kJ +173. A) B) C) D) E) Calculate ∆ Gr at 298 K for the reaction C2H5OH(l) −−> C2H5OH(g. CuSO4*5H2O(s).6 kJ. A) B) C) D) E) 54. So = 300 J * K-1 * mol-1 H2O(g): ∆ Hfo = -242 kJ * mol-1. ∆ Sro = 161 J * K-1 4. ∆ Sro = 254 J * K-1 For which of these reactions would it be feasible to search for a catalyst to speed up the reaction at 298 K? 1. only If ∆ Hfo and Smo for CCl4(l) and CCl4(g) are -135. 50.0263 atm) given ∆ Gro = 6. -2. 0. (a) at 25oC. For the reaction 2H2(g) + CO(g) −−> CH3OH(l) ∆ Hro = -128. ∆ Hro = -206 kJ. A) B) C) D) E) 48. So = 189 J * K-1 * mol-1 A) B) C) D) E) 52.07 +202.4 and -103. So = 109 J * K-1 * mol-1 CuSO4*5H2O(s): ∆ Hfo = -2280 kJ * mol-1. Data: CuSO4(s): ∆ Hfo = -771 kJ * mol-1. C6H6(l) −−> 6C(s) + 3H2(g).13 kJ Consider the reactions below.E) 47.35 kJ Copper(II) sulfate can be obtained in the anhydrous form. 53. ∆ Hro = 179 kJ. ∆ Sro = -363 J * K-1 2.4 and 308. ∆ Sro = -43.4oC 629 K 70. and 3. determine whether it will spontaneously pick up water from the atmosphere at a temperature of 10oC and a vapor pressure of water of 9. CuSO4(s).13 kJ and ∆ Sro = -332.69 kJ * mol-1 at 298 K.4 kJ +86. all the reactions 3.0 kJ * mol-1.98 Torr. If the anhydrous form is being considered as a potential dehydrating agent. ∆ Hro = 20. J * K-1 * mol-1 +51. and 215.8 kJ 2. C6H6(g) + 3H2(g) −−> C6H12(g).13 +223.8 kJ -29.69 kJ -86.0oC Is it possible to use the following reaction to produce fluorine. A) B) C) D) E) 49.78 51. If the standard molar free energy of formation of NO(g) is 86. only 2. and 4.2 kJ at 298 K. 1.8 kJ -15 kJ 6. N2(g) + O2(g) −−> 2NO(g) -173.

5 kJ 45.00 ∗ 1036 9. A) B) C) D) E) 56.06 ∗ 10-31 9.30 -202. kJ * mol-1 3.89 ∗ 10-1 5.57 ∗ 1015 1.01 A) B) C) D) E) 60.47 ∗ 1030 6.56 kJ 8.42 ∗ 1055 6.37 ∗ 10-16 1.1 kJ at 25oC for the reaction CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) < = = > CH3COO-(aq) + H3O+(aq) calculate Ka for this reaction at 298 K.69 kJ * mol- 61. at temperatures above 1032 K. 7.47 ∗ 10-15 1.37 ∗ 1030 The vapor pressure of water at 25oC is 24 Torr.63 ∗ 10-7 1. at all temperatures.39 ∗ 1015 1.63 ∗ 104 1. Page 7 .22 ∗ 1014 A) B) C) D) E) 57. 1. 1.15 ∗ 10-11 1.1 kJ -45.69 kJ * mol1.87 kJ -8.A) B) C) D) E) 30.08 ∗ 109 660 1.87 55.45 -95.7 kJ The equilibrium constant for the reaction Hg(l) < = = > Hg(g) -16. 4.56 kJ 0 20.9 kJ If ∆ Gro = 27. NH3(g) + HCl(g) −−> NH4Cl(s) ∆ Gfo.11 ∗ 10 Consider the reaction 2NO(g) −−> N2(g) + O2(g) If the standard molar free energy of formation of NO(g) at 298 K is 86.88 ∗ 1019 9.78 ∗ 10-5 9. calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction at 298 K. Consider the reaction N2(g) + O2(g) −−> 2NO(g) If the standard molar free energy of formation of NO(g) at 298 K is 86. A) B) C) D) E) 62.57 ∗ 10-31 Calculate the equilibrium constant at 298 K for the reaction below. A) B) C) D) E) 59. at temperatures below 759oC.80 ∗ 1014 1.35 ∗ 10-31 6.60 J * K-1 at 298 K. Consider the reaction 2SO3(g) −−> 2SO2(g) + O2(g) If ∆ Hro = 196 kJ and ∆ Sro = 190 J * K-1 for this reaction at 298 K. A) B) C) D) E) 6.52 kJ and ∆ So = -72. at temperatures below 1032 K.1 kJ -14. the value of the equilibrium constant will be greater than 1 at no temperature. Consider the following reaction NO(g) + < = = > O2(g) −−> NO2(g) If ∆ Hro = -56. calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for this reaction at 298 K.07 ∗ 1030 2. ∆ Gro for the reaction H2O(l) −−> H2O(g) at 25oC is therefore -7.6 kJ 15. A) B) C) D) E) 58.31 ∗ 106 8. calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for this reaction at 298 K.

1 kJ -57.A) B) C) D) E) is 3.11 kJ 8. -25.7 kJ -38. A) B) C) D) E) 68.6 kJ 24.84 kJ * mol-1 0 -1.5 ∗ 10-21 7.59 kJ -6. calculate ∆ Gr at this temperature when Br2(g) is produced at a pressure of 7.75 ∗ 10-5 at 25oC.4 kJ 2. Calculate ∆ Gro for this reaction.9 kJ -7.40 kJ * mol-1 Consider the reaction NH3(aq) + H2O(l) < = = > NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) If Kc = 1.1 kJ 2.8 ∗ 10-10 1. -24.11 kJ 0 Consider the reaction 2CuBr2(s) −−> 2CuBr(s) + Br2(g) If the equilibrium vapor pressure of Br2(g) is 1.33 kJ 3. 0 110 kJ -110 kJ 38.43 ∗ 10-5 Torr at 298 K.7 kJ 61.31 kJ -3.20 M AgNO3(aq) with 5 mL of 0.31 kJ If ∆ Gr = -46.0 kJ -0. -27.2 ∗ 10-10 1.1 kJ If Kp for the reaction N2O4(g) < = = > 2NO2(g) is 0.27 kJ 6.59 kJ If the enthalpy of vaporization of ethanol is 38.47 kJ 27. 4.1 kJ 57.50 ∗ 10-7 Torr.17 kJ -4.7 kJ Calculate the standard free energy of formation of CHCl3(l) at 25oC given that ∆ Gfo for CHCl3(g) is -70. 39.20 M NaBr(aq) at 298 K.7 ∗ 10-13 at 298 K.7 kJ If the vapor pressure of Br2(l) at 298 K is 217 Torr. calculate ∆ Gro for vaporization of 1 mole of Br2(l) at 298 K. -8. A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E) 66. 63. 70.6 ∗ 10-4 at 100oC.2 ∗ 1010 3.9 kJ for the reaction of 5 mL of 0.27 kJ -2. calculate ∆ Gro for this reaction.15 kJ 7. -70. A) B) C) D) E) A) . calculate the solubility product of AgCl at this temperature. B) C) D) E) -2. A) B) C) D) E) 65.15 at 25oC.12 kJ * mol-1 and the vapor pressure of chloroform at 25oC is 0.33 kJ -3.72 kJ * mol-1 68.0 kJ -4.7 kJ 67. determine ∆ Gro for the reversible vaporization of 1 mole of ethanol at 78oC and 1 atm.60 M NaCl(aq) at 298 K. calculate ∆ Gr for the reaction of 5 mL of 0.12 kJ * mol-1 -71.6 kJ 0 6.8 ∗ 1010 If Ksp of AgBr is 7.500 atm.20 M AgNO3(aq) with 5 mL of 0. A) B) C) D) E) 64. calculate ∆ Gro for this reaction.7 kJ A) B) C) D) E) 69.7 kJ * mol-1 at its normal boiling point of 78oC. 7.1 kJ -61.

8 kJ 42.0 kJ For the following process C6H6(l) −−> C6H6(g) ∆ Ho = 33.0 ∗ 10-6 M and [HClO] = 0. -42.1 kJ +69. 238. 77.7 ∗ 10-13 at 25oC.02 A) B) C) D) E) 79. and ∆ Go for the reversible vaporization of 1 mole of Cl2(l) at 238. ∆ Uo.2 kJ 83. HClO(aq) + H2O(l) < = = > ClO-(aq) + H3O+(aq) Kc = 3. The reaction is spontaneous at all temperatures.10 M.83 Smo. The reaction is spontaneous at high temperatures.0 ∗ 10-8 Calculate ∆ Gr when [ClO-] = [H3O+] = 1.8 kJ of AgBr is 7.2 kJ -83. kJ * mol-1 -90.100 M) −−> Ag+(aq.8 kJ -42. If the Ksp reaction for Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq) −−> AgBr(s) -69.0 kJ -19.90 kJ * mol-1 and ∆ So = 96. 0.29 A) B) C) D) E) 76. J * K-1 * mol-1 70.2 kJ Consider the following reaction at 298 K.4 J * K-1 * mol-1. J * K-1 * mol-1 205. ∆ So. This is an enthalpy-driven reaction. The reaction is spontaneous at all temperatures. Ag(NH3)2+(aq. 73. w.0 kJ -30. Assuming that Cl2(g) behaves as an ideal gas and that the molar volume of Cl2(l) is negligible compared to that of Cl2(g). The equilibrium constant for the reaction NH4Cl(s) <= = > NH3(g) + HCl(g) is 1. A) B) C) Page 9 . the value of the standard enthalpy of vaporization is 20. At the normal boiling point of Cl2(l). calculate the standard free energy of A) B) C) D) E) 76.2 kJ 14. Calculate the temperature at which the vapor pressure of benzene is 35 Torr. 0. kJ * mol-1 -90. 2Hg(l) + O2(g) −−> 2HgO(s) ∆ Hfo.00100 M) + 2NH3(aq.83 So.1 kJ -5.4 kJ * mol-1.14 HgO(s) is unstable and decomposes at all temperatures less than 839 K HgO(s) does not decompose at any temperature less than 566oC greater than 566oC For the production of formaldehyde. The reaction is not spontaneous at any temperature.14 78. 2HgO(s) −−> 2Hg(l) + O2(g) ∆ Hfo. Calculate ∆ Gr for the following reaction at 298 K. 70. The reaction is exothermic. A) B) C) D) E) 72.0 kJ for this reaction at 298 K. 0. Estimate the temperature at which oxygen reacts with Hg(l). If the equilibrium constant is 6. The reaction is not spontaneous at any temperature. -62. which statement is correct? Estimate the temperature at which mercury(II) oxide can be expected to decompose.5 ∗ 10-2 at 300oC. H2(g) + CO(g) −−> H2CO(g) ∆ Hro = 2 kJ and ∆ Gro = 35 kJ at 298 K.2 kJ -1.6 kJ -23.29 76. Estimate the temperature at which the reaction is spontaneous.02 205.00200 M) ∆ Gro = -41.5 K. above 291oC A) B) C) D) E) 74. 75. calculate the values of q.80 kJ +30.5 K and 1 atm.1 ◊ 10-16 at 25oC.71.

pure) + 4CO(g) (2) If reaction (1) occurs at 353 K and reaction (2) at 473 K. both entalpy-driven. impure) + 4CO(g) −−> Ni(CO)4(g) (1) Ni(CO)4(g) −−> Ni(s. respectively. below 291oC above 18 K The purification of nickel by the Mond process uses the reactions below.D) E) 80. reactions (1) and (2) are both have ∆ G = 0. both entropy-driven. A) B) C) D) E) .and entropy-driven. respectively. Ni(s. enthalpy. entropy.and enthalpy-driven.

16. 70. 2. 78. 76. D B E B C E E B E E E D A A D D C C B B E C B D A C A A B D B C A D C B A A A E D A C A A C C A 49. 4. 29. 28. 31. 65. 34. 60. 73. 27. E (No answer. 42. 64.) B (No answer. 57. 5. 77. 37. 59. 47.Chapter 16A: Energy in Transition 1. 68.) E A E Page 11 . 9. 24. 7. 12. 18. 53. 39. 61. 44. 50. 46. 22. 6. 11. 55. 13. 41. 52. 40. 10. 54. 51. 69. 23. 14. 67. 8. 58. 35. 74. 33. 62. 38. 36. 80.) (No answer. 71. 56. 19.) A E A B D A B D C B A B E A D B D B E C A (No answer. 17. 3. 25. 15. 63.) E (No answer. 75. 72. 79. 26.Answer Key -. 43. 30. 32. 21. 48. 20. 45. 66.