BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGIES

A SEMINAR REPORT
Submitted to the faculty of Engineering Tilak Maharashtra University, Pune. In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Bachelor of Engineering In Computer Engineering

Submitted By

MR. RUPESH R. PADALKAR
Roll No. 05

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING Tilak Maharashtra University, Pune 2008-09 (01)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the seminar entitled “BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGIES” has been carried out by MR. RUPESH R. PADALAKR under my guidance in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Computer Engineering of Tilak Maharashtra University, Pune during the academic year 2008-09.

Guide Mrs. Mita Latike

Examinar

Head Of The Department

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ABSTRACT
Bluetooth is a wireless technology that allows computers, phones and other devices to talk to each other over short distances (up to 100 meters). Bluetooth uses radio waves (in the 2.4 Gigahertz range), and is designed to be a secure and inexpensive way of connecting and exchanging information between devices without wires. You'll find Bluetooth in many of the newer mobile phones, handheld computers, laptops, printers, handheld organisers, as well as in all sorts of products. Uses of Bluetooth include: sending photos from your mobile, exchanging business cards, sending voice from a headset to a mobile phone, and real-time satellite navigation using GPS.

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01 02 03 04 05 TITLE History Of Bluetooth What is Bluetooth Technology ? Introduction To Bluetooth GPS Receivers Internal Structure Of Bluetooth Technical Information About Bluetooth Page No.TABLE OF CONTENT No. 05 06 10 11 22 06 07 08 09 Bluetooth Versions How Bluetooth Works Discussions And Conclusions Acknowledgement 31 32 36 39 Chapter 1 History Of Bluetooth ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Why is It Called Bluetooth? .

but as time past. The word "Bluetooth" is taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Bluetooth. globally available radio frequency. The founders of the Bluetooth SIG felt the name was fitting because: 1) Bluetooth technology was first developed in Scandinavia. electronics that connect to one another are found everywhere--in the office. low-power. Keeping to the same origin as the Bluetooth name. low-cost. and a "B". (05) Chapter 02 What Is Bluetooth Technology? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Solving Problems Problem: Today. Where Did the Logo Come From? A Scandinavian firm originally designed the logo at the time the SIG was formally introduced to the public. MP3 players to headphones and so on. the name stuck. Keyboards connect to computers.The developers of this wireless technology first used the name "Bluetooth" as a code name. Car. and automotive markets. etc. . the logo unites the Runic alphabetic characters "H". home. and 2) Bluetooth technology is able to unite differing industries such as the cell phone. King Bluetooth had been influential in uniting Scandinavian Europe during an era when the region was torn apart by wars and feuding clans. secure. which are the initials for Harald Bluetooth. computing. If you look close enough you can see both embodied in the logo. which looks similar to an asterisk. Bluetooth wireless technology simplifies and combines multiple forms of wireless communication into a single.

however for many people it is just another “tech” term. you hear and read about it everywhere--in ads for computers. Bluetooth technology makes these same connections. Newer devices. However. Generally. Bluetooth has a range of up to 30 ft. Bluetooth technology is a short-range wireless radio technology that allows electronic devices to connect to one another. using newer versions of Bluetooth.So. (06) Bluetooth wireless technology makes connections just like cables connect a computer to a keyboard. Setting the Standard . while allowing our electronic devices of today and tomorrow to communicate with one another. So. have ranges over 100 ft. how do these devices connect to each other? Usually the answer is: with wires and cables. what is Bluetooth technology? Look Mom: No Wires! What is Bluetooth technology? Put simply. etc.. while getting tangled in the mess. wires and cables always result in a tangled mess. homes. With Bluetooth there is no more worrying about which cable goes where. as you know. depending on the Bluetooth Core Specification Version. or greater. mouse. You Hear About it Everywhere Bluetooth technology has been around for years. But. except it does it without the cables and wires. or how a wire connects an MP3 player to headphones. Cell Phones. Solution: Bluetooth wireless technology eliminates many of the wires that clutter our offices. Most people have little or no understanding of the technology and have very little knowledge of its applications. PDAs and all types of different devices enabled with Bluetooth technology. or printer.

and a "B". which are the initials for Harald Bluetooth. If you look close enough you can see both embodied in the logo. cell phones. Due to the fact that Bluetooth technology is a standardized wireless technology. which looks similar to an asterisk. (08) Where Did the Logo Come From? A Scandinavian firm originally designed the logo at the time the SIG was formally introduced to the public. the logo unites the Runic alphabetic characters "H". and 2) Bluetooth technology is able to unite differing industries such as the cell phone. low-cost. secure. globally available radio frequency.Bluetooth technology is actually derived from a combination of wireless technologies. the name stuck. and Toshiba) who joined forces to form a private trade association known as the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). Nokia. The founders of the Bluetooth SIG felt the name was fitting because: 1) Bluetooth technology was first developed in Scandinavia. The word "Bluetooth" is taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Bluetooth. Bluetooth technology was first developed by Ericsson and then formalized by a group of electronics manufacturers (Ericsson. Keeping to the same origin as the Bluetooth name. computing. The Bluetooth specification unites these technologies under the title: "Bluetooth technology". Bluetooth wireless technology simplifies and combines multiple forms of wireless communication into a single. and automotive markets. thus creating a universal way for mobile computers. . low-power. you can rest assure it will be around for many years to come. So. now that we've answered the question: "What is Bluetooth technology?" You probably want to know why this wireless technology was given such a funny name: "Bluetooth". When they formally introduced the Bluetooth specification to the public. Intel. King Bluetooth had been influential in uniting Scandinavian Europe during an era when the region was torn apart by wars and feuding clans. and various other devices to wirelessly connect with one another. IBM. but as time past. they established a global standard. Why is It Called Bluetooth? The developers of this wireless technology first used the name "Bluetooth" as a code name.

do you find yourself getting lost quite often? Are you horrible with directions? Is your car not equipped with a navigation .(09) Chapter 03 Introduction to Bluetooth GPS Receivers ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Do you do a lot of traveling in your car? If so.

your PDA can be turned into a fully functional navigation system without the bulk and wires. Your PDA can now be mounted or held where you get the most screen visibility. overcoming problems of synchronization. . You can place the GPS receiver in the most appropriate spot in your car. Bluetooth technology is especially useful for this type of device. creating personal area networks (PANs). it would require a CompactFlash slot or some kind of cable to connect the receiver to the PDA. The Bluetooth GPS receiver is a must have for the everyday traveler! (10) Chapter 04 Internal Structure Of Bluetooth ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices.system? Well. so the weight added to your PDA is not worth it. there are Bluetooth Adapters you can buy that give you the wireless connectivity. now all you need is a PDA and a Bluetooth global positioning system (GPS) receiver to find your destination. It was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS232 data cables. Now with Bluetooth GPS receivers. It can connect several devices. If you don't have a Bluetooth enabled PDA already. Most GPS units are bulky and unattractive. Although the concept of turning your PDA into a GPS navigator is not new.

100 meters) based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. Bluetooth makes it possible for these devices to communicate with each other when they are in range. printers. This is accomplished by the higher sensitivity and transmission power of Class 1 devices. networking. . The Bluetooth SIG consists of companies in the areas of telecommunication. In its basic mode. which chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 frequencies. globally unlicensed Industrial. Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones. digital cameras. Maximum Permitted Power mW (dBm) 100 mW (20 dBm) 2. computing.4 GHz short-range radio frequency bandwidth.5 mW (4 dBm) 1 mW (0 dBm) Range (approximate) ~100 meters ~10 meters ~1 meter Class Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 (11) In most cases the effective range of class 2 devices is extended if they connect to a class 1 transceiver.Implementation Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum. laptops. Uses Bluetooth is a standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption. telephones. personal computers. Scientific and Medical (ISM) 2. It can achieve a gross data rate of 1 Mb/s. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. with a short range (power-class-dependent: 1 meter. and consumer electronics. the modulation is Gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK). Because the devices use a radio (broadcast) communications system. The Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). they do not have to be in line of sight of each other. 10 meters. compared to a pure class 2 network. and video game consoles through a secure.

2 1 Mbit/s Version 2.Version Data Rate Version 1.480 Mbit/s (12) Computer requirements .0 + EDR 3 Mbit/s WiMedia Alliance (proposed) 53 .

A personal computer must have a Bluetooth adapter in order to communicate with other Bluetooth devices (such as mobile phones. While some desktop computers and most recent laptops come with a built-in Bluetooth adapter. Bluetooth allows multiple devices to communicate with a computer over a single adapter. others will require an external one in the form of a dongle. (13) .A typical Bluetooth USB dongle. IrDA. Unlike its predecessor. mice and keyboards). which requires a separate adapter for each device. An internal notebook Bluetooth card (14×36×4 mm).

the Open Mobile Terminal Platform (OMTP) forum has recently published a recommendations paper. stereo audio and in-car usage.0 release. Basic and Advanced. which were not directly supported by Microsoft. BlueZ and Affix. with requirements that cover imaging. The Affix stack was developed by Nokia.0 release.Microsoft's own Bluetooth dongles (packaged with their Bluetooth computer devices) have no external drivers and thus require at least Windows XP Service Pack 2. printing. Its Bluetooth stack has been ported to OpenBSD as well. (14) . NetBSD features Bluetooth support since its 4. see external links below to download this paper. see Bluetooth stack. This publication recommends two classes. To ensure the broadest support of feature functionality together with legacy device support. Windows XP Service Pack 2 and later releases have native support for Bluetooth. Previous versions required users to install their Bluetooth adapter's own drivers. FreeBSD features Bluetooth support since its 5.Operating system support For more details on this topic. Linux has two popular Bluetooth stacks. Apple has supported Bluetooth since Mac OS X v10. For Microsoft platforms.2 which was released in 2002. Mobile phone requirements A mobile phone that is Bluetooth enabled is able to pair with many devices. entitled "Bluetooth Local Connectivity". The BlueZ stack is included with most Linux kernels and was originally developed by Qualcomm.

1. 1998. Added support for non-encrypted channels.0B Versions 1.Specifications and features The Bluetooth specification was developed in 1994 by Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson. and Nokia. Bluetooth 1. Bluetooth 1.1 and the major enhancements include the following: • • • • • • Faster Connection and Discovery Adaptive frequency-hopping spread spectrum (AFH). who were working for Ericsson Mobile Platforms in Lund. Toshiba. The SIG was formally announced on May 20.0 and 1. Higher transmission speeds in practice. up to 721 kbit/s.2 This version is backward compatible with 1.15.1 • • • • Ratified as IEEE Standard 802.000 companies worldwide.0 and 1. which improves resistance to radio frequency interference by avoiding the use of crowded frequencies in the hopping sequence. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI).15.1-2005. Many errors found in the 1. and manufacturers had difficulty making their products interoperable.0 and 1. Sweden. Host Controller Interface (HCI) support for three-wire UART. The specification is based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology. Intel. and may optionally increase audio latency to provide better support for concurrent data transfer. Bluetooth 1. The specifications were formalized by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). IBM. and later joined by many other companies. Ratified as IEEE Standard 802. which was a major setback for certain services planned for use in Bluetooth environments. Today it has a membership of over 11.1-2002. which improve voice quality of audio links by allowing retransmissions of corrupted packets.0B specifications were fixed.0B also included mandatory Bluetooth hardware device address (BD_ADDR) transmission in the Connecting process (rendering anonymity impossible at the protocol level).0B had many problems. Versions 1. Extended Synchronous Connections (eSCO). (15) . It was established by Ericsson. than in 1.

although the practical data transfer rate is 2.Bluetooth 2.0 This version of the Bluetooth specification was released on November 10. According to the 2.2.0 without EDR" on its data sheet. and products may claim compliance to "Bluetooth 2. EDR uses a combination of GFSK and Phase Shift Keying modulation (PSK) with two variants. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) published the specification as "Bluetooth 2. The additional throughput is obtained by using a different radio technology for transmission of the data. or Basic Rate. a list of services the device supports. This specification includes the following features: • Extended inquiry response: provides more information during the inquiry procedure to allow better filtering of devices before connection. The main difference is the introduction of an Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) for faster data transfer. π/4-DQPSK and 8DPSK. transmission uses Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) modulation of the radio signal with a gross air data rate of 1 Mbit/s.0 + EDR" which implies that EDR is an optional feature.1. EDR provides the following benefits: • • • Three times faster transmission speed — up to 10 times (2.1 Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2. 2007. and 3 Mbit/s respectively. Standard.0" without supporting the higher data rate.0 specification.1 is fully backward compatible with 1. states "Bluetooth 2. These have gross air data rates of 2. .1 megabits per second. The nominal rate of EDR is about 3 megabits per second. Lower power consumption through a reduced duty cycle. Reduced complexity of multiple simultaneous connections due to additional bandwidth. Aside from EDR. the HTC TyTN Pocket PC phone. there are other minor improvements to the 2. and was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on July 26.0 specification. 2004. This information includes the name of the device. plus other information like the time of day and pairing information. Bluetooth 2.1 Mbit/s) in some cases. At least one commercial device. It is backward compatible with the previous version 1.

Secure Simple Pairing: radically improves the pairing experience for Bluetooth devices. and the low power per bit radios are used when lots of data needs to be sent. Encryption Pause Resume: enables an encryption key to be refreshed. however when lots of data needs to be sent. initial connection and profile configuration. Future • • • • Broadcast Channel: enables Bluetooth information points. This functionality is part of the Secure Simple Pairing where NFC is one way of exchanging pairing information. Another example is automatic uploading of photos from a mobile phone or camera to a digital picture frame just by bringing the phone or camera close to the frame. Topology Management: enables the automatic configuration of the piconet topologies especially in scatternet situations that are becoming more common today.1 specification allows pairs of devices to negotiate this value between them to as infrequently as once every 5 or 10 seconds. This means that the proven low power connection models of Bluetooth are used when the system is idle.3 hours (one Bluetooth day). The Bluetooth Radio will still be used for device discovery. the 2. enabling much stronger encryption for connections that stay up for longer than 23. while increasing the use and strength of security.1 phone including NFC just by bringing the two devices close to each other (a few centimeters). Previous Bluetooth implementations featured keep alive message frequencies of up to several times per second. the high speed alternate MAC PHY's will be used to transport the data. Near Field Communication (NFC) cooperation: automatic creation of secure Bluetooth connections when NFC radio interface is also available. It is expected that this feature will significantly increase the use of Bluetooth. QoS improvements: enable audio and video data to be transmitted at a higher quality.(17) • Sniff subrating: reduces the power consumption when devices are in the sniff low-power mode. Human interface devices (HID) are expected to benefit the most. especially on links with asymmetric data flows. This should all be invisible to the users of the technology. and not based around the object push model that is used in a limited way today. and enable advertising models based around users pulling information from the information points. It lets devices decide how long they will wait before sending keepalive messages to one another. In contrast. a headset should be paired with a Bluetooth 2. especially when best effort traffic is being transmitted in the same piconet. with mouse and keyboard devices increasing their battery life by a factor of 3 to 10. This will drive the adoption of Bluetooth into mobile phones. Alternate MAC PHY: enables the use of alternative MAC and PHY's for transporting Bluetooth profile data. while also making the technology just work. • • • . For example.

and mono headsets. security and pairing to be used in consumer devices on top of the already present 802. Wireless USB Promoter Group and the USB Implementers Forum. 2009. . WiMedia will transfer all current and future specifications. the Bluetooth Special Interest Group announced its selection of the WiMedia Alliance Multi-Band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM) version of UWB for integration with current Bluetooth wireless technology. On March 16. Nokia and Bluetooth SIG announced that Wibree will be a part of the Bluetooth specification. The Medical Devices Working Group is also creating a medical devices profile and associated protocols to enable this market. Bluetooth low energy technology is designed for devices to have a battery life of up to one year.11 radio. and medical devices. as well as enabling highquality video and audio applications for portable devices. the WiMedia Alliance announced it is entering into technology transfer agreements for the WiMedia Ultra-wideband (UWB) specifications. including work on future high speed and power optimized implementations. enabling devices to select the most appropriate physical radio for the application requirements. keyboards. the WiMedia Alliance will cease operations. Bluetooth SIG is also developing a method of radio substitution to use an alternate MAC/PHY (such as IEEE 802. to the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). thereby offering the best of both worlds. as an ultra-low power Bluetooth technology. Bluetooth high speed On March 28. profiles. Expected use cases include watches displaying Caller ID information. marketing and related administrative items. sports sensors monitoring your heart rate during exercise. multi-media projectors and television sets. 2006. Bluetooth technology will continue catering to the needs of very low power applications such as mouse. At the same time.11) for application requiring more speed. After the successful completion of the technology transfer. and wireless VOIP.(18) Bluetooth low energy Main article: Bluetooth low energy On June 12. It will allow Bluetooth protocols. 2007. This new version of Bluetooth technology will meet the high-speed demands of synchronizing and transferring large amounts of data. when necessary. UWB integration will create a version of Bluetooth wireless technology with a highspeed/high-data-rate option.

0) has many of the same features.0 (Seattle) The next version of Bluetooth after v2. but is expected to be 3. enabling very fast data transfers of up to 480 Mbit/s. This will allow Bluetooth use over UWB radio. while building on the very low-power idle modes of Bluetooth. code-named Seattle (the version number of which is TBD. (20) . but is most notable for plans to adopt ultra-wideband (UWB) radio technology.1.(19) Bluetooth 3.

low power requirements and unique hit-and-run frequency hopping has maintained a lot of interest among critics and consumers. PDA. Motorola goes on to paint a picture of how you could walk up to a kiosk right before boarding a plane and wirelessly download a movie. kicks on only when called upon to speed transfer rates or to download large amounts of information or data. the Enhanced Data Rate (or EDR) standard that was ratified by the Bluetooth SIG at the end of 2004. (21) . etc. UWB operates in the same frequency as TV monitors. Under this concept. digital cameras. their complementary specifications—UWB’s high power consumption versus low-cost and low-power needs for Bluetooth. Bluetooth capabilities remain a constant hum. while its high portability. Until now. Whatever the method.In March 2006. Little interference (and competition!) means less troubleshooting for the techno-savvy-but-far-from-perfect public. PCs. these amazing concepts will eventually become a reality! Motorola's vision of High Speed Bluetooth. Much simpler to build and maintain than Wi-Fi. However. rather like Bluetooth’s own mode of operation. The functional process of High Speed Bluetooth (or the Bluetooth/UWB partnership) has been likened to a hybrid car. you could watch the movie directly from the device you downloaded it to. They present a scenario where movies can be downloaded from High Speed Bluetooth enabled kiosks located in malls or airports. short for Ultra-Wideband technology. Yet. you could quickly download movies to a mobile phone. the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) announced that it was planning to partner with WiMedia Alliance (an industry group composed of such computer giants as Intel. UWB. which will essentially lead to the creation of High Speed Bluetooth. Furthermore. This partnership. once onboard. laptop or any other type of compatible device. think about the possibility of connecting that same mobile phone to friends' phones in order to play multi-player games. for those who live in the fast lane Bluetooth has been lagging. short-range applications such as wireless headsets and keyboards. Bluetooth and UWB will both benefit by coming together. Imagine being able to download an entire album of MP3 songs or hundreds of camera phone images in under a second! How about streaming HD video from a camcorder or advanced mobile phone to a TV. For those whose interests extend only to how fast this new friend can take them where they want to go. will be dramatically improved. As a result. This kid doesn’t carry a continuous signal. perhaps the most promising trait of UWB technology is that it prefers not to follow the crowd. a good three times that of original Bluetooth capabilities. and high speed capabilities for UWB/low speed for Bluetooth—are sure to appeal to a technologically hungry consumer base. and can work in the currently unlicensed radio spectrum that lies above 6 GHz. takes these concepts even further. UWB can also support more users at a higher speed. which requires more power. or you could stream it to another device with a larger display (for example. Bluetooth is currently used to facilitate slowspeed. Bluetooth EDR offers speeds of up to 2. download speeds for iPods. preferring instead to put out bursts of energy over a wide area. With High Speed Bluetooth. a mobile phone streaming to a laptop). and with Bluetooth it will use only one ten-thousandth of the power that a normal cell phone requires. translates to about an 8 second/MB faster data transfer speed. electric razors and fans. UWB will work along with BlueCore4. Then. where the UWB. is the new kid on the block. Hewlet-Packard and Microsoft) to bring consumers the best of both worlds with the creation of a new High Speed Bluetooth.1Mbps.

Provides segmentation and reassembly of on-air packets. In basic mode. For example. In retransmission & flow control modes. Each service is identified by a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID). SDP (Service Discovery Protocol) Used to allow devices to discover what services each other support. L2CAP can be configured for reliable or isochronous data per channel by configuring the number of retransmissions and flush timeout. and what parameters to use to connect to them. with official services (Bluetooth profiles) assigned a short form UUID (16 bits rather than the full 128) (22) . L2CAP (Logical Link Control & Adaptation Protocol) Used to multiplex multiple logical connections between two devices using different higher level protocols. SDP will be used to determine which Bluetooth profiles are supported by the headset (Headset Profile. which is an improved version of retransmission & flow control modes. when connecting a mobile phone to a Bluetooth headset. L2CAP provides reliable sequenced packets with a payload configurable up to 64kB. Hands Free Profile. Mandatory protocols for all Bluetooth stacks are: LMP. Advanced Audio Distribution Profile etc) and the protocol multiplexer settings needed to connect to each of them. with 672 bytes as the minimum mandatory supported size. Implemented on the controller. telephony control protocols. The EL2CAP specification adds an additional "enhanced mode" to the core specification. these protocols are almost universally supported: HCI and RFCOMM LMP (Link Management Protocol) Used for control of the radio link between two devices.Chapter 05 Technical Information About Bluetooth ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Bluetooth protocol stack Main articles: Bluetooth stack and Bluetooth protocols “Bluetooth is defined as a layer protocol architecture consisting of core protocols. and adopted protocols”. L2CAP and SDP Additionally. cable replacement protocols.

headsets. It is used directly by many telephony related profiles as a carrier for AT commands. RFCOMM provides a simple reliable data stream to the user. e. In Bluetooth devices with simple functionality.) This standard allows the host stack or controller I. AVCTP (Audio/Visual Control Transport Protocol) Used by the remote control profile to transfer AV/C commands over an L2CAP channel. In this case the HCI is optional. RFCOMM provides for binary data transport and emulates EIA-232 (formerly RS-232) control signals over the Bluetooth baseband layer. to be swapped with minimal adaptation. as well as being a transport layer for OBEX over Bluetooth.C. BNEP (Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol) BNEP is used to transfer another protocol stack's data via an L2CAP channel. The music control buttons on a stereo headset use this protocol to control the music player. a PC or mobile phone OS) and the controller (the Bluetooth I. (23) . The most commonly used are USB (in PCs) and UART (in mobile phones and PDAs). similar to TCP. RFCOMM (Cable replacement protocol) Radio frequency communications (RFCOMM) is the cable replacement protocol used to create a virtual serial data stream. event and data packets.g.HCI (Host/Controller Interface) Standardised communication between the host stack (e. BNEP performs a similar function to SNAP in Wireless LAN. Many Bluetooth applications use RFCOMM because of its widespread support and publicly available API on most operating systems. the host stack and controller can be implemented on the same microprocessor. Additionally. applications that used a serial port to communicate can be quickly ported to use RFCOMM. Its main purpose is the transmission of IP packets in the Personal Area Networking Profile. There are several HCI transport layer standards.C. each using a different hardware interface to transfer the same command. although often implemented as an internal software interface.g.

which failed to attract implementers. Communication and connection A master Bluetooth device can communicate with up to seven devices in a Wireless User Group. providing a model for object and operation representation Wireless Application Environment / Wireless Application Protocol (WAE/WAP) – WAE specifies an application framework for wireless devices and WAP is an open standard to provide mobile users access to telephony and information services. As such it is only of historical interest. Adopted protocols Adopted protocols are defined by other standards-making organizations and incorporated into Bluetooth’s protocol stack. allowing Bluetooth to create protocols only when necessary. which the master device can bring into active status at any time. This network group of up to eight devices is called a piconet. or parked. The adopted protocols include: Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) – Internet standard protocol for transporting IP datagrams over a point-to-point link TCP/IP/UDP – Foundation Protocols for TCP/IP protocol suite Object Exchange Protocol (OBEX) – Session-layer protocol for the exchange of objects. (24) .AVDTP (Audio/Visual Data Transport Protocol) Used by the advanced audio distribution profile to stream music to stereo headsets over an L2CAP channel. using Bluetooth technology protocols to allow one master device to interconnect with up to seven active devices. Intended to be used by video distribution profile. Additionally. A piconet is an ad-hoc computer network. “TCS BIN defines mobility management procedures for handling groups of Bluetooth TCS devices” TCS-BIN is only used by the cordless telephony profile. Up to 255 further devices can be inactive. Telephone control protocol Telephony control protocol-binary (TCS BIN) is the bit-oriented protocol that defines the call control signaling for the establishment of voice and data calls between Bluetooth devices.

Use of a device's services may require pairing or acceptance by its owner. Baseband Error Correction Three types of error correction are implemented in Bluetooth systems. Device class. device features. (25) . friendly Bluetooth names are used. and connecting to them prevents them from connecting to other devices and appearing in inquiries until they disconnect from the other device. data can be transferred between the master and one other device. some of which also include an IrDA adapter. however. clock offset. Any device may perform an inquiry to find other devices to connect to. but not used much. and any device can be configured to respond to such inquiries. Bluetooth specification used. however. Technical information. but the connection itself can be initiated by any device and held until it goes out of range.) The Bluetooth specification allows connecting two or more piconets together to form a scatternet. offering only the Bluetooth Enumerator and a less-powerful Bluetooth Radio incarnation. Some devices can be connected to only one device at a time. Such devices can link computers with Bluetooth. (Simultaneous transmission from the master to multiple other devices is possible. the devices can switch roles and the slave can become the master at any time. have limited services. This name appears when another user scans for devices and in lists of paired devices. However.At any given time. List of services. with some devices acting as a bridge by simultaneously playing the master role in one piconet and the slave role in another. However these addresses are generally not shown in inquiries. Every device has a unique 48-bit address. The master switches rapidly from one device to another in a round-robin fashion. • • • 1/3 rate (Forward Error Correction) (FEC) 2/3 rate FEC Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) Setting up connections Any Bluetooth device will transmit the following information on demand: • • • • Device name. Older (pre-2003) Bluetooth adapters. Instead. which can be set by the user. but they do not offer much in the way of services that modern adapters do. Many USB Bluetooth adapters are available. for example. manufacturer. it always responds to direct connection requests and transmits the information shown in the list above if requested. if the device trying to connect knows the address of the device.

usually accept OBEX electronic business cards and notes without any pairing or prompts. To avoid interfering with other protocols that use the 2.4-2. The encryption can.45 GHz band.1 kbit/s. Implementations with versions 1. effectively reducing power consumption to half that of 1. Certain printers and access points allow any device to use their services by default.x devices (assuming equal traffic load). Version 2. for example.2 reach speeds of 723. be turned off.Most phones have the Bluetooth name set to the manufacturer and model of the phone by default. Pairing Pairs of devices may establish a trusted relationship by learning (by user input) a shared secret known as a passkey. version 2. Since the Bluetooth address is permanent. and passkeys are stored on the device file system. even if the Bluetooth name is changed. Devices generally require pairing or prompt the owner before they allow a remote device to use any or most of their services. Some devices. Technically. This can be confusing as.1 has an optional "touch-to-pair" feature based on Near Field Communication (NFC). Pairs can be deleted at any time by either device. there could be several phones in range named T610 (see Bluejacking). Bluetooth 2. the Bluetooth protocol divides the band into 79 channels (each 1 MHz wide) and changes channels up to 1600 times per second. (26) . A device that wants to communicate only with a trusted device can cryptographically authenticate the identity of the other device. a pairing is preserved. Pairing algorithms are sometimes manufacturer-specific for transmitters and receivers used in applications such as music and entertainment. Most phones and laptops show only the Bluetooth names and special programs are required to get additional information about remote devices. however.4835 GHz. Air interface The protocol operates in the license-free ISM band at 2.0 implementations feature Bluetooth Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) and reach 2. pairing can securely take place without entering a passkey or manual configuration.1 Mbit/s. By simply bringing two devices into very close range (around 10 cm/4 in).1 and 1. much like unsecured Wi-Fi networks. such as mobile phones. Trusted devices may also encrypt the data that they exchange over the airwaves so that no one can listen in. but the three times faster rate reduces the transmission times. not on the Bluetooth chip itself.0 devices have a higher power consumption.

an initialization key or master key is generated. In September 2008. headsets. This procedure might be modified if one of the devices has a fixed PIN.Security Overview Bluetooth implements confidentiality. the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) published a Guide to Bluetooth Security that will serve as reference to organization on the security capabilities of Bluetooth and steps for securing Bluetooth technologies effectively.The E0 stream cipher is used for encrypting packets. and smart card readers. While Bluetooth has its benefits. To help mitigate risks. and business information. eavesdropping. advertisements (e.g. and resource misappropriation. key generation is generally based on a Bluetooth PIN. it is susceptible to denial of service attacks. An overview of Bluetooth vulnerabilities exploits has been published by Andreas Becker. In Bluetooth. (27) . man-inthe-middle attacks. which has been entered into one or both devices. message modification. e. namely a previously generated link key or master key. rely on the Bluetooth PIN. Bluejacking does not involve the removal or alteration of any data from the device. which must be entered into both devices. used for subsequent encryption of data sent via the air interface. included in the NIST document are security checklists with guidelines and recommendations for creating and maintaining secure Bluetooth piconets.g. During pairing. "Eat at Joe’s").g. for headsets or similar devices with a restricted user interface. Users/organizations must evaluate their acceptable level of risk and incorporate security into the lifecycle of Bluetooth devices. using the E22 algorithm. authentication and key derivation with custom algorithms based on the SAFER+ block cipher. "You’ve just been bluejacked!"). Those keys. Bluejacking Bluejacking is the sending of either a picture or a message from one user to an unsuspecting user through Bluetooth wireless technology. granting confidentiality and is based on a shared cryptographic secret. Common applications are short messages (e.

and also pointed to vulnerabilities in the encryption scheme. In a subsequent experiment.This is one of a number of concerns that have been raised over the security of Bluetooth communications.SIS files on the device. Digital Ltd. discovered that serious flaws in Bluetooth security may lead to disclosure of personal data. A new attack called BlueBug was used for this experiment. The virus was written as a proof-of-concept by a group of virus writers known as "29A" and sent to anti-virus groups. rather than the protocol itself. Additionally.sis ) from another device. a world-record-setting experiment (see also Bluetooth sniping) showed that the range of Class 2 Bluetooth radios could be extended to 1. a mobile malware worm known as Lasco. (28) . In August 2004. 2003 In November 2003. however. The virus was first described by Kaspersky Lab and requires users to confirm the installation of unknown software before it can propagate. showing the importance of the problem to the world. that the reported security problems concerned some poor implementations of Bluetooth.78 km (1. The attacker must also be able to receive information from the victim to set up a connection. 2004 In 2004 the first purported virus using Bluetooth to spread itself among mobile phones appeared on the Symbian OS. This poses a potential security threat because it enables attackers to access vulnerable Bluetooth-devices from a distance beyond expectation. etc.A began targeting mobile phones using Symbian OS (Series 60 platform) using Bluetooth-enabled devices to replicate itself and spread to other devices. Jakobsson and Wetzel from Bell Laboratories discovered flaws in the pairing protocol of Bluetooth. Once installed. Thus. No attack can be made against a Bluetooth device unless the attacker knows its Bluetooth address and which channels to transmit on. It should be noted. Ben and Adam Laurie from A. allowing replication to another device through use of removable media (Secure Digital. it should be regarded as a potential (but not real) security threat to Bluetooth or Symbian OS since the virus has never spread in the wild.08 mile) with directional antennas and signal amplifiers.L.History of security concerns 2001 In 2001.).group was able to do a fieldtrial at the CeBIT fairgrounds. The worm is self-installing and begins once the mobile user approves the transfer of the file (velasco. the worm infects other . the worm begins looking for other Bluetooth-enabled devices to infect. The worm can render the mobile device unstable. 2005 In January 2005. Compact Flash. Martin Herfurt from the trifinite.

Yaniv Shaked and Avishai Wool published a paper describing both passive and active methods for obtaining the PIN for a Bluetooth link. 2007 In October 2007. if the attacker was present at the time of initial pairing. confirming the attacks to be practicably fast and the Bluetooth symmetric key establishment method to be vulnerable. they carried out an implementation which showed that stronger. issued warnings about thieves using Bluetooth-enabled phones to track other devices left in cars. Cambridge University security researchers published results of their actual implementation of passive attacks against the PIN-based pairing between commercial Bluetooth devices. (29) . This attack's major weakness is that it requires the user of the devices under attack to re-enter the PIN during the attack when the device prompts them to. the first method can be used to crack the PIN.lu Security Conference. In August 2005. and issued statistics on the spread of various Bluetooth services and the ease of spread of an eventual Bluetooth worm.In April 2005. such as mobile phones. In June 2005. The active method makes use of a specially constructed message that must be inserted at a specific point in the protocol. The passive attack allows a suitably equipped attacker to eavesdrop on communications and spoof. to make the master and slave repeat the pairing process.3. asymmetric key establishment is feasible for certain classes of devices. To rectify this vulnerability. They also demonstrated the first Bluetooth PIN and Linkkeys cracker.4. at the Luxemburgish Hack. police in Cambridgeshire. Police are advising users to ensure that any mobile networking connections are de-activated if laptops and other devices are left in this way.9 and v10. this active attack probably requires custom hardware. After that. England. 2006 In April 2006. researchers from Secure Network and F-Secure published a report that warns of the large number of devices left in a visible state. since most commercially available Bluetooth devices are not capable of the timing necessary. Kevin Finistere and Thierry Zoller demonstrated and released a remote root shell via Bluetooth on Mac OS X v10. which is based on the research of Wool and Shaked. Also.

4835 GHz range. and Class 1 may be comparable to that of mobile phones.Health concerns Main article: Wireless electronic devices and health Bluetooth uses the microwave radio frequency spectrum in the 2. 2. Maximum power output from a Bluetooth radio is 100 mW. and the other two classes much lower. and Class 3 devices respectively.5 mW.4 GHz to 2. . and 1 mW for Class 1. Accordingly. Class 2. which puts Class 1 at roughly the same level as mobile phones. Class 2 and Class 3 Bluetooth devices are considered less of a potential hazard than mobile phones.

0 + EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) There may be multiple communication technologies. As a result: Devices using Bluetooth 1. are being sold with the newer Bluetooth specification version 1.helps reduce radio interference by eliminating the use of crowded frequencies in the hopping sequence * Faster transmission speeds (1 Mbps) * Extended Synchronous Connections Oriented links .2 Many new Bluetooth devices.1 and Earlier Several Bluetooth specification versions have been released since Bluetooth technology was introduced in 1998. The Bluetooth Core Specification version 1. So.1 corrected many of the problems found in the earlier versions.0 and 1.2 offer? * Backward compatible with Bluetooth 1. like the latest cell phones.improves voice quality of audio connections by enabling retransmissions of corrupted data.1 is the first truly successful operating version of Bluetooth technology. but they all share one thing in (31) .(30) Chapter 06 Bluetooth Versions ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bluetooth Core Specification Versions • Bluetooth Specification Version 1.1 have much greater interoperability. The main issue was the lack of interoperability among devices. Versions 1.2. Bluetooth 1.0B had too many problems and restraints for manufacturers to successfully develop Bluetooth devices. * Received Signal Strength Indicator * Host Controller Interface (HCI) support for 3-wire UART * HCI access to timing information for Bluetooth applications • Bluetooth Version 2. • Bluetooth Version 1. what new features/benefits does Bluetooth 1.1 * Adaptive Frequency Hopping .

Basically. they will communicate without wires. However.Chapter 07 How Bluetooth Works ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Connecting Devices In order to understand how Bluetooth technology works. it is probably no surprise that there are tons of established protocols. then they have the option of communicating either with or without wires. The devices communicate via wires or through the air:Obviously. Devices can take advantage of several wireless technologies (Bluetooth included) by using various transmitters to send information over the airwaves. if the devices are using Bluetooth technology. A protocol is a standard that controls or enables the connection. With so many different types of electronics available. we must first take a look at how electronic devices (Bluetooth or not) connect and communicate with one another. Devices in this “electronic conversation” know what the information (bits or groups of bits) means. and data transfer between two electrical devices. There are several questions that need to be addressed before any two devices can communicate with one another. or in groups of bits (usually 8 or 16 at a time) in a scheme called parallel communications. They know if they received the same message that was sent:Most of the time these questions are answered by the creation of what is known as a protocol. and what to do next * Ending the connection or “conversation” (33) . Messages or information be sent between the two devices:Information can be sent one bit at a time in a scheme called serial communications. communication. However. a protocol is the "language" of devices. if the devices are not Bluetooth enabled. almost all protocols address one or more of the following: * Detecting the presence of other devices * Establishing communications guidelines between two devices (AKA: Handshaking) * Determining the various connection characteristics * How to format a message * How to start and end a message * What to do with corrupted or incorrectly formatted messages * How to recognize unexpected connection loss.

4 gigahertz band. the commands for one product will have the same effect on another. Simply put. a device will use one of 79 different. Data can be transferred at a rate of up to one Megabyte per second (Mbps). Bluetooth enabled devices. The signal is also capable of passing through the walls in your home. click: Bluetooth Core Specification Versions) are able to avoid interference with other wireless devices because their signal is so weak. One of the ways Bluetooth avoids interference is through the use of low power signals (around one milliwatt). So. they are relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Even though the signal is weaker. which all use the “hopping” method. Also. . Bluetooth uses low-power radio waves to reliably communicate in an inexpensive way. universal "language" for devices. Devices using the Bluetooth Core Specification Version 1. Bluetooth uses a standardized wireless protocol for devices to communicate. cordless phones and various other wireless devices. change frequencies 1. Take into consideration that powerful cell phones use a signal of around three watts. randomly chosen frequencies within an assigned range. • Bluetooth: Low Power and Low Cost! Bluetooth wireless technology operates on an open frequency within the 2. Bluetooth is able to share the same frequency band without experiencing any interference because it utilizes various key technologies. there are other devices that use their own specific protocol. which is the same as WiFi.1 or later (To learn about the different Bluetooth versions. As a result. because Bluetooth transmitters require minimal amounts of power. how many will be sent at a time. more devices can use a portion of the radio spectrum. and will frequently change frequencies from one to another. The goal of Bluetooth is to establish a worldwide. It forces devices to agree on when bits are sent. you can be positive that any two devices using compatible Bluetooth will definitely be able to communicate with one another.Some types of products have a standard protocol used by almost all companies. As a result. By using the “hopping” method. and how the devices in a conversation can be sure that the message received is the same as the message sent. which means that commands intended for one specific device will seem foreign if received by another. Bluetooth still offers a range of up to 30 feet (Newer versions can have a range over 100 feet). However.600 times per second. making it useful for controlling several devices in different rooms. • “Hopping” = No Interference Another way Bluetooth devices are able to avoid interference is through a technique known as spread-spectrum frequency hopping.

based on their profiles. sharing the same profile(s). • Personal-Area Network (PAN) or Piconet When two or more Bluetooth devices.The risk of a device like a cell phone or baby monitor interfering with Bluetooth devices is minimized. uses an enhanced technology called: Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH). If bad channels are present on a specific frequency. Bluetooth devices create a Personal-area Network (PAN). Masters have the duty of directing and controlling communications. Devices that are apart of a specific piconet. since any interference on a specific frequency will last for only a fraction of a second. So. AFH allows Bluetooth devices to measure the quality of the wireless signal and then determine if there are bad channels present on specific frequencies due to interference from other wireless devices. A piconet can be as small as a two foot connection between a keyboard and computer. and more reliable. the very latest of the Bluetooth specification versions. a network is created. Bluetooth version 2. Bluetooth piconets are designed to link up to eight different devices. Furthermore. or it can encompass several devices over an entire room. both devices must share at least one of the same Bluetooth profiles. use “Hopping” simultaneously so they stay in touch with one another and avoid other piconets that may be operating in the same room. they establish a connection automatically. while all other units become "slaves" (Talk about a harsh name).0 + EDR. faster. come in range of one another. These profiles define the possible applications that a Bluetooth enabled device can support. As a result. distinct piconets to be operating in the same room at any given moment. (34) . the Bluetooth device will adjust its hopping sequence to avoid them. • Bluetooth Profiles: How Bluetooth is Used Bluetooth enabled devices must use and understand certain Bluetooth "profiles" in order to use Bluetooth technology to connect to one another. it is possible for multiple. In order for one Bluetooth device to connect to another. or commonly called a piconet (It is important that you know and remember what a piconet is. the Bluetooth connection is stronger. because we refer to it a lot throughout the rest of this site). the user doesn’t have to press any buttons or set anything up. In order to regulate communications one of the participating devices is assigned the role of "master" of the piconet. even between two slave devices. Once the Bluetooth devices are all connected.

This is an especially important advancement to wireless devices that transmit audio data.0 + EDR (Enhanced Data Rate). In theory. in order to extend these networks. o Extended Synchronous Connection Oriented Links It is a long term. The eSCO link type allows Bluetooth devices to monitor and retransmit voice packets to improve the quality of the link. several piconets can be joined together in what is known as a scatternet. Furthermore. like stereo headphones and headsets. up to seven slaves and one master can actively communicate. the ability to form larger more diverse piconets is greatly improved.Under the current Bluetooth specification. the latest of the Bluetooth Core Specification Versions. anyone with a compatible Bluetooth device is supposed to have the ability to hook up anywhere within that network and connect to another Bluetooth device. but here is what it means: With the introduction of Bluetooth version 2. . One factor that contributes to more improved piconets is the addition of the extended Synchronous Connection Oriented (eSCO) link type.

MP3 player and other devices. When two or more Bluetooth devices enter a range (Up to 30 feet) of one another. Bluetooth Technology is Inexpensive. Bluetooth doesn't require you to think about setting up a connection or to push any buttons. In addition to improving safety as a result of eliminating the clutter of wires and associated hazardous connections. Bluetooth is Automatic. For a more detailed list of the advantages associated with wireless connectivity.(35) DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • Main Reasons to Use a Bluetooth Device: 1. Bluetooth technology is cheap for companies to implement. Once the communicating begins. and you can go about your business. (36) . Bluetooth devices will setup Personal Area Networks or Piconets. For example. which results in lower over-all manufacturing Costs. The best part is: The devices take care of the entire setup process. PDA. 3. you no longer have to worry about bringing along all of your connecting cables. The end result: Bluetooth devices are relatively inexpensive. Bluetooth Devices are Wireless. These savings are then passed on to you. click on: Wireless Advantages 2. If you navigate through the rest of our site you will learn that there are tons of advantages/benefits when using wireless devices. the consumer. they automatically begin to communicate without you having to do anything. when you are traveling with your laptop. wireless technology also offers many convenient advantages.

8. For instance. and b) Using low power wireless signals. For example. using Bluetooth. 6. this is a great benefit for mobile devices because Bluetooth won't drain the life of your device's battery. forming a PAN or piconet.4. As a result. the technology requires little energy and will therefore use less battery or electrical power. The result: The laptop is capable of surfing the web or sending and receiving email. it is probably no surprise that a Bluetooth enabled cell phone is capable of sharing voice communications with a compatible Bluetooth headset. both will understand each other without the user having to do anything. Instant Personal Area Network (PAN) Up to seven compatible Bluetooth devices can connect to one another within a proximity of up to 30 feet. even if the devices are of different models/makes. Low Energy Consumption As stated above. the phone can connect to a laptop. Low Interference (If Any) Bluetooth devices avoid interference with other wireless devices by: a) Using a technique known as spread-spectrum frequency hopping. Bluetooth uses low power signals. The Bluetooth specification uses and defines various profiles. when a Bluetooth enabled cell phone and a Bluetooth headset (Both with the same profile) are communicating with one another. Every Bluetooth profile is specific to a particular function. Multiple piconets can be automatically setup for a single room. 5. Obviously. (37) . a high level of compatibility among devices is guaranteed. Standardized Protocol = Interoperability Since Bluetooth is a standardized wireless specification. however. Then. 7. the same cell phone may also be capable of establishing a GPRS connection to the Internet. Share Voice and Data The Bluetooth standard allows compatible devices to share both voice and data communications.

using Bluetooth. 10. you can count on it being around for years to come. wireless standard. A development group at the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) has been given the task of working on the new Bluetooth version 2. The Technology is Here to Stay Bluetooth is a universal. Upgradeable The Bluetooth standard is upgradeable. it has already begun.9. As more devices begin to use Bluetooth technology. (38) . A chain reaction is inevitable. world-wide. Therefore. electronics manufacturers will be increasingly eager to make their products compatible. which offers several new advantages and is backward compatible with the older versions. in fact.

confidence to face to not only this seminar but also to every bad and difficult situation. I am thankful to my guide “ Mrs. for his guidance.O.(Computer) (39) .”. I am also thankful to the H.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am glad to express my sentiments of gratitude to all who rendered their valuable help for the successful completion of the seminar. PADALKAR B. who gives me courage. for his guidance and encouragement in completing this seminar. I also convey my sincere thanks to my family for their encouragement and enthusiastic effort in keeping me on track. And finally.D. Mita ”.E. “Mr. I thankful to the “MIGHTY GOD”. Mr. RUPESH R.

bluetooth.eetimes. New York: Flatiron Publishing.informationage. 9.php/3532506. http://www. ^ Kardach.information-age. ^ BlueZ . http://www. http://www.sysopt. Changes to Functionality in Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2. ^ Monson.com/Bluetooth/Products/Products/Product_Details. Apple Introduces "Jaguar. Bluetooth SIG.Official Linux Bluetooth protocol stack.com/features/network/article. 2001-05-24.eu/scandinavia/206902019?cid=RSSfeed_eetimesEU_scandinavia.com/pr/library/2002/jul/17jaguar. 5. ^ a b Newton. http://www.mspx.html.bluetooth.microsoft. Information Age. http://www. http://www. "How Bluetooth got its name". 10. 8. (2007).apple. ^ "How Bluetooth Technology Works". ^ "About the Bluetooth SIG".com/Bluetooth/Technology/Works/. (40) .com/Bluetooth/SIG/. Harold. 2. ^ "The Bluetooth Blues".^ "The Bluetooth Blues".com.htm?ProductID=2951. Information Age. Newton’s telecom dictionary. 4. 6. http://www. SysOpt. "Bluetooth Technology and Implications". ^ "Network Protection Technologie".REFERENCES 1. 7.com/article/2001/may/the_bluetooth_blues. 3.com/article/2001/may/the_bluetooth_blues.com/technet/prodtechnol/winxppro/maintain/sp2netwk. Microsoft Technet. Jim (2008-05-03). 2001-05-24. ^ "Wii Controller". ^ Apple (2002-07-17)." the Next Major Release of Mac OS X. Heidi (1999-12-14). http://bluetooth. Bluetooth SIG.. Press release. Bluetooth SIG. http://www.

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