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October, 2006 The Energy Conservation Center, Japan Taichiro Kawase
Laos 2006.10 1
Bird-eye View of Japanese Cement Factory
SP & calciner Waste tire yard Rotary kiln Raw mill crusher
Layout of one Japanese cement factory
5-2.5-3.8 7.2-2.6-2.8-5.5 SO3(%) 1.6 others Laos 2006.Chemical Composition of Raw Materials and Cement Product Raw Materials CaO(%) Limestone Clay Silica Iron-ore Gypsum 26-41 47-55 45-78 77-96 40-90 37-59 10-26 3-9 SiO2(%) Al2O3(%) Fe2O3(%) SO3(%) CO2(%) 37-43 Cements CaO(%) Portland cement Blended cement (BF slag) 63-65 52-58 SiO2(%) 20-23 24-27 Al2O3(%) 3.10 3 .5 Fe2O3(%) 2.0-9.3 1.6 1.
•Ž 2000 Gas temperature 1000 Material temperature Drying Preheating Water content of raw meal : 38 – 40% Raw meal Kiln Fuel Calcining Sintering Zoning Cooling Clinker temp : 80 – 100 •Ž Chain Curtain Zone: 20.Temperature Profile in Wet Process Kiln Temperature.10 4 .25% extension Cooler Clinker Figure 5 Temperature Profile in Wet Process Kiln Laos 2006.
10 5 . Sintering of Al2O3. 4CaO•EAl2O3•EFe2O3 Formation of 2CaO•ESiO2. Formation of 2CaO•ESiO2 Transition to ƒÀ•E 2CaO•ESiO2 calcining Formation of 3CaO•EAl2O3. K2O. etc During a course of cooling. Fe2O3. pebble-like black colored clinker is formed. cooling 3CaO•ESiO2 2CaO•ESiO2 : referred to as Alite or C3S : referred to as Belite orC2S : referred to as aluminate phase or C3A 150•` 200 3CaO•EAl2O3 4CaO•EAl2O3•EFe2O3 : referred to as ferrite phase or C4AF Laos 2006. which consists of the following components. Na2O.Chemistry of Cement Process Heating (•Ž 100•` drying 110•` 700•` 750•` 950•` 1200•` sintering 1300•` 110 700 750 900 1200 1300 1450 ) Vaporization of physically adsorbed water Vaporization of chemically bonded water Decomposition of MgCO3 Decomposition of CaCO3.
095 204 78 30 34 1.Raw Materials and Energy required for production of 1 ton of Cement Energy Consumption Raw Materials (kg) Limestone Clay Silica Iron-ore Gypsum total 1.200 kcal/kg. Fuel by kind (%) 78 13 5 4 Laos 2006.439 Coal Petroleum coke Combustible waste Heavy oil Base : 1 ton of cement Fuel (*1) Electric power (kWh) 105 99 (*1) : kg of coal equivalent where HHV of coal is 6.10 6 .
10 AQC . fuel exhaust gas cooler Pre-calciner: A part of calcining reaction is made in pre-calciner in modern NSP process. SP EP F S Suspension Preheater Electrostatic Precipitator Fan Stabilizer (conditioner) (Air Quenching) Cooler 7 Laos 2006. (pre-calciner) exhaust gas stack stack Electrostatic precipitator (EP): Dust-containing gases are dedusted in EP or bag filter.Dry Process Kiln with Suspension Preheater (SP•ENSP) Raw material Suspension preheater Kiln: Raw material is calcined and sintered by fuel burning. Calcining is CO2 removal reaction. air clinker Cooler: Molten clinker is quenched by cold air. (Suspension) preheater: Raw material (fine powder) is preheated in suspension state by hot gas coming from kiln. Sintering is formation of molten clinker by heating.
Cement Production Process Dry Process Silica Limestone Clay Slag Finishing section Raw Material section Water Clinker Burning section Ordinary Kiln Pelletizer Clinker BF slag Heavy oil Coal Gypsum Fly ash Silica Burner Dryer Weigher Cooler Burner Crusher Raw Mill Lepol Grate Lepol Kiln Cooler Cement mill Admix mill Dryer Blending Silo Weigher Elec Generator Dust Collector WHB Cement Silo Weigher Mixer Dry Powder Suspension preheater Water Slurry tank Mixer Burner SP/NSP Kiln Cooler Cement Silos Wet Process Raw Mill Weigher Filter Shipping Burner Cooler tanker Bulk loader Packer Packer truckFreight ship car Long Kiln Packing center Figure 1 Cement Production Process Laos 2006.10 Marketing 8 .
357 954 797 773 Source(1) Yogyo Kogaku H/B JCTA(1961) •V •V JCTA(1981) •V Nm3/kg-cl(2) 1.10 9 .38 1.40 1.65 2.62 2.35 Note 1: JCA means Japan Cement Technology Association 2: Estimated based on 1.40 Nm3/kg-cl in SP kiln Factory 2 Laos 2006.68 1.487 1.Factory 1 Heat Requirement in Burning Section Kiln Shaft kiln Dry long kiln Wet kiln Lepol kiln SP kiln NSP kiln kcal/kg-cl 940 1.
EP Dryer Storage Dryer Heat generator b EP Collector Storage EP F : fan Collector BT & ST Raw mill Pre-heater Storage Separator BT : Blending tank ST : Storage tank EP : Electrostatic precipitator BT & ST Raw mill Pre-heater c Raw mill BT ST Pre-heater & kiln Factory 1 ? Factory 2 c. b. Drying is done within mill. Closed Circuit Separator is added.Dry Process Raw Material Grinding System a a. VRM is also space-saving. Open Circuit Dryer and raw mill are installed separately. Dust made in milling is not recovered.10 10 . Closed Circuit Energy-efficient vertical roller mill (VRM) is employed. Coarse dust made in milling is separated and recycled to mill. Figure 4 Dry Process Raw Material Section Laos 2006.
Vertical Roller Mill Lower part : Classifier Upper part : roller mill Vertical roller mill (VRM) is energy-efficient and also space-saving. Laos 2006.10 11 .
Energy Management System (Cement Factory) Aspect Organization Accountability Organization Monitoring Monitoring Targeting Technology Operation & maintenance (O&M) House keeping Major Activity Employee education (awareness) EE&C promotion committee Energy manager Data recording & reporting to employee Specific energy consumption (SEC) Key efficiency parameters Technical review (energy audit) Product yield (avoid off-spec product) Preventive maintenance (avoid unscheduled shutdown) Laos 2006.10 12 .
10 13 . pozzolan) Laos 2006. etc) 2)Heat recovery of pre-heater exhaust gas and cooler exhaust gas (drying of raw material and generation of electricity) 3)Replacement of cooler dust collection from multiclone to EP 1)Conversion of fuel from petroleum to coal 2)Conversion of SP to NSP 3)Conversion of planetary cooler to grate cooler Finishing section 1) Management of particle fineness 2) Management of grinding media 1)Installation of closed circuit mill (separator) 2)Installation of feed control system Second step Third step 1)Conversion from wet process to dry process 2)Replacement of ball or tube mill by vertical roller mill 3)Pneumatic transfer of raw material to mechanical transfer 1)Use of industrial waste (slag.Energy Saving Measures in Cement Factory Raw material section First step 1)Selection of raw materials 2)Management of particle fineness 3)Management of grinding media 1)Replacement of fan rotor 2)Improvement of temperature and pressure control system 3)Improvement of mixing & homogenization system 4)Installation of closed circuit mill (separator) Clinker burning section 1)Prevention of unscheduled shutdown 2)Selection of fuel 3)Prevention of leakage 1)Use of industrial waste (waste tire.
Boundary of Heat Balance (Measurement) Exhaust gas F Raw material T T F O2 T gas flow material flow Air leak Pre-heater Section T O2 T Kiln Section O2 F 1ry air Fuel oil Cooler exhaust vent T T T Air leak T Cooler Section T Trial & Error Method T T F measured or assumed calculated 2ry air Clinker exhaust gas rate Laos 2006.10 14 .
4 m3N/kg-cl .SP kiln with Grate cooler : 1.0 m3N/kg-cl .Prediction of Maximum Attainable Production Capacity (Tool : Heat Balance Method) 1 Principle of prediction: Production capacity is approximately proportional to exhaust gas rate which flows through kiln.10 15 .Dry kiln : 2. Calculate exhaust gas rate at pre-heater exit or kiln exit (m3N/kg-cl) by heat balance method Compare with exhaust gas rate of well-designed kiln as shown below.SP kiln with Satellite cooler : 2.4 m3N/kg-cl 2 3 Laos 2006.6 m3N/kg-cl . .Wet kiln : 2.
Laos 2006. air leakage in EP and raw mill does not normally increase fuel consumption. Air leakage occurred in kiln and pre-heater increases fuel consumption in order for heating leaked cold air up to process temperature.Air Leakage Measurement possible air leakage combustion air fuel cooling air stack EP raw mill O2 O2 preheater kiln F cooler O2 O2 Air leakage may bring about an increase of both fuel consumption and fan power consumption. However.10 16 . but it increases required power of fan motor.
7 elec (RM fan) = Leak (m3N/h)/60 x (90+273)/273 x 150mmAq /6120 /0.7(*2) 29.1(*4) Fuel Increase (kg-oil/h) Elec Power Increase (kWh/h) Calc Equation of Fuel Loss : (*1)‡™ (*2) ‡™ (*3) ‡™ (*4) ‡™ ‡™ fuel = Leak (m3N/h) x 0.2(*3) 33.7 P mmAq Kiln fan(50) Preheater(400) Raw Mill(150) EP(100) Laos 2006.10 17 Calc Equation of Elec Power Loss : Note : LHV of fuel oil = 10170 kcal/kg .7 elec (EP fan) = Leak (m3N/h)/60 x (130+273)/273 x 100mmAq /6120 /0.8(*1) 18.3(*2) 28.9(*1) 76.31 kcal/m3N•EdegC x (320 – 30) (degC) /10170 elec (kiln fan) = Leak (m3N/h)/60 x (320+273)/273 x 400mmAq /6120 /0.Calculation of Energy Loss due to Air Leakage Location Burner Kiln Exit Preheater Exit Raw Mill Exit EP exit Leak Amount (m3N/h) 0 5530 8690 36340 57670 48.
Monitoring of SEC & Key Variables Section Raw Mill Clinker Burning Cement Mill Monitored Item SEC = Electric Power / Raw Material Charge SEC = Fuel / Clinker production O2% of Kiln Exhaust Gas SEC = Electric Power / Cement Production Unit (kWh/kg-raw mat’l) (kcal/kg-cl) (%) (kWh/kg-cement) Laos 2006.10 18 .
2 Oct. Optimum level of filling should be maintained. This leads to gradual increase of raw mill SEC.16 Oct.9 Oct. and when SEC arrives at certain level. 10% energy saving expected Addition of Grinding Balls Raw mill SEC (kWh/kg-mat’l) Ball diameter shrinks as time passes due to erosive effect.30 Nov. Oct.Recording of SEC on the Graph Watch raw mill SEC daily and add grinding balls in right timing •¨ SEC should be monitored daily.6 Laos 2006. grinding balls is compensated. Filling level of grinding balls is also important in grinding efficiency.23 Oct.10 19 .
10 20 .5 50 1500 69.Example of Monitoring Sheet (Wet Process) Eng.2 10/3 10/4 10/5 10/6 10/7 10/8 Laos 2006. SEC of Finishing Mill Sect. ton/d ton/d ton/d kWh/d 103xkcal/d kWh/d vol% kWh/kg-rm kcal/kg-cl kWh/kg-ce 10/2 760 500 520 38000 750 36000 4. unit Raw Material Charge Clinker Production Cement Production Elec Cons in Raw Mill Fuel Cons in Kiln Elec Cons in Cement Mill O2 in Kiln Exhaust Gas SEC of Raw Mill Sect. SEC of Kiln Sect.
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