Lesson on


30 Years of Development Chemistry Department

What is a Furnace
• Equipment to melt metals
– Casting – Change shape – Change properties

• Type of fuel important
– Mostly liquid/gaseous fuel or electricity

• Low efficiencies due to
– High operating temperature – Emission of hot exhaust gases

Furnace Components
Furnace chamber: constructed of insulating materials
Hearth: support or carry the steel. Consists of refractory materials

Chimney: remove combustion gases

Burners: raise or maintain chamber temperature

Charging & discharging doors for loading & unloading stock

hot gases etc – Withstand load at service conditions – Withstand abrasive forces – Conserve heat – Have low coefficient of thermal expansion – Will not contaminate the load . glass.Introduction What are Refractories Materials that – Withstand high temperatures and sudden changes – Withstand action of molten slag.

Refractories Refractory lining of a furnace arc Refractory walls of a furnace interior with burner blocks (BEE India. 2005) .

heat capacity and resistance .Properties of Refractories • Melting point – Temperature at which a ‘test pyramid’ (cone) fails to support its own weight • Size – Affects stability of furnace structure • Bulk density – Amount of refractory material within a volume (kg/m3) – High bulk density = high volume stability.

Properties of Refractories • Porosity – Volume of open pores as % of total refractory volume – Low porosity = less penetration of molten material • Cold crushing strength – Resistance of refractory to crushing • Creep at high temperature – Deformation of refractory material under stress at given time and temperature .

Properties of Refractories • Pyrometric cones – Used in ceramic industries to test ‘refractoriness’ of refractory bricks – Each cone is mix of oxides that melt at specific temperatures • Pyrometric Cone Equivalent (PCE) • Temperature at which the refractory brick and the cone bend • Refractory cannot be used above this temp .

expansion & shrinkage – Permanent changes during refractory service life – Occurs at high temperatures • Reversible thermal expansion – Phase transformations during heating and cooling .Properties of Refractories • Volume stability.

regenerators • Low thermal conductivity: – Heat conservation required (insulating refractories) – E.Properties of Refractories • Thermal conductivity – Depends on composition and silica content – Increases with rising temperature • High thermal conductivity: – Heat transfer through brickwork required – E. recuperators.g. heat treatment furnaces .g.

which does not combine with acids nor bases Special Fireclay bricks. fused cast. ramming mass. hand moulded. Silicon Carbide. Magnesite-chromite. Zirconia Blast furnace casting pit Dry press process. Semisilica. which consists mainly of metallic oxides that resist the action of bases Silica. unformed (monolithics. spraying) End use Method of manufacture . Aluminosilicate Magnesite. Chrome. which readily combines with bases BASIC. Dolomite Examples NEUTRAL. formed normal.Type of Refractories Classification of Refractories Classification method Chemical composition ACID. gunning castable. fired or chemically bonded. plastics. Pure Alumina Carbon. Chrome-magnesite.

ceramic kilns.100% alumina • High alumina % = high refractoriness • Applications: hearth and shaft of blast furnaces.Type of Refractories Fireclay Refractories • Common in industry: materials available and inexpensive • Consist of aluminium silicates • Decreasing melting point (PCE) with increasing impurity and decreasing Al2O3 High Alumina Refractories • 45 . cement kilns. glass tanks .

volume stability Magnesite • Chemically basic: >85% magnesium oxide • Properties depend on silicate bond concentration • High slag resistance. flux and slag. high resistance to spalling. high refractoriness. especially lime and iron .Type of Refractories Silica Brick • >93% SiO2 made from quality rocks • Iron & steel. glass industry • Advantages: no softening until fusion point is reached.

magnesite – 15-35% Cr2O3 and 42-50% MgO – Used for critical parts of high temp furnaces – Withstand corrosive slags – High refractories • Magnesite-chromite – >60% MgO and 8-18% Cr2O3 – High temp resistance – Basic slags in steel melting – Better spalling resistance .Type of Refractories Chromite Refractories • Chrome.

Type of Refractories Zirconia Refractories • Zirconium dioxide ZrO2 • Stabilized with calcium. • High strength. magnesium. high resistance in oxidizing and reducing atmosphere • Used in heat processing industry. insulating refractory Oxide Refractories (Alumina) • Aluminium oxide + alumina impurities • Chemically stable. low thermal conductivity. low thermal loss • Used in glass furnaces. crucible shaping . insoluble. etc. strong. not reactive.

handle. install – Reduced downtime for repairs .Type of Refractories Monolithics • Single piece casts in equipment shape • Replacing conventional refractories • Advantages – Elimination of joints – Faster application – Heat savings – Better spalling resistance – Volume stability – Easy to transport.

Selecting the Right Refractory Selection criteria • Type of furnace • Type of metal charge • Presence of slag • Area of application • Working temperatures • Extent of abrasion and impact • Structural load of furnace • Stress due to temp gradient & fluctuations • Chemical compatibility • Heat transfer & fuel conservation • Costs .






F U R N A C E .

F U R N A C E .


Gas fired furnace .

Blast furnace .

Iridium Crucible .

Ceramic_Crucible .

Porcelain Q U A R T Z Graphite Crucible heating .

To succeed in your mission . you must have single – minded devotion to your goal. Dr A P J Abdul Kalam .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful