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Module 2.

Modems and
Asynchronous Dialup Connections

CCNP 2 Remote Access Networks CCNP 2 (Ver.3.1)


Keith Spahn & Rick Graziani
Revised: 이훈재 (李 焄 宰) Hoon-Jae Lee
동서대학교 정보네트워크공학전공
hjlee@dongseo.ac.kr
http://kowon.dongseo.ac.kr/~hjlee
http://crypto.dongseo.ac.kr

Review to Ver 3.0

• Go to the CCNP2 Ver.3.0 Presentation

1
Overview

Digital to analog conversion

Digital communications represent information as binary 1s and 0s by


using pulses of electricity or light.
To use analog phone lines for data transmission, the digital signal must
be converted to an analog tone that can be carried by the POTS
Converting a digital signal to an analog signal is known as modulation.
Converting an analog signal to a digital signal is known as
demodulation
A modem performs two these two conversions
A modem derives its name from a combination of two words,
MOdulator and DEModulator

2
Role of the modem

Modem signaling and cabling

In order to communicate with remote DTEs, a DTE device typically


must communicate with a directly connected DCE device
Several different standards define the signaling and connector type
between a DTE and a DCE

The three most common signaling standards in North America are:


•EIA/TIA-232-C (formerly known as RS-232)
•V.35
•High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI)

EIA/TIA-232-C connection to
a PC

3
Modem signaling and cabling
(continued)

V.35 serial connection to a


CSU/DSU

EIA/TIA-232-C connection to
Router serial interface

The EIA/TIA-232-C standard

232-C pinouts

DTE to DCE Function


groups

4
DTE communication termination

Modem Control

Connecting a modem to a router


External modems can be connected to
several different kinds of router ports:
•Auxiliary (AUX)
•Console
•Serial interface (on some models)
•Async

Some serial interfaces have the


ability to support low-speed
asynchronous communications if
configured with the physical-layer
async command

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5
Connecting a modem to an access server – Async
lines

Any router configured to make and receive calls for the purposes of routing
data can be called an access server
Up to eight modems or other devices can be connected to a single 68-pin
port through an octal breakout cable. 11

Connecting a modem to a PC

12

6
Directly connecting a DTE to another DTE
– null modem cable

Transmit and receive pairs are crossed for serial to serial connections

13

Modem modulation standards

During connection
modems negotiate the
fastest modulation that
both ends can accept

14

7
Error control and data compression

15

Connecting to the modem – reverse Telnet

Reverse Telnet allows


connection to the modem
to configure using AT
command set

For the reverse Telnet, use a telnet port


other than the default 23
The port number must be 2000+line
number. Therefore, the new port number
is 2000 + 7 = 2007.

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8
Lines types and numbering

Cisco devices have the following four types of lines:


CON or CTY (Console line) – Is typically used to log into the
router for configuration purposes. It is assigned line number 0.
TTY (Asynchronous line) – Can be a dedicated interface or a
synchronous interface configured as an asynchronous interface
AUX (Auxiliary line) – EIA/TIA-232-C DTE port is used as a
backup asynchronous port. It is assigned the last possible TTY
line number plus 1
VTY (Virtual terminal line) – Is used for incoming Telnet. It
is assigned the last possible TTY line number plus 2 through
the maximum number of VTY lines specified with the line vty
command

!!Line numbering varies greatly between router


platforms. Different router models number the line types
in different ways!!
17

show line command

18

9
Configuring reverse telnet
In order for reverse Telnet to work, the access server line must be
configured with the transport input protocol and modem inout
commands
The following commands are required to allow reverse Telnet via line 10:
RTA#configure terminal
RTA(config)#line 10
RTA(config-line)#transport input all
RTA(config-line)#modem inout
The modem inout command is required to permit both incoming and
outgoing connections on a given line.

The transport input


protocol command is used
to specify which protocol
to allow for incoming
connections
Possible keywords
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Important EXEC connection commands

20

10
Asynchronous interfaces and line configuration

These two numbers must match

21

Basic terminal line configuration

•Line x – specifies the line


number that is to be configured
•The login command enables
password checking
•password command sets the
password for login
•The speed command is used to
set the speed between the
modem and the attached access
server
•The flowcontrol command sets the type of flow control to be used on the line
•The stopbits command configures the number of stop bits to be used per byte
•The transport input all command allows all protocols inbound on a specific line,
while the modem inout command allows both incoming and outgoing calls
•the modem dialin command restricts the line to incoming calls only, this is the
default
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11
Basic auxiliary port configuration

The relative line number can be used to


configure the line aux 0 command in global
configuration mode, as shown:
RTA(config)#line aux 0
RTA(config-line)#login
RTA(config-line)#password letmein
RTA(config-line)#speed 115200
RTA(config-line)#flowcontrol hardware
RTA(config-line)#stopbits 1
RTA(config-line)#transport input all
RTA(config-line)#modem inout

23

Configuring the console port to use a modem

24

12
Configuring a serial interface to use a modem

Certain serial interfaces, such as that provided by the WIC-2A/S WAN


Interface Card, can be configured as low-speed asynchronous lines

25

Configuring asynchronous interfaces

Asynchronous interfaces on access servers may be


configured to provide the following:

•Network protocol support such as IP, IPX, or AppleTalk


•Encapsulation support such as PPP
•IP client addressing options, both default or dynamic
•IPX networking addressing options
•PPP authentication

If the corresponding asynchronous interface on a line is


not configured, then it can only be used to dial in to the
router and establish an EXEC management session

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13
Asynchronous interface configuration example

Asynchronous configuration commads:

27

Asynchronous interface configuration example

This line is not use on an permanent


async interface

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14
Introduction to DDR (dial on demand) – dialer list

When implementing DDR, the router must be configured with a dialer


list. A dialer list defines what traffic is “interesting” or worthy of
establishing a call. A router will only establish a call if it receives
interesting traffic that needs to be routed

Defines what is “interesting” traffic

Applies the list to an interface


29

Modem configuration methods

There are three modem configuration methods:


1. Manual, typically through reverse Telnet
2. Automatic discovery, called autodiscovery
3. Automatic configuration using a database, called
autoconfigure

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15
Manual configuration of modems with standard
commands

The following tasks should be configured on a modem:


1. Answer a call
2. Perform hardware flow control
3. Lock DTE speed to ensure that the modem will always communicate
with the access server at the specified speed.
4. Hang up when quitting a session
5. Have the CD signal truthfully reflect the carrier state
31

Manual configuration of modems with nonstandard


modem commands

32

16
Modem initialization strings

Initialization strings are used to configure the modem to a known state.


They are a series of parameter settings that are sent to the modem to
configure the modem to interact with the access server in a specified
way

33

Automatic configuration of modems

There are three approaches to automatic modem configuration:

•Use modem autodiscovery – Configure the router to initialize the


modem by running through each of the strings stored in the modemcap
until one appears to work.

•Use modem autoconfiguration – Configure the router to initialize the


modem by explicitly specifying one of the several preloaded strings in the
modemcap.

•Edit the modemcap database and then use modem


autoconfiguration – Configure the router to initialize the modem by
using a user-defined string stored in the modemcap. An entirely new
modemcap entry can be created, or an existing entry can be used as a
template.

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17
Modem capability database

The modem capability database, modemcap, is a list of modems with a


known set of AT configuration commands for setting the attributes for
each modem type.

Shows List of Built-in Modems

Shows modem config


string for each modem

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Modem autodiscovery

Router(config-line)#modem autoconfigure discovery


(This is not the preferred method – leads to many errors)
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18
Modem autoconfiguration

Enable modem autoconfiguration by issuing the following


command in line configuration mode:
Router(config-line)#modem autoconfigure type modem-string

Example:
RTA(config)#line 1
RTA(config-line)#modem autoconfigure type usr_sportster
Each time a modem is reset, a chat script is executed that
sends a string of modem configuration commands to the
modem

37

Fine-tuning modem autoconfiguration

Edit modemcap data-


base.
Add AT commands
and use current
entries as templates

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19
Chat scripts for async lines
A chat script is a string of text that includes commands that can be sent to
a device when performing a specific task.
Router(config)#chat-script script-name expect-string send-string
Example:
RTA(config)#chat-script Reno ABORT ERROR ABORT BUSY "" "ATZ"
OK "ATDT \T" TIMEOUT 30 CONNECT \c

RTA(config-if)#dialer map ip 10.1.1.2 name RTB modem-script


Reno 5556002 39

Configuring asynchronous connections between


remote routers

SanJose Config

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20
Configuring asynchronous connections between
remote routers

San Francisco
Config

41

Verifying and debugging modem autoconfiguration

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21
Troubleshooting modem autoconfiguration

If the modem is not responding, check the following:


•Is the modem plugged in and turned on?
•Is the power-up configuration set to factory default?
•Can reverse Telnet establish a connection to the modem?
•Is there a dial tone at the phone jack?

If the modem is not recognized by the modem autodiscovery


process:
•Use the show line command to verify the modem configuration that
the line is using.
•Make sure the Cisco access server recognizes the modem.
•Use the modem autoconfigure type modem-name command.
•Use the show modemcap command to verify modemcap support for
this modem
43

Configuring an asynchronous dialup connection

Lab Exercise: Configuring an Asynchronous Dialup Connection


In this lab, the student will configure a Cisco router to
support an out-of-band management EXEC session through a
modem.

44

22
Configuring an asynchronous dialup connection on
the AUX port

In this lab, the student will configure an AUX port on a Cisco


router to support an out-of-band management EXEC session
through a modem.

45

Configuring an asynchronous dialup PPP

In this lab, the student will configure two Cisco routers to


connect to each other asynchronously using PPP.

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23
Summary
This module discussed how to configure an access server for modem
connectivity, including:
How to perform a reverse Telnet session to the modem.
How to configure the modem and router for basic asynchronous
operations.
How to use modem autoconfiguration.

47

Ch. 2 – Modems and


Asynchronous Dialup Connections

CCNP 2 Remote Access Networks version 3.0


Rick Graziani
Cabrillo College

24
Note

• This PowerPoint is divided into two sections:


– Presentation Slides: Slides I will used for presenting in
class.
• Includes many of the slides from Curriculum Slides
• Includes some additional BCRAN exam information
– Curriculum Slides: Slides from the online curriculum
• More complete than the Presentation Slides

49

Presentation Slides

Ch. 2 – Modems and Asynchronous Dialup Connections

25
Modem signaling and cabling

• Asynchronous serial modems are connected to end stations and


routers using EIA/TIA-232-C.
• EIA/TIA-232-C is the most common asynchronous interface for analog
data communications in North America.

51

Modem Signaling

• CCNP candidates should be familiar with the signaling and pins used.
• Asynchronous data communications uses DTE (Data Terminal
Equipment) and DCE (Data Circuit Terminating Equipment).
• EIA/TIA-232 defines the standard for the interface between DCE and
DTE (previously referred to as RS-232-C, “RS” stood for
“recommended standard”.
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26
Modem Signaling

• Data Transfer
– Uses TD, RD, and GRD
• Data Flow Control
– Uses RTS and CTS
• Modem Control
– Uses DSR, DTR, and CD (or DCD)
53

Modem Signaling

• DTE Call Termination


– DTR is dropped
• DCE Call Termination
– CD is dropped

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27
Connecting a modem to a router

• The connection between a modem and a Cisco router depends on the


specific models of router and modem.
• External modems can be connected to several different kinds of router
ports:
– Auxiliary (AUX)
– Console
– Serial interface (on some models)
– Async
55

Connecting a modem to a router - AUX

Hayes Accura modem


connected to an AUX
port on a 2600 series
router via a rolled
cable and a 25-pin
DCE adapter (on
modem).

• Most, but not all, models of Cisco routers have an AUX port.
• The AUX port is typically used to connect a modem to manage the
router remotely or to send and receive data through dial-on-demand
Routing (DDR).
• Most AUX ports have an RJ-45 connection, although older router
models may use DB-9 or DB-25.
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28
Connecting a modem to a router – Serial

Hayes Accura modem


connected to a Smart
Serial port on a WIC 2AS
on a 2600 series router
via a RS-232 cable

• Most, but not all, routers have serial interfaces.


• Some routers with serial interfaces have the ability to support low-
speed asynchronous communications if configured with the
physical-layer async command.
• Consult the hardware documentation to verify its capabilities.

57

Connecting a modem to a router – console

• All routers have console ports, but modems are rarely connected to
them.
• This is because the console port does not support hardware flow
control.
• The RTS and CTS pins are not supported as they are on an AUX port.
• If desired, a modem can be connected to the console port using a
rollover cable and an RJ-45 to DB-25 male DCE adapter, which is
attached to the modem.
• Since the console port does not support flow control, the speed of the
connected modem should be limited to 9600 bits per second (bps).
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29
Connecting a modem to an access server
– Async lines

• Any router configured to make and receive calls for the purposes of
routing data can be called an access server.
• In terms of product names, Cisco Systems applies the term “access
server” only to devices built especially as concentration points
for dial-in and dial-out calls.
• Some of these devices can feature hundreds of asynchronous
interfaces.
• The octal interface is very common and is used to connect to modems.
It can also be used to connect to the console ports of other routers for
management purposes.
59

Connecting a modem to a PC

• Modern PCs generally have either external or internal modems.


• The internal modem can either built into the motherboard or installed
as an expansion card.
• If an external modem is purchased, the vendor may or may not supply
an EIA/TIA-232-C cable designed to connect the modem to the PC.
• Modems can even be connected via a PC’s USB port.

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30
Modem Configuring Using Reverse Telnet

• To configure a modem, a router must be able to talk to it.


• Cisco calls this reverse telnet connection.
• A host that is connected to a router (logged into a router) can telnet to
to a Cisco reserved port address on the router and establish an 8-N-1
connection to a specific asynchronous port.
• The router must have a valid IP address on an interface and an
asynchronous port (coming).
• You can telnet to any valid IP address on the router and use the Cisco
reserved port number for the asynchronous interface.
61

Modem Configuring Using Reverse Telnet


Connection Reserved Port Reserved Port
Service Range for Range for Rotary
Individual Ports Groups
Telnet (character) 2000 – 2xxx 3000 – 3xxx
TCP (line mode) 4000 – 4xxx 5000 – 5xxx
Telnet (binary) 6000 – 6xxx 7000 – 7xxx
Xremote 9000 – 9xxx 10000 – 10xxx

• To connect to the first asynchronous port, using the 123.123.123.123


IP address assigned to E0:
– Router# telnet 123.123.123.123 2001

• Now the standard AT command set can be used to configure the


modem.

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31
Reverse Telnet

Reverse Telnet to 2007


Port 2000 + Async line 7

• The modem above is connected to an access server through an async


port 7.
• To connect to the modem, Telnet to an active interface on the router
(10.10.10.1).
• However, instead of using the default port (23), use the reserved,
reversed Telnet port (port 2000) over the asynchronous interface
line 7.
• For the reverse Telnet, the port number must be 2000 + line number.
• Therefore, the new port number is 2000 + 7 = 2007.
63

Modem Configuring Using Reverse Telnet

• More on these later.


• You are now communicating with the modem.
• To exit this connection you must use: Control-Shift-6 and the x to
suspend the session.
• And then issue the disconnect command at the router prompt.
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Lines types and
numbering

Cisco devices have the following four types of lines in this order:
• CON or CTY (Console line) – Is typically used to log into the router for
configuration purposes.
– It is assigned line number 0.
• TTY (Asynchronous line) – Can be a dedicated async interface or a
synchronous interface configured as an asynchronous interface.
– Line numbering varies between platforms.
– There are typically reserved ranges that can be assigned to an
asynchronous interface.
• AUX (Auxiliary line) – EIA/TIA-232-C DTE port is used as a backup
asynchronous port and is identified as a TTY interface by the router.
– It cannot be used as a second console port. (some models it can be)
– Rather, it is assigned the last possible TTY line number plus 1.
• VTY (Virtual terminal line) – Is used for incoming Telnet.
– It is assigned the last possible TTY line number plus 2 through the
maximum number of VTY lines specified with the line vty command.
65

Lines types and numbering - Example

• Example: VTY 4 line corresponds to line 14 on a router with eight TTY


ports.
– Line 0 is for the console port
– Lines 1 to 8 are the TTY lines (varies per platform)
– Line 9 is for the auxiliary port
– Lines 10 to 14 are for VTY 0 to 4
• We will see how to determine TTY and other line numbers in a moment.

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33
Lines types and
numbering

Three of these can be used to configure interfaces for asynchronous


communications, CTY, TTY, AUX.
• CON or CTY (Console line)
– Console port
• TTY (Asynchronous line)
– Asynchronous or Synchronous interfaces configured as an
asynchronous port
• AUX (Auxiliary line)
– AUX port
• VTY (Virtual terminal line)
– Telnet, does not apply to physical interfaces

67

Synchronous and
Asynchronous Ports
Asynchronous

Synchronous

• TTY (Asynchronous line) – Can be a dedicated asynch interface or a


synchronous interface configured as an asynchronous interface.
– Line numbering varies between platforms.
– There are typically reserved ranges that can be assigned to an
asynchronous interface.

• Routers have serial ports that are:


– Asynchronous (Native)
or
– Synchronous (Can be configured as asynchronous)
• We will be working with synchronous ports and turning them into
asynchronous interfaces.
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34
Let’s see where we are…

The 1720 can


have up to 4
synchronous
serial ports.
Here, only two
are installed.

Cisco-1720#show ip inter brief

Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol


BRI unassigned YES unset administratively down down
BRI0:1 unassigned YES unset administratively down down
BRI0:2 unassigned YES unset administratively down down
FastEthernet unassigned YES unset administratively down down
Serial0 unassigned YES unset administratively down down
Serial1 unassigned YES unset administratively down down

69

Show line command - 1720

Notice the
“absolute” line
numbers.
Cisco-1720#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
Always 0 * 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Last TTY + 1 5 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
Last TTY + 2 6 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
7 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
8 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 1 – 4 are
-
reserved for
9 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
TTYs
10 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -

Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1-4


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35
Configure interfaces synchronous to
asynchronous

Configure
Serial 1 as
asynchronous

Cisco-1720(config)#interface serial 1
Cisco-1720(config-if)#physical-layer async

Cisco-1720#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
TTY 2 2 TTY 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 Se1
5 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
6 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Why is it
7 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
TTY 2 and 8 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
not TTY 1? 9 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
10 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1, 3-4

71

Configure interfaces synchronous to


asynchronous

Configure
Serial 1 as
asynchronous

Cisco-1720(config)#interface serial 1
Cisco-1720(config-if)#physical-layer async

Cisco-1720#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
TTY 2 2 TTY 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 Se1
5 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
Because TTY 1
6 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
is reserved for 7 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Serial 0, in 8 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
case we make 9 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
that 10 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
asynchronous! Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1, 3-4

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36
show line and physical-layer async

Router#show line

Router(config-if)#physical-layer async

Router#show line
• This command shows the status of aynchronous lines, console, TTY,
AUX, and VTY.

Router(config-if)#physical-layer async
• This command configures a synchronous interface into an
asynchronous interface.

73

show line

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37
Show line command - 2621

• TTY (Asynchronous line) – Can be a dedicated asynch interface or a


synchronous interface configured as an asynchronous interface.
– Line numbering varies between platforms.
– There are typically reserved ranges that can be assigned to an
asynchronous interface.

Cisco 2600 Series:


• AUX port is line 65
• VTY ports follow AUX port
• VTY ports have absolute line numbers of 66, 67, 68, 69, and 70
• VTY ports have relative line numbers of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 for configuration, (line
vty 0 4)
75

Show line command - 2621

The Cisco 2600 Series


starts the AUX
numbering at absolute
line 65.

Cisco-2621#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
Always 0 * 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Last TTY + 1 65 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
Last TTY + 2 66 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
67 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
68 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
69 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
70 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -

Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1-64

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38
Show line
command - 2621
Configure Serial 0 and Serial 1 as
asynchronous

Cisco-2621(config)#inter s 0/0
Cisco-2621(config-if)#physical-layer async

Cisco-2621(config)#inter s 0/1
Cisco-2621(config-if)#physical-layer async

Cisco-2621#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
TTY 1 1 TTY 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 Se0/0
TTY 2 2 TTY 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 Se0/1
65 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
66 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
67 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
68 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
69 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
70 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 3-64
77

Learning Line Numbers


Cisco-1720#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
2 TTY 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 Se1
5 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
6 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
7 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
8 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
9 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
10 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1, 3-4

• What is the lesson here?


• Do a show line before and after, to make sure you are configuring the
proper interface.
• Show running-config will also give you line information (later).
• The labs will help you understand and remember line types and the
various commands we will be using.
• Soon, we will see how to configure the asynchronous lines.
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3600 Series
Router

• The numbering scheme was expanded for the 3600 series router.
• The console is still line 0.
• The AUX port is still after the TTYs, (TTY+1), however…
• The VTY ports are still counted after the TTYs, (TTY+2), however…
• Cisco uses reserved numbering for available slots.
– Slot 0: reserved lines 1-32
– Slot 1: reserved lines 33-64
– Slot 2: reserved lines 65-96
– Slot 3: reserved lines 97-128

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3640#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
I 65 TTY - inout 0 0 0/0 -
I 66 TTY - inout 0 0 0/0 -
I 67 TTY - inout 0 0 0/0 -
I 68 TTY - inout 0 0 0/0 -
I 69 TTY - inout 0 0 0/0 -
I 70 TTY - inout 0 0 0/0 -
129 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
130 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
131 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
132 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
133 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
135 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -

• Example: 3640 with a modem card in slot 2


– Slot 2: reserved lines 65-96
– Slot 3 has reserved lines 97-128
– AUX = (number of slots x 32) + 1 = (4 x 32) + 1 = 128 + 1 = 129
– VTY = 130 (After AUX)
• What would be the line number resulting from the configurartion
interface serial 3/0 to an aync port?
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40
3600 Series Router
interface Serial 3/0
physical-layer async
ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.252
encapsulation ppp

line 97
modem inout
transport input all
<etc.>
line aux 0
line aux 0 4
<etc.>

• Example: 3640
– Slot 3 has reserved lines 97-128
– Serial 3/0 is the first serial interface in slot 3
– Line 97 = (Slot 3 x 32) + 1 = 96 + 1 = 97

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3620 Series
Router

• The numbering scheme for the 3620 series router.


• The console is still line 0.
• The AUX port is still after the TTYs, (TTY+1), however…
• The VTY ports are still counted after the TTYs, (TTYP+2), however…
• Cisco uses reserved numbering for available slots.
– Slot 0: reserved lines 1-32
– Slot 1: reserved lines 33-64
• AUX = 65

82

41
Line Configuration

83

Typical Line Configuration

Cisco-1720(config)# interface serial 1


Cisco-1720(config-if)# physical-layer async
Cisco-1720 #line 2
Cisco-1720(line)#login
Cisco-1720(line)# password cisco
Cisco-1720(line)# speed 115200
Cisco-1720(line)# flowcontrol hardware
Cisco-1720(line)# modem inout
Cisco-1720(line)# stopbits 1
Cisco-1720(line)# transport input all

• Whereas the interface is for configuring the logical of the port, the line
is used for configuring the physical aspects of the line (port).
– line speed between router (DTE) and modem (DCE)
– Flowcontrol
– number of stop bits
– etc.
84

42
Typical Line
Cisco-1720 #line 2
Configuration Cisco-1720(line)#login
Cisco-1720(line)# password cisco
Cisco-1720(line)# speed 115200
Cisco-1720(line)# flowcontrol hardware
Cisco-1720(line)# modem inout
Cisco-1720(line)# stopbits 1
Cisco-1720(line)# transport input all

• speed 115200: Determines the line speed, not the speed for the dialup
connection.
– Speed between DTE (router) and DCE (modem)
– For effective compression the line speed needs to be greater that the
dialup connection speed or modem will be starved for data and bandwidth
will be wasted
– Typically, this value should be set to the maximum supported speed
between both devices.
– It is also important to lock the speed of the modem to match the line
configuration of the router.
• flowcontrol hardware: Modem tells the router when its buffers are full.
Hardware option tells router to use RTS/CTS for flow control.
– Other options are software and none (default).
85

Typical Line
Cisco-1720 #line 2
Configuration Cisco-1720(line)#login
Cisco-1720(line)# password cisco
Cisco-1720(line)# speed 115200
Cisco-1720(line)# flowcontrol hardware
Cisco-1720(line)# modem inout
Cisco-1720(line)# stopbits 1
Cisco-1720(line)# transport input all

• stopbits 1: Sets the number of stop bits to one per byte (octet)
– Options are 1, 1.5, or 2.
– The default setting is 2.
– The modem and the router must use the same number of stop bits.
– Reducing the number of stop bits from 2 to 1 will improve
throughput by reducing asynchronous framing overhead.
• transport input all: allows all protocols inbound on a specific line,
• modem inout: allows both incoming and outgoing calls.

86

43
Typical Line
Configuration

Cisco-1720(config)#line 2
Cisco-1720(line)# transport input telnet
Cisco-1720(line)# modem dialin

• The transport input telnet command will only allow the telnet
protocol to connect to a specific line.
• The modem dialin command restricts the line to incoming calls only.

87

Show line Cisco-1720 #line 2


Cisco-1720(line)#login
Cisco-1720(line)# password cisco
Cisco-1720(line)# speed 115200
Show running-config will Cisco-1720(line)# flowcontrol hardware
display these values Cisco-1720(line)# modem inout
Cisco-1720(line)# stopbits 1
Cisco-1720(line)# transport input all

Cisco-1720#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
I 2 TTY 115200/115200- inout 0 0 0/0 Se1
5 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
6 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
7 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
8 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
9 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
10 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -

Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1, 3-4

I = Inactive
88

44
who or show users all
Absolute Relative (logical)

• To enter line configuration mode, an absolute line number, or a relative


number can be specified.
• For example, to configure the first VTY line on the Cisco 1600 router,
the relative line number could be referred to with the line vty 0
command, or to its absolute line number with the line 2 command.
• The relative format is often easier than attempting to recall the absolute
number when using a large system.
• Internally, the router uses absolute line numbers.
• Absolute and relative line numbers can be displayed with the show
users all command in EXEC mode.
89

Modem Configuration

90

45
Modem configuration methods

• Earlier in this module, modem access for manual configuration using


reverse Telnet was covered.
– The session can be configured by entering specialized modem
commands called attention (AT) commands.
• Modem configuration can also be automated.
91

Manual Configuration – Reverse Telnet

The following tasks should be configured on a modem:


– Answer a call
– Perform hardware flow control
– Lock DTE speed to ensure that the modem will always
communicate with the access server at the specified speed.
For example, when using an asynchronous interface, lock the
speed to the theoretical maximum of 115.2 kbps. The router
speed command sets both transmit and receive speeds.
– Hang up when quitting a session
– Have the CD signal truly reflect the carrier state

• It is highly unlikely that a default modem configuration will


be suited to support communication with the router.
• To manually configure a modem, connect to it using
reverse Telnet and then type in AT commands.

92

46
Manual Configuration – AT Commands

• Unfortunately, the AT commands used to make these and other


configurations vary among different types of modems.
• Each modem vendor has its own modem command set.
• However, the AT commands displayed above are common among
most vendors.

93

Manual Configuration – ATS0=2

• The ATS0=1 command configures the modem to answer calls on the


first ring.
• Because the Caller ID function activates on the second ring, hackers
typically target modems that answer on the first ring, and do not pursue
modems that answer on subsequent rings.
• Therefore, it is recommended to set a modem to at least ATS0=2,
pretending that the line subscribes to Caller ID.

94

47
Manual configuration of modems with
nonstandard modem commands

• Many modem commands are not standardized and vary between


vendors.
• The following modem configurations and commands are essential for
modems that are attached to Cisco access servers.

95

Modem initialization strings

Some examples of modem initialization strings

• Initialization strings are used to configure the modem to a known state.


• They are a series of parameter settings that are sent to the modem to
configure the modem to interact with the access server in a specified
way.
• For example, initialization strings can be used to configure the modem
to accept calls, or place them.

96

48
Automatic configuration of modems

• An alternative to using reverse Telnet to manually enter AT commands


is to take advantage of automatic modem configuration.
• The Cisco IOS software predefines several initialization strings that can
be used to configure a modem to function properly with Cisco access
servers.
• These predefined initialization strings are stored in the modem
capability database, or modemcap, which is discussed later in this
module.
97

Automatic configuration – 3 approaches

There are three approaches to automatic modem configuration:


• Use modem autodiscovery
• Use modem autoconfiguration
• Edit the modemcap database and then use modem
autoconfiguration

98

49
Modem
autodiscovery

Router(config-line)#modem autoconfigure discovery

• The easiest way to configure a modem is to use the router automatic


modem discovery feature.
• With modem autodiscovery, the router forwards modem commands
until it receives an expected response.
• From the responses it receives, the router will attempt to classify
the modem as one of the modems in its modemcap database.
• The Cisco IOS software initially tries the first of the modemcap strings
to see if the modem initializes properly.
• If it does not, the software cycles to the next string and repeats the
process until the appropriate string is found.
• If none of the strings works properly, then the modem must be
manually configured using reverse Telnet.
99

Modem
autodiscovery

Router(config-line)#modem autoconfigure discovery

• Although this approach is simple, modem autodiscovery should be


avoided when possible for the following reasons:
– The router may fail to recognize a modem, even though it might be
part of the modemcap database.
– The router may misidentify a modem, leading to unexpected
results.
– Autodiscovery is slower than autoconfiguration.
• In practice, use the autoconfiguration feature and avoid the
autodiscovery whenever possible- modem autoconfigure type
command (next).

100

50
Modem
autoconfiguration

Command
Router(config-line)#modem autoconfigure type modem-string

Example: USR Sportster


RTA(config-line)#modem autoconfigure type usr_sportster

• Preferred way to configure an attached modem is to use


modem autoconfiguration .
• By specifically configuring the string, overhead, delay, and
unpredictability associated with autodiscovery can be
eliminated.

101

Modem capability database

List of modemcap
modems, entries for a
first one specific
listed is the modem
default.

• The modem capability database, modemcap, is a list of modems with a


known set of AT configuration commands for setting the attributes for each
modem type.
• In addition, issuing this command while specifying the modem type will display
a complete list of the modemcap entries including command description,
command abbreviation, and command string.
• The preloaded modem strings included in the IOS modemcap cannot be edited
or deleted.
• However, variant modemcap entries can be created to add new modems, or to
extend the functionality of a modem in the modemcap database.
102

51
Fine-tuning modem autoconfiguration

• If none of the strings from the modemcap properly initialize the modem, then
the modem must be manually configured, or a modemcap database entry must
be added.
• To manually configure the modem, use reverse Telnet to connect to it and
issue AT commands as discussed previously.
• Note: User-defined modemcap entries become part of the running
configuration file and not a permanent part of the IOS database. Be sure to
copy the running configuration to NVRAM after making changes to the
modemcap database.
103

Chat scripts for async lines

Command
Router(config)#chat-script script-name expect-string send-string

Example
Router(config)#chat-script Reno ABORT ERROR ABORT BUSY "" "ATZ"
OK "ATDT \T" TIMEOUT 30 CONNECT \c

• A chat script is a string of text that includes commands that can be


sent to a device when performing a specific task.
• A chat script is sometimes referred to as a modem script.
• For example, a router can use a chat script to send AT commands to a
modem, instructing the modem to place a call.
• Because modem commands are not standard, custom chat scripts
must be created to perform certain tasks, including:
– Instructing the modem to dial out, modem script
– Logging in to a remote system, system script
104

52
Chat scripts for
async lines
Don’t memorize these!
Plenty of examples.

Router(config)#chat-script Reno ABORT ERROR ABORT BUSY "" "ATZ"


OK "ATDT \T" TIMEOUT 30 CONNECT \c

• The above example creates a chat script called Reno.


• The ABORT keyword designates a string whose presence in the input
indicates that the chat script has failed.
– In this case, if the modem returns either ERROR, or BUSY, the router
will determine that the script has failed.
• The first expect-send pair, "" "ATZ", tells the router to expect nothing
and issue the ATZ command.
• The next pair, OK "ATDT \T", tells the router to expect the modem to
return with OK.
• Once the router sees OK, it will issue the next command, ATDT \T.
105

Chat scripts for


async lines

Router(config)#chat-script Reno ABORT ERROR ABORT BUSY "" "ATZ"


OK "ATDT \T" TIMEOUT 30 CONNECT \c

• The ATDT \T command is critical when writing a chat script for placing
a call.
• The ATDT string instructs the modem to dial a number, using tones.
• The D stands for dial and the second T stands for tone.
• The router replaces the \T, the third T in the string, with a pre-
configured phone number from a dialer map before sending the string
to the modem.

• Note that chat scripts can also be used to pass login information to a
remote system. These scripts, not covered in this course, are referred
to as system scripts.
106

53
Chat scripts for async lines - applying

RTA(config-if)#dialer map ip 10.1.1.2 name RTB modem-script Reno


5556002

Router(config)#chat-script Reno ABORT ERROR ABORT BUSY "" "ATZ"


OK "ATDT \T" TIMEOUT 30 CONNECT \c

• Because this script is written to be a modem script, its name should be


included in a dialer map statement.
• In this example, chat script Reno is being used as a modem script.
• A modem script applies commands immediately to a line.
• Here, the router should send the ATDT \T command, where \T will be
replaced by the phone number, 555-6002, specified in the dialer map
statement.
• Although there are several different ways to invoke a chat script, the
dialer map command is one of the most common, since a chat script is
required for the modem to dial out.
107

Chat scripts

• Reasons for using a Chat Script


– Initialization – To initialize the modem
– Dial String – To provide the modem with a dial string
– Login – To log into a remote system
– Command Execution – To execute a set of commands
on a remote system
• Reasons for a Chat Script Starting
– Line activation – CD trigger (incoming call)
– Line connection – DTR trigger (outgoing traffic)
– Line reset – Asynchronous line reset
– Startup of an active call - Access server trigger
– Dialer startup – From a dial-on-demand trigger
108

54
Online Curriculum
Presentation

Ch. 2 – Modems and Asynchronous Dialup Connections

Overview

• Although newer and faster remote access solutions exist,


asynchronous analog dialup connections are still in use because they
are relatively inexpensive and readily available.
• It is important that networking professionals understand how modems
work, how to cable a modem to a router, connect, and configure a
dialup connection.
• This module introduces basic modem concepts and functions.
• It also covers modem configuration and Cisco IOS asynchronous
connection commands.
110

55
Part 1 - Modem Functions

Digital to analog conversion

• To use analog phone lines for data transmission, the digital signal must
be converted to an analog tone that can be carried by the POTS.
• The analog signal is then reconverted to a digital signal for the
receiving computer.
• A device called a modem performs two conversions.
• A modem is both a modulator and a demodulator.

112

56
Role of the modem

• Telcos use a device called a codec to encode analog waveforms into


digital pulses.
• This process is called analog-to-digital conversion.
• A codec is also used to decode digital pulses into analog waveforms.
This process is called digital-to-analog conversion.
• The name “codec” comes from the two words COder and DECoder.
• The standard for encoding analog to digital is a technique called Pulse
Code Modulation (PCM). (See presentation/PDF on T1.)
113

Modem signaling and cabling

• In order to communicate with remote DTEs, a DTE device


typically must communicate with a directly connected DCE
device.
• For example, to enable a router to connect to a digital local
loop, its WAN interface (DTE) is usually directly connected
to a CSU/DSU (DCE).
• Several different standards define the signaling and
connector type between a DTE and a DCE.

114

57
Modem signaling and cabling

• Asynchronous serial modems are connected to end stations and


routers using EIA/TIA-232-C.
• EIA/TIA-232-C is the most common asynchronous interface for analog
data communications in North America.

115

CSU/DSU signaling and cabling

V.35 interface HSSI interface

• When connecting a router to a digital local loop using a CSU/DSU over


a leased line, the most common signaling standards are V.35 or HSSI.
• The V.35 standard is appropriate for T1/E1 leased lines while the high
throughput of the HSSI makes it suitable for T3/E3 lines.
116

58
The EIA/TIA-232-C
standard

• The EIA/TIA-232-C standard was first issued in 1962 as RS-232


(Requested Standard).
• This popular signaling standard is now known as EIA/TIA-232-C.
• The eight pins used in DTE-to-DCE signaling can be grouped into
three categories by their functionality:
– Modem control group - initiate, terminate, and monitor the status
of the connection.
– Hardware flow control group - control the flow of signals between
the DTE and the DCE.
– Data transfer group - data transfer
117

The EIA/TIA-232-C standard

• The EIA/TIA-232-C standard specifies a cable that uses a


25-pin connector (DB-25).
• However, only eight (nine?) pins of the DB-25 are actually
used for connecting a DTE to a DCE. For this reason,
many EIA/TIA-232-C cables use a 9-pin (DB-9) or RJ-
11/RJ-45 connector instead of DB-25.

118

59
DTE communication termination - DTR
2–Terminate connection
1–Drop DTR with remote modem,
drop CD

• A DTE, such as a computer or a router, can terminate the connection


by dropping the DTR voltage level.
• The DCE immediately terminates its connection with the remote
modem and reverts back to its base settings.
• It is recommended that a modem connecting to a Cisco IOS router
should be configured to interpret the loss of DTR as a call-ending
event in order to function properly.
• Some models of modems are automatically detected by Cisco IOS and
are appropriately configured to the loss of DTR.
• Otherwise, the modem must be manually configured or automated by
configuring the Cisco IOS to send the proper commands to the modem
using a chat script.
119

DTE communication termination - DTR

120

60
DTE communication termination - CD
2–Terminate connection 3–Detects drop in
1–Drop DTR with remote modem, CD, alert router,
drop CD drop DCD

• If a remote modem drops the CD voltage because the remote DTE


has ended the transmission, the local modem should alert the local
router (DTE) that the connection has been terminated.
• Most modems understand that a drop in the CD signal indicates that
the call is to be terminated.
• However, a modem may have to be manually configured to react
appropriately to the CD signal loss.

121

Modem cabling components

• Cable type, adapters, and interfaces to connect modems to


a Cisco IOS router are determined by the specific type and
model of equipment available.

122

61
Connecting a modem to a router

• The connection between a modem and a Cisco router depends on the


specific models of router and modem.
• External modems can be connected to several different kinds of router
ports:
– Auxiliary (AUX)
– Console
– Serial interface (on some models)
– Async
123

Connecting a modem to a router - AUX

Hayes Accura modem


connected to an AUX
port on a 2600 series
router via a rolled
cable and a 25-pin
DCE adapter (on
modem).

• Most, but not all, models of Cisco routers have an AUX port.
• The AUX port is typically used to connect a modem to manage the
router remotely or to send and receive data through dial-on-demand
Routing (DDR).
• Most AUX ports have an RJ-45 connection, although older router
models may use DB-9 or DB-25.
124

62
Connecting a modem to a router – Serial

Hayes Accura modem


connected to a Smart
Serial port on a WIC 2AS
on a 2600 series router
via a RS-232 cable

• Most, but not all, routers have serial interfaces.


• Some routers with serial interfaces have the ability to support low-
speed asynchronous communications if configured with the
physical-layer async command.
• Consult the hardware documentation to verify its capabilities.

125

Connecting a modem to a router – console

• All routers have console ports, but modems are rarely connected to
them.
• This is because the console port does not support hardware flow
control.
• The RTS and CTS pins are not supported as they are on an AUX port.
• If desired, a modem can be connected to the console port using a
rollover cable and an RJ-45 to DB-25 male DCE adapter, which is
attached to the modem.
• Since the console port does not support flow control, the speed of the
connected modem should be limited to 9600 bits per second (bps).
126

63
Connecting a modem to an access server
– Async lines

• Any router configured to make and receive calls for the purposes of
routing data can be called an access server.
• In terms of product names, Cisco Systems applies the term “access
server” only to devices built especially as concentration points
for dial-in and dial-out calls.
• Some of these devices can feature hundreds of asynchronous
interfaces.
• The octal interface is very common and is used to connect to modems.
It can also be used to connect to the console ports of other routers for
management purposes.
127

Connecting a modem to a PC

• Modern PCs generally have either external or internal modems.


• The internal modem can either built into the motherboard or installed
as an expansion card.
• If an external modem is purchased, the vendor may or may not supply
an EIA/TIA-232-C cable designed to connect the modem to the PC.
• Modems can even be connected via a PC’s USB port.

128

64
Directly connecting a DTE to another DTE
– null modem cable

• Two DTE devices in close proximity of one another should be


connected directly without requiring a telephone network and two
modems.
• A special cable, called a null modem cable, is required for the DTE-to-
DTE connection.
• Null modem cables crisscross DB-25 pins 2, 3, and other
corresponding pins to enable the two DTE devices to communicate.

129

Modem modulation standards

• Modulation techniques determine how modems convert digital data into


analog signals.
• An analog waveform can be modulated in terms of its amplitude, which is
the height of signal, its frequency, its phase, which is the horizontal
position of the sine waves, or a combination of these qualities.
• Several modem manufacturers and standards organizations, including the
Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International
Telecommunications Union (ITU-T), have released modulation standards.
• Most modems will adapt their transmission rates in order to achieve the
maximum supported speed given several factors, including the best speed
supported by the remote modem and the best speed supported by the
local loop.
130

65
Error control and data compression

• Error detection and error correction methods were developed to


ensure data integrity.
• Some widely used methods include:
– Microcom Networking Protocol (MNP)
– Link Access Procedure for Modems (LAPM)
• Data compression algorithms typically require error correction
algorithms and operate in concert with the error correction standards.
• Common compression algorithms include V.42bis, MNP 5, and V.44.
131

Error control and data compression

Maximum theoretical speeds


that are possible for selected
modem modulation
standards.
Also shown are the possible
speeds if V.42bis
compression is used with the
same standards.

• The success of data compression depends on the type of data being


transferred.
• In general, standard text files can be compressed by 50 percent.
• Decreasing the size of a file by 50 percent means that the throughput
on the line is effectively doubled, so that a 9600 bps modem can
effectively transmit 19,200 bps.
• However, compression algorithms cannot compress a file very well if it
has already been compressed by software.
• In some cases, trying to compress a file that is already compressed
results in a larger file and thus slows down the file transfer. 132

66
Part 2 -
Configuring Asynchronous
Interfaces and Terminal Lines

Reverse Telnet
Introduction to Line Numbering

Connecting to the modem – reverse Telnet

• Modems have a default software configuration, which is set by the


vendor at the factory.
• In most cases, this configuration will have to be modified.
• For example, the modem may have to be configured to answer calls on
the second ring or lock its speed.
• Some modems can be configured through a control panel or dipswitches
located on the interface card.
• However, most modems have to be configured by accessing its software
through another device, such as an access server.
• A Cisco access server can be used to manually configure the modem or
automatically configure the modem using a script called reverse Telnet.
134

67
Connecting to the modem – reverse Telnet

• As its name implies, reverse Telnet sessions are established using the
Telnet protocol.
• The term reverse Telnet refers to the initiation of a Telnet session
from the asynchronous line, instead of accepting a connection into the
line, referred to as a forward connection.
• Reverse Telnet is typically used to communicate with and configure
a modem that is attached to a router.
• A reverse Telnet is established by specifying a different port number
other than the default Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) port, 23.
• Telnetting to a destination IP address with a different TCP port creates
a Telnet connection to the specific line connected to the modem.
135

Reverse Telnet

Reverse Telnet to 2007


Port 2000 + Async line 7

• The modem above is connected to an access server through an async


port 7.
• To connect to the modem, Telnet to an active interface on the router
(10.10.10.1).
• However, instead of using the default port (23), use the reserved,
reversed Telnet port (port 2000) over the asynchronous interface
line 7.
• For the reverse Telnet, the port number must be 2000 + line number.
• Therefore, the new port number is 2000 + 7 = 2007.
136

68
Reverse Telnet

Reverse Telnet to 2007


Port 2000 + Asynch line 7

• The next section describes how to identify line numbers on


an access server.
• The section will also cover how to determine the TCP port
number needed to establish a reverse Telnet session with a
device on a given line.

137

Lines types and


numbering

Cisco devices have the following four types of lines in this order:
• CON or CTY (Console line) – Is typically used to log into the router for
configuration purposes.
– It is assigned line number 0.
• TTY (Asynchronous line) – Can be a dedicated asynch interface or a
synchronous interface configured as an asynchronous interface.
– Line numbering varies between platforms.
– There are typically reserved ranges that can be assigned to an
asynchronous interface.
• AUX (Auxiliary line) – EIA/TIA-232-C DTE port is used as a backup
asynchronous port and is identified as a TTY interface by the router.
– It cannot be used as a second console port. (some models it can be)
– Rather, it is assigned the last possible TTY line number plus 1.
• VTY (Virtual terminal line) – Is used for incoming Telnet.
– It is assigned the last possible TTY line number plus 2 through the
maximum number of VTY lines specified with the line vty command.
138

69
Lines types and numbering - Example

• Example: VTY 4 line corresponds to line 14 on a router with eight TTY


ports.
– Line 0 is for the console port
– Lines 1 to 8 are the TTY lines (varies per platform)
– Line 9 is for the auxiliary port
– Lines 10 to 14 are for VTY 0 to 4
• We will see how to determine TTY and other line numbers in a moment.

139

Lines types and


numbering

Three of these can be used to configure interfaces for asynchronous


communications, CTY, TTY, AUX.
• CON or CTY (Console line)
– Console port
• TTY (Asynchronous line)
– Asynchronous or Synchronous interfaces configured as an
asynchronous port
• AUX (Auxiliary line)
– AUX port
• VTY (Virtual terminal line)
– Telnet, does not apply to physical interfaces

140

70
Part 2 -
Configuring Asynchronous
Interfaces and Terminal Lines

Configuring a Synchronous Interface as


Asynchronous

Synchronous and
Asynchronous Ports
Asynchronous

Synchronous

• TTY (Asynchronous line) – Can be a dedicated asynch interface or a


synchronous interface configured as an asynchronous interface.
– Line numbering varies between platforms.
– There are typically reserved ranges that can be assigned to an
asynchronous interface.

• Routers have serial ports that are:


– Asynchronous (Native)
or
– Synchronous (Can be configured as asynchronous)
• We will be working with synchronous ports and turning them into
asynchronous interfaces.
142

71
Let’s see where we are…

The 1720 can


have up to 4
synchronous
serial ports.
Here, only two
are installed.

Cisco-1720#show ip inter brief

Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol


BRI unassigned YES unset administratively down down
BRI0:1 unassigned YES unset administratively down down
BRI0:2 unassigned YES unset administratively down down
FastEthernet unassigned YES unset administratively down down
Serial0 unassigned YES unset administratively down down
Serial1 unassigned YES unset administratively down down

143

Show line command - 1720

Notice the
“absolute” line
numbers.
Cisco-1720#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
Always 0 * 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Last TTY + 1 5 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
Last TTY + 2 6 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
7 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
8 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 1 – 4 are
-
reserved for
9 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
TTYs
10 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -

Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1-4


144

72
Configure interfaces synchronous to
asynchronous

Configure
Serial 1 as
asynchronous

Cisco-1720(config)#interface serial 1
Cisco-1720(config-if)#physical-layer async

Cisco-1720#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
TTY 2 2 TTY 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 Se1
5 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
6 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Why is it
7 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
TTY 2 and 8 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
not TTY 1? 9 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
10 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1, 3-4

145

Configure interfaces synchronous to


asynchronous

Configure
Serial 1 as
asynchronous

Cisco-1720(config)#interface serial 1
Cisco-1720(config-if)#physical-layer async

Cisco-1720#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
TTY 2 2 TTY 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 Se1
5 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
Because TTY 1
6 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
is reserved for 7 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Serial 0, in 8 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
case we make 9 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
that 10 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
asynchronous! Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1, 3-4

146

73
show line and physical-layer async

Router#show line

Router(config-if)#physical-layer async

Router#show line
• This command shows the status of aynchronous lines, console, TTY,
AUX, and VTY.

Router(config-if)#physical-layer async
• This command configures a synchronous interface into an
asynchronous interface.

147

show line

148

74
Show line command - 2621

• TTY (Asynchronous line) – Can be a dedicated asynch interface or a


synchronous interface configured as an asynchronous interface.
– Line numbering varies between platforms.
– There are typically reserved ranges that can be assigned to an
asynchronous interface.

Cisco 2600 Series:


• AUX port is line 65
• VTY ports follow AUX port
• VTY ports have absolute line numbers of 66, 67, 68, 69, and 70
• VTY ports have relative line numbers of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 for configuration, (line
vty 0 4)
149

Show line command - 2621

The Cisco 2600 Series


starts the AUX
numbering at absolute
line 65.

Cisco-2621#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
Always 0 * 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Last TTY + 1 65 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
Last TTY + 2 66 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
67 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
68 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
69 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
70 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -

Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1-64

150

75
Show line
command - 2621
Configure Serial 0 and Serial 1 as
asynchronous

Cisco-2621(config)#inter s 0/0
Cisco-2621(config-if)#physical-layer async

Cisco-2621(config)#inter s 0/1
Cisco-2621(config-if)#physical-layer async

Cisco-2621#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
TTY 1 1 TTY 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 Se0/0
TTY 2 2 TTY 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 Se0/1
65 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
66 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
67 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
68 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
69 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
70 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 3-64
151

Learning Line Numbers


Cisco-1720#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
2 TTY 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 Se1
5 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
6 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
7 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
8 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
9 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
10 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1, 3-4

• What is the lesson here?


• Do a show line before and after, to make sure you are configuring the
proper interface.
• Show running-config will also give you line information (later).
• The labs will help you understand and remember line types and the
various commands we will be using.
• Soon, we will see how to configure the asynchronous lines.
152

76
who or show users all
Absolute Relative (logical)

• To enter line configuration mode, an absolute line number, or a relative


number can be specified.
• For example, to configure the first VTY line on the Cisco 1600 router,
the relative line number could be referred to with the line vty 0
command, or to its absolute line number with the line 2 command.
• The relative format is often easier than attempting to recall the absolute
number when using a large system.
• Internally, the router uses absolute line numbers.
• Absolute and relative line numbers can be displayed with the show
users all command in EXEC mode.
153

BCRAN Exam Note

BCRAN Exam Note:


• Know the numbering for the Cisco 3600 series router, like
the 3640!
• There are slots, with 32 line numbers per slot.
• See BCRAN or Remote Access book for more information
and examples.
• At least this was true for the CCNP 2 version 2.0 exam.

154

77
Part 2 -
Configuring Asynchronous
Interfaces and Terminal Lines

Line Configuration: Physical Configuration

Using the 1720 example

Configure
Serial 1 as
asynchronous

Cisco-1720(config)#interface serial 1
Cisco-1720(config-if)#physical-layer async

Cisco-1720#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
TTY 2 2 TTY 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 Se1
5 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
6 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
7 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
8 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
9 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
10 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1, 3-4

156

78
running-config
Cisco-1720#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
2 TTY 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 Se1
5 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
6 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
7 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
8 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
9 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
10 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1, 3-4

• The physical-layer async command creates a new line number in the


running-config:
line con 0
transport input none
line 2 (associated with interface serial 1)
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
157

Configuring reverse telnet

RTA#configure terminal
RTA(config)#line 2
RTA(config-line)#transport input all
RTA(config-line)#modem inout

• Note also that a reverse Telnet session can be established from a


remote host, such as a Windows PC, as well as from the access server
itself.
158

79
Typical Line Configuration

Router#line 2
Router(line)#login
Router(line)# password cisco
Router(line)# speed 115200
Router(line)# flowcontrol hardware
Router(line)# modem inout
Router(line)# stopbits 1
Router(line)# transport input all

• Whereas the interface is for configuring the logical of the port, the line
is used for configuring the physical aspects of the line (port).
– line speed between router (DTE) and modem (DCE)
– Flowcontrol
– number of stop bits
– etc.
159

Typical Line
Router#line 2
Configuration Router(line)#login
Router(line)# password cisco
Router(line)# speed 115200
Router(line)# flowcontrol hardware
Router(line)# modem inout
Router(line)# stopbits 1
Router(line)# transport input all

• speed 115200: Determines the line speed, not the speed for the dialup
connection.
– Speed between DTE (router) and DCE (modem)
– For effective compression the line speed needs to be greater that the
dialup connection speed or modem will be starved for data and bandwidth
will be wasted
– Typically, this value should be set to the maximum supported speed
between both devices.
– It is also important to lock the speed of the modem to match the line
configuration of the router.
• flowcontrol hardware: Modem tells the router when its buffers are full.
Hardware option tells router to use RTS/CTS for flow control.
– Other options are software and none (default).
160

80
Typical Line
Router#line 2
Configuration Router(line)#login
Router(line)# password cisco
Router(line)# speed 115200
Router(line)# flowcontrol hardware
Router(line)# modem inout
Router(line)# stopbits 1
Router(line)# transport input all

• stopbits 1: Sets the number of stop bits to one per byte (octet)
– Options are 1, 1.5, or 2.
– The default setting is 2.
– The modem and the router must use the same number of stop bits.
– Reducing the number of stop bits from 2 to 1 will improve
throughput by reducing asynchronous framing overhead.
• transport input all: allows all protocols inbound on a specific line,
• modem inout: allows both incoming and outgoing calls.

161

Typical Line
Configuration

Cisco-1720(config)#line 2
Cisco-1720(line)# transport input telnet
Cisco-1720(line)# modem dialin

• The transport input telnet command will only allow the telnet
protocol to connect to a specific line.
• The modem dialin command restricts the line to incoming calls only.

162

81
Show line Router#line 2
Router(line)#login
Router(line)# password cisco
Router(line)# speed 115200
Show running-config will
Router(line)# flowcontrol hardware
display these values
Router(line)# modem inout
Router(line)# stopbits 1
Router(line)# transport input all

Cisco-1720#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
I 2 TTY 115200/115200- inout 0 0 0/0 Se1
5 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
6 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
7 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
8 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
9 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
10 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -

Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1, 3-4

I = Inactive
163

Part 2 -
Configuring Asynchronous
Interfaces and Terminal Lines

Configuring Native Asynchronous Interfaces

82
Native Asynchronous Interfaces

• Access servers have terminal lines, identified as a TTY interface, which


differentiate them from other routers.
• Modems are typically connected to these terminal lines.
• The Cisco IOS assigns a logical interface to each physical terminal line
or group of terminal lines.

165

Native Asynchronous Interfaces

• These logical interfaces are labeled interface asynchronous


interface-number for individual lines, and interface group-
async group-number for grouped interfaces.

166

83
interface async n = line n

• Asynchronous interfaces correspond to physical terminal TTY lines.


• This means that for a connection using TTY 8, configuration
commands can be applied to the logical interface, interface async 8,
and the physical line, line 8.
167

Native Asynchronous Interfaces

RTA(config)#interface group-async 1
RTA(config-if)#group-range 1 7
• Asynchronous interfaces can be grouped as one logical interface to
simplify configuration.
• This eliminates the need to enter identical configuration information
across several asynchronous interfaces by creating a one-to-many
structure.
• To group several asynchronous interfaces, use the interface
group-async global configuration command.
• The group-range command is used to specify which individual
interfaces are members of the group, as shown:
• This configuration assigns asynchronous interfaces 1 through 7 under
a single master interface using the interface group-async 1
command.
• Commands entered in the group interface are applied to each
individual interface in the group.
168

84
Part 2 -
Configuring Asynchronous
Interfaces and Terminal Lines

Configuring the AUX port to use a Modem

Basic auxiliary port configuration

AUX ports

• The AUX port is typically configured as an asynchronous


serial interface on routers that do not have built-in terminal
lines.
• Depending on the hardware, an AUX port may not perform
as well as a built-in TTY.

170

85
Basic auxiliary port configuration - 3640

3640#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
129 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
130 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
131 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
132 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
133 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
135 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -

• The show line command could be issued to determine the absolute


line number assigned to the AUX port.
• The absolute line number will vary between router platforms.
• On a Cisco 3640, the AUX port is assigned to the absolute line
number 129.

171

Basic auxiliary port configuration - 3640


Cisco 3640 - AUX port is assigned absolute line number 129
Can be configured with either the relative or absolute line number.
3640(config)#line aux 0 3640(config)#line 129
3640(config-line)#login 3640(config-line)#login
3640(config-line)#password letmein 3640(config-line)#password letmein
3640(config-line)#speed 115200 3640(config-line)#speed 115200
3640(config-line)#flowcontrol hardware 3640(config-line)#flowcontrol hardware
3640(config-line)#stopbits 1 3640(config-line)#stopbits 1
3640(config-line)#transport input all 3640(config-line)#transport input all
3640(config-line)#modem inout 3640(config-line)#modem inout

• The show line command could be issued to determine the absolute


line number assigned to the AUX port.
• The absolute line number will vary between router platforms.
• It could be line 1, line 17, line 65, or some other number.
• Once the line number has been identified, the AUX port can be
configured with the associated absolute number.

172

86
Basic auxiliary port configuration - 3640

The Cisco 2600 Series


starts the AUX
numbering at absolute
line 65.
Cisco-2621#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
65 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
66 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
67 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
68 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
69 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
70 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -

Line(s) not in async mode -or- with no hardware support: 1-64

173

Part 2 -
Configuring Asynchronous
Interfaces and Terminal Lines

Configuring the Console port to use a Modem

87
Configuring the console port to use a
modem

Don’t!

• There are several advantages to connecting a modem to the console port of a


router instead of the AUX port.
– Convenient, all routers have them.
• However, the disadvantages are significant, such as (are others):
– The console port does not support EIA/TIA-232-C modem control such
as DSR, CD, and DTR. Therefore, when the session terminates, the modem
connection will not drop automatically, and the user must manually
disconnect the session.
– If the modem connection should drop, the session will not automatically
reset. This can present a security hole, since a subsequent call to that
modem will access the console without entering a password. The hole can
be made smaller by setting a tight exec-timeout on the line.
– The console ports on most systems support speeds of only 9600 bps.
175

Your Options in connecting a Modem


(Asynchronous)
• CON or CTY (Console line) Console port
• TTY (Asynchronous line) Asynchronous or Synchronous interfaces
configured as an asynchronous port
• AUX (Auxiliary line) AUX port
• VTY (Virtual terminal line) Telnet, does not apply to physical interfaces

Native Asynchronous Synchronous Serial Console AUX port


interfaces Interfaces configured as ports
Asynchronous
(physical-layer async)
• Know relative and absolute line numbers: show line
• Physical configuration done with: line number
– Speed, flow control, stop bits, etc.
176

88
Part 2 -
Configuring Asynchronous
Interfaces and Terminal Lines

Asynchronous interface configuration example

Asynchronous interface configuration


example

Some of these are


review from CCNA,
but all will be
discussed more in
PPP and ISDN
modules.

• Asynchronous interfaces can be configured in many ways.


• Some common commands used to configure asynchronous interfaces
for PPP and IP.

178

89
Examples: Async and Sync->Async

179

Introduction to DDR – dialer list

• DDR allows the use of dialup modems or ISDN devices to establish low volume,
periodic network connections over public circuit-switched networks.
• When implementing DDR, the router must be configured with a dialer list.
• A dialer list defines what traffic is “interesting” or worthy of establishing a call.
• A router will only establish a call if it receives interesting traffic that needs to be
routed.
• Since establishing a call generally results in a toll, it is important to make sure that
the dialer list is configured correctly.
180

90
Part 3 - Modem Configuration

Manual Configuration
Automatic Configuration

Modem configuration methods

• Earlier in this module, modem access for manual configuration using


reverse Telnet was covered.
– The session can be configured by entering specialized modem
commands called attention (AT) commands.
• Modem configuration can also be automated.
182

91
Manual Configuration – Reverse Telnet

The following tasks should be configured on a modem:


– Answer a call
– Perform hardware flow control
– Lock DTE speed to ensure that the modem will always
communicate with the access server at the specified speed.
For example, when using an asynchronous interface, lock the
speed to the theoretical maximum of 115.2 kbps. The router
speed command sets both transmit and receive speeds.
– Hang up when quitting a session
– Have the CD signal truthfully reflect the carrier state

• It is highly unlikely that a default modem configuration will


be suited to support communication with the router.
• To manually configure a modem, connect to it using
reverse Telnet and then type in AT commands.

183

Manual Configuration – AT Commands

• Unfortunately, the AT commands used to make these and other


configurations vary among different types of modems.
• Each modem vendor has its own modem command set.
• However, the AT commands displayed above are common among
most vendors.

184

92
Manual Configuration – ATS0=2

• The ATS0=1 command configures the modem to answer calls on the


first ring.
• Because the Caller ID function activates on the second ring, hackers
typically target modems that answer on the first ring, and do not pursue
modems that answer on subsequent rings.
• Therefore, it is recommended to set a modem to at least ATS0=2,
pretending that the line subscribes to Caller ID.
• The AT modem commands use characters such as the ampersand (&),
percentage sign (%), and dollar sign ($). These symbols are used to
differentiate between command sets.

185

Manual configuration of modems with


nonstandard modem commands

• Many modem commands are not standardized and vary between


vendors.
• The following modem configurations and commands are essential for
modems that are attached to Cisco access servers.

186

93
Modem initialization strings

Some examples of modem initialization strings

• Initialization strings are used to configure the modem to a known state.


• They are a series of parameter settings that are sent to the modem to
configure the modem to interact with the access server in a specified
way.
• For example, initialization strings can be used to configure the modem
to accept calls, or place them.

187

Automatic configuration of modems

• An alternative to using reverse Telnet to manually enter AT commands


is to take advantage of automatic modem configuration.
• The Cisco IOS software predefines several initialization strings that can
be used to configure a modem to function properly with Cisco access
servers.
• These predefined initialization strings are stored in the modem
capability database, or modemcap, which is discussed later in this
module.
188

94
Automatic configuration – 3 approaches

There are three approaches to automatic modem configuration:


• Use modem autodiscovery
• Use modem autoconfiguration
• Edit the modemcap database and then use modem
autoconfiguration

189

Modem
autodiscovery

Router(config-line)#modem autoconfigure discovery

• The easiest way to configure a modem is to use the router automatic


modem discovery feature.
• With modem autodiscovery, the router forwards modem commands
until it receives an expected response.
• From the responses it receives, the router will attempt to classify
the modem as one of the modems in its modemcap database.
• The Cisco IOS software initially tries the first of the modemcap strings
to see if the modem initializes properly.
• If it does not, the software cycles to the next string and repeats the
process until the appropriate string is found.
• If none of the strings works properly, then the modem must be
manually configured using reverse Telnet.
190

95
Modem
autodiscovery

Router(config-line)#modem autoconfigure discovery

• The easiest way to configure a modem is to use the router automatic


modem discovery feature.
• With modem autodiscovery, the router forwards modem commands
until it receives an expected response.
• From the responses it receives, the router will attempt to classify
the modem as one of the modems in its modemcap database.
• The Cisco IOS software initially tries the first of the modemcap strings
to see if the modem initializes properly.
• If it does not, the software cycles to the next string and repeats the
process until the appropriate string is found.
• If none of the strings works properly, then the modem must be
manually configured using reverse Telnet.
191

Modem
autodiscovery

Router(config-line)#modem autoconfigure discovery

• Although this approach is simple, modem autodiscovery should be


avoided when possible for the following reasons:
– The router may fail to recognize a modem, even though it might be
part of the modemcap database.
– The router may misidentify a modem, leading to unexpected results.
– Autodiscovery is slower than autoconfiguration.
• In practice, use the autoconfiguration feature and avoid the
autodiscovery whenever possible- modem autoconfigure type
command (next).

192

96
Modem
autoconfiguration

Command
Router(config-line)#modem autoconfigure type modem-string

Example: USR Sportster


RTA(config-line)#modem autoconfigure type usr_sportster

• Preferred way to configure an attached modem is to use


modem autoconfiguration .
• By specifically configuring the string, overhead, delay, and
unpredictability associated with autodiscovery can be
eliminated.

193

Modem capability database

List of modemcap
modems, entries for a
first one specific
listed is the modem
default.

• The modem capability database, modemcap, is a list of modems with a known


set of AT configuration commands for setting the attributes for each modem
type.
• In addition, issuing this command while specifying the modem type will display
a complete list of the modemcap entries including command description,
command abbreviation, and command string.
• The preloaded modem strings included in the IOS modemcap cannot be edited
or deleted.
• However, variant modemcap entries can be created to add new modems, or to
extend the functionality of a modem in the modemcap database.
194

97
Fine-tuning modem autoconfiguration

• If none of the strings from the modemcap properly initialize the modem, then
the modem must be manually configured, or a modemcap database entry must
be added.
• To manually configure the modem, use reverse Telnet to connect to it and
issue AT commands as discussed previously.
• Note: User-defined modemcap entries become part of the running
configuration file and not a permanent part of the IOS database. Be sure to
copy the running configuration to NVRAM after making changes to the
modemcap database.
195

Part 3 - Modem Configuration

Chat Scripts for async lines

98
Chat scripts for async lines

Command
Router(config)#chat-script script-name expect-string send-string

Example
Router(config)#chat-script Reno ABORT ERROR ABORT BUSY "" "ATZ"
OK "ATDT \T" TIMEOUT 30 CONNECT \c

• A chat script is a string of text that includes commands that can be


sent to a device when performing a specific task.
• A chat script is sometimes referred to as a modem script.
• For example, a router can use a chat script to send AT commands to a
modem, instructing the modem to place a call.
• Because modem commands are not standard, custom chat scripts
must be created to perform certain tasks, including:
– Instructing the modem to dial out, modem script
– Logging in to a remote system, system script
197

Chat scripts for


async lines
Don’t memorize these!
Plenty of examples.

Router(config)#chat-script Reno ABORT ERROR ABORT BUSY "" "ATZ"


OK "ATDT \T" TIMEOUT 30 CONNECT \c

• The above example creates a chat script called Reno.


• The ABORT keyword designates a string whose presence in the input
indicates that the chat script has failed.
– In this case, if the modem returns either ERROR, or BUSY, the router
will determine that the script has failed.
• The first expect-send pair, "" "ATZ", tells the router to expect nothing
and issue the ATZ command.
• The next pair, OK "ATDT \T", tells the router to expect the modem to
return with OK.
• Once the router sees OK, it will issue the next command, ATDT \T.
198

99
Chat scripts for
async lines

Router(config)#chat-script Reno ABORT ERROR ABORT BUSY "" "ATZ"


OK "ATDT \T" TIMEOUT 30 CONNECT \c

• The ATDT \T command is critical when writing a chat script for placing
a call.
• The ATDT string instructs the modem to dial a number, using tones.
• The D stands for dial and the second T stands for tone.
• The router replaces the \T, the third T in the string, with a pre-
configured phone number from a dialer map before sending the string
to the modem.

• Note that chat scripts can also be used to pass login information to a
remote system. These scripts, not covered in this course, are referred
to as system scripts.
199

Chat scripts for async lines - applying

RTA(config-if)#dialer map ip 10.1.1.2 name RTB modem-script Reno


5556002

Router(config)#chat-script Reno ABORT ERROR ABORT BUSY "" "ATZ"


OK "ATDT \T" TIMEOUT 30 CONNECT \c

• Because this script is written to be a modem script, its name should be


included in a dialer map statement.
• In this example, chat script Reno is being used as a modem script.
• A modem script applies commands immediately to a line.
• Here, the router should send the ATDT \T command, where \T will be
replaced by the phone number, 555-6002, specified in the dialer map
statement.
• Although there are several different ways to invoke a chat script, the
dialer map command is one of the most common, since a chat script is
required for the modem to dial out.
200

100
Part 3 - Modem Configuration

Example

Configuring asynchronous connections


between remote routers

2620 3640

AUX port

202

101
Configuring asynchronous connections
between remote routers

2620 3640

Sync->Async port

203

Part 4 - Verifying Modem


Configuration

102
Verifying and debugging modem
autoconfiguration

• The debug confmodem command displays the modem


configuration process and is a useful troubleshooting tool.

205

show line and clear line

3640#show line
Tty Typ Tx/Rx A Modem Uses Noise Overruns Int
* 0 CTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
129 AUX 9600/9600 - - 0 0 0/0 -
130 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
131 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
132 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
133 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -
135 VTY - - 0 0 0/0 -

• The following commands can also be used to verify operations:


– The show line command displays the type of modem configured
on a line.
– The clear line line-number command returns a line to its
idle state.
• Normally, this command returns the line to its conventional function as
a terminal line with the interface in a down state.
• The clear line command is very useful, especially if a reverse
Telnet session to the modem cannot be initiated because the line did
not reset properly.
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Troubleshooting modem
autoconfiguration

If the modem is not responding, check the following:


• Is the modem plugged in and turned on?
• Is the power-up configuration set to factory default?
• Can reverse Telnet establish a connection to the modem?
• Is there a dial tone at the phone jack?

If the modem is not recognized by the modem autodiscovery process:


• Use the show line command to verify the modem configuration that the line is using.
• Make sure the Cisco access server recognizes the modem.
• Use the modem autoconfigure type modem-name command.
• Use the show modemcap command to verify modemcap support for this modem. w

If there is a modemcap entry problem:


• If a modemcap entry has been configured and reconfiguration appears to function, verify
that the DTR attribute is not set to &D3.
• Lastly, check the modem manufacturer manual.
207

Labs

• 2.5.1 Configuring an Asynchronous Dialup


Connection

• 2.5.2 Configuring an Asynchronous Dialup


Connection on the AUX Port

• 2.5.3 Configuring an Asynchronous Dialup PPP

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Ch. 2 – Modems and
Asynchronous Dialup Connections

CCNP 2 Remote Access Networks version 3.0


Rick Graziani
Cabrillo College

The End

Cisco Networking Academy

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