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Involute Gears

Involute Gears

Introduction

This lesson covers the development of ‘involute’ gears. An involute gear is based on an involute curve, which is a mathematical shape. To understand what an involute is, consider a simple cylinder and a string as shown below. Wrap the string around the cylinder. While maintaining tension on the string, trace the path that the end of the string makes while un-wrapping it around the cylinder. This path is an involute curve.

A simple cylinder and a string.

Wrap the string around the cylinder.

Pull Involute curve

Pull the string tight and keep it tangent to the cylinder.

Trace the end of the string while un-wrapping it around the cylinder. The resulting trajectory is an involute curve.

There are two key parameters that control the involute curve: the diameter of the cylinder and the angle that the string is un-wrapped around the cylinder. In the example above, the string is unwrapped 90º around the cylinder.

COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC.

Page 1

we are un-wrapping the string 90º around the cylinder in a counterclockwise direction. . In other words.0 Tips and Tricks The Involute Curve Development of the mathematical equations for the involute curve uses simple trigonometry. y Using trigonometry. We will develop the equations for 90º of one full involute. we find that: xc = r * cos θ yc = r * sin θ x = xc + ( s * sin θ ) y = yc – ( s * cos θ ) Page 2 COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC. The circumference of a circle is defined by: One quarter (90º) of the circumference of a circle is then: c=2*π*r c= π*r/2 In the figure below.Involute Gears Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 3. xc. the line ‘s’ is the same length as the part of the circumference the string has been un-wrapped ( s’ ). 0 We are trying to define this curve by finding equations for x and y as θ changes x. yc θ s r s’ θ 0.

500. When using this feature. the diameter of the cylinder is 1. a system variable ‘t’ is used. This means that the variable ‘ang’ will vary from zero to 90º. For the involute curve. we combine the circumference equation and ‘t’ to form: s=(π*r/2)*t In this example. COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC. that varies from 0 to 1 over the length of the curve. To define ‘s’.Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 3.75 * cos(ang) yc = 0. The equations for Pro/ENGINEER are: r = 0. This is the base diameter in gear design terminology. datum curves can be defined using mathematical equations. The radius (r) of the cylinder is 0.75 ang = t * 90 s = (PI * r * t ) / 2 xc = 0. Page 3 .75 * sin(ang) x = xc + ( s * sin(ang)) y = yc – ( s * cos(ang)) z=0 The resulting datum curve is shown in bold below. let the angle (ang) be equal to ‘t’ times 90.0 Tips and Tricks Involute Gears Datum Curves From Equation In Pro/ENGINEER.75 inches.

see Figure 2. the gear is started by modeling a cylinder at the outside diameter of the gear. see Figure 3. . Several sketches are created to define the root diameter. and pitch diameter of the gear. Next.Involute Gears Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 3. see Figure 1. see Figure 4.0 Tips and Tricks Creating the Gear In Pro/ENGINEER. The completed gear is shown in Figures 5 and 6. The cut is patterned and rounds are added at the base of the gear. Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Involute curve Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Page 4 COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC. the involute shaped datum curve is created and moved into the correct position to define one side of one gear tooth. base diameter. The curve is mirrored and the gear tooth is cut into the cylinder using the edge of the involute datum curves.

Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 3. Page 5 . Tooth thickness angle Outside diameter Pitch diameter Tooth thickness Base diameter Addendum Root diameter Dedendum Fillet size Gear Parameters COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC.0 Tips and Tricks Involute Gears Gear Parameters The following are geometric parameters in gear design: Pitch Diameter Root Diameter Outside Diameter Base Diameter Addendum Dedendum Tooth Thickness Tooth Thickness Angle Fillet Size Diametral Pitch = Pitch Diameter + ( 2 * Addendum ) Circular Pitch = π / Pitch Diameter Number of Teeth = Diametrical Pitch * Pitch Diameter Pressure Angle The figure describes some of the gear parameters.

From Equation. then enter < involute_gear > for the name of the new part Pick OK in the New dialog box Pick Insert.( s * cos(ang)) z=0 FRONT • • • • Pick File.0 Tips and Tricks EXERCISE 4 – INVOLUTE GEARS Task 1: • • • • • Create a datum curve driven by an equation.Involute Gears Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 3. Exit in Notepad Pick OK in the dialog box The result is shown here This curve will be used to create an involute gear RIGHT CSYS_DEF TOP Page 6 COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC. Curve. Done Select the default coordinate system. New. then pick Cartesian In the Notepad window. Model Datum. Save and File. Pick File.819 ang = t * 90 s = (PI * r * t ) / 2 xc = r * cos(ang) yc = r * sin(ang) x = xc + ( s * sin(ang)) y = yc . . enter the following equations: r = 2.

with a diameter of 6.Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 3.750 > for the depth then pick the checkmark in the dashboard tool Pick View.0 Tips and Tricks Involute Gears Task 2: • • • • • • • • • • Create a cylinder.500. Select the FRONT datum plane Pick the Extrude icon Press and hold the right mouse button and select Define Internal Sketch Pick Flip in the Sketch dialog box Pick Sketch in the Sketch dialog box Sketch a circle centered on the references. to represent the outside diameter of the gear (see the figure on the previous page) Pick the checkmark to complete the sketch Enter < 1. Orientation. Page 7 . Standard Orientation The result is shown below. be sure the curve is in front of the cylinder as shown FRONT TOP A_1 RIGHT COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC.

638 to represent the base diameter of the gear Create a circular sketch on the FRONT datum plane with a diameter of 6. then pick the Point icon and then pick OK to create a datum point as shown below Page 8 COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC.000 diameter circular sketch. pick the involute curve and the 6.Involute Gears Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 3.000 to represent the pitch diameter of the gear The result is shown below Task 4: • Create a datum point. Create a circular sketch on the FRONT datum plane with a diameter of 5.0 Tips and Tricks Task 3: • • • • Create three circles representing the major diameters. . Set the selection filter to Datums.376 to represent the root diameter of the gear Create a circular sketch on the FRONT datum plane with a diameter of 5.

then enter < angle > for the name of the measurement parameter Pick Angle. then pick the TOP datum plane and the curve you just created through the points Pick Done then read the message window and look at the model tree Save the part COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC. Page 9 . Be sure the selection filter is set to Datums Pick RIGHT. Done Pick the two datum points then pick Done and OK The result is shown below then pick OK Task 6: • • • • • • Create a datum evaluate feature. Model Datum. Curve. Pick Insert.Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 3. TOP. Evaluate Enter < measure > for the name of the feature Pick Create. and FRONT then pick the Point icon Pick Insert. Model Datum.0 Tips and Tricks Involute Gears Task 5: • • • • • Create another datum point and a datum curve.

Paste Special Add the checkmark next to Apply Move/Rotate transformations to copies in the dialog box then pick OK Pick Rotate in the right mouse button popup menu Pick the axis in the center of the cylinder then enter < -30 > for the rotation angle Pick the checkmark in the dashboard tool The result is shown Task 8: • • • • • • Add a relation and regenerate the part. carefully enter: angle:FID_MEASURE + ( 7. Double pick the copied involute curve (the one created in task 7) Double pick the 30 dimension In the small text box. Copy Pick Edit. Regenerate The result is shown Page 10 COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC. Set the selection filter to Features Pick the involute curve then pick Edit.5 / 2 ) Pick Yes to add the relation Pick Edit.Involute Gears Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 3.0 Tips and Tricks Task 7: • • • • • • • • Copy the involute curve. .

Mirror Pick the TOP datum plane then pick the checkmark in the dashboard tool The result is shown Task 10: Copy the curve again.0 Tips and Tricks Involute Gears Task 9: • • • Mirror the copied involute curve. • • • • • • • Pick the copied involute curve (the one created in task 7) then pick Edit. Paste Special Add the checkmark next to Apply Move/Rotate transformations to copies in the dialog box then pick OK Pick Rotate in the right mouse button popup menu Pick the axis in the center of the cylinder then enter < -15 > for the rotation angle Pick the checkmark in the dashboard tool The result is shown COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC. Page 11 . Copy Pick Edit.Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 3. Pick the copied involute curve (the one created in task 7) then pick Edit.

0 Tips and Tricks Task 11: Create an extruded cut. be sure to get the tangency constraint as shown Pick the Use Edge icon then select these curves Page 12 COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC.Involute Gears Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 3. . • • • Create an extruded (through all) cut using the edges of the curves as shown below Trim the sketch as shown below The result is shown at the bottom of the page Add these two lines.

0 Tips and Tricks Involute Gears Task 12: Pattern the cut. Pattern.020 round at the base of the gear tooth Pattern the round Create a coaxial hole with a diameter of 2. • • • • • • Set the selection filter to Features then pick the cut you just created Pick Edit. Page 13 . • • • • • • Create a 0.000 Use Layers to hide the datum curves and sketches The completed part is shown below Save the part and Close the window COPYRIGHT 2008 CADQUEST INC.Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 3. then set the type of pattern to Axis in the dashboard tool Select the axis in the center of the cylinder Enter < 24 > for the number of instances in the pattern Enter < 15 > for the increment angle Pick the checkmark in the dashboard tool to complete the pattern Task 13: Finish the part.

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