Ch 6: Managing Peace and Security: Deterrence and Diplomacy

Why do conflicts occur among countries? *to protect national interest *fight over territory, compete over scarce resources, and do not share the same ideological beliefs Competing Territory Due to its importance in terms of defense and national pride To extend control by taking over territories which do not belong to the country that attacks

Conflict over Border 1947:
-China was unhappy that India had inherited the frontier and areas; Aksai Chin Plateau (west) and the North-EastFrontier Agency (NEFA) (east) when India gained independence from the British Problem: Difficult to have a clear border between India and China because much of their frontier lies in the inaccessible Himalayas Late 1950s: -China contested India¶s presence in several localities along their border.

1958:
-China announced that it had built a road on the Aksai Chin plateau Indian government was angry as it felt that the road built had violated its territorial rights

1959:
-Fighting broke out in the Aksai Chin Plateau and the NEFA Mid 1961: -China occupied more Indian territories.

1962:
-War broke out between India and China Outcome: Territorial conflict not resolved but India and China signed an agreement in 2005 to deal with the matter in a reasonable manner

Conflict over scarce resources
When resources are necessary for survival and economic growth, those with fewer resources may use force to gain more. -Britain and Iceland: conflict over fishing grounds Iceland depended on fishing industry for its survival & felt that its national interest was threatened

1970:
-Fish stocks around Iceland decreased

1975:
-Iceland sought help from UN -Iceland extended its zone of control from 50 to 200 nautical miles beyond shore -Britain refused to acknowledge Feb 1976: -Iceland cut its diplomatic ties with Britain June 1976: -Ties restored after an agreement was signed.

* To provide security for the people * To give investors the confidence that it is worth to invest in the country * When British withdrew its military force from Singapore in 1966.Conflict over ideological differences -Conflict arises because of difference in values and beliefs -North Korea (Communism) fought South Korea (Democracy) due to different ideological beliefs -Other parties involved were: USA. the Singapore government decided to build its own army . and UN defended South Korea 1951: -China. joins and aided North Korea August 1953: -An agreement was signed and a demilitarized zone was created. learnt that they need to depend on themselves to defend Singapore. How do countries manage conflicts? *Criticise each other openly *Reduce trade with the conflicting country as a form of protest *Resolve conflicts through peaceful negotiations *Seek help from regional (ASEAN) and international (UN) organizations to resolve conflict *Start a war *Display the strength of their military force through military exercises as a warning to other countries * Cut diplomatic ties with each other *Protest to the other country through their representatives How does Singapore manage conflict and ensure national security? Deterrence: -Measures taken by countries to prevent and protect themselves from threats Measures to deter aggressors: *Carrying out military exercises *Sharing information among countries *Installing CCTV cameras at train stations *Maintaining military installations Why is deterrence necessary? * Govt realized the importance of being militarily self-reliant after having experienced the Japanese occupation and the Indonesian confrontation. fearing their National Interest would be threatened. its allies. China and UN 1945: -Japan soldiers left Korea after been defeated during WW2 1947: -UN called for an election to establish a single govt to reunite Korea -USSR refuse. installed a communist regime. known as the Democratic People¶s Republic of Korea 1948: -The independent Republic of Korea was formed with support from USA 1950: -North Korea invaded South Korea to unite Korean Peninsula under communism -USA. Soviet Union (USSR).

Economic. Total Defense (introduced in 1984) *To involve everyone in the defense of the country *Total Defense preparedness deters potential aggressors as they will have to face The entire nation and not just the armed forces *Consists of 5 aspects: Military. and equipment. 3rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces *SAF: keeps up with advances in info-communication technology. navy and Army operate together to provide early intelligence ± to help destroy the enemy quickly Singapore¶s Defense Industry (Started in 1967) -For an army to develop into an effective fighting force. important that it consistently enhances its capabilities & reviews its method of warfare thru research and dvlpmnt. Social and Psychological Defense. patriotism and a shared destiny for Singapore.How is deterrence practiced? A Citizen Armed Forces *the government built a citizen armed force in order to ensure that there would be a peaceful environment to develop the economy *1967: *NS introduced: bonded men. Govt decided to build a citizen armed force through enlisting able-bodied men into the army. *3rd Generation Armed Forces: -maximizes defensive capabilities through modern technology -equip soldiers to fight decisively in war and respond flexibly in peacetime Aim: -To create an intelligent defense force where surveillance and strike systems of the air force. All able-bodied male citizens were called up to serve full-time NS. *SAF: self-reliant in essential defense weapons and equipment -The chartered Industries of Spore (CIS) was established to produce small arms of ammunition. Civil Defense: . Civil. *The defense industry improves the capability and effectiveness of the SAF -it has enabled Singapore to develop a powerful defense force n thus has overcome its constraints through its own innovations. it needs to use the latest tech. developing in them a sense of loyalty. and has developed into a successful defence company Advantages: o Reduce SAF dependence on foreign arms suppliers as countries may not be willing to share their tech o Designs & manufactures defence weapon system & military equipment to ensure that soldiers can fight efficiently and effectively o Modifies & upgrades weapon systems to make more relevant & suitable for its defence needs o Help SAF maintain weapons and equipments *Defense Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) (formed in 2000): o provide cost-effective and modern technology to SAF and Ministry of Defense o buys and upgrades weapons o develops new weapon systems for the SAF¶s use o conducts defense-related research & development activities with other countries & local tertiary institutions. NS also helps Singaporeans men bond as they share a common experience during their training. *It provides a comprehensive and integrated response to all kinds of threats and challenges.

Multi-lateral military agreements and exercises *Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA). Inter-Racial Confidence Circle (IRCC) o Both CDC and IRCC are actively involved in strengthening social ties thru activities such as emergency preparedness exercises & visits to places of worship of diff faith etc o This helps to ensure that unity will not be broken during testing situations such as terrorist attack Psychological Defense: o It is about having pride and loyalty & wanting to stand up to defend this country. protects and effectively responds to any security threats by sharing intelligence and resources. Economic Defense: role of Singapore Workforce Development Agency (WDA) o As today¶s economy requires S¶poreans to cope with & adjust to changing demands. resolve conflicting interests in a peaceful manner c. the WDA works with other agencies such as labour unions & professional association to support industry growth & upgrade the skills of existing workers. industries in S¶pore can remain competitive & workers have the relevant skills to remain employable in a competitive economy. Military co-operation with other countries *Singapore actively fosters friendly ties with the armed forces of other countries *This is conducted mainly thru bilateral and multilateral military agreements.o The importance of knowing what to do was seen when on morning 15 March 1986. established in 1971: -conducts exercises each year to enhance their cooperation and coordination -members could consult one another on the appropriate measures to be taken to deter aggressor What is diplomacy? *the way countries manage or conduct relations with one another Aim: a. Social Defense: Community Development Council (CDC). o It is also about having the will and mental strength to overcome challenges. collapsed suddenly. there is a constant need to upgrade the skills of our workers. Many help. -This further strengthens and enhances spore¶s national security.g. The SCDF & volunteers worked together in an attempt to rescue survivors & clear the rubble. help each other in times of need Why is diplomacy necessary? . despite the risk of personal injury. Thus. promote common interests b. o Formed in 2003.Approach is to prevents. -Works together with commercial and private parties to effectively combat any form of major terror threats . The rescue effort saved 17 lives. joint military exercises etc Bilateral military agreements and exercises *Spore has military agreements with various countries e. Hotel New World. -Meet regularly to plan national security strategies and policies. psychological defence was evident in the many examples of how ordinary people managed to overcome the challenge & believe in S¶pore Multi-agency coordination on security *National Security Coordination Secretariat (NSCS): -Set up to coordinate the work of the various govt agencies. France & India to allow Spore troops to train in their countries *Singapore conducts regular military training with neighbouring countries such as Malaysia *These increase cooperation and strengthen ties among participating countries. o During the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003.

economic. ASEAN aims to provide an avenue for countries in the region to discuss security issues and resolve conflicts peacefully Singapore and ASEAN ASEAN provides Singapore with an avenue to discuss their differences with neighbouring countries peacefully Through ASEAN. disagreements peacefully How is diplomacy practiced? *through. bilateral. Singapore provides: Education and Professional Exchange Economic Cooperation and Assistance Environmental Collaboration UNITED NATIONS It is an international organisation to preserve world peace and prevent another major war. social and cultural development of the region Protect peace and stability of the region Provide opportunities for member countries to discuss and resolve the differences peacefully ASEAN¶s INITIATIVE: -ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) -It aims to remove import taxes among Southeast Asian countries. cultural ties with Malaysia and Indonesia *Singapore provides medical aid *Trading relationship with: Japan. USA.*sense of inter-connectedness among countries *provides countries opportunity to pursue mutual interest *helps countries resolve conflicts. deployed from many countries . Singapore and the UN Membership allowed Singapore to be recognized as a sovereign state Singapore to gain the help of experts in its industrial planning and development from the period of its independence to the late 1970s UN Peacekeeping Operations UN peacekeepers are soldiers and military officers. differences. regional and international relations Bilateral Relations *One country establishes relationship with another country *promote political. Germany RESULT: allowed Singapore to acquire advanced technological skills from these developed countries ASEAN Aims: Promote economic. -AFTA¶s long-term aim is to integrate Asian economies into a single production base -create a regional market of 500 million people -remove all import taxes among member countries by 2015 ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) Through ARF. civilian police officers and civilian personnel.

Singapore and Malaysia allowed ICJ to resolve their claim over Pedra Branca .A country could fully reach its potential with increased collaboration with other countries . Singapore adopts a two-pronged approach of diplomacy and deterrence for its defence. Countries must also be willing to discuss and settle issues.g. they could also get a neutral party to negotiate for them or ask the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to aid in making a decision for them e. social and economic cooperation between the countries.The small country thus would be threatened of its sovereignty . 2. USA helped the western European countries after the Second World War because of good diplomatic relations among them.this would increase political. India and other countries due to good diplomatic ties with these countries.E. . Allows for greater cooperation against an aggressor .countries could be involved in heated argument on issues .this would avoid conflict.Keeping the Peace: Diplomacy and Deterrence Diplomacy and deterrence are two methods used by countries to prevent or resolve conflicts and maintain their independence. . Singapore seeks to co-operate with members of the international community.Countries could also impose economic sanctions or boycott trading with the aggressor . E.with diplomacy. economic and political functions o report to their own government on the development in the country they are based in o update country they are based in on the rationale for decisions made by their own government Why diplomacy? 1.g.g.A stronger country might invade a small country or threatened it . leading to peace and prosperity for both countries.they might not even be able to agree to one another¶s views . countries get to know one another better .e. developed countries like USA help others due to good diplomacy .With diplomacy. .With diplomacy. A combined force from UN counter-attacked Iraq.g. these countries could discuss matter and understand one another¶s stand better .Not all countries are equally strong . 3. What is diplomacy? ‡ A form of international relations which allows for peaceful negotiations and discussion among countries ‡ Diplomats: o perform consular.With the inter-dependence nature of the world. Resolves conflict between countries . it could seek the assistance of other countries in defeating the aggressor . leading to peace.The countries would also be able to tap on one another¶s strengths.This would force the aggressor to rethink the invasion. leading to greater collaboration between them . Aids in development of the countries .e.g. based on international law. 1991: Kuwait was attacked by Iraq. Through its bilateral ties with other countries and membership in international organizations such as ASEAN and UN. Co-operation among countries is possible only when there is trust. leading to Kuwait regaining its sovereignty.with diplomacy. countries rely on one another . Singapore taps on the foreign talents from China.

A country's military strength will make a potential enemy think twice before attacking it. The enemy knows that if it continues with the attacks. the other country will respond with all its military might.to increase the military strength of a country so that an intended aggressor would hesitate to attack it . . it has to be supported by military deterrence. both sides will suffer great losses. For diplomacy to be effective.What is deterrence? . In the end.deterrence is necessary as diplomacy alone cannot work effectively.