Anaphoric Reference

Kelvin Dang English2007B


Indirect anophora

Anaphoric reference


Zero anaphora or ellipsis

e.g. In the film, a man and a woman were trying to wash a cat. The man was holding the cat while the woman poured water on it. He said something to her and they started laughing woman, a cat the man, the woman, the cat, it, they, he, her

Anaphoric Reference

After the initial introduction of some entity, speakers will use various expressions to maintain reference, generally known as Anaphoric

Can I borrow your book? Yeah, it is on the desk. Anaphora is a subsequent reference to an already introduced entity. Mostly we use anaphora in a text to maintain reference. The initial expression is antecedent and the second or subsequent expression is the anaphor book=antecedent, it= anaphor Anaphora has the pattern: antecedent-

I turned the corner and almost stepped on it. There was a large snake in the middle of the path. It = anaphor; a large snake= antecedent Anaphor-antecedent (anaphor precedes the antecedent) is the pattern of Cataphora

Put the chicken in the pan and fry it for 10 minutes Put the chicken in the pan and fry Ǿ for 10 minutes Ǿ= it=the chicken When the interpretation requires reader or listener identify an entity without linguistic expression The use of zero anaphora clearly creates an expectation that the listener will be able to infer who or what the speaker intends to identify

I was waiting for the bus, but he just drove by without stopping He driver person driving the bus  the bus As with other types of reference, the connection between referent and anaphora may not always be direct. Making sense this requires an inference to make the anaphoric connection

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