European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.49 No.2 (2011), pp.168-176 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc.


Double Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Control of Z-Source Inverter
U.Shajith Ali Department of EEE, SSN College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India E-mail: Tel: +91-044 -27475065; Fax: +91-044-27475063 V.Kamaraj Department of EEE, SSN College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India E-mail: Tel: +91-044 -27475065; Fax: +91-044-27475063 Abstract This paper presents a novel carrier based PWM control method for the three phase Z-source inverter by using two carrier and three reference waves. The boost factor is made independent of modulation index. Here, for a constant modulation index, voltage gain can be varied by changing the applied dc offset voltage of the carrier wave. The control method, relationship between voltage gain and dc offset voltage are analyzed in detail. This method gives highest voltage gain as compared to other conventional PWM control schemes. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the new features. Keywords: Z-source inverter, Current source inverter, Voltage source inverter, Double carrier PWM, Total harmonic distortion.

1. Introduction
Traditionally power inverters can be broadly classified either as voltage-source inverter (VSI) or current source inverter (CSI). They both suffer from the common limitation that they are either boost or buck converter and cannot be a buck-boost converter. That is, their obtainable output voltage range is limited to either greater or smaller than the input voltage. Also their main circuits are not interchangeable and they are vulnerable to EMI noise in terms of reliability. Z-source inverters (ZSI) have been recently proposed as an alternative power conversion concept as they can have both voltage buck and boost capabilities. Figure 1 shows the main circuit of the Z-source inverter. It employs a unique impedance network coupled between the power source and the converter circuit that consists of a split-inductor L1 and L2 and capacitors C1 and C2 connected in X shape. This unique impedance network allows the Z-source inverter to buck or boost its output voltage, and also provides it with unique featuers that cannot be achieved in traditional power inverters. Many pulse-width modulation (PWM) control methods have been developed and used for the traditional three phase voltage source inverter. The traditional VSI has six active vectors when the dc voltage is impressed across the load and two zero vectors when the load terminals are shorted through either the lower or upper three devices. These total eight switching states and their combinations have

In [1]. On the other hand. maximum boost control. There are three available PWM control strategies for ZSI. but this control method maintains the six active states unchanged and turns all zero states into shoot through zero states. When the output frequency is low.e. They are simple boost control. minor modifications in the traditional three phase sinusoidal PWM technique will yield various PWM control strategies for the ZSI. This increases the cost and size of the circuit. As during shoot through all the switches are ON. both switches of any phase leg can never be gated on at the same time or a short circuit (shoot through) would occur and destroy the inverter. . the inductor ripple becomes significant and a large inductor is required. a shoot-through state should always be followed by an active state. reliable. In addition the reliability of the inverter is greatly improved because the shoot through due to misgating can no longer destroy the circuit. The simple boost control method employs two straight envelops equal to or greater than the peak value of the three phase sinusoidal reference signals to control shoot-through duty ratio in a traditional sinusoidal PWM. The circuit is in shoot through state when the high frequency triangular carrier is greater than the upper straight line envelope or lesser than the lower straight line envelope. i. shoot through states should be incorporated without affecting the active states. and high efficiency single stage structure for buck and boost power conversion. Traditional Control Methods For an output voltage boost to be obtained. thus increasing the ripple content in inductor current. This method turns all the zero states into shoot through state thus minimizing the voltage stress across the switches. The circuit is in shoot through state when the triangular carrier wave is greater than the maximum curve of the reference or lesser than the minimum curve of the reference. which restrict the obtainable voltage gain because of the limitation of device voltage rating. switching losses are high.Double Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Control of Z-Source Inverter 169 spawned many PWM control schemes. and maximum constant boost control methods. Z source inverter has additional zero vectors or shoot-through switching states that are forbidden in the traditional VSI. However it causes shoot through duty ratio to vary in each cycle. The maximum constant boost control is quite similar to the traditional carrier-based PWM control method. Thus it provides a low-cost. Figure 1: Z-source inverter D L1 Sap C1 Sbp Scp Vo C2 To Load San Sbn Scn L2 2. In this method the voltage stress across the switches is quite high. the operation principle and the shoot through duty ratio control using simple boost control method have been described in detail.. The new Z-source inverter (ZSI) advantageously utilizes the shoot through state to boost the dc bus voltage by gating on both upper and lower switches of a phase leg and produce a desired output voltage that is greater than the available dc bus voltage. Thus.

whereas the pulses obtained by comparing upper triangular wave and reference wave is inverted and given to the lower leg devices of inverter circuit. thus reducing ripple content in inductor current. and Vc and two triangular waves of high frequency as carrier signals. • Switching loss is reduced as only one of the phase legs is gated during shoot through states. • The voltage stress across the switches is reduced as modulation index could be kept high. One of the carrier wave is with zero dc offset value whereas the other carrier wave is up-shifted to certain dc offset voltage to control shoot through duty ratio.Kamaraj In maximum constant boost control method the straight envelops of simple boost control method are replaced by two sinusoidal signals of three times the frequency of sinusoidal modulating signals. But the voltage stress increases with minimum modulation index. Proposed Double Carrier Control This method employs three phase sinusoidal reference signals. Figure 2: Double carrier control waveform In the other control methods modulation index has to be minimum to get maximum boost factor. Figure 2 shows double carrier control waveforms. 3. • It involves alternative active state and shoot through state and no zero states. This method achieves maximum boost while keeping shoot through duty ratio constant all the time. This control method has the following advantages over the other traditional control methods • Unlike other methods. the boost factor is made independent of the modulation index. This limitation is eliminated in the newly proposed double carrier control method.170 U. . Hence. • Number of shoot through states per cycle of carrier wave is increased when compared to other methods. it reduces the ripple content in inductor current. Va. • This method enhances the fundamental voltage by reducing the total harmonic distortion. Vb. The circuit enters shoot through state whenever the high frequency triangular wave is greater than the upper shoot-through envelope or lesser than the lower shoot-through envelope. Thus this method involves three reference sinusoidal signals and two shoot through envelopes.Shajith Ali and V. Gating pulses which are obtained by comparing lower triangular wave (with zero dc offset) and reference wave is given to the upper leg devices of inverter circuit.

The voltage boost and the voltage stress on the devices will be investigated. M is the modulation index. the boost factor B is obtained as B= π 3 3M − π (6) With this type of control method. and B is the boost factor. Voltage Stress and Boost As described in [1]. Vo is the input dc voltage. a small modulation index has to be used which results in greater voltage stress on the devices. the modulation index can be used is M = G 2G − 1 (4) (5) The voltage stress under this modulation index can be calculated by Vs = BVo = (2G − 1)Vo In maximum boost control.Double Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Control of Z-Source Inverter 171 Given its many benefits. the voltage gain can be determined by the modulation index M G= πM 3 3M − π (7) Thus for the given voltage gain G. Based on (1) and (2). the voltage gain of the Z-source inverter can be expressed as. the maximum modulation index is given as M = πG 3 3G − π (8) and. B is determined by B= 1 1− 2 To T (2) where To is the shoot through time interval over a switching cycle T . the boost factor B can be defined as B= 1 2M − 1 (3) For any desired voltage gain G. the boost factor and the voltage gain can be calculated as B= 1 3M − 1 πVo 3 3M −π (10) . or To / T=Do is the shoot through duty ratio. this paper now examines the relationship of voltage boost and dc offset voltage. In simple boost control method. the voltage stress is Vs = (9) In maximum constant boost control method. Vac Vo / 2 = MB (1) where Voc is the output peak phase voltage. Simple boost control method was used to control the shoot through duty ratio. 4. In order to produce an output voltage that requires a high voltage gain. the obtainable shoot through duty ratio decreases with the increase of M as Do=1-M. Also the variation of boost factor with the voltage gain is presented in comparison with other traditional control methods.

Do should be less than 0. Thus the boost factor is made independent of modulation index in this method. and (10) it is clear that in all the traditional control methods for any desired voltage gain G. In figure 3. the boost factor is dependent on the modulation index. (6). in double carrier control the duty ratio depends only on the dc offset voltage and hence completely independent of the modulation index as shown in (15). This concept is illustrated in figure 3 for modulation index M=1. Hence for a particular value of voltage gain G.172 G= M 3M − 1 U.5(Do<1/2). Thus in this control method voltage gain can be varied from zero to infinity for a particular modulation index just by varying the offset voltage of shifted carrier wave.Kamaraj (11) Here the duty ratio is kept constant and can be expressed as To T = 1− 3M 2 (12) The voltage across the devices can be expressed as (13) From (3). shoot through duty ratio Do is varied by varying the dc offset voltage and it is derived as Do = 3 Voff 2 Vt Vs = ( 3G − 1)Vo (14) where Voff is the dc offset voltage and Vt is the carrier wave peak value. Figure 3: Voltage gain versus Voff/Vt .Shajith Ali and V. Thus the boost factor can be calculated as B= 1 Voff 1− 3 Vt (15) Unlike other traditional control methods. the voltage stress across the switches can be kept lesser in this method as the modulation index could be kept higher. The voltage stress across the switches is inversely proportional to the modulation index. Thus Voff/Vt should be less than 1/3. In double carrier control method. the curve shifts downwards as the value of M decreases for constant dc offset voltage representing the reduction in voltage gain. In this method of control to get finite voltage gain.

The proposed double carrier PWM gives the highest voltage gain as compared to other conventional PWM methods. C1 = C2 = 1000µF. Three sinusoidal waves with frequency 50Hz.Double Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Control of Z-Source Inverter 173 The variation of the voltage gain with the boost factor is analyzed for all the PWM control schemes and the comparison is shown in figure 4. The simulated output line voltage and output current are shown in figure 5 for an input voltage of 150V and RL load of 50Ω and 10mH. Figure 4: Boost factor comparison of different control methods 5. displaced from each other by 120º are used as the modulating signals. Simulation and Experimental Results To demonstrate the validity of the control strategies. Modulation index M is 0. The switching frequency is 5 kHz and dc offset ratio is 15%. Figure 5: Output line voltage and current waveforms . simulation and experiments were conducted with the configuration the following parameters: Z-source network: L1 = L2 = 3mH.8.

Harmonic spectrums of output line-to-line voltage and output current are shown in figure 6 and figure 7.3 V rms or 267. Figure 6: Harmonic spectrum of output voltage waveform Figure 7: Harmonic spectrum of output current waveform . The above theoretical values are quite consistent with the simulated results.818 and the line-to-line voltage is 154.2 V peak.83%.Kamaraj For the above simulation parameters we have the following theoretical calculations: The boost factor B = 1.Shajith Ali and V. Total harmonic distortion of output current was found to be 6. Harmonic analysis on the output line voltage and output current was performed and the total harmonic distortion of output voltage was found to be 6.174 U.04%.

Figure 8 and figure 9 show experimental results. Thus desired voltage gain can be obtained by using maximum modulation index. Simulation and experiments were conducted to verify the control methods and analysis. which in turn minimizes the voltage stress across the switches. The same parameters used in simulation were used. In this method the boost factor is independent of the modulation index. The relationship of voltage gain versus boost factor for various control methods is analyzed and compared. Conclusion This paper presents a novel PWM scheme for controlling the output voltage of the three phase Zsource inverter with high voltage gain for the given boost factor. The output line-to-line voltage is shown in figure 9. Figure 8: Firing pulses obtained in experiment Figure 9: Experimental waveform of output line voltage 6. The firing pulses for the two switches in one phase leg of the Z-source inverter are shown in figure 8. .Double Carrier Pulse Width Modulation Control of Z-Source Inverter 175 A laboratory model has been constructed.

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