METAMATERIALS

Student: Roşian Ioana Mirela
IV
th

year, group 2342, TST

7 3.5 3..11 7. Conclusion………………………………………………………………. Introduction………………………………………………………………3 2.2. Applications…………………………………………………………….4 3. Emil Voiculescu CONTENTS 1.Ing. Negative Refractive Index………………………………………. Double Negative Metamaterials…………………………………. Cloaking devices…………………………………………………………. Metamaterials…………………………………………………………….11 2 .10 6. Electromagnetic Spectrum……………………………………………….3.8 4.5 3.1. References……………………………………………………………….Teacher: Dr.. Split Ring Resonator…………………………………………….9 5.

and nonlinear metamaterials for optical data processing and quantum information applications. rapid design of metamaterials and potential applications. Whereas conventional materials derive their electromagnetic characteristics from the properties of atoms and molecules. such as invisibility and imaging. 3 . with unlimited resolution. There are important issues for the development and future of metamaterials.1. broadband and low-loss metamaterials. Figure 1. controllable. effective medium theory for periodic structures. The next stage of this technological revolution will be the development of active. including the optical transformation. metamaterials enable us to design our own “atoms” and thus access new functionalities. INTRODUCTION Metamaterials are artificial media structured on a size scale smaller than the wavelength of external stimuli. Metamaterials are expected to have an impact across the entire range of technologies where electromagnetic radiation is used.

4 . Different parts of the radio spectrum have been allocated to the various services.2. Figure 2. although in principle the spectrum is infinite and continuous. They have a much longer wavelength that light waves. and mobile phones. Microwaves have such a short wavelength that they are very easily absorbed by water. What happens is that when the water in your dinner absorbs the microwaves. amateur radio. covering wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atom. The long wavelength limit is the size of the universe itself. the energy of the microwaves is converted into heat: it makes the water molecules vibrate faster. It can be detected by special infra-red film. Infrared radio/light waves have a very short wavelength. The "electromagnetic spectrum" of an object is the characteristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by that particular object. The electromagnetic spectrum extends from low frequencies used for modern radio to gamma radiation at the short-wavelength end. while it is thought that the short wavelength limit is in the vicinity of the Planck length. television. This is why they are used in microwave ovens. their wavelength is longer than visible light. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic spectrum Radio Waves are used for radio broadcasts. The longest waves are several kilometers in length.

usually by violent processes such as a black hole gobbling up gas streaming in from a companion star. Indigo. using small inhomogeneities to create effective macroscopic behavior. and those waves that reach us can cause sunburn. Looking at the glass from the side the spoon apparently seems to break at the water surface and continue inside the liquid being slightly shifted to the side and slightly wider than in air. . they cannot get through bone as easily as they can get through muscle. Ultraviolet light penetrates the skin. METAMATERIALS Metamaterials are artificial materials engineered to have properties that may not be found in nature. Picture a straw in a glass half-filled with water as in Figure 3. These wavelengths do not get through our atmosphere. but a high energy. interacts with molecules. Metamaterials usually gain their properties from structure rather than composition. Gamma rays are the most energetic wavelengths of light. and can tear them apart. Yellow. This is because the bones contain so much Calcium. Orange. UV light has a shorter wavelength (more energy) than visible light. Negative refractive index The greatest potential of metamaterials is the possibility to create a structure with a negative refractive index. 3. and they have the shortest wavelengths. a form of 'invisibility' has been demonstrated at least over a narrow wave band with gradient-index materials. since this property is not found in any non-synthetic material.In the visible spectrum our eyes sense the different wavelengths in this band as colors: Red. Only some of the Sun's ultraviolet light reaches the ground. and Violet. X-Rays have so much energy and such a short wavelength that they can go right through our bodies. The difference between the ‘optical density’ of water and air that is responsible for this phenomenon is usually expressed in terms of the materials’ 5 . so scientists use high altitude satellites to study X-ray light in space. Although the first metamaterials were electromagnetic acoustic and seismic metamaterials are also areas of active research. The primary research in metamaterials investigates materials with negative refractive index. Blue. However. Negative refractive index materials appear to permit the creation of superlenses which can have a spatial resolution below that of the wavelength. In other work.1. X-rays are very energetic light waves that are produced in space. The ozone layer in our Earth's atmosphere helps to protect us from most of the harmful effects of this short wavelength light. Green. 3.

Positive an negative refractive index Metamaterials with negative n have numerous interesting properties: • Snell's law (n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2).3 > nair =1.refractive indices: nliquid =1.2. Figure 3. Conventional vs Left Handed material 3.3. the rays will be refracted on the same side of the normal on entering the material. but as n2 is negative. let us now imagine the liquid in the glass to have a negative refractive index. • The Doppler shift is reversed: that is. • Cherenkov radiation points the other way. While for all naturally occurring materials the refractive index is positive. Double negative metamaterials 6 . It is precisely this unusual light-bending property akin to negative refractive index media that would be required to realize an electromagnetic cloak. a light source moving toward an observer appears to reduce its frequency. Then the straw would again appear to be slightly shifted at the interface but this time spectacularly appear to continue inside the liquid as if it had suddenly been shifted ‘the wrong way’. say nliquid = -1. Figure 4.

are active metamaterials. permeability µ. DNGs have only been demonstrated as artificially constructed materials. and enhanced electrically small antenna. These applications are phase compensation with electrically small resonators. subwavelength waveguides. and µ is the vertical axis. and "backward-wave media". To date. but traveling a somewhat different avenue. This is contrary to wave propagation in natural occurring materials. both permittivity and permeability are negative resulting in a negative index of refraction. quadrant II and quadrant IV have coordinates (0.3. Mathematically.In double negative metamaterials (DNG). In such a material. and then to introduce the results of research into these applications. Other terminologies for DNGs are "left-handed media". thus. Therefore. 3. backward wave antenna. In the years 2000 and 2001. As a result. will alter with changes in frequency. These are intended to have the capability to exhibit negative parameters over a somewhat larger band of frequencies. DNG metamaterials are innately dispersive. In optical materials. take into account the frequency dependence of such material parameters. so their permittivity ε. By 2007. It is worth noting that passive single negative (SNG) and double negative (DNG) metamaterials are inherently dispersive. research experiments which involved negative refractive index had been conducted by many groups. If both ε and µ are negative. negative angles of refraction. DNGs are also referred to as negative index metamaterials (NIM). and refraction index n. "media with a negative refractive index". photon tunneling. he showed that the phase velocity would be antiparallel to the direction of pointing vector. then this does not result in wave propagation.0) in a coordinate plane where ε is the horizontal axis. or vary. papers were published about the first demonstrations of an artificial material that produced a negative index of refraction. the real parts of the material parameters are most often negative only over a certain band of frequencies and. their values can shift. if both permittivity ε and permeability µ are positive this results in propagation in the forward direction. for passive metamaterials. If ε and µ have different polarities. The concept of continuous wave excitation is a key component of these studies to obtain the negative index refraction using DNG media. Cherenkov radiation. In 1968 Victor Veselago published a paper theorizing plane wave propagation in a material whose permittivity and permeability were assumed to be simultaneously negative. Studies have elucidated applications for negative refractive index materials. one should. Split Ring Resonator 7 . a backward wave is produced. Based in the original problem of a dispersive nature. in general. significantly with the changes in frequency. along with other nomenclatures.

They are also component parts of other types of metamaterial such as Single Negative metamaterial (SNG). CLOAKING DEVICES 8 . which produce their own flux to enhance or oppose the incident field (depending on the SRRs resonant properties). and gapped as needed.A split-ring resonator (SRR) is a component part of a Negative index metamaterial (NIM). and at frequencies higher than resonance it will become negative. The dimensions of the structure are small compared to the resonant wavelength. SRRs are also used for research in Terahertz metamaterials. This would not happen in closed rings. The loops can be concentric. The small gaps between the rings produces large capacitance values which lower the resonating frequency. This field pattern is dipolar. also known as Double negative metamaterials (DNG) or Left-handed medium (LHM). or square. the real part of the magnetic permeability of the SRR becomes large (positive). and very high quality factors. as the time constant is large. A magnetic flux penetrating the metal rings will induce rotating currents in the rings. This negative permeability can be used with the negative dielectric constant of another structure to produce negative refractive index materials. and Metamaterial antennas. A single cell SRR has a pair of enclosed loops with splits in them at opposite ends. Due to splits in the rings the structure can support resonant wavelengths much larger than the diameter of the rings. 4. At frequencies below the resonant frequency. The loops are made of nonmagnetic metal like copper and have a small gap between them. Acoustic metamaterials. This results in low radiative losses.

Fictional cloaking devices have been used as plot devices in various media for many years. Metamaterial cloaking. A metamaterial sends rays of light cascading around a ball. but incident waves are guided around them without being affected by the object itself Figure 5.Cloaking devices are advanced stealth technologies still in development that will cause objects. Objects in the defined location are still present. rendering it invisible. but developments in scientific research show that real-world cloaking devices can obscure objects from at least one wavelength of EM emissions. Figure 4. to be partially or wholly invisible to parts of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. such as spaceships or individuals. describes the process of shielding something from view by controlling electromagnetic radiation. derived from transformation optics. 9 . and could be utilized to render an object seemingly invisible. Scientists already use artificial materials called metamaterials to bend light around an object. Bending light Metamaterials direct and control the propagation and transmission of specified parts of the light spectrum.

5. Since microwaves' wavelengths are measured in centimeters. For one thing. as the light that would normally reach him or her would be diverted around the cloaking device.To effectively manipulate an electromagnetic wavelength of any kind. microwave and antennae engineering. solid state physics. and even shielding structures from earthquakes. for example. Potential applications of metamaterials are diverse and include remote aerospace applications. electromagnetics. optoelectronics. because different colors exist on different wavelengths. 10 . Making an entire aircraft invisible to the naked eye is a bigger challenge. classic optics. Another challenge is that a metamaterial cloaking device would have to be arranged to manipulate light on the entire visible spectrum. the metamaterial used has to be smaller than the wavelength. radomes. The shield would be visible. smart solar power management. APLICATIONS Metamaterials have become a new subdiscipline within physics and electromagnetism (especially optics and photonics). moving waves around an object. material sciences. The research in metamaterials is interdisciplinary and involves such fields as electrical engineering. and the metamaterials needed to block light must be even smaller than that. but radar wouldn't be able to detect the plane. sensor detection and infrastructure monitoring. scientists have the technology to create metamaterials small enough to manipulate them. improving ultrasonic sensors. semiconductor engineering. nanoscience and others. Light wavelengths are measured in nanometers (billionths of a meter). public safety. A stealth bomber sheathed in the right layer of metamaterials. And lastly. a cloaking device would plunge a person on the inside into darkness. high-frequency battlefield communication and lenses for high-gain antennas. we don't currently have the technology to manufacture materials on the small scale required to manipulate light waves. could be invisible to radar.

htm 11 . medical imaging and much more.6. Zheludev. and Applications – Springer 2010 http://en. Ruopeng Liu – Metamaterials –Theory. 7.howstuffworks. Science 328. David R. Smith. microelectronics. REFERENCES • • • • The road ahead for metamaterials -N.I. radars and defense. nanolithography with light.com/invisible-tank1.org/wiki/Cloaking_device http://science. Design . CONCLUSION Metamaterials represent an exciting emerging research are that promises to bring about important technological and scientific advancements in different areas such as telecommunications.wikipedia. 582 (2010) Tie Jun Cui.

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