Queen’s University at Kingston

Chem 112 Midyear Exam

15–DEC–2010
Time: 3 hour
Michael Mombourquette, Nick Mosey, Gregory Jerkiewicz

INSTRUCTIONS:
You will be given the exam paper and a computer–marked sheet on which you will answer all your
questions.
- You must use a soft–lead pencil (HB or softer). The scanner will not read ink no matter how black a mark it
makes.
- Do not bend or fold the computer sheet in any way or it will become jammed in the scanner.
- Write and Code your name and student number and on the answer sheets in the appropriate spaces.
(Be especially careful to code in your student number properly.)
- Do not mark the computer answer sheet in any way except to encode the answers. Stray marks can be read
by the machine as incorrect answers!
- Make sure you’ve coded in all the answers. No marks are deducted for wrong answers so DO NOT LEAVE
BLANKS! There is exactly one answer for each multiple-choice question.
- All Multiple Choice questions are worth 1 mark.
- There are 47 Questions in total.
- You are allowed to use any basic, non-programming, non-communications-able calculator.
PLEASE NOTE:
Proctors are unable to respond to queries about the interpretation of exam questions. Do your best to
answer exam questions as written.
This material is copyrighted and is for the sole use of students registered in [the course] and writing
this exam. This material shall not be distributed or disseminated. Failure to abide by these conditions
is a breach of copyright and may also constitute a breach of academic integrity under the University
Senate's Academic Integrity Policy Statement.
Good luck

1. A chemist prepares a sample of hydrogen bromide, HBr (M = 80.91 g mol
–1
), and finds that it
occupies 250. mL at T = 65.0°C and P = 500. Torr. What volume would it occupy at 0.00°C at the
same pressure?
A. 0.00 mL
B. 204 mL
C. 200 mL
D. 198 mL
E. 202 mL

2. What mass of ammonia, NH
3
(M = 17.03 g mol
–1
), will exert the same pressure as 12.0 mg of
hydrogen sulfide, H
2
S (M = 34.08 g mol
–1
), in the same container under the same conditions?
A. 6.00 mg
B. 24.0 mg
C. 12.0 mg
D. 17.0 mg
E. 34.1 mg

3. The density of a gaseous compound was found to be 0.943 g· L
−1
at 298 K and 53.1 kPa. What is
the molar mass of the compound?
A. 43.9 kg mol
–1

B. 44.0 g mol
–1

C. 44.1 kg mol
–1

D. 43 g mol
–1

E. 40 g mol
–1


4. A vessel of volume 22.4 L contains 2.0 mol H
2
(g) (M = 2.016 g mol
–1
) and 1.0 mol N
2
(g)
(M = 28.02 g mol
–1
) at 273.15 K. Calculate (a) the partial pressure of H
2
(g) and (b) the total
pressure.
A. P
H2(g)
= 2 bar P
tot
= 2 bar
B. P
H2(g)
= 1 bar P
tot
= 3 bar
C. P
H2(g)
= 2 bar P
tot
= 3 bar
D. P
H2(g)
= 2 atm P
tot
= 3 atm
E. P
H2(g)
= 1.33 atm P
tot
= 1.67 atm


5. In an experiment on gases, you are studying a 1.00-L sample of H
2
(g) (M = 2.016 g mol
–1
) gas at
20.0°C and 2.40 atm. You heat the gas until the root mean square speed of the molecules of the
sample has been doubled. What will be the final pressure of the gas? The sample volume is
constant.
A. 4.80 atm
B. 9.60 atm
C. \2 × 2.40 atm = 3.39 atm
D. 2.40 atm/\2 = 1.70 atm
E. 2.40 atm












6. Identify the kinds of intermolecular forces that might arise between molecules of NH
2
OH.
A. Hydrogen bonding
B. London forces, dipole-dipole interactions
C. Dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bonding
D. London forces, hydrogen bonding
E. London forces, dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bonding

7. Suggest which substances in the following pair have the higher normal boiling point: (a) NH
3
or
PH
3
and (b) CH
4
or SiH
4
.
A. NH
3
and SiH
4

B. PH
3
and SiH
4

C. NH
3
and CH
4

D. PH
3
and CH
4

E. The same boiling point in both cases

The molecule has O-H bonds so hydrogen
bonding is possible. It is also polar so
dipole-dipole interactions are possible and
London forces are always possible.
Higher boiling points come from higher intermolecular forces.
In the NH
3
|PH
3
pair, only NH
3
can form hydrogen bonds.
In the CH
4
|SiH
4
pair, both can only have London forces. Since
SiH
4
is larger, it can have larger London Forces.

8. Iron crystallizes in a bcc structure. The atomic radius of iron is 124 pm. Determine (a) the
number of atoms per unit cell and (b) the length of the side of the unit cell.
A. 4 and 286 pm
B. 2 and 496 pm
C. 2 and 248 pm
D. 2 and 286 pm
E. 4 and 248 pm

9. Calculate the density of europium (M
Eu
= 151.96 g mol
–3
) knowing that it adopts the bcc structure
in the solid state and its atomic radius is 204 pm.
A. 2.41 g cm
–3

B. 9.64 g cm
–3

C. 4.82 g cm
–3

D. 3.71 g cm
–3

E. 7.41 g cm
–3


10. Calculate the fraction of occupied space in a body centered cubic (bcc) structure.
A. 0.65
B. 0.68
C. 0.74
D. 0.78
E. 0.82

11. Consider a metallic element that crystallizes in a cubic close-packed lattice. The edge length of the
unit cell is 408 pm. If close-packed layers are deposited on a flat surface to a depth (of metal) of
0.125 mm, how many close-packed layers are present? .
A. 3.06 × 10
5
layers
B. 9.19 × 10
5
layers
C. 12.2 × 10
5
layers
D. 6.13 × 10
5
layers
E. 15.3 × 10
5
layers

Bcc structures have 2 atoms in the unit cell (8x1/8 corners + 1 body centre). We need to
calculate the body diagonal c = 4 * 124 = 496 pm = 3
1/2
a
a = 286 pm

Bcc structures have 2 atoms in the unit cell (8x1/8 corners + 1 body centre). Body
diagonal c = 4 *204 = 816 pm = 3
1/2
a. Parameter a = 471 pm. Volume of one unit cell = a
3

V = 471
3
= 1.045x10
8
pm
3
* 6.022x10
23
/ (1x10
10
pm/cm)
3
= 62.97 cm
3
= vol of one mole of
cells. Density = 2x151.96/62.97 = 4.82 g cm
-3
.

Bcc structures have 2 atoms in the unit cell (8x1/8 corners + 1 body centre). Body
diagonal c = 4 *r = 3
1/2
a. Volume of one unit cell = a
3
= (4r/3
1/2
)
3
Volume of 2 atoms = 2 x
4/3 πr
3

Fraction occupied = V(atoms)/V(cell)=

4
3

3

4
3

3
=0.68

None of the answers here was correct. One point for everyone
who put any answer down.


12. A gas sample in a cylinder is supplied with 524 kJ of energy as heat. At the same time, a piston
compresses the gas, doing 340 kJ of work. What is the change in internal energy of the gas during
this process?
A. –864 kJ
B. +184 kJ
C. +864 kJ
D. –184 kJ
E. –340 kJ

13. Calculate the work for each of the following processes beginning with a gas sample in a piston
assembly with T = 305 K, P = 1.79 atm, and V = 4.29 L: (a) irreversible expansion against a
constant external pressure of 1.00 atm to a final volume of 6.52 L; (b) isothermal, reversible
expansion to a final volume of 6.52 L.
A. w
irrev
= +226 J and w
rev
= +326 J
B. w
irrev
= –226 J and w
rev
= +326 J
C. w
irrev
= 0 J and w
rev
= –326 J
D. w
irrev
= –226 J and w
rev
= 0 J
E. w
irrev
= –226 J and w
rev
= –326 J

14. If we start with 325 g of water (M = 18.02 g mol
–1
) at T = 30.°C, how much heat must we add to
convert all the liquid into vapor at T = 100.°C? C
p
(H
2
O(l)) = 4.184 J °C
–1
g
–1
and AH
vap
° = 40.7 kJ
mol
–1
.
A. +829 kJ
B. +136 kJ
C. +46 kJ
D. +95 kJ
E. +231 kJ

15. Calculate the heat generated by a reaction mixture of 13.4 L of sulfur dioxide, SO
2

(M = 64.06 g mol
–1
), at 1.00 atm and 273 K and 15.0 g of oxygen, O
2
(M = 32.00 g mol
–1
), in the
reaction:
2 SO
2
(g) + O
2
(g) ÷ 2 SO
3
(g) AH° = –198 kJ
A. –118.4 kJ
B. –59.2 kJ
C. –92.8 kJ
D. –186 kJ
E. –198 kJ

w
irrev
= -PΔV = -1.79 atm × (6.52–4.29)L ×101.325 kPa/atm = -226 J

The equation for the reversible expansion is not needed since the two
values for work will be similar but reversible work will be somewhat
larger magnitude than irreversible work.
Two processes occur here. q
1
: Warm the water from 30°C to 100°C. q
2
: phase change at 100°C.
q
1
= mC
p
ΔT = 325 g × 4.184 J/ °C-g × (100-30) = 95.19 kJ
q
2
= 325 g/18.02 g/mol * 40.7 kJ/mol = 736.30 kJ
q
t
= q
1
+ q
2
= = 95.19 kJ + 736.30 kJ = 831. Closest answer is A. 829. Rounding differences.

16. Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of PCl
5
(s) from the standard enthalpy of formation
of PCl
3
(l) (AH
f
° = –319.7 kJ mol
–1
) and PCl
3
(l) + Cl
2
(g) → PCl
5
(s), AH° = −124 kJ.
A. –196 kJ mol
–1

B. +196 kJ mol
–1

C. –222 kJ mol
–1

D. +444 kJ mol
–1

E. –444 kJ mol
–1


17. Calculate the entropy change associated with the isothermal compression of 4.80 mol of ideal gas
atoms from 12.86 L to 4.80 L.
A. –8.2 J K
–1

B. +39.3 J K
–1

C. –39.3 J K
–1

D. +8.2 J K
–1

E. 0 J K
–1


18. The standard entropy of vaporization of acetone is approximately 85 J· K
−1
· mol
−1
at its boiling
point. (a) Estimate the standard enthalpy of vaporization of acetone at its normal boiling point of
56.2°C. (b) What is the entropy change of the surroundings when 10. g of acetone, CH
3
COCH
3
(M
= 58.08 g mol
–1
), condenses at its normal boiling point?
A. AH
vap
° = 28 kJ mol
–1
and AS
surr
° = –15 J K
–1

B. AH
vap
° = 28 kJ mol
–1
and AS
surr
° = +85 J K
–1

C. AH
vap
° = 28 kJ mol
–1
and AS
surr
° = –85 J K
–1

D. AH
vap
° = 28 kJ mol
–1
and AS
surr
° = +15 J K
–1

E. AH
vap
° = 28 kJ mol
–1
and AS
surr
° = 0 J K
–1



19. A rocket fuel would be useless if its oxidation were not spontaneous. Although rockets operate
under conditions that are far from standard, an initial estimation of the potential of a rocket fuel
might assess whether its oxidation at the high temperatures reached in a rocket is spontaneous. A
chemist exploring potential fuels for use in space considered using vaporized aluminum chloride in
a reaction for which the balanced equation is:
2 AlCl
3
(g) + 9/2 O
2
(g) ÷ Al
2
O
3
(s) + 6 ClO(g)
Use the following data (which are for 2000 K) to determine AG° and decide whether the fuel is
worth further investigation: AG
f
°(AlCl
3
(g)) = −467 kJ·mol
−1
, AG
f
°(Al
2
O
3
(s)) = −1034 kJ·mol
−1
,
AG
f
°(ClO(g)) = +75kJ· mol
−1
. Choose the correct answer.
A. AG° = 350 kJ; the process is non-spontaneous and the fuel is not worth investigation
B. AG° = –350 kJ; the process is spontaneous and the fuel is worth investigation
C. AG° = –350 kJ; the process is spontaneous but AG° is not negative enough, so the fuel is not worth
investigation
D. One cannot solve the problem because AG
f
°(O
2
(g)) is not given
E. AG° = 350 kJ; the process is spontaneous and the fuel is worth investigation

20. Consider the following orbital. Which of the following statements is correct?


A. This is a 5f orbital. It has 3 angular nodes and 3 radial nodes.
B. This is a 4p orbital. It has 1 angular node and 2 radial nodes.
C. This is a 5p orbital. It has 1 angular node and 3 radial nodes.
D. This is a 6d orbital. It has 2 angular nodes and 3 radial nodes.
E. This is a 4s orbital. It has 0 angular nodes and 3 radial nodes.


21. The fact that the electron configuration of nitrogen is 1s
2
2s
2
2p
x
1
2p
y
1
2p
z
1
instead of
1s
2
2s
2
2p
x
2
2p
y
1
2p
z
0
is an illustration of:
A. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
B. The Aufbau Principle
C. The Bohr Theory
D. Hund’s rule
E. The Pauli Exclusion Principle

22. Consider the energy levels for H and for multi-electron atoms. Which of the following statements
is incorrect?
A. For H, there are three degenerate states with n=3.
B. In H, the 2s and 2p states are degenerate but this is not the case for many-electron atoms where 2s has
a different energy than 2p.
C. For Ti, the 3d energy level is higher than the 4s energy level.
D. There are 5 degenerate 3d orbitals for all atoms.
E. For many-electron atoms, the 2s energy level is lower than the 2p energy level.

23. Consider the following emission spectrum from atomic hydrogen. These lines result from
transitions into the ground state (Lyman transitions). Consider the line marked A. Which of the
following statements is correct?

A. This line corresponds to transitions from n=5 to n=1 and occurs at a wavelength of 94.9 nm.
B. This line corresponds to transitions from n=6 to n=2 and occurs at a wavelength of 410.0 nm.
C. This transition corresponds to transitions from n=4 to n=1 and occurs at a wavelength of 97.2 nm.
D. This transition corresponds to transitions from n=4 to n=2 and occurs at a wavelength of 433.9 nm.
E. This transition corresponds to transitions from n=5 to n=1 and occurs at a wavelength of 113.9 nm.


Increasing Wavelength, λ, →
A

24. Consider the four Lewis structures below labelled (I) through (IV). Which of the following
statements regarding these Lewis structures below is incorrect?

A. all four resonance structures are equally probable
B. structure (III) is the preferred resonance structure
C. structures (I) and (II) are equivalent resonance structures
D. selenium has a formal charge of +1 in (I) and (II)
E. all structures represent neutral molecules
Actually, structure IV is incorrect so it does not represent a neutral molecule, or any
molecule, for that matter.
25. Which of the following describes the molecular geometry at the C, B, N, and P atoms in
CH
2
BNHPH
4
? For this problem assume that the following arrangement of atoms, where the
dotted lines only indicate how the atoms are connected. Note that the specific types of bonds
(single, double, and/or triple) and lone pairs have not been drawn.


A. C = tetrahedral, B = linear, N = trigonal pyramidal, P = octahedral
B. C = tetrahedral, B = bent, N = tetrahedral, P = trigonal bipyramidal
C. C = trigonal planar, B = linear, N = tetrahedral, P = see-saw
D. C = trigonal planar, B = linear, N = trigonal pyramidal, P = trigonal bipyramidal
E. C = tetrahedral, B = bent, N = trigonal pyramidal, P = trigonal bipyramidal

Se O O Se O O
Se O O Se O O
(I) (II)
(III) (IV)
Se O O Se O O
Se O O Se O O
(I) (II)
(III) (IV)
H C
H
B N
H
P
H
H
H
H
H C
H
B N
H
P
H
H
H
H

26. Which of the following has a molecular dipole moment?
A. XeF
4

B. SBr
4

C. PCl
5

D. BH
3

E. C
2
H
4


27. Using bond energies, estimate the enthalpy change for the gas phase reaction shown below:
(hint: you need to draw Lewis structures to solve this problem)

BE (in kJ/mol): C–C, 347; C–H, 414; C–O, 335; O–H, 464; C=O, 700; O=O, 498.
CH3CH2OH(g) + O2(g) ÷ CH3CO2H(g) + H2O(g)
A. –6121 kJ
B. +688 kJ
C. –288 kJ
D. –302 kJ
E. –349 kJ

28. If 75.0 L of CO
2
effuse through a porous partition in 25.0 min., what volume of CO will effuse
through the same partition at the same temperature and pressure in 25.0 min.?
A. 47.8 L
B. 6.65 L
C. 117.5 L
D. 94 L
E. 59.8 L


29. Which of the following describes the hybridization of the atomic orbitals on the C, N, and Si atoms
in CH
2
NSiH
3
? For this problem assume the following arrangement of atoms, where the dotted
lines only indicate how the atoms are connected. Note that the specific types of bonds (single,
double, and/or triple) and lone pairs have not been drawn.

A. C = sp
3
, N = sp
3
, Si = sp
3

B. C = sp
3
, N = sp
2
, Si = sp
3

C. C= sp
3
, N = sp
2
, Si = sp
3
d
D. C = sp
2
, N = sp
3
, Si = sp
3
d
E. C = sp
2
, N = sp
2
, Si = sp
3


30. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding F
2
2-
, F
2
, and F
2
2+
?
A. F
2
2+
and F
2
are diamagnetic.
B. F
2
2-
does not exist as a molecule. The bond order is 0.
C. F
2
has no electrons in the σ*
2p
orbital.
D. F
2
2+
has a shorter bond length than F
2
and F
2
2-
.
E. The bond order in F
2
2+
is 2.

31. The photoelectric effect can form the basis of an alarm system. A beam of light (visible or
invisible) strikes a metal surface, producing electrons and a small current. When the light beam is
interrupted, the current ceases and the alarm is triggered. What is the maximum wavelength of
light that can be used in such an alarm if the metal is sodium, with a work function Φ of
4.41 x 10
-19
J?
A. 500 nm
B. 0.0015 pm
C. 6.66 x 10
14
s
-1

D. 450.4 nm
E. 225.2 nm

H C
H
N Si
H
H
H
H C
H
N Si
H
H
H

32. What is the deBroglie wavelength of a neutron (mass of 1.67493 x 10
-27
kg) moving at 1.00% of the
speed of light?
A. 3.96 x 10
-5
m no correct answer so all answers are marked correct.
B. 1.32 x 10
-11
m
C. 2.21 x 10
-40
m
D. 1.32 x 10
-13
m
E. 4.68 x 10
-11
m

33. The three molecular shapes an sp
3
hybridized molecule can have are:
A. triangular, bent, T-shaped
B. irregular tetrahedron, T-shaped, linear
C. tetrahedron, trigonal pyramid, bent
D. octahedron, square pyramid, square planar
E. none of these

34. Which of the following could never be isoelectronic species?
A. an anion and an atom
B. an anion and a cation
C. atoms of two different elements
D. anions of two different elements
E. cations of two different elements

35. The quantum numbers of the highest energy electron in the ground state of germanium could be:
A. n = 4, ℓ = 1, m

= 1, ms = 1/2
B. n = 4, ℓ = 1, m

= 1/2, ms = 0
C. n = 4, ℓ = 3, m

= 1, ms = 1/2
D. n = 3, ℓ = 1, m

= 1, ms = 1/2
E. n = 4, ℓ = 2, m

= 1, ms = 1/2


36. The molecular orbital diagram for homonuclear diatomic molecules with Z ≥ 8 is given below.
Using this diagram, determine which of the following statements is false.

A. The electron configuration for F
2
is
2 *
2
2 *
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 *
2
2
2
y x y x z
p p p p p s s
t t t t o o o
.
B. The electron configuration for Ne
2
is
2 *
2
2 *
2
2 *
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 *
2
2
2
z y x y x z
p p p p p p s s
o t t t t o o o
.
C. The electron configuration for O
2
is
1 *
2
1 *
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 *
2
2
2
y x y x z
p p p p p s s
t t t t o o o
.
D. O
2
, F
2
, and Ne
2
are all diamagnetic.
E. O
2
has a bond order of 2, F
2
has a bond order of 1, and Ne
2
has a bond order of 0.

37. In which of the following molecules would you expect the nitrogen to nitrogen bond to be the
shortest?
A. N
2
the strongest bond gives the shortest bond.
B. N
2
O
C. N
2
H
4

D. NH
3

E. N
2
O
4


38. Which of the following species exhibits resonance?
A. OF
2

B. SO
3

C. N
2

D. PCl
5

E. ClO
3
-



39. A liquid cooled below its melting point is still clear and fluid. Which of the following events is least
likely to occur?
A. As soon as crystallization begins heat will be absorbed and the sudden chilling will freeze the rest
very rapidly.
B. As soon as crystallization begins heat will be liberated and the mixture will warm back up to the
melting point.
C. It may never crystallize.
D. It may be transformed into a glass.
E. It may crystallize very rapidly if a crystal of the solid phase is dropped in.

40. Consider the following data for the halogen molecules.

Element molar mass boiling point
F
2
38 -188.0
o
C
Cl
2
70.9 -34.6
o
C
Br
2
159.8 58.8
o
C
I
2
253.8 184.0
o
C

The trend of increasing boiling point going down the group is the result of
A. increased strength of dipole-dipole forces with increasing molecular size.
B. increased strength of dispersion forces with increasing number of electrons.
C. increased ionic character with greater molar mass.
D. increased hydrogen bonding with increasing molar mass.
E. increased ionic bonding with increasing atomic mass.

41. Judging by their structures, which of the following liquids should have the lowest vapour
pressure?
A. CH
3
F
B. CH
4

C. CH
3
Cl
D. CH
3
OH
E. CH
3
CH
3


42. A solid can be sublimed under which of the following conditions?
A. above the triple point pressure
B. at the critical point
C. above the critical point temperature
D. only gases can be sublimed
E. below the triple point pressure


43. Under which of the following conditions are the solid and vapour phases in equilibrium?

A. 10°C and 0.2 atm
B. 30°C and 0.5 atm
C. 20°C and 0.5 atm
D. 15°C and 0.2 atm
E. 30°C and 0.5 atm

44. What intermolecular force is MOST important between liquid CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
CH
3
molecules in
a pure sample of the compound?
A. Ion-ion
B. Ion-dipole
C. Dipole-dipole
D. London dispersion
E. Hydrogen bonding

45. A sample of a gas collected over water at 10
o
C and 1 atm had a volume of 1 L. How many moles of
the gas were present? The vapor pressure of water at 10
o
C is 9.2 mm Hg.
A. 5.1 x 10
-
2

B. 4.3 x 10
-
2

C. 3.3 x 10
-
1

D. 1.2 x 10
-
1

E. 3.3 x 10
-
2



46. The critical temperature is the only temperature:
A. at which the density is a minimum
B. at which liquid and gas phases are in equilibrium
C. at which solid, liquid and gas phases are in equilibrium
D. at which the density of liquid phase becomes equal to the density of gas phase
E. above which a substance cannot be vaporized

47. The van der Waals equation of state for a gas is (P + an
2
/V
2
)(V - nb) = nRT where P, V, R, n and T
are pressure, volume, universal gas constant, number of moles and absolute temperature,
respectively. Which of the following statements is correct with regard to the coefficients a and b in
the equation?
A. "a" refers to the size and "b" refers to the speed of the gas particles.
B. "a" refers to the speed and "b" refers to the size of the gas particles.
C. "a" refers to the attractive forces between gas particles and "b" refers to their size.
D. "a" refers to the size of the gas particles and "b" refers to the repulsive forces between the particles.
E. none of the above.




Data/Formula Sheet
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1A 2A 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 8B 8B 1B 2B 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
1 2
1 H He
1.008 4.003
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
6.941 9.012 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 18.99 20.18
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
22.99 24.30 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
39.1 40.08 44.96 47.87 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.84 58.99 58.34 63.55 65.39 69.72 73.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.8
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
85.47 87.62 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 99 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 112.4 114.8 118.7 121.8 127.6 126.9 131.3
55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
6 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
132.9 137.3 138.9 138.9 181.0 183.8 186.2 190.2 192.2 195.1 197.0 200.6 204.4 207.2 209.0 209 210 222
87 88 89
7 Fr Ra Ac
223 226 227
58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
6 Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
140 141 144 145 150 152.0 157 159 163 165 167 169 173.0 175.0
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
7 Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cu Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
232 231.0 238.0 237 244 243 247 247 251 252 257 258 259 262
1atm = 101.325 kPa = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr 1L = 1 dm
3
0ºC = 273.15 K

E = hv c = ìv
M
RT
u
rms
3
=


T k
mu
B
B
e u
T k
m
u f
2 2
2 / 3
2
2
4 ) (
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
t


t 4
h
p x > A A
w(A) + w(B) + …=1
density = m/V

÷ = = A
2
2
2
1
1 1
n n
R hv E
H
x(A) +x(B) + …=1
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
PV = nRT w = –P
e
AV = –An
gas
RT AU = q + w AU = q
v
AH = q
p
HV=nRT
p
B
= x
B
K
H
p
A
+ p
B
+ … = P
AH = AU + PAV C
P
– C
V
= R p
A
= x
A
P
A
*



pH = (pK
a
+ pC
a
)/2 pOH = (pK
b
+ pC
b
)/2

(

)

(

)

G = H – TS
AGº = AHº – TASº S
universe
= S
system
+ S
surroundings

KE = ½ mv
2
hv = KE + o M = m/n w’ = –nFE
Q
nF
RT
E E ln ÷ =

AGº = –nFEº



E
cell
= E
ox
+ E
red


Q = nF Q = It
[A]
t
= –kt + [A]
0
ln[A]
t
= –kt + ln[A]
o
k = A exp{–E
a
/RT}
a L r = = 2 a L r 2 2 4 = = a L r 3 3 4 = =

a b 2 =

a c 3 =
mv
h
= ì
... ) ( ) (
) (
) (
+ +
=
B m A m
A m
A w
... ) ( ) (
) (
) (
+ +
=
B n A n
A n
A x
¯ ¯
÷ = A
formed broken
BE BE H
) (
) (
) (
S m
A n
A b =
V
A n
A c
) (
) ( =
2
2
1
1
T
V
T
V
=
( )
* *
*
1
B A A A
A A
B A
A
A
P x P x
P x
p p
p
y
÷ +
=
+
=
( )
( )
* *
*
1
1
B A A A
B A
B A
B
B
P x P x
P x
p p
p
y
÷ +
÷
=
+
=
T
q
C
A
=
T
H
C
P
A
A
=
( ) RT b V
V
a
P
m
m
= ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
C
C
P
T R
a
64
27
2 2
=
C
P
RT
b
8
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
A
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
1 2
*
1
*
2
1 1
l n
T T R
H
P
P vap
2
4
] H [
2
a a a a
C K K K + + ÷
=
+
(R) (P)
¯ ¯
÷ = A
o o o
S S S ( ) 298
298
÷ A + A = A T C H H
P
o o
T
(R) (P)
¯ ¯
A ÷ A = A
o
f
o
f
o
H H H
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
° A ÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
1 2 1
2
1 1
l n
T T R
H
K
K
a a
C K =
+
] [H
b b
C K =
÷
] [OH
2
4
] OH [
2
b b b b
C K K K + + ÷
=
÷
] aci d [
] base [
l og pK pH
a
+ =
T
q
S
rev
= A
T
H
S
A
= A
1
2
l n
T
T
C S or
T
T C
S = A
A
= A
1
2
1
2
l n l n
P
P
R
V
V
R S ÷ = = A
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
1 2 1
2
1 1
l n
T T R
E
k
k
a
Q RT G G ln + ° A = A K RT G ln ÷ = ° A
(R) (P)
¯ ¯
A ÷ A = A
o
f
o
f
o
G G G
|
.
|

\
| °
=
RT
nFE
K exp
kt
o t
+ =
[A]
1
[A]
1
k
t
2 ln
2 / 1
=
Symbol Value
R 8.31451 J K
–1
mol
–1

0.08206 L∙atm mol
–1
K
–1
K
b
1.3807 × 10
–23
J K
–1

N
A
6.0221 × 10
23
mol
–1

F 96485. C mol
–1

e 1.6022 × 10
–19
C
h 6.6261 × 10
–34
J s
m
p
1.6726 × 10
–27
kg
m
e
9.1094 × 10
–31
kg
R
H
2.179 × 10
–18
J
c 2.9979 × 10
8
m s
–1

T
U
C
V
A
A
=

0. E. mL at T = 65. Torr. C. C.00°C at the same pressure? A.1 kPa. 43.0 mg 12.0 mol N2(g) (M = 28. E. C. E. What is the molar mass of the compound? A. A chemist prepares a sample of hydrogen bromide. D.4 L contains 2.9 kg mol–1 44.1 mg 3. and finds that it occupies 250.02 g mol–1) at 273. B. What volume would it occupy at 0.1 kg mol–1 43 g mol–1 40 g mol–1 4.00 mg 24. What mass of ammonia. D.33 atm Ptot = 2 bar Ptot = 3 bar Ptot = 3 bar Ptot = 3 atm Ptot = 1. 6. B.1. C. A.0 mol H2(g) (M = 2.0 mg of hydrogen sulfide.91 g mol–1). in the same container under the same conditions? A.15 K.0 g mol–1 44. PH2(g) = 2 bar PH2(g) = 1 bar PH2(g) = 2 bar PH2(g) = 2 atm PH2(g) = 1.0°C and P = 500. HBr (M = 80. A vessel of volume 22. D. B. will exert the same pressure as 12. The density of a gaseous compound was found to be 0.08 g mol–1). B. D.0 mg 17. E.67 atm . H2S (M = 34.03 g mol–1).016 g mol–1) and 1. Calculate (a) the partial pressure of H2(g) and (b) the total pressure.00 mL 204 mL 200 mL 198 mL 202 mL 2.943 g·L−1 at 298 K and 53. NH3 (M = 17.0 mg 34.

Identify the kinds of intermolecular forces that might arise between molecules of NH2OH.70 atm 2.40 atm/2 = 1. hydrogen bonding London forces. dipole-dipole interactions. 7. Since SiH4 is larger. NH3 and SiH4 PH3 and SiH4 NH3 and CH4 PH3 and CH4 The same boiling point in both cases Higher boiling points come from higher intermolecular forces. A. E. You heat the gas until the root mean square speed of the molecules of the sample has been doubled. both can only have London forces. .40 atm.60 atm 2  2. Hydrogen bonding London forces. In an experiment on gases.40 atm = 3. It is also polar so dipole-dipole interactions are possible and London forces are always possible. D. B. dipole-dipole interactions Dipole-dipole interactions. hydrogen bonding London forces.40 atm 6. In the CH4|SiH4 pair.5.016 g mol–1) gas at 20. C. D. it can have larger London Forces. only NH3 can form hydrogen bonds. A. 4.0°C and 2. B. C. E. Suggest which substances in the following pair have the higher normal boiling point: (a) NH3 or PH3 and (b) CH4 or SiH4. D. hydrogen bonding The molecule has O-H bonds so hydrogen bonding is possible. E.80 atm 9. What will be the final pressure of the gas? The sample volume is constant.00-L sample of H2(g) (M = 2. C. you are studying a 1.39 atm 2. A. B. In the NH3|PH3 pair.

06  105 layers 9.3  105 layers None of the answers here was correct. Body diagonal c = 4 *r = 31/2a. C. E.41 g cm–3 9.65 0. Body diagonal c = 4 *204 = 816 pm = 31/2a. Volume of one unit cell = a3 V = 4713 = 1. A. .97 = 4. D. E.045x108 pm3 * 6.64 g cm–3 4.125 mm. Determine (a) the number of atoms per unit cell and (b) the length of the side of the unit cell.96 g mol–3) knowing that it adopts the bcc structure in the solid state and its atomic radius is 204 pm.022x1023 / (1x1010 pm/cm)3 = 62. One point for everyone who put any answer down.82 g cm–3 3.2  105 layers 6. Iron crystallizes in a bcc structure.68 0.82 g cm-3. E. A. Parameter a = 471 pm. B. Density = 2x151. C. how many close-packed layers are present? .82 Bcc structures have 2 atoms in the unit cell (8x1/8 corners + 1 body centre). C.41 g cm–3 Bcc structures have 2 atoms in the unit cell (8x1/8 corners + 1 body centre).71 g cm–3 7. Calculate the fraction of occupied space in a body centered cubic (bcc) structure. 10.96/62. D.97 cm3 = vol of one mole of cells.13  105 layers 15.68 11. Calculate the density of europium (MEu = 151.78 0. D. A. 0. If close-packed layers are deposited on a flat surface to a depth (of metal) of 0. B. E. C. 3. B.19  105 layers 12. D. Consider a metallic element that crystallizes in a cubic close-packed lattice. 4 and 286 pm 2 and 496 pm 2 and 248 pm 2 and 286 pm 4 and 248 pm Bcc structures have 2 atoms in the unit cell (8x1/8 corners + 1 body centre). B. Volume of one unit cell = a3= (4r/31/2)3 Volume of 2 atoms = 2 x 4/3 πr3 Fraction occupied = V(atoms)/V(cell)= 2× 𝜋𝑟 3 4 3 4𝑟 3 3 =0.74 0. We need to calculate the body diagonal c = 4 * 124 = 496 pm = 31/2 a a = 286 pm 9. The atomic radius of iron is 124 pm.8. The edge length of the unit cell is 408 pm. 2. A.

79 atm.29 L: (a) irreversible expansion against a constant external pressure of 1. 14. Calculate the work for each of the following processes beginning with a gas sample in a piston assembly with T = 305 K. B.4 kJ –59. +136 kJ C.0 g of oxygen. D.30 kJ = 831. A. +829 kJ B. a piston compresses the gas. SO2 (M = 64. doing 340 kJ of work.30 kJ qt = q1 + q2 = = 95. 829. and V = 4.12. Closest answer is A. If we start with 325 g of water (M = 18.°C. Calculate the heat generated by a reaction mixture of 13. A gas sample in a cylinder is supplied with 524 kJ of energy as heat.52–4. What is the change in internal energy of the gas during this process? A.00 g mol–1). q2: phase change at 100°C.19 kJ + 736. At the same time. E. C. P = 1. +46 kJ D. C.4 L of sulfur dioxide.00 atm to a final volume of 6. E. q1 = mCpΔT = 325 g × 4. D.8 kJ –186 kJ –198 kJ .184 J C–1 g–1 and Hvap = 40.79 atm × (6.52 L.7 kJ mol–1.2 kJ –92. (b) isothermal. D.184 J/ °C-g × (100-30) = 95.°C? Cp(H2O(l)) = 4. Two processes occur here. A. C. O2 (M = 32.29)L ×101. B. reversible expansion to a final volume of 6. at 1.19 kJ q2 = 325 g/18.06 g mol–1).02 g mol–1) at T = 30. how much heat must we add to convert all the liquid into vapor at T = 100.52 L. in the reaction: 2 SO2(g) + O2(g)  2 SO3(g) H = –198 kJ A. E. +231 kJ 15. –118. wirrev = +226 J and wrev = +326 J wirrev = –226 J and wrev = +326 J wirrev = 0 J and wrev = –326 J wirrev = –226 J and wrev = 0 J wirrev = –226 J and wrev = –326 J wirrev = -PΔV = -1. q1: Warm the water from 30°C to 100°C. B. Rounding differences. –864 kJ +184 kJ +864 kJ –184 kJ –340 kJ 13.325 kPa/atm = -226 J The equation for the reversible expansion is not needed since the two values for work will be similar but reversible work will be somewhat larger magnitude than irreversible work.7 kJ/mol = 736.00 atm and 273 K and 15. +95 kJ E.02 g/mol * 40.

condenses at its normal boiling point? A. (a) Estimate the standard enthalpy of vaporization of acetone at its normal boiling point of 56. The standard entropy of vaporization of acetone is approximately 85 J·K−1·mol−1 at its boiling point.80 mol of ideal gas atoms from 12. Hvap = 28 kJ mol–1 and Ssurr = –15 J K–1 Hvap = 28 kJ mol–1 and Ssurr = +85 J K–1 Hvap = 28 kJ mol–1 and Ssurr = –85 J K–1 Hvap = 28 kJ mol–1 and Ssurr = +15 J K–1 Hvap = 28 kJ mol–1 and Ssurr = 0 J K–1 . H = −124 kJ. E. D. g of acetone. A.80 L. A. Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of PCl5(s) from the standard enthalpy of formation of PCl3(l) (Hf = –319. B. E. D.2 J K–1 +39. C.7 kJ mol–1) and PCl3(l) + Cl2(g) → PCl5(s).16. –8.08 g mol–1). C.3 J K–1 +8. (b) What is the entropy change of the surroundings when 10. –196 kJ mol–1 +196 kJ mol–1 –222 kJ mol–1 +444 kJ mol–1 –444 kJ mol–1 17. CH3COCH3 (M = 58. D. E.3 J K–1 –39. B.2 J K–1 0 J K–1 18.2C. Calculate the entropy change associated with the isothermal compression of 4.86 L to 4. C. B.

so the fuel is not worth investigation D.19. It has 0 angular nodes and 3 radial nodes. A chemist exploring potential fuels for use in space considered using vaporized aluminum chloride in a reaction for which the balanced equation is: 2 AlCl3(g) + 9/2 O2(g)  Al2O3(s) + 6 ClO(g) Use the following data (which are for 2000 K) to determine G and decide whether the fuel is worth further investigation: Gf(AlCl3(g)) = −467 kJ·mol−1. This is a 5f orbital. It has 2 angular nodes and 3 radial nodes. Gf(Al2O3(s)) = −1034 kJ·mol−1. . G = –350 kJ. D. the process is spontaneous and the fuel is worth investigation C. It has 3 angular nodes and 3 radial nodes. E. This is a 4s orbital. Choose the correct answer. G = 350 kJ. the process is spontaneous and the fuel is worth investigation 20. Consider the following orbital. It has 1 angular node and 3 radial nodes. G = –350 kJ. G = 350 kJ. A. It has 1 angular node and 2 radial nodes. This is a 6d orbital. Which of the following statements is correct? A. B. Although rockets operate under conditions that are far from standard. This is a 5p orbital. C. an initial estimation of the potential of a rocket fuel might assess whether its oxidation at the high temperatures reached in a rocket is spontaneous. One cannot solve the problem because Gf(O2(g)) is not given E. the process is non-spontaneous and the fuel is not worth investigation B. This is a 4p orbital. the process is spontaneous but G is not negative enough. A rocket fuel would be useless if its oxidation were not spontaneous. Gf(ClO(g)) = +75kJ·mol−1.

Which of the following statements is correct? A Increasing Wavelength. These lines result from transitions into the ground state (Lyman transitions). 23. C. Consider the energy levels for H and for multi-electron atoms. B. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A. E.2 nm. Consider the following emission spectrum from atomic hydrogen. There are 5 degenerate 3d orbitals for all atoms. The fact that the electron configuration of nitrogen is 1s22s22px12py12pz1 instead of 1s22s22px22py12pz0 is an illustration of: A. λ. Consider the line marked A. This line corresponds to transitions from n=5 to n=1 and occurs at a wavelength of 94. For many-electron atoms. In H. E. the 3d energy level is higher than the 4s energy level. B.21. the 2s and 2p states are degenerate but this is not the case for many-electron atoms where 2s has a different energy than 2p. This line corresponds to transitions from n=6 to n=2 and occurs at a wavelength of 410. → A. For H. D. the 2s energy level is lower than the 2p energy level.9 nm. For Ti.0 nm. E. C. This transition corresponds to transitions from n=4 to n=2 and occurs at a wavelength of 433.9 nm. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle The Aufbau Principle The Bohr Theory Hund’s rule The Pauli Exclusion Principle 22. C. B. . This transition corresponds to transitions from n=4 to n=1 and occurs at a wavelength of 97.9 nm. D. D. there are three degenerate states with n=3. This transition corresponds to transitions from n=5 to n=1 and occurs at a wavelength of 113.

P = trigonal bipyramidal C = tetrahedral. C = tetrahedral. Consider the four Lewis structures below labelled (I) through (IV). and/or triple) and lone pairs have not been drawn. structure IV is incorrect so it does not represent a neutral molecule. Which of the following statements regarding these Lewis structures below is incorrect? O Se (I) O O Se (II) O O Se (III) O O Se (IV) O A. N = tetrahedral. N. P = octahedral C = tetrahedral. H H H C H B N H P H H A. all four resonance structures are equally probable structure (III) is the preferred resonance structure structures (I) and (II) are equivalent resonance structures selenium has a formal charge of +1 in (I) and (II) all structures represent neutral molecules Actually. P = see-saw C = trigonal planar. D. Note that the specific types of bonds (single. N = trigonal pyramidal. B = linear. B. E. Which of the following describes the molecular geometry at the C.24. E. B. or any molecule. P = trigonal bipyramidal . B = bent. N = tetrahedral. D. where the dotted lines only indicate how the atoms are connected. B = linear. double. C. and P atoms in CH2BNHPH4? For this problem assume that the following arrangement of atoms. B = bent. B. for that matter. P = trigonal bipyramidal C = trigonal planar. B = linear. 25. C. N = trigonal pyramidal. N = trigonal pyramidal.

O=O.? A.8 L 6. 47. C–O. Using bond energies. 700. –6121 kJ +688 kJ –288 kJ –302 kJ –349 kJ 28. 414. XeF4 SBr4 PCl5 BH3 C2H4 27. 335.65 L 117. D. C=O. Which of the following has a molecular dipole moment? A. If 75. C–H.0 min.8 L . CH3CH2OH(g) + O2(g)  CH3CO2H(g) + H2O(g) A. D.0 L of CO2 effuse through a porous partition in 25.5 L 94 L 59. D. B. estimate the enthalpy change for the gas phase reaction shown below: (hint: you need to draw Lewis structures to solve this problem) BE (in kJ/mol): C–C. E. 498.. E.26. C. 464. C. what volume of CO will effuse through the same partition at the same temperature and pressure in 25. E. 347. B. B. O–H.0 min. C.

D. N = sp2. E.66 x 1014 s-1 450. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding F22-. D. N.does not exist as a molecule. E. N = sp2. When the light beam is interrupted. The photoelectric effect can form the basis of an alarm system. A beam of light (visible or invisible) strikes a metal surface. F22. F2.41 x 10-19 J? A. The bond order is 0. B. F2 has no electrons in the σ*2p orbital. E. B. N = sp2. Si = sp3d C = sp2. and F22+? A. H H C H A. What is the maximum wavelength of light that can be used in such an alarm if the metal is sodium. the current ceases and the alarm is triggered.4 nm 225. Si = sp3 C= sp3. double. F22+ and F2 are diamagnetic.29. D. F22+ has a shorter bond length than F2 and F22-. Which of the following describes the hybridization of the atomic orbitals on the C. C = sp3. and Si atoms in CH2NSiH3? For this problem assume the following arrangement of atoms. with a work function Φ of 4. N = sp3. C. Si = sp3d C = sp2. Si = sp3 C = sp3. N = sp3. Si = sp3 N Si H H 30. The bond order in F22+ is 2.0015 pm 6. producing electrons and a small current. C. C. 31. where the dotted lines only indicate how the atoms are connected. 500 nm 0.2 nm . and/or triple) and lone pairs have not been drawn. B. Note that the specific types of bonds (single.

96 x 10-5 m no correct answer so all answers are marked correct. D. mℓ n = 4. B. E. bent octahedron.32. B. C. The three molecular shapes an sp3 hybridized molecule can have are: A. C. E. C.67493 x 10-27 kg) moving at 1. ms = 1/2 . an anion and an atom an anion and a cation atoms of two different elements anions of two different elements cations of two different elements 35. D. triangular.32 x 10-11 m 2. ℓ = 1. B. bent. 3. C. T-shaped irregular tetrahedron. mℓ n = 3. ms = 0 = 1. trigonal pyramid.68 x 10-11 m 33. D. ℓ = 2. Which of the following could never be isoelectronic species? A. ms = 1/2 = 1. square planar none of these 34. ℓ = 3.21 x 10-40 m 1. ℓ = 1. ms = 1/2 = 1/2. linear tetrahedron. ms = 1/2 = 1. What is the deBroglie wavelength of a neutron (mass of 1. B. E. mℓ = 1.32 x 10-13 m 4. 1. n = 4. E. mℓ n = 4. T-shaped. The quantum numbers of the highest energy electron in the ground state of germanium could be: A.00% of the speed of light? A. D. square pyramid. ℓ = 1. mℓ n = 4.

N2O N2H4 NH3 N2O4 38. The electron configuration for F2 is 2 * 2 2 2 * *  2 s 22 2 p  2 p  2 p  22  22 s p p z x y x y .    2 2 pz  2 2 px  2 2 py  *1 2 px  *1 2 py 37. *  22 p z B. D. determine which of the following statements is false. C. In which of the following molecules would you expect the nitrogen to nitrogen bond to be the shortest? A. A. Using this diagram. E. F2. and Ne2 has a bond order of 0. C. The electron configuration for O2 is . F2 has a bond order of 1. E. N2 the strongest bond gives the shortest bond. Which of the following species exhibits resonance? A. E. and Ne2 are all diamagnetic.36. B. D. The molecular orbital diagram for homonuclear diatomic molecules with Z ≥ 8 is given below. The electron configuration for Ne2 is    2 2s *2 2s 2 2s *2 2s 2 2 pz  2 2 px  2 2 py  *2 2 px  *2 2 py . OF2 SO3 N2 PCl5 ClO3- . O2 has a bond order of 2. D. B. C. O2.

6oC 58. increased ionic bonding with increasing atomic mass. As soon as crystallization begins heat will be liberated and the mixture will warm back up to the melting point. C. increased strength of dipole-dipole forces with increasing molecular size. B. 40. Element F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 molar mass 38 70. 41. A liquid cooled below its melting point is still clear and fluid.0oC -34. Consider the following data for the halogen molecules. C. Which of the following events is least likely to occur? A. E.8 boiling point -188. CH3F CH4 CH3Cl CH3OH CH3CH3 42. E. above the triple point pressure at the critical point above the critical point temperature only gases can be sublimed below the triple point pressure . It may crystallize very rapidly if a crystal of the solid phase is dropped in. increased hydrogen bonding with increasing molar mass. B. E. D. A solid can be sublimed under which of the following conditions? A. which of the following liquids should have the lowest vapour pressure? A.8oC 184. increased ionic character with greater molar mass. increased strength of dispersion forces with increasing number of electrons. D.39. It may be transformed into a glass. D. C. B. C. E. Judging by their structures.8 253. D.0oC The trend of increasing boiling point going down the group is the result of A. As soon as crystallization begins heat will be absorbed and the sudden chilling will freeze the rest very rapidly. It may never crystallize.9 159. B.

3 x 10-2 . D. C. Under which of the following conditions are the solid and vapour phases in equilibrium? A. E. 5. D.2 atm 30°C and 0. A. B.3 x 10-2 3. D. How many moles of the gas were present? The vapor pressure of water at 10oC is 9. C.2 x 10-1 3. What intermolecular force is MOST important between liquid CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 molecules in a pure sample of the compound? A. C.2 mm Hg. B. B.5 atm 20°C and 0. Ion-ion Ion-dipole Dipole-dipole London dispersion Hydrogen bonding 45.1 x 10-2 4.43. E. A sample of a gas collected over water at 10oC and 1 atm had a volume of 1 L.3 x 10-1 1.5 atm 15°C and 0. E. 10°C and 0.2 atm 30°C and 0.5 atm 44.

"a" refers to the size and "b" refers to the speed of the gas particles. B. C. volume. B. "a" refers to the size of the gas particles and "b" refers to the repulsive forces between the particles. D. respectively.46. liquid and gas phases are in equilibrium at which the density of liquid phase becomes equal to the density of gas phase above which a substance cannot be vaporized 47. R. n and T are pressure. number of moles and absolute temperature. "a" refers to the attractive forces between gas particles and "b" refers to their size. Which of the following statements is correct with regard to the coefficients a and b in the equation? A. E. C. "a" refers to the speed and "b" refers to the size of the gas particles. V. universal gas constant. E. none of the above. The critical temperature is the only temperature: A. D. The van der Waals equation of state for a gas is (P + an2/V2)(V .nb) = nRT where P. . at which the density is a minimum at which liquid and gas phases are in equilibrium at which solid.

30 26.8 127.9 138.09 30.3 138.Data/Formula Sheet Symbol R Kb NA F e h mp me RH c Value 8..6261 × 10 1.97 32.8 186..0 183.0 1atm = 101.4 107.8 6.9 106.2 195.91 95.31451 J K–1 mol–1 0.55 65.07 35.2 209.39 69.92 78.08206 L∙atm mol–1 K–1 1.6726 × 10 9.1 102.00 18.1 4 Be 12 Mg 20 Ca 38 Sr 56 Ba 88 Ra 226 5 B 13 Al 21 Sc 39 Y 57 La 89 Ac 227 6 C 14 Si 32 Ge 50 Sn 82 Pb 7 N 15 P 33 As 51 Sb 83 Bi 8 O 16 S 34 Se 52 Te 84 Po 209 9 F 17 Cl 35 Br 53 I 85 At 210 10 Ne 18 Ar 36 Kr 83.94 101.9 131.91 91.15 K E = h w ( A)  c =  h   mv u rms 3RT  M  m  f (u )  4   2 k T   B   x( A)  3/ 2 u e 2  mu 2 2 k BT xp  h 4 m ( A) m ( A)  m (B )  ..0 2.179 × 10–18 J 2.99 24.9 137.81 12.1094 × 10 –19 5 1 1A 1 1 H 1.87 50. H  broken  BE   BE  formed  b( A)   c( A)  n( A) V density = m/V  1 1 E  hv  RH  2  2   n1 n2    U = q + w  y B  * x A PA x(A) +x(B) + …=1 V1 V2  T1 T2 P1V1 = P2V2 pB = xBKH H = U + PV    P  a Vm  b  RT 2   Vm   PV = nRT pA + pB + … = P C  q T 2 27R 2TC 64PC w = –PeV = –ngasRT yA  CV pA  * * p A  pB x A PA  1  x A PB U  H T CP  T 1   pB  * * p A  pB x A PA  1  x A PB * x A PB U = qv H = qp V=nRT CP – CV = R [H ]  2 pA = xAPA* a b RT 8PC S o   S o (P)   S o (R)  K   H   1 1  ln 2   K  T  T   R  2 1  1 [OH ]  2  K b  K b  4K bC b o o HT  H 298  CP T  298 P* ln 2* P  1  H vap   R   1 1  T  T   1  2 2  Ka  Ka  4KaCa H o   Hfo (P)   Hfo (R) [H ]  KaCa  [O H ]  KbCb pH = (pKa + pCa)/2 ( ( ) ) pOH = (pKb + pCb)/2 S  q rev T 2 pH  pK a  log [base] [acid] √ k  E ln  2    a k  R  1 S  G = H – TS H T CT S  T or S  C ln T2 T1 S  R ln V2 P  R ln 2 V1 P1  1 1    T T  1  2 Gº = Hº – TSº KE = ½ mv2 h = KE +  G  G  RT lnQ G  RT ln K o M = m/n G   Gfo (P)   Gfo (R) Suniverse = Ssystem + Ssurroundings w’ = –nFE Q = nF Q = It E  E  RT ln Q nF Gº = –nFEº ln[A]t = –kt + ln[A]o  nFE   K  exp    RT  1 1   kt [A]t [A]o Ecell = Eox + Ered [A]t = –kt + [A]0 t1/ 2  ln 2 k k = A exp{–Ea/RT} 2r  L  a 4r  2L  2a 4r  3L  3a b  2a c  3a .34 63.2 190.01 14.6022 × 10 6.0 7 6 58 Ce 140 59 Pr 141 60 Nd 144 61 Pm 145 62 Sm 150 63 Eu 152.22 92.0 238.012 10.1 197.99 58.3 –34 –27 –31 Js kg kg –1 75 Re 132.99 20.90 37 Rb 55 Cs 87 Fr 223 54 Xe 86 Rn 222 C 6 85.61 74.9 181.95 4 22 Ti 40 Zr 72 Hf 23 V 41 Nb 73 Ta 24 Cr 42 Mo 74 W 25 Mn 43 Tc 99 26 Fe 44 Ru 76 Os 27 Co 45 Rh 77 Ir 28 Ni 46 Pd 78 Pt 29 Cu 47 Ag 79 Au 30 Zn 48 Cd 80 Hg 31 Ga 49 In 81 Tl 40.08 44.0 200.45 39.62 88.18 3 22.8 118.941 9.9 112. C mol–1 1.3807 × 10–23 J K–1 6..9979 × 10 m s 8 7 90 Th 232 91 Pa 92 U 93 Np 237 94 Pu 244 95 Am 243 96 Cu 247 97 Bk 247 98 Cf 251 99 Es 252 100 Fm 257 101 Md 258 231.94 52.47 87.00 54.003 2 3 Li 11 Na 19 K 39. n( A) m(S) w(A) + w(B) + …=1 n( A) n( A)  n(B)  .94 55.6 126.72 73.84 58.2 192.0 175.008 2 2A 3 3B 4 4B 5 5B 6 6B 7 7B 8 8B 9 8B 10 8B 11 1B 12 2B 13 3A 14 4A 15 5A 16 6A 17 7A 18 8A 2 He 4.325 kPa = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr 1L = 1 dm 3 0ºC = 273.01 16.0 64 Gd 157 65 Tb 159 66 Dy 163 67 Ho 165 68 Er 167 69 Tm 169 70 Yb 102 No 259 71 Lu 103 Lr 262 173.0221 × 1023 mol–1 96485.7 121.6 204.98 28.96 79.96 47.4 207.4 114.

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