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GUIDELINE ON SAFER SLOPE DESIGN

Existing Proposed

1 General 1.0 General

The Contractor shall study and search all reports on The Contractor shall search and study all reports on feasibility
geotechnical conditions and engineering carried out. The study, development plans and investigations related to the works
Contractor shall undertake soil investigations and material so as to enable full understanding of factors which may affect the
surveys for the purpose of engineering design and works. Notwithstanding requirements stipulated herein the
construction of the works. Contractor design should satisfy the aspects of aesthetics,
functional requirements, safety suitability and effectiveness
completed to the intent of the Works.

2.0 Survey Data

2.1 General
The Contractor shall carry out detailed topographical,
hydrographic and land surveys of the proposed site of the Works,
which may be necessary to supplement available survey
information, if any, for the satisfactory execution of design and
construction of the Works. Survey plans shall be prepared in
scales appropriate to their purpose.

2.2 Discrepancy
Where there is any discrepancy within the Tender
Drawing/Proposal the P.D shall have the right to decide between
the discrepant items and the Contractor shall comply with the
decision without any additional cost to the Government
Existing Proposed

2.3 Modification
Any drawings shown in the Tender Proposal are considered as
the complete working drawings and based on the correct survey
data. The drawing shall be used for the completion of the whole
of the Works. Any necessary subsequent modification made in
order to suit the final accepted layout shall not be treated as a
variation to the Contract.

2.4 Constructions/setting out survey


The contractor shall not begin any construction of the work before
the construction / setting out survey has been verified to confirm
the “design” OGL and tender drawing. Any discrepancy between
tender drawing and construction drawing based on
construction/setting out survey should be informed to the PD. Any
construction work not following construction drawing approved by
the PD will not be treated as a variation to the contract.

3.0 Site Investigation

3.1 General
The Contractor shall undertake his own additional soil
investigation and material surveys for the purpose of preparation
of the engineering design and construction of the Works. The
preliminary site investigation results, if provided by the
Government are to be used as a preliminary/general guide only.
The Government is not obliged to guarantee the completeness
and accuracy of the preliminary soil investigation results.
Existing Proposed

3.2 Design Data


All details of the geotechnical design proposed/submitted to JKR
shall be based on the data interpreted from the SI report. All
detail design shall be accompanied by a summary of the results
of field exploration and laboratory investigation. “Worse case”
scenarios may be use where information is scarce, data are still
necessary for geotechnical design parameter for approval of
construction work.

3.3 Design soil parameters


Design soil parameters (shall be shown in figures/ photos
together with selected values) includes;

i. Basic soil properties, e.g., unit weight, liquid and plastic limit,
etc.
ii. Chemical properties of subsoil and its effect to the foundation
structures
iii. Consolidation parameters, compression and recompression
indices, drainage path, coefficient of consolidation (cv and ch)
of subsoil, etc.
iv. Shear strength parameters include effective (c’ and Ø’) and
total stress strength (su).
v. Groundwater level / regime and prediction

3.4 Confirmation SI
The contractor shall not begin construction of the work until
confirmatory SI has been carried out to confirm the previous SI
data. The contractor should propose the location of the
confirmatory SI subject to PD approval before start the
Existing Proposed
confirmatory SI work. Any discrepancy between previous SI and
the confirmatory SI results should be informed to the PD. Any
construction work which begins without the confirmatory SI being
carried out and without PD approval shall not be treated as a
variation to the contract.

4.0 Engineering Geological Mapping and investigation

Independent Geological mapping of the subject area should be


carried out at a scale which shows sufficient detail to adequately
define the geologic conditions present. Existing geological maps
should not be treated a basis for understanding the site
conditions. If available geological maps are used to portray site
conditions, they must be field checked and updated to reflect
geologic, topographic, and/or changes which have occurred since
the map publication. It is necessary for the geologist to extend
mapping into adjacent areas where mapping have not been
carried out previously to adequately define geological conditions
relevant to the project area area.

1.1 Independent Check on Geotechnical Designs 5.0 Independent Check on Slope Stabilisation Designs

All geotechnical designs shall be independently checked All geotechnical design shall be independently checked by a
by experts, to be appointed by the Contractor and the prior geotechnical checker, to be appointed by the Contractor and the
appointment of which is subjected to the approval of the prior appointment of which is subjected to the approval of the
P.D. The independent checker shall have working P.D. The minimum requirements for the expert are as follows:
experience in the geotechnical design work at least :
(i) For the project cost less than RM50 Million, the
(i) PHD : 10 years ; OR geotechnical checker shall have at least Degree in Civil
Existing Proposed
(ii) Master : 15 years ; OR with at least 10 years of working experience in
(iii) Bachelor : 20 years ; OR geotechnical design works and shall have published at
(iv) Published technical papers in their specialized fields least 5 technical papers in their specialized fields and
not less than 20 papers in International Conference. registered with BEM as a Professional Engineer.

(ii) For the project cost more than RM50 Million but less
than RM100 Million, the geotechnical checker shall
have at least M.Sc/M.Eng with at least 10 years of
working experiences in geotechnical design works and
shall have published at least 10 technical papers in
their specialized fields (not less than 5 technical papers
in nation/international seminar or conferences) and
registered with BEM as a Professional Engineer.

(iii) For the project cost more than RM100 Million, the
geotechnical checker shall have at least PhD
(Geotechnical) with at least 10 years of working
experiences in geotechnical design works and shall
have published at least 15 technical papers in
international seminar or conferences in their
specialized fields and registered with BEM as a
Professional Engineer.
Existing Proposed

1.2 Earthwork 6.0 Earthwork

1.2.1 Fill Material 6.1 Fill Material

Materials used in the construction of fill slopes and Materials used in the construction of fill slopes and embankments
embankments shall, as far as possible be those excavated shall, as far as possible be those excavated from adjacent cuts.
from adjacent cuts. Rock excavated from the cuts may be Rock excavated from the cuts may be used as material for fills if
used as material for fills if they are crushed to acceptable they are crushed to acceptable grading envelopes, with maximum
grading envelopes, with maximum size of individual pieces size of individual pieces not greater than 100mm. Drying out of
not greater than 100mm. Drying out of the fill material the fill material during hauling and handling from cut to position of
during hauling and handling from cut to position of placing placing shall have to be allowed for.
shall have to be allowed for.

1.3 Settlement Analysis 7.0 Settlement Analysis

Settlement analysis shall be carried out for the fill slopes Settlement analysis shall be carried out for the fill slopes and
and embankments depending on the subsoil conditions embankments depending on the subsoil conditions encountered.
encountered. Design of fill slopes or embankment shall be Design of fill slopes or embankment shall be based on 90%
based on 90% settlement during construction. settlement during construction.

Ground improvement methods are used to calculate If ground improvement methods are used, the settlement analysis
settlement. Some typical methods are vertical drain, stone will consider the type of the ground improvement method used.
columns, etc.
Existing Proposed

1.4 Stability Design of Slopes 8.0 Engineering Analysis

1.4.1 Factor of Safety 8.1 Slope Stability Analysis


8.1.1 Slope stability analysis, including establishing design
The partial factors applied in the various materials criteria and performing calculations, will generally be
and loadings are as follows:- required for all cut, fill and natural slopes when the slope
gradient is steeper than 1 vertical to 2 horizontal and/or
- Soil cohesion any gradient when the slope height exceeds 10 meter.
- Soil internal angle of friction Slope stability analysis may be required for slopes at 1:2
- Soil bulk density gradient or flatter and/or less than 10 meter in height if
- Density of water there is evidence that the slope may not meet JKR
- Strength of steel reinforcement minimum standards.
- Strength of geotextile reinforcement 8.1.2 The data to be utilized in the slope stability analysis shall
- Creep strength of geotextile be based on detailed site plans, detailed field
- Strength of geogrid reinforcement descriptions, on-site exploration data, and laboratory
- Creep strength of geogrid test data. It is the responsibility of the geotechnical
- External loads engineer to determine the weakest potential failure
surface based on the above factors. In performing any
The partial factor only applies to limit state, not limit analysis, the worst possible conditions must be utilized.
equilibrium design. 8.1.3 Slope stability analysis shall include
i. Stability analysis for the temporary stability measured
during construction
ii. Cut and fill slope stability analysis should include both
circular and non-circular analysis and in multi mode of
failure.
iii. Slope stability analysis for fill should include surcharge
load.
Existing Proposed

1.4.2 Rock Slopes 9.0 Rock Slopes

Rock slopes shall be cut to 4:1 (vertical:horizontal) unless Rock slopes shall be cut to 4:1 (vertical:horizontal) for weathering
analysis indicates that it is unstable thus requiring grade I and 3:1 for weathering grade II unless analysis indicates
extensive stabilization measures. The type of stabilization that it is unstable thus requiring extensive stabilization measures.
measures to be used can be one of the following : The type of stabilization measures to be used can be one of the
following :
- permanent rock anchors
- rock dowels - permanent rock anchors
- rock bolting - rock dowels
- buttress walls - rock bolting
- counterforts - buttress walls
- relieve drains - counterforts
- gunite protective surface seal - relieve drains
- wire netting - gunite protective surface seal
- wire netting

1.4.3 Cut Slopes 10.0 Cut Slopes

This includes cut slopes in residual soils and in completely This includes cut slopes in residual soils and in completely
decomposed rock. All untreated slopes shall be designed decomposed rock. All untreated slopes shall be designed to 1:1
to 1:1 to 1:1.5 with 2m berm width and 6m height with a to 1:1.5 with 3m berm width and 6m height with a Factor of
Factor of Safety greater than 1.3. For steeper slopes, Safety greater than 1.3. For steeper slopes, stabilization
stabilization measures are to be provided such as :- measures are to be provided such as :-

- soil nailing with slope surface - soil nailing with slope surface protection
protection/guniting - permanent ground anchors
- permanent ground anchors - retaining walls, etc.
Existing Proposed
- retaining walls, etc.
The Minimum Factor of Safety for treated slopes shall be 1.5
The Minimum Factor of Safety for treated slopes shall be
1.5 The maximum number of berms in a cut slope is restricted to six
berms. No slope should be cut more than six berms. The solution
Generally the maximum number of berms in a cut slope is should be cater not cut the hill more than six berms example
restricted to six berms unless there is difficulty to construct tunnel, rock shade and etc.
it to six berms due to the terrain encountered.

1.4.4 Fill Slopes and Embankments 11.0 Fill Slopes and Embankments

Fill slopes and embankments shall be constructed to a Fill slopes and embankments shall be constructed to a gradient of
gradient of 1:1.5 to 1:2 with 2m berm width and 6m height 1:1.5 to 1:2 with 3m berm width and 6m height with a Factor of
with a Factor of Safety greater than 1.25. For steeper Safety greater than 1.3. For steeper slopes, stabilization
slopes, stabilization measures shall be provided such as : measures shall be provided such as :
- geogrid/geotextiles reinforcement - geogrid/geotextiles reinforcement
- reinforced concrete retaining structure - reinforced concrete retaining structure
- reinforced fill structure - reinforced fill structure
- replacing the fills with elevated structures - replacing the fills with elevated structures

1.4.5 Typical of Slope Construction 12.0 Typical of Slope Construction

Some typical slope construction and the criteria for Some typical slope construction and the criteria for selection of
selection of each measure adopted are as follows:- each measure adopted are as follows:-

No. of Typical Construction No. of Typical Construction


Existing Proposed
Berms Berms
<3 Normal Slopes 1:1.5 to 1:2 <3 Normal Slopes 1:1.5 to 1:2
(Vertical:Horizontal) (Vertical:Horizontal)
SIDE-LONG FILL
SIDE-LONG FILL <3 Reinforced Slopes 4:1 <3 Reinforced Slopes 4:1
ON SLOPE
ON SLOPE (Vertical:Horizontal) (Vertical:Horizontal)
>6 Replace with Retaining >6 Replace with Retaining Structure
Structure <6 Normal Slope 1:1.5 to 1:2
<6 Normal Slope 1:1.5 to 1:2 (Vertical:Horizontal)
(Vertical:Horizontal) EMBANKMENTS >6 Reinforced Slope 4:1
>6 Reinforced Slope 4:1 (Vertical:Horizontal)
EMBANKMENTS
(Vertical:Horizontal) >6 Replace with Elevated Structure
>6 Replace with Elevated <6 Normal Slopes 1:1 with surface
CUT SLOPES
Structure drains and 3.0m berms
<6 Normal Slopes 1:1 with Natural
CUT SLOPES surface drains and 2.0m Ground Typical Construction
berms Slope
Natural ≤ 35o Normal Slopes 1:1.5 to 1:2
Ground Typical Construction (Vertical:Horizontal)
SIDE-LONG FILL
Slope ≤ 35o Reinforced Slopes 4:1
ON SLOPE
≤ 35o Normal Slopes 1:1.5 to 1:2 (Vertical:Horizontal)
(Vertical:Horizontal) ≥ 35o Replace with Retaining Structure
o
SIDE-LONG FILL ≤ 35 Reinforced Slopes 4:1 ≤ 35o Normal Slope 1:1.5 to 1:2
ON SLOPE (Vertical:Horizontal) (Vertical:Horizontal)
≥ 35o Replace with Retaining EMBANKMENTS ≥ 35o Reinforced Slope 4:1
Structure (Vertical:Horizontal)
≤ 35o Normal Slope 1:1.5 to 1:2 ≥ 35o Replace with Elevated Structure
(Vertical:Horizontal) CUT SLOPES <6 Soil Nail stabilized slope 4:1
≥ 35o Reinforced Slope 4:1
EMBANKMENTS
(Vertical:Horizontal)
≥ 35o Replace with Elevated
Structure
CUT SLOPES >6 Soil Nail stabilized slope 4:1
Existing Proposed

1.4.6 Drains 13.0 Drains

(a) Surface Drains 13.1 Surface Drains

Surface drains in slope faces shall be provided in addition Surface drains in slope faces shall be provided in addition to
to normal cut off drains at the top of slope and to berm normal cut off drains at the top of slope and to berm drains.
drains. Down the slope surface drains shall be provided Down the slope surface drains shall be provided for all 1:1 cut
for all 1:1 cut slope surface and all filled slope surfaces slope surface and all filled slope surfaces which have 1:1.5 or
which have 1:1.5 or steeper gradient. steeper gradient.

(b) Subsurface Drains 13.2 Subsurface Drains

Subsurface drains such as horizontal drains and drainage Subsurface drains such as horizontal drains and drainage
blankets shall be provided for cut and fill slopes and for blankets shall be provided for cut and fill slopes and for areas
areas where the groundwater level is found to be high. where the groundwater level is found to be high.

1.4.7 Reinforced Structures 14.0 Reinforced Structures

Reinforced structures shall be design according to BS 8006.Reinforced structures shall be design according to BS 8006. The
The types of foundations for the reinforced structures shall types of foundations for the reinforced structures shall be design
be design based on the subsoil profile and geotechnical based on the subsoil profile and geotechnical properties of
properties of footing subsoil at each location. Typical footing subsoil at each location. Typical foundations footing are
foundations footing are driven piles and micro piles. driven piles and micro piles.

Load or bearing tests shall also be carried out to assess Load or bearing tests shall also be carried out to assess the
the foundation capacity. foundation capacity.
Existing Proposed

1.4.8 Geotechnical Design Criteria For Road Works 15.0 Geotechnical Design Criteria For Geotechnical
Works
Some of geotechnical design criteria for road works
as shown in Table 1. Some of geotechnical design criteria for geotechnical work as
shown in Table 1.

16.0 Quantities For Geotechnical Works

16.1 Any quantities as indicated in the Bill of Quantities for


geotechnical works including on rock and unsuitable
material shall be taken as purely indicative.
16.2 Where the quantities of item of Works as stated as
‘provisional’, the quantities for that item shall be treated as
the maximum quantities.
16.3 In the event that total value of the remeasured quantities
exceeds the value in bill of quantities, the difference
between the total value of remeasured quantities shall be
borne by the contractor. However if the total value of the
remeasured quantities is less than the quantities in bill of
quantities, the saving shall accrued to the Government
and the Contract Sum shall be adjusted accordingly.
Table 1: SOME TYPICAL GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR ROAD WORKS
MINIMUM DESIGN LIFE MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE MOVEMENTS
DESIGN COMPONENT MODE OF FAILURE FACTOR OF (durability of
VERTICAL LATERAL DIFFERENTIAL
SAFETY materials)
1.1 Local & global stability 1.3
1. Unreinforced Slopes (cut & fill slopes) 75 yrs
1.2 Bearing (fill) 2.0 Analysis should be according to GEOTECHNICAL MANUAL FOR
2.1 Local & global stability 1.5 SLOPES (1984), GEO Hong Kong
Reinforced or treated slopes
2. (cut & fill slopes) 75 yrs
(not on soft ground)
2.2 Bearing (fill) 1.5
3.1 Tensile Resistance 2.0
3.2 Resistance at Soil Grout Geo Spec 1 (1989), GEO Hong Kong
3. Permanent Anchors 75 yrs
Interface 3.0 BS 8081
3.3 Creep/corrosion
4.1 Overturning 1.8
4.2 Sliding 1.6 15mm along face of wall
4. Rigid Retaining Structures 75 yrs 15mm along face of wall 1 : 150 along face of wall
4.3 Overall Stability 1.5 Geoguide 1 (1983), GEO Hong Kong
4.4 Bearing 2.0
External Stability ± 15mm from reference
5. Reinforced fill walls/structures BS 8006 120 yrs ± 5mm per metre height 1 : 100 along face of wall
Internal Stability alignment
12mm along axis of pile at pile head at
design load.
6. Individual Foundation Piles 6.1 Shaft Resistance 2.0 38mm or 10% pile size at pile head at
75 yrs
(mainly under axial loads) twice design load.

6.2 Base Resistance 2.0 BS 8004


7. 12mm along axis of pile at pile head at
Individual Foundation loads
(mainly under lateral & design load 12mm perpendicular to axis of
Ultimate Lateral Resistance 2.5 75 yrs
bending loads perpendicular pile at design load
to axis of pile)
BS 8004
12mm at Working Load
8. Pile group Block Bearing Capacity 2.0 75 yrs
BS 8004
As for
individual As 4 above for rigid retaining structures
9. Piles as retaining structures As for 4, 6 & 7 above 75 yrs
foundation BS 8004
piles
10.1 Bearing (short term) 1.4 7 years post construction settlement :
10. Embankment on Soft Ground 10.2 Local & global slope 1.2 75 yrs (i) within 10m from bridge approach < 100mm
stability (long term) (ii) road < 250mm