Power System Protection S.A.

Soman Power System Dynamics
Overview

Power System Protection
S.A.Soman
Department of Electrical Engineering IIT Bombay

System Protection Relays
Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay

Lightning Protection
Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices

Protection Paradigms - System Protection

Summary

Protection Paradigms - System Protection
Power System Protection S.A.Soman Power System Dynamics
Overview

1

Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary

2

System Protection Relays
Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay

Lightning Protection
Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices

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Summary

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Soman Power System Dynamics Overview 1 Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary 2 System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices 3 Summary 4 .A.System Protection Power System Protection S.Protection Paradigms .

Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary .Soman Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Overview of Power System Dynamics System protection requires study of system dynamics and control. Post fault system stability is determined by transient stability studies.A. Power system dynamics Can be described in terms of a set of differential and algebraic equations.System Protection Power System Protection S.Protection Paradigms . Analysis is done by EMTP.

System Protection Power System Protection S.A.Protection Paradigms .Soman Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary .

the local plant generators have to be isolated from the grid. Under voltage relays. Vector shift relays. Reverse power flow relays.Protection Paradigms .A. Under frequency and over frequency relays.System Protection Power System Protection S. During grid disturbances.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Following relays are used to detect system disturbances and for enhancing system stability. For example. consider a voltage distribution system with local generation which is synchronized with the grid. System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary . Rate of change of frequency relays.

Protection Paradigms .System Protection Power System Protection S.A.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview 1 Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary 2 System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices 3 Summary 4 .

System Protection Power System Protection S.A.Protection Paradigms .Soman Power System Dynamics Overview Example System with Local Generation System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary .

Protection Paradigms .Soman Power System Dynamics Overview Loss of Utility in the Example System System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary .A.System Protection Power System Protection S.

System Protection Power System Protection S.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview 1 Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary 2 System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices 3 Summary 4 .Protection Paradigms .A.

Soman Power System Dynamics Overview Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Load-generation imbalance in a system leads to fall in frequency.A. System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary . In order to speed up the islanding decision.Protection Paradigms . rate of change of frequency relay is used. Load-generation balance has to be maintained in the islanded system. Underfrequency relay detects this drop and isolates local generation from the grid.System Protection Power System Protection S.

Protection Paradigms .System Protection Power System Protection S.A.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview 1 Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary 2 System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices 3 Summary 4 .

Soman Power System Dynamics Overview Undervoltage Relay If the fault on the grid is close to the plant. Reverse Power Relay During prefault state. voltage at the supply point of plant generator drops. power was being fed to the plant.A.System Protection Power System Protection S.Protection Paradigms . This drop in voltage is used as a signal in undervoltage relay. System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary .

System Protection Power System Protection S. power was being fed to the plant.A. This drop in voltage is used as a signal in undervoltage relay.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview Undervoltage Relay If the fault on the grid is close to the plant. System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary . the plant will be isolated from the grid and it may be connected to the downstream loads. Reverse Power Relay During prefault state. During fault in the utility system. voltage at the supply point of plant generator drops.Protection Paradigms .

the plant will be isolated from the grid and it may be connected to the downstream loads. Reverse Power Relay During prefault state. voltage at the supply point of plant generator drops.System Protection Power System Protection S.Protection Paradigms . This drop in voltage is used as a signal in undervoltage relay. Then.A. During fault in the utility system. power will flow in reverse direction from plant generator to feed the downstream loads.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview Undervoltage Relay If the fault on the grid is close to the plant. System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary . power was being fed to the plant.

power will flow in reverse direction from plant generator to feed the downstream loads. This reversal of power flow can be used to island the plant generator.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview Undervoltage Relay If the fault on the grid is close to the plant. power was being fed to the plant.System Protection Power System Protection S. System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary . This drop in voltage is used as a signal in undervoltage relay. During fault in the utility system. Then.A. Reverse Power Relay During prefault state. voltage at the supply point of plant generator drops.Protection Paradigms . the plant will be isolated from the grid and it may be connected to the downstream loads.

A.Protection Paradigms .System Protection Power System Protection S.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview Operation of Reverse Power Flow Pelay System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary .

System Protection Power System Protection S.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview Operation of Reverse Power Relay System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary .A.Protection Paradigms .

Protection Paradigms .System Protection Power System Protection S.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview 1 Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary 2 System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices 3 Summary 4 .A.

Lightning overvoltages can be classified as Induced overvoltages.Protection Paradigms . Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary . Overvoltages by back flashovers.System Protection Power System Protection S. Overvoltages due to shielding failures.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Overvoltages Lightning discharges produce overvoltage surges and they are extremely harmful.A.

A.System Protection Power System Protection S.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview 1 Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary 2 System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices 3 Summary 4 .Protection Paradigms .

A.System Protection Power System Protection S. Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary . Surge Arrestors like ZnO varistor.Soman Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Lightning Protection Devices The most commonly used devices for protection against lightning are: Shielding by earth wires. Proper earthing of transmission towers.Protection Paradigms .

Soman Power System Dynamics Overview System Protection Relays Example System Underfrequency and Rate of Change of Frequency Relays Undervoltage and Reverse Power Relay Summary Power System Dynamics.Protection Paradigms .A. Various System Protection Relays. Lightning Protection. Lightning Protection Lightning Overvoltages Lightning Protection Devices Summary .System Protection Power System Protection S.

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