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Pamekasan Regency Madura) Tri Cahyono¹, Asfi Manzilati² ¹Economics Departement, Brawijaya University (UB), Indonesia ²Economics Departement, Brawijaya University (UB), Indonesia Abstract Resource potential (natural and human) in Indonesia is extremely abundant and diverse types. However, the abundance of these resources is not matched with the optimal management. A lot of economic potential in various areas of abandoned due to lack of willingness from the government and local communities to explore further. As happened in the Branta Tinggi Village District Tlanakan Pamekasan Regency Madura. Various types of natural wealth and potential of human resources was not accompanied by management of the maximum. Even the people tend to work as beggars. For this reason this study uses phenomenological approach in order to know the social phenomena. The purpose of this study is to determine: (1). How can local communities manage the existing economic potential. (2). Why do people prefer to beg. (3). The strategy of application of sustainable entrepreneur. Findings from the research include: (1). Economic competencies less well explored because of lack of creativity and knowledge in managing people. (2). Participants choose to beg because it's easy to obtain pieces of rupiah. (3). Strategy will be very effective if done in advance of social identifikasai to know the grass roots issues in depth. Keywords: management of economic potential, begging, entrepreneur 1. Introduction Socio-economic problems emergence of pockets of poverty. The reason people are not competent to work in odd jobs until volunteered to live as a vagrant or beggar. Such as the case in one area in the village of Branta Tinggi Pamekasan. The case is very unique in this area, where most citizens live their daily activities as a beggar. It is surprising when there is information beggar community in Madura. Areas which upholds the moral values of 1
until recently become an important point for the government in
improving the development process. Inequity of distribution policies, development (both physical and
nonphysical), and local income been singled out as the main issues affecting the poverty rate in various regions. This is because the policy model is wrong and can stimulate the
Islam with the character of hard working people there were more people who behave begging
Why do people prefer to beg. (3). The strategy of application of
especially in the rural Branta Tinggi. Rifa'i in A'la (2010) give some reason that Madurese 2. Theory 2.1. Tackling Begging the Causes by of
community had the bearing that rests on local values are: responsive, resilient, entrepreneur, advanture , and sparingly and carefully, they are also sincere loyal and have strong links with religion. Tenacity was reflected by their behavior to meet the demands of the economy. If further review, the
To overcome the problem of beggars, especially mentally
begging, it must first be known contributing factors. The most
prominent factor is the problem of poverty that directly hit them
mentally to beg. According to Staley in Soesilo (2007), poverty stems from the fact that the total
economic potential existing in these villages are very abundant. So, if this potential can be properly explored, not inevitable slowing down of the regional economy can be excited again. Of course, to enhance
productivity in developing countries is very low as a result of: lack of an imperfect capital markets, and
economic backwardness. From this fact, many of the marginalized are produced, including the beggars as the most visible groups that rely on the mercy of others. In other factors, low levels of life that is often used as a gauge of poverty is essentially only one chain of a number of factors which is a syndrome of poverty (PRSP Team of UGM, 1996).
production is required planting souls entrepreneurs in local communities. Soul planting method is not as easy as turning the palm of the hand alone, but required an with
complex social phenomena. For this reason the main focus of this research is to determine: (1). How can local communities manage the existing economic potential. (2).
In a broader level of thinking, the real cause of poverty that directly affects the number of beggars and mentally create begging to be viewed in the light of political economy, which will require local government to take the appropriate policy. In this case, Yustika (2009) proposed the four clauses that have the potential to be the cause of the difficulty in efforts to reduce poverty. First, is the power of business sectors groups and
areas due to government policies that concentrated economic activities in urban areas. From the explanation, it is clear that in terms of socioeconomic profile of poverty is also a product of the impact of structuresharing access (filtering-effect) it results in poor access of the poor in a variety of opportunities, resources and fruit development (PRSP Team of UGM, 1996).
2.2 Prevention of Mental Begging Based Development Through
fishermen, workers, informal sector, etc.) are biased, so the energy to influence policy become lame. Second, the imbalance
Regional Advantages In accordance with national development objectives Indonesian man who wants to form completely and evenly on the entire people of Indonesia. Development should be wearing at all levels of society. Closely related is that after the era of autonomy, the role of regions in this increasingly urgent need for further investigation. In the abstract concept of the region, Wahyudi (2007) distinguish the two different views, namely objective and subjective views. Subjective view of looking at the area as a means to an end, only one idea, a model to help study the world. 3
between the rate of development of economic economic sectors due to the
preferences that are not accurate. Examples are policies that encourage development of industrial sector / service without involving the
agricultural sector in the past, has created pockets of poverty that are not small. Third, economic inequality among sectors of development due to failure of development strategies. Fourth, the asymmetry of the
relationship between urban and rural
Region is a classification method, an intention to separate the properties in the area where the only natural area is only the surface of the earth where humans live. While the objective view, looking at the region as a destination in itself, a
effectively. What is expected is actually the region should be able to map the leading commodities in their respective areas of competence so that development can be directed toward specialization area seeded (Muhammad, 2006). This is expected to support the planning of the establishment of micro business
determination that real, an organism which can be identified and mapped. In an effort to enhance the economic development of a region, in addition to the capital and labor, also requires a careful planning and understanding of existing
which will turn suggesting the public about the importance of
entrepreneurship as a sustainer of life. Porter in Muhammad (2006) argued about the "Competitive
weaknesses and strengths. Planning is a way of thinking about socioeconomic issues, primarily on futureoriented, regarding the relationship between objectives and collective decisions and pursue policies and programs that are comprehensive (Wahyudi (2007). So after all can be classified and described, the next method is to plan with inputs that have been obtained, so the classification
Advantage" which describes how a developing area is actually inspired by the ideas of school of
commodities. Porter's ideas about the decisive advantage of a nation is influenced intertwined by four factors are
conditions; Firms Strategy, Structure and Rivalry; Related and Supporting Industries; and Demand Conditions. The existence of the domestic competition cluster among actors of the same economic activity will encourage the creation factor, from here will continuously improve
potential of a region can be mapped based on its superiority. Furthermore, that until now there are many areas that do not understand about the direction of development. Limited resources are
competitive advantage in this cluster. 4
3. Method 3.1. Approach Because the objects under study are not limited to the
3.3. Informant To determine the accuracy and actuality of information, the informant's presence is required. For this reason, several informants who deliberately appointed are: first, local people involved in the scope of the research (the beggar and not a beggar). Where these communities are directly involved in an integrated system of social interaction of a community. The purpose of the community researchers chose
understanding, searching and data description alone, it would require an in depth analysis approach in order to obtain results that are more complex. For this reason, the type of research used is descriptive research
descriptive research fenomenoligis where it tries to describe a
phenomenon that takes place when the research conducted. In terms of descriptive research is trying to explain contemporary phenomena under study (a phenomenon that occurs at this time).
beggars is to determine the extent to which paradigm (myth) that
developed so influential in their begging behavior. Furthermore, non-beggars
3.2. Location Research conducted in the form of case study research where more specific research to try to learn and observe phenomena in a region according to the needs of the research. The place or location of the research that is conducted in the village of Branta Tinggi. From the selection of the site, hopes to answer the research problems.
informant deliberately chosen in order to describe how interactions or social relations of beggars among the general public (non-beggar with beggar) and the extent to which social relationships influence these interactions paradigm in the formation
internalization myth) for beggars and non-beggar. Second, the village head who is directly involved and influence the socio-economic mobility in the 5
village of Branta Tinggi community. From this village chief hopes
3.4. Data Analysis In this study, overall there are four stages that are used to analyze the data, namely: 1. Data Collection The data collected is the result of interviews, observation, documentation and so forth. The data collected is still a necessary raw data and sorting to find major issues that more focused research.
researchers were able to obtain information about how the role of institutions in influencing the socioeconomic mobility (primarily related to behavioral issues beg the people) in villages linked through the
policies adopted or are still planned. Third, religious scholars and local community leaders who are civic structures such informants have an influence on social action. As informal leaders, clerics by many people believed to have the
2. Data Presentation Presentation of data is the data generated through the process of data reduction will be directly
"authority of truth"which is very large and charismatic as he is regarded as a saint who was awarded the blessing of Divine (Sirodj, 2009). Kyai and community leaders are expected description to provide of the a general
presented as a set of structured information that gives the possibility of penerikan conclusions and taking action.
3. Data Reduction Data reduction is a form of analysis that sharpens, classify,
between society and the figure of informal leaders and the extent of the influence of both (religious scholars and community leaders) to action (behavior) Branta Tinggi village community.
directed, discard the unnecessary, and organize data in such a way that final conclusions can be drawn (Miles and Huberman, 1992). The main purpose of this reduction is to obtain data sharper and more focused on the research so as to facilitate the conclusion. 6
4. Conclusions Withdrawal Conclusion is done
(agriculture and fisheries) can not be realized with the good. From the agricultural sector for example, the number of
continuously for researchers to do research. Conclusion is to know in depth about the object being studied. Thus, the ease in knowing the main issues of research.
abandoned land that became one of the potential evidence Praise be to Allaah Economy of the basic sector is not explored optimally.
4. Results 4.1. Management is Not Optimal Economic Potential Areas with a population of 2.210 inhabitants is a wide range of potential resources (natural and sector,
Much like the agricultural fisheries sector is also
experiencing a similar fate. The fish catches many fishermen are not put to good use. This is because the fishermen only take certain kinds of fish only. So the other fish are always caught in geratis distributed to locals. In addition, the risks to be borne to manage the basic sector is also quite high. No wonder, no optimal management of high risk potential for economic and offered to make people feel at home tersebutlah work as beggars.
human). Start the potential for an exotic beach with a wide range biological richness in it . Until the existence of artesian well water sources that can be utilized to meet the needs of the water bath and for agriculture. Surely not stopped there, the presence of major transportation routes and its location close to the center of the regional economy has established regional Praise be to Allaah is feasible to be developed further. However, until now the economic management potential responded existing only
4.2. Begging Activities Main More than Work Begging motivated by behavior the myths is that
developed in the community. Where people in the village of Branta Tinggi (especially those living in the hamlet 7
mediocre. So the development of the region by relying on the basic sector
of Violation), condemned by ki Moko (local village elders in the 1920's) become beggars because their behavior is stingy. However, the activities of this begging later became a separate polemic because begging activities spread to many regions that are not associated with these myths. From information of local government, transmission of begging behavior is against a background of risks high enough from the basic sector and the tendency to behave consumptive society. For this reason, people in other areas looking at the activities of begging is an activity to obtain pieces solutif rupiah. Sure enough, the agricultural sector of most farmers be object of the game from the middlemen and moneylenders. So the fate of the peasants became increasingly worse with the existence of this
profession as a beggar. In addition, the ease of obtaining pieces of rupiah main attraction for diving profession.
4.3 Strategies to Shifting Behavior Behavior Begging Be Working (Production) Activities that are left
begging, actually worsens the image of the area. Lack of initiative to produce by utilizing the potential that exists to make the activities of beggar become endemic behavior. For this reason good strategy in tackling this begging behavior that is invested in a spirit sustainable to the
In general, the application of methods of sustainable
entrepreneurship is not separated from the cooperation between village institutions, communities and other stakeholders. Obviously, this is used to sustain (support) of the poor, especially the beggars by utilizing its resources in order to decide what resources are utilized and how to use them. Final goal, of course, to change the paradigm of begging to 8
phenomenon. Not only that, the fishery sector also provides a very high risk. The catch is uncertain and risk amid the sea of uncertainty making local people think twice to develop this sector further. Not surprisingly, the high risks of that work, society
entrepreneurial spirit in a sustainable manner to the public. And this identification
framework (conceptual framework) the planning and implementation of sustainable entrepreneurship method is briefly following the steps as follows:
process is very important to do with the reason there were so many resources (natural and human) that have not been properly empowered.
1. Social Identification Social identification, especially the poor and beggars in the village area Branta Tinggi is a series of criteria established and used to identify the receipt as well as methods to overcome it. All of this relates to the utilization of resources and capacity building society based in the
The potential resources (natural and human) are very abundant in number and potential to be developed further.
2. Regional Development Planning To begin preparations for planning the development potential of the area needed a core group which is the relevant village (village chiefs and other community leaders) and the technical team who will plan the management of poverty
perspective of potential community livelihood and natural resources. Those criteria are: a. The poverty rate and the percentage of the number of beggars. b. Social ties and political society (the relationship between
alleviation and economic potential of each of these areas. Before the core group work, before they must be provided by a training work plan and try to develop a draft action plan which will be triggered and the basis
institutions with the public). c. Community dependence on
local resources. Above criteria was used as reference in determining any location that can be explored in depth in order to alleviate poverty, especially
government. This plan can then be
discussed and disseminated to the public which is then discussed for feedback, additions or corrections can then be launched for all the 9
poverty of the beggars and instill
support elements of the public and affected stakeholders. In the early stages of
potential is there. In accordance with the opinion Yustika (2009), that have pioneered the introduction of
planning the preparation of potential development areas, can be input for the actions of such action:
simultaneous aspects of local and cultural (informal institutions) in order to observe the facts of poverty in more detail. Empowerment and provision of capital to raise the local potential can be implemented such as the Village Credit Institution (VCI) in Bali. Where the institution is useful to extend credit established and managed by the community. The institute is focused on providing capital and directly as a means of assistance to communities in
identification of local potentials that can be developed from various sectors, investment in agriculture, irrigation planning, breeding and fisheries management models,
education center job training and entrepreneurship as well as religious, skills development or production of information centers. Surely at this planning stage, the community formed in certain clusters (clusters of fishermen and farmers clusters) with a view to facilitate the implementation of
managing capital are given. Capital is not in money but in the form of aid skills and other knowledge to
action plans later. In addition to effectivelymanagement of the
manage the business. This institution to run with a healthy, then the capital of each recipient are required to
existing economic potential.
3. Capital Approval Because the main goal of this ongoing entrepreneur program is a local community, the local potential (the value of existing local) must be driven. potential Mobilization is intended of to local give
attend regular meetings as a means of reporting activity. To streamline the
performance of the receiver of capital established strict rules
involving customary sanctions (Isna, 2007). Sanctions created by the indigenous people so that they feel 10
confidence to the community in
responsible and disciplined in full on the capital they receive to develop their business. Of requires course, cooperation for this program local
district areas, especially the village of Branta Tinggi. Mental changes begging to mental work is the initial target of reducing the number of beggars in the village of Branta Tinggi. Next the development of micro Business
effective of the
considerable assistance means (such as penujang means business,
should put emphasis on business formation, training, marketing and network development. Because the area to biodiversity (both land and sea) and supported by adequate transport is indeed no doubt be developed further. Target a begging habit pattern changes to the routine work does require a short time is not enough.
additional capital and strengthen its marketing network.) With
bersinerginya formal and informal institutions, which encouraged
capital aid can work well and the ideals of rural economic growth based local values can be realized.
4. Implementation Program Implementation conducted by the community in developing the potential of rural areas in order to overcome the Branta Tinggi beggar should be with the involvement of the technical team and the local government. methods In of is their activities, sustainable focused on
Reason is that it has become a habit in the village of Branta Tinggi. However, this method should be dressed in the changing patterns that had formed them. At least be supported by institutional model combined with the formulation of input in the form of local culture. As the picture below, that are expected with sustained entrepreneur can form a new institution, it can be an individual incentive to economic activity (mental mentally begging to work). If institutional directs
mental changes begging to mental work and business development in the form of the establishment of Micro Business which are based on the potential advantages Tlanakan
individuals to take the right decisions 11
decisions), then eventually it will
Figure 01. Institutional Planning and Change Become Begging Mental Mental Work / Production Sustainability Entrepreneurhip Methods
Culture and Mental Begging
Decision Works / Production
Economic Performanc e The decision will also affect a person's production in developing a network. Especially for network development, should be viewed as a significant factor in the response to mental begging. At least there are four types of network ties based on the relationship be maintained,
The system is properly used in a relatively poor and beggars in the village Branta Tinggi because of its emphasis on the importance of interpersonal social model and
traditional patterned gemeinschaft.
5. Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring and evaluation is conducted as an assessment and the achievement of the work done. This activity should be discussed between the technical team (the government) 12
including: personal and ethnic ties, geographic proximity, organizational integration, and the buyer and seller relationships (Perry, 2000).
with the stake holders and society. While reviews can be done monthly or yearly. Here is the flow of mental mitigation planning process and
management of potential areas to beg in the village of Branta Tinggi of sustainable entrepreneurial methods:
Figure 02. Model Reduction and Management of Mental Culture of Begging Regional Potential of Interlinkage between LPPM University and the Social Service Result Stage a. An understanding of the community, particularly beggars b. Comprehension activities c. Understanding problems a. Participation b. Agreement on the purpose of activities a. Making formal rules Capital Approval b. The deal amounts of capital and other capital assistance.
a. Potential areas to be optimized b. Institutional Establishment c. The establishment of SMEs and business networks d. Communities empowered e. The poverty rate based on income level is reduced f. The number of beggars was reduced by up to zero percent
Regional Development Planning
Implementation Program Kegiatan
a. Effective Management b. Reducing the number of beggars c. The development of the quantity of work or business community
Monitoring and Evaluation
Knowledge of weaknesses and strengths
The important thing to note is that the program should be 13
3. Strategy implementation of local values is felt very appropriate to deal with begging activity. But, this strategy should be done by following several separate stages, namely: identification, planning, provision of capital to the rural credit system, implementation,
continuously in strengthening the capacity of communities in the village of Branta Tinggi in
implementing programs that have been defined. Progress and tangible results are expected in instituting an example the approach taken in this method into the local government program.
monitoring and evaluation.
5.2. Recommendation 5. Summary and Recomendation 5.1. Summary From the research results obtained can be summarized that: 1. The overwhelming economic 1. The development of economic potential is expected to be done in a creative way of thought of begging for change into
productive thought patterns. 2. The hope, changing the strategy of begging to be productive way of thought this should be done by forming new examples for the beggars are able to follow the exemplary behavior. Surely this must be no synergy between the government and these examples for this strategy can be embodied in practice.
potential in the rural Branta Tinggi until now not managed properly. So that people from the past until now still experiencing poverty. The lack of creativity of each individual and related
government sectors in develop base which is the main problem why people work as beggars. 2. Citizens prefer to be beggars because it easier to obtain rupiahs. Basic sector that offers a high enough risk to make the activities of begging as a top choice. That's what this activity is growing and thriving.
Bibliography A’la, Abdul. 2010. Community Empowerment Through Madura Post Suramadu Religion, Culture and Traditions. IAIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya. Isna, Alizar. 2007. Traditional Balinese Society in Poverty Reduction. P3M STAIN Purwokerto Miles, M. B dan A. M Huberman. 1992. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods. SAGE. Beverly Hills. Muhammad, Fadel. Without Years. Reinventing Local Government Local Government Bureaucracy To Empower. Perry, Martin. 2000. Developing a Small Business by Utilizing Various Forms of Network Economics. PT Grafindo Persada. Jakarta. Sirodj, Chufron. 2009. Role and Position in the Middle Kiai Society Pamekasan Madura. Ushuluddin Fakulty of UIN Sunan Kalijaga. Yogyakarta. Soesilo (et al). 2007. Causes of Poverty Farmers Society (Studies in Hamlet Ngebrong, Village District Tawangsari Pujon Malang). Indonesian Journal of Applied Economics. Tim PSPK UGM. 1996. Integrated Area Development (PKT) For Poverty Reduction Program (evaluation study). Wahyudi, Setyo. 2007. Strengthening the Economic Sub-Sector in Improving Regional Economic Development. Indonesian Journal of Applied Economics. Yustika, Ahmad Erani. 2009. Political Economy, Review Theoretical and Empirical Study. Pustaka Pelajar. Yogyakarta. 15
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