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BitTorrent was created by Bram Cohen as a way to distribute large files around a network. There is a lot of potential behind BitTorrent, especially for people who need to distribute large files to Internet users. If you had a 1GB file and there was 300 people trying to download it, it would take a lot of time to distribute 300GB of data for most people. So instead, you distribute the file in small pieces to users who then share them around with other users until they have the full file. After they have the full file they can continue to upload to other users to help them also get the full file, this is known as seeding. The speed of Bit Torrent can be absolutely amazing; with very large files transferring in a few hours. it was to help distribute content quicker around an unreliable network. BitTorrent is a free speech tool. You have something terrific to publish a large music or video file, software, a game or anything else that many people would like to have. But the more popular your file becomes, the more you are punished by soaring bandwidth costs. If your file becomes phenomenally successful and a flash crowd of hundreds or thousands try to get it at once, your server simply crashes and no one gets it. With BitTorrent, those who get your file tap into their upload capacity to give the file to others at the same time. Those that provide the most to others get the best treatment in return.
The Problem with Publishing:
More customers require more Cooperative distribution can grow almost without limit, because each new participant brings not only demand, but also supply. Instead of a vicious cycle, popularity creates a virtuous circle. And because each new participant brings new resources to the distribution, you get limitless scalability for a nearly fixed cost. BitTorrent is not just a concept, but has an easy-to-use implementation capable of swarming downloads across unreliable networks. Bit Torrent has been embraced by numerous publishers to distribute to millions of users. With BitTorrent free speech no longer has a high price.
Bit Torrent breaks a file into chunks and distributes them among several participating users. torrent traffic has been substantial. BitTorrent has become widely used for transferring huge program files as well as pirated movies. and the software has made its mark 3 . When you download a "torrent. one estimate placed BitTorrent files as a third of Internet traffic. Large Files Become Torrents Instead of downloading an entire file. which make them less interested in sharing bandwidth to upload to someone else. Bit Torrent balances the load because broadband download and upload speeds are not the same. Even if widely exaggerated. Users download files faster than they can upload them.The BitTorrent Solution: Users cooperate in the distribution 2. Bit Torrent files: A popular file sharing service developed by Bram Cohen that prevents people from downloading constantly unless they are willing to share in the overall transmission load on the network. BitTorrent ensures every user participates in uploading." you are also uploading it to another user. In 2004.
File swapping systems have been architected in different ways as outlined in the following illustrations: 4 .
As the fragments get distributed to the peers. The reference implementation is written in Python. Each peer takes advantage of the best connections to the missing pieces while providing an upload connection to the pieces it already has. This scheme has proven particularly adept in trading large files such as videos and software source code. high demand leads to 2. 5 . files are broken into smaller fragments. As the colored bars below each client show. because the users generally download the file from each other. typically a quarter of a megabyte each.1 Sharing files BitTorrent greatly reduces the load on the server. they can be reassembled on a requesting machine in a random order. With BitTorrent. In conventional downloading. the file is downloaded in random order. not the server. instead of sequential order.BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer (P2P) file distribution tool.
and then requests the rarest block it does not yet have. When other users finish downloading the entire file. The torrent file tells the client the address of the tracker. Each person who wants to download the file first downloads the torrent and opens it in the BitTorrent client software. The torrent file can then be distributed to other users.To share a file using BitTorrent. they can optionally "reseed" it--becoming an additional source for the file. often via email or placed • • on a website. the file may no longer be available for download. The BitTorrent client is then started as a "seed node". size. a user creates a . One outcome of this approach is that if all seeds get taken offline. even if the torrent file is possessed. and the hash of each block in the file (which allows users to make sure they are downloading the real thing) the address of a "tracker" server (which is discussed below) And some other data. a small "pointer" file which contains: • the filename. Downloading with Bit Torrent is straightforward.torrent file. maintains a log of which users are downloading the file and where the file and its fragments reside. in turn. For each available source. which. This makes it more likely that peers will 6 . allowing other users to connect and commence downloading. the client considers which blocks of the file are available.
2 Web seeding One recently implemented feature of BitTorrent is web seeding. this can simplify seeding and load balancing greatly once support for this feature is implemented in the various BitTorrent clients. 2. This feature is an unofficial one. The advantage of this feature is that a site may distribute a torrent for a particular file or batch of files and make those files available for download from that same web server application. 2.Bit Torrent) A computer network is a system for communication among two or more computers allowing exchange of traffic back and forth between them. The Internet is an interconnected system of networks that connects computers around the world via the TCP/IP protocol One of the most popular uses of the Internet is file downloading. BitTorrent becomes a powerful tool enabling users of the system to share large files. When used in conjunction with directory style websites. created by the author of a specific third-party client. it hashes it to make sure that the block matches what the torrent file said it should be.3 Pre . Though BitTorrent is a good protocol for a broadband user. This method was restricted by the number of people attempting to download files from the server. P2P file-sharing is a more efficient way of downloading high-bandwidth material like music and video. where disconnections are common. As soon as the client finishes importing a block.have blocks to exchange. The users of the system download the files from each other but they rely on a centralized system in order to do this. 2.1 File Sharing (Pre . 7 . Then it begins looking for someone to upload the block to. it is less effective for dial up connections.BitTorrent BitTorrent on its own is a protocol to enable file-downloading.
High download speeds should be available 3. To download a complete file. a user downloads different chunks of 8 . a file is split into chunks. In BitTorrent. The red blocks are the blocks currently being downloaded? Each peer can upload only two blocks at a time. available for upload. The Bit Torrent Protocol Illustration of the BitTorrent Protocol the green blocks represent fully downloaded chunks. The content should be of good quality 2.In order for a P2P application to be successful the system should adhere to several criteria It should have a high availability of different files 1. typically of the order of a thousand chunks per file.
but are based on the rarity of the chunk at that time. The . The tracker server 9 . it will remain open until it is closed or the finish' button is clicked.torrent file is sent to the downloader's computer when they click on a link and it can be used for downloading via BitTorrent. size. The chunks are not downloaded sequentially. When a user wishes to start downloading. they click on a link from the website to a .the desired file from other users. When a client finishes downloading from a seed. A seed seed is a computer that has a complete copy of a particular file. These servers store a global registry of all the downloader’s and seeds of the corresponding file. This method of splitting a file into many pieces greatly facilitates the sharing of large files such as MPEGs and software applications. and the hash of each block in the file and the address of a tracker server The .torrent file is not stored on the website itself but is distributed among a number of tracker servers. whereas a peer is one that has a partial copy. one must simply procure the .torrent file.typically the filename.torrent file. torrent refers to the metadata available from a web server about the file you wish to download . In order to download this file.
10 . This is known as reseeding. not only are you a seed for a shorter time. When no seeds are available. The attraction to becoming a seed is low because all upload capacity is used for distribution of one file. Here the horizontal axis represents the number of seeds for a file after its injection into mainstream traffic. A Swarm is a term given to a group of computers. the file is available so long as there is at least one seed available. the lifetime of the file dramatically declines. but the bandwidth used for uploading this file is reduced. Even though. a user with the complete file must come in and act as the newseed. Obviously.responds to the users request by sending back a list of other users that have (part of) the file. The vertical axis shows how long the file needs to stay available so that a given number users can download it. as time goes by the number of seeds for a particular file decreases. as the number of seeds increases. potentially including both seeds and Peers that are connected for a particular file. As the number of seeds increases. The above graph deals with another aspect of BitTorrent.
Overhaul changes the HTTP of an overloaded server so it acts like a peer to peer network. 3.Choked is a term from the BitTorrent protocol which indicates a state an up loader is in if it refuses to send anything on that link. Although this has been shown that this is difficult to do. 3. It is used to improve download speeds The above graph displays measurements taken during a study on the tolerance of BitTorrent to the "Flash Crowd Effect". 11 . it can be concluded that bit torrent is well capable of handling large. it is also a common fact that a determined hacker usually finds a way. It is used when the choked flag is in use. Notice that a small increase in the number of seeds dramatically decreases the load on the provider.2 Pure Decentralization with the Overhaul Protocol When a file is large it is better to divide it into separate chunks. the bit torrent model has relied on a small number of centralized servers to provide the trackers for specific files. There is an inherent problem with this model. The blue line shows the number of downloads of the tracker for "Lord of the rings 3" from "FutureZone. One way of doing this is using Overhaul. the download rate dropped for the website. From these results.1 Decentralization Traditionally. The red line signifies the number of seeds for the file. sudden crowds.TV" was the only seed. As the number of seeds increases. Snubbed is term from the protocol that indicates that a client has not received anything for a substantial period of time. "FutureZone. When a popular new file is introduced by a seed there can be a large surge of simultaneous downloads from this source. If any number of servers go down. a connection is wanted. Another problem that may arise is obtaining the torrent. Since the infrastructure is not there to oversee the file sharing. It splits up the requested document into n chunks. this places an extra Burdon on the remaining few. causing the sustained high download rates.TV". this file may well infect many machines. to let it be known that whenever possible. For the first five days.
the Overhaul process frees up the server to satisfy requests from other clients. where it splits the document into chunks and distributes these amongst the clients. The server becomes overloaded and goes into Overhaul mode.Each request results in a response that includes the itch chunk and the IP address of m other clients accessing the document. This is different to BitTorrent which is a specialized tool for distributing large files over existing peer to peer networks.3 The Overhaul Protocol An example is shown above. A signature for each of the n chunks is also provided in the header. (the Internet). The client collaborate to merge the chunks together so that each can form a coherent document. four client request for the same document off the server. This saves bandwidth utilized by a regular fetch. fig:3 3. By transferring only a small portion of the document. Also BitTorrent requires a 12 . A client supporting Overhaul connects to other clients to retrieve the remaining chunks.
for letting the central server know what files they want to share and for downloading its shareable resources to peers that request it. data or anything in digital format. P2P networks are used for sharing content like audio. resulting in extra traffic to the server. peer-to-peer A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on computing power at the edges (ends) of a connection rather than in the network itself.dedicated tracker and meta-info file for each requested document. Peers are responsible for hosting the information as the central server doesn't store files. • 13 . P2P network A pure peer-to-peer file transfer network does not have the notion of clients or servers. video. but only equal peer nodes that simultaneously function as both "clients" and "servers" to the other nodes on the network. One user uploads a file to the FTP server. A typical example for a non peer-to-peer file transfer is an FTP server. 4.1 Types of P2P net woks: Three major types of P2P network are: a) Pure P2P: • • • Peers act as clients and server There is no central server There is no central router b) Hybrid P2P: • Has a central server that keeps information on peers and responds to requests for that information. This model of network arrangement differs from the client-server model where communication is usually to and from a central server. 4. then many others download it. with no need for the up loader and downloader to be connected at the same time.
2 Attacks on Peer-to-peer networks Many peer-to-peer networks are under constant attack by people with a variety of motives.1 Torrent Files 14 . Examples include: • poisoning attacks (providing files whose contents are different than the description) denial of service attacks (attacks that may make the network run very slowly or break completely) defection attacks (users or software that make use of the network without contributing resources to it) insertion of viruses to carried data (e. which are referenced by a set of indices to obtain an absolute address. Its official software is cross-platform and is extremely simple to install and use. c) Mixed P2P: • Has both pure and hybrid characteristics 4. It includes a window that appears as a regular download window but includes a rate for download and upload. tracking down the users of the network and harassing or legally attacking them) • • • • • 5.• Route terminals are used addresses. Functions: BitTorrent is a file sharing system.g. 5. downloaded or carried files may be infected with viruses or other malware) filtering (network operators may attempt to prevent peer-to-peer network data from being carried) identity attacks (e. BitTorrent is opensource and does not contain spyware.g.
When your download has completed. your browser should automatically start BitTorrent and begin downloading.The torrent system is based on small. When you have found a ". easily exchanged Torrent files. 15 . 5. A download box should appear. 5. BitTorrent is estimated by some sources to make up between 50 and 85 percent of all Internet traffic. This allows the file to continue uploading even after you have the entire file and assist others in downloading as well. This eliminates many of the problems with false file exchanges. music. save it somewhere on your computer and click twice on the file. 5. for a variety of software.4 BitTorrent's power BitTorrent is a solution for Web sites that cannot handle massive traffic but must distribute an enormous amount of information.3 Using BitTorrent Once you have downloaded and installed the client. Arguably the most successful P2P-based file distribution system. These file have a file name followed by . enabling access to much-requested high-volume data such as with Web-based independent movies and the free software community. BitTorrent's success goes way beyond simple warez and ex-Napster music downloaders. so long as one trusts a file's source. and data distributed via BitTorrent. Increasingly used by Web sites that do not have the capacity to handle massive downloads. wait to click "finish" for as long as possible. If it does not. This type of interaction is called a multisource system growing popular in p2p where files begin sharing before fully downloaded.torrent and are usually only a few kilobytes in size yet allow gigabytes of information to be downloaded.2 How it Works BitTorrent connects to multiple other users who are downloading the same file.torrent" file. Any file downloaded by BitTorrent is then checked against a hash file contained in the torrent to confirm its integrity. speeding up the process for everyone.
the download it from the Web site option may be faster since the Web site's traffic is quite low. and dial-up but the server in this example can only upload 20 kilobytes per second to any one outside computer.usually 6-9 P.2 Other uses for BitTorrent 1. 2. Files gained over other file sharing systems can be checked using BitTorrent for integrity.4. the only other option was shipping the music using postal mail or moving to an expensive.4. Until file sharing systems.more effective during low-usage times .1 BitTorrent or direct-download When choosing between the download of a file directly from its Web site or an available BitTorrent link you should choose depending on time of day . users upload files while simultaneously downloading them. 5. not possible for most users. DSL. 16 . one person on a slow network can distribute the contents of a regular compact disk (~700 megabytes) to hundreds or even thousands in a matter of hours not weeks .M. either some will be denied or get 1 kilobyte per second. downloaders have varying connection speeds of T1. weekdays . BitTorrent . This will take weeks to distribute to hundreds of people.because everyone shares whatever they receive. on a Sunday . With BitTorrent. With hundreds of requests. share files gathered over direct-download are often identical to those gained over BitTorrent and can then be shared. making download speeds quite high. Direct Download .such as 3 a. A tiny amount of data can be downloaded and then exchanged among all users because higher-bandwidth users assist lower-bandwidth users and everyone hands back to everyone else. 5. high-end server.As is common.m.as the program scales inversely to the demand.more effective during peak Internet usage times .
5. so the community benefits from it.2 Negative An intense focus on simplicity that also means lack of features. After a file downloads.5 Bit Torrent Versus other types of file sharing 5.slower machines (400mhz or less) may experience a performance hit while running BitTorrent. BitTorrent clients are available for Linux. the network continues to share it as part of those users' "shared" folders. Windows. Resource-intensive . It forces you to share and go faster at the same time. thereby enabling many more users to share or acquire large files. Simplicity .1 Positive BitTorrent software and ". slow down. 5.other file sharing systems have so many other features.TORRENT" files are very small and easy to download and host. for instance no built-in search capability. 17 .6 Distributed File Sharing Using Bit Torrent BitTorrent is a file sharing system that minimizes the role of the central server. Distributed file sharing thus avoids the problems often encountered when popular files are downloaded through FTP or HTTP protocols.5.3. 5. namely that the servers become overloaded. BitTorrent checksums can be included on a CD to later test archives for an accurate burn 5. Files have an included hash system to make sure they're fully downloaded and all portions of the file are accurate. and OS X. and refuse connections.
you use a software program to locate computers that have the file you want.5. Others using the file-sharing software can obtain files they want from your computer's hard drive. as opposed to servers. When the software finds a computer that has the file you want on its hard drive. they are called peers. To locate the file. the download begins. In this process. hive downloading is simultaneous download and upload to and from multiple sources. Because these are ordinary computers like yours.1 Peer-To-Peer File sharing Another file-transfer method that you may have heard about is called peer-topeer file sharing. Files 6.6. • • • 18 . 6.1 Multi-Source Multi-Source is generally used in peer-to-peer applications where a client can download pieces of a file from more than one source (user) at a time. the software queries other computers that are connected to the Internet and running the file-sharing software. The process works like this: • You run peer-to-peer file-sharing software on your computer and send out a request for the file you want to download. This may also be called hive downloading but is in fact a different term.
Bit Torrent is a protocol that offloads some of the file tracking work to a central server (called a tracker).one of developer Bram Cohen's primary goals. Bit Torrent downloads different pieces of the file you want simultaneously from multiple computers. nother difference is that it uses a principal called tit-for-tat.2 What Bit Torrent Does Unlike some other peer-to-peer downloading methods. Some people download files and immediately disconnect without allowing others to obtain files from their system.Gnutella's peer-to-peer downloads process The file-transfer load is distributed between the computers exchanging files. you have to give them. This limits the number of computers the software can search for the requested file. but file searches and transfers from your computer to others can cause bottlenecks. With BitTorrent. the more files you share with others. which is called leeching. to make better use of available Internet bandwidth (the pipeline for data transmission). Finally. • You open a Web page and click on a link for the file you want. 6. the faster your downloads are. This means that in order to receive files. This solves the problem of leeching -. 19 .
which is the connected computers that have all of or a portion of the file and are in the process of sending or receiving it. The tracker helps the client software trade pieces of the file you want with other computers in the swarm. Here's how it works: • Bit Torrent’s peer-to-peer download process 20 . Your computer receives multiple pieces of the file simultaneously.• Bit Torrent client software communicates with a tracker to find other computers running Bit Torrent that have the complete file and those with a portion of the file • The tracker identifies the swarm.
you'll need to configure your firewall to accept this incoming traffic in order to receive . 6.3 How to Download Files with BitTorrent To use BitTorrent for file downloads. The more computers involved in the swarm. For this reason. Download and install the BitTorrent client software. normally ports 6881 through 6889. A port is a way for Internet communications to travel into and out of your computer.torrent pointer file. 4. 2. Stay connected after the download completes to share your . here's a synopsis of the steps: 1.torrent files with others. and each communication type has a standard port number. You may also need to tweak your firewall and network router to accept Bit Torrent files. Downloading pieces of the file at the same time helps solve a common problem with other peer-to-peer download methods: Peers upload at a much slower rate than they download. BitTorrent also uses specific port numbers. 5. Let BitTorrent give and receive pieces of the file.torrent files. the faster the file transfer occurs because there are more sources of each piece of the file. You may also have to 21 . We'll give you all the details to get started. Because firewalls block these ports by default. you will obtain faster download rates if you configure it to have an open pathway for BitTorrent file transfers.torrent files from your computer. you need to install the BitTorrent client software. Check and configure firewall and/or router for BitTorrent (if applicable).If you continue to run the BitTorrent client software after your download is complete. BitTorrent is especially useful for large. popular files. Ports are numbered.4 Check and Configure Firewall If you have a firewall installed on your computer. A firewall protects your system from intruders by disallowing unauthorized access to your computer's ports. others can receive . But first. 3. 6. the overall speed is greatly improved. 6. Find files to download. By downloading multiple pieces at the same time. Download and open the .
the amount of traffic on the server and the number of other computers that 22 . let's examine what happens when you download a file from a Web site. 6. It works something like this: • • You open a Web page and click a link to download a file to your computer. such as FTP (File Transfer Protocol) or HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol).5 Traditional Client-Server downloading To understand how Bit Torrent works and why it is different from other fileserving methods. including the type of protocol. The transfer is handled by a protocol . • Client-server download process The transfer speed is affected by a number of variables. The Web browser software on your computer (the client) tells the server to transfer a copy of the file to your computer.enable port forwarding of your computer's IP address for ports 6881 through 6889 so that other Bit Torrent computers can find you.
in that break down files into smaller packets of information. generally 256KB. If the file is both large and popular.wordspy. 2. www. such as lime wire and Kazak.bittorrent. and uses a protocol.org/wiki/BitTorrent 4. 7.com. www. http://www. BitTorrent is a peer –to-peer file sharing system that is quickly becoming the method of choice for publishing and sharing large files across the internet.org/wiki/index.en.infoanarchy. and the download will be slow.wikipedia. through a business agreement only cause BitTorrent to have an even greater overall social impact. and people have become accustomed to acquiring video through the net. As it can be seen Bit Torrent may be ushering in a new paradigm in downloading. Illegal distribution of films online has already affected the film industry. At this point it is virtually impossible for anyone to bring an end to illegal downloads. Conclusion Bit Torrent was conceived as a way of distributing large file more quickly. the demands on the server are great. The download of large file has become more feasible. if movie studios were to actually transition to online distribution.bittorrent. efficiently.the internet Even if this application of protocol (Free downloads) were to come to an end. However. www. affecting box-office ticket and home video sales. It is distinct from other p2p programs.com/ 3.it could completely transform the business of cinema.are downloading the file. References 1. http://www. At the moment it’s the cheapest and one of the fastest ways to share large files in the mainstream medium . Magazines 23 . and reliably.com.php/Multi-Source 5.
which is the time period that a file can actually be retrieved from the system. Another dynamic aspect of content is the content injection time. the operation generally depends on voluntarily contributed resources. 4. All files on P2P networks are voluntarily provided. However. that is. such as in BitTorrent) central components.g. the period from when it is injected into the system until none of the peers in the system is willing to share the file anymore. which easily leads to low system availability. As these systems have no (or sometimes only a few. a movie release) and the moment it is injected into a P2P system. 2. Therefore. The download performance determines the relation between the size of a file and the time needed for downloading it. which may subsequently spread throughout the system. either intentionally or unintentionally. 24 .g. The pollution level of a P2P system is defined as the fraction of corrupted or wrong content. fake copies of songs). The availability is of paramount importance in P2P systems. such as the amount and types of content it provides. which is the time period between the first official release of the content anywhere in the world (e. The popularity of a P2P system is understood as the total number of users participating in it over a certain period of time. in this paper we focus in particular on the content lifetime. and there is usually no authentication or verification of their contents.IT Magazines CSI Magazines Enadu News Paper (Thursday) Characteristics of P2P systems We base our treatment of BitTorrent on the following five characteristics: 1. upload files with incorrect names or corrupted contents (e. anybody can. 3. Several aspects of the content provided by a particular P2P network are very important to its users. 5.
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