University of the East RAMON MAGSAYSAY MEMORIAL MEDICAL CENTER, INC. College of Nursing Aurora Blvd.
, Quezon City
TYPHOON and FLOOD
Submitted by: BSN IV-C11 DE LEON, Paulo Jerome DELA PAZ, Romelyn DIAZ, Maricia DILLA, Kyle Gerard EBON, Erika Mari ENRIQUEZ, Bea Elisa FABIAN,Gina GRANADA, Cristel Camille OBANI, Ken Carlos SAJO, Jerryme Karl Submitted to: Prof. Custodio Date Submitted: September 21, 2010 BSN IV-C12 CORRALES, Renz Rudolph HILARIO, Rose Melynn HOMO, Mylannie IGNACIO, Mike Jerome JABSON, Dino Rafael LEAñO, Gregorio III MADDARA, Marivic MEDEL, Richard Terrence MEJORADA, Diana Therese MENDOZA, Marinette
TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Typhoon A. Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………………….2 B. Development of Typhoon………………………………………………………………3 C. Naming of Typhoons………………………………………………………………...…5 D. The Philippine Public Storm Warning Signal……………………………………….....7 E. Revised Guidelines on the Suspension of Classes and Work in the Government…….10 F. Responsible Philippine Agencies and Non-Organizations During Typhoon……..…..11 G. Actions of the Philippine Government Before, During and After a Typhoon……..…14 H. Safety Precautions Before, During and After a Typhoon………………………….…15 I. Historical Typhoons in the Philippines……………………………………………..…17 II. Flood A. Definition of Terms………………………………………………………………...…18 B. Causes of Floods…………………………………………………………………...…19 C. Levels of Flooding……………………………………………………………………19 D. Phases of Flood Watch……………………………………………………….……….20 E. Safety Precautions Before, During and After a Flood………………………….……..20 III. Impact of Typhoon and Flood……………………………………………………….……….24 IV. Nursing Responsibilities……………………………….…………………………………….26 V. Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………..27
• A tropical depression is a tropical cyclone that has a maximum sustained surface wind speed
(using the U. 1-minute average) is 33 kt (38 mph or 62 km/hr) or less. 1-minute average) ranges from 34 kt (39 mph or 63 km/hr) to 63 kt (73 mph or 118 km/hr). tropical storms. or tropical storms in various parts of the world.
• A tropical cyclone is warm-core non-frontal synoptic-scale cyclone that originates over
tropical or subtropical waters. TYPHOON A. shifts northward out of the doldrums and atmospheric conditions become favorable for tropical storm formation after about the middle of May. in the Northern Hemisphere. DEVELOPMENT OF TYPHOON Tropical Storm Genesis is the technical term for the process of storm formation that leads ultimately to what are called hurricanes.S.
• A tropical storm is a tropical cyclone that has a maximum sustained surface wind speed
(using the U. or ITCZ. This occurs when.
• A tropical wave is a cyclonic curvature maximum in the trade-wind easterlies that may reach
maximum amplitude in the lower middle troposphere.
• A tropical storm warning is an announcement that tropical storm conditions (sustained winds
of 39 to 73 mph) are expected somewhere within the specified coastal area within 36 hours. typhoons. the Intertropical Convergence Zone. and the last which name depends where it originates. DEFINITION OF TERMS • A typhoon is a violent tropical hurricane/cyclone that occurs in the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean.
. This has three classifications: tropical depression. B.
• A tropical storm watch is an announcement that tropical storm conditions (sustained winds of
39 to 73 mph) are possible within the specified coastal area within 48 hours.
As a tropical storm is pulling in warm. a strong antistorm directly above the low-level inflow is favorable. A tropical storm derives its power from the warm waters below. We often hear that a tropical depression has formed. In addition. counter-clockwise outbound. it is likely that the northeast wind has closed off to a southwest wind on the backside of the wave.A series of low-pressure ripples develops within the ITCZ. but conditions are unfavorable for further development. This greater rainfall is concomitant with falling surface pressures. moist air at the surface. or even northwest. The divergence that results ahead of the convergence zone gives us a north-easterly wind as the axis of the tropical wave approaches. The key is inbound air counter-clockwise at the bottom. contain a northeast wind shift. Sometimes there can be gusts to tropical storm force in stronger waves. convection and resulting rainfall are enhanced. and they may pass virtually unnoticed. The forward motion of the wave completes the closure on the northern side of a broad low-level center. where lines of equal atmospheric pressure are pressed together between the deep-layer high to the north and the developing low-pressure system. These tropical waves. There can be next to no weather associated with these waves. This is typically referred to as a “convergence”. they typically shift their movement toward the west-northwest. By the time these pressures fall to 1008mb. it must also evacuate this inbound flow aloft.
. ideally imbedded in the deep layer easterly flow. These are known as tropical waves and progress from east to west. In the late season. When the wave passes over warmer waters (SSTs). Every powerful hurricane has an equally powerful high pressure system over it. after crossing 45° or 50° W longitude. it is reversed: clockwise inbound. More typically. where high pressure facilitates the development of the storm by evacuating the flow from the lower levels of the storm. and a tropical depression has formed. outbound air clockwise aloft. This occurs in the upper levels of the atmosphere. there are bands of disturbed weather riding the axis of the wave. Gusts up to 25 mph may occur. There are two conditions that must be present for the tropical depression to continue its development: warm SSTs (above 79° Fahrenheit/26° Celsius) and low vertical shear. In the Southern Hemisphere.
As warm waters feed the convection swirling around the center. moist air.If the upper-level high pressure system does not develop over a storm. and ripping the tops off the deep convection. which intensifies the inflow of warm. by interaction with land. and is critical to the survival of a tropical storm that is passing over land. especially mountainous terrain. Another factor that can interfere with the development of a tropical storm is subsidence. This also is why a tropical storm that tries to form near an established hurricane has a very difficult time— the storm is on the edge of the hurricane’s upper-level outflow. high pressure aloft evacuates the inflow. If the mid-level circulation remains intact. and can occur if the storm is located in an unfavorable position near a cold front or upper-level low pressure system. Vertical shear usually comes from a westerly direction. Subsiding air has the effect of suppressing thunderstorm formation. or even dissipated. upper-level high pressure. C. it means there is shear instead. Subsidence is the sinking of air. and may have to contend with both subsidence and shear. There is also a mid-level circulation. which in turn increases the rainfall and brings about a more rapid fall in central pressure. Usually this happens on the edge of an upper-level highpressure system. and falling surface pressures—the storm will develop and reach a point of rapid intensification. providing other factors are favorable. It is one of nature’s perfect machines. This has the effect of breaking down the whole mechanism. The lower-level circulation can be severely disrupted. NAMING OF TYPHOONS
. heavy rainfall lowers surface pressures. whose formation was discussed above. the storm can regenerate rapidly when it re-emerges over water. This is a strong jet of air that is blowing directly over the storm. Tropical storms have the low-level circulation and the upper-level circulation (outflow). The effect of shear on a storm can range from impaired strengthening to catastrophic failure of the tropical storm’s support structure. This is known as vertical shear. The mid-level circulation is similar in structure to the low-level circulation. Assuming all the ingredients are in place—warm SSTs.
. each group was accompanied by an auxiliary list from A to G in the event that the number of typhoons occurring in a particular year exceeds the number of Filipino alphabet letters. followed by B. In addition. These four sets of names were then repeated every four years. the first ten of which are listed under each column.The Philippine Weather Bureau adopted the system in 1963 by setting four groups of Filipino women’s nickname ending in “ng” from A to Y to name all tropical cyclones occurring within the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR). The 5th year (2006) will bring us back to column 1 of AURING. an auxiliary list is used. Revised List of Names for Tropical Cyclones within the Philippine Area of Responsibility The first tropical cyclone of the year starts with the name beginning in letter A as in AURING under column 1 for 2005 and so on down the list as one disturbance succeeds another. In the event that the number of tropical cyclones within the year exceeds 25. and so on. The first tropical cyclone for the year always starts with the letter A.
. may suffer significant damage when it is in its flowering stage. Winds of 30-60 kph may be expected in at least 36 hours or intermittent rains may be expected within 36 hours. Some houses of very light materials (nipa and cogon) may be partially unroofed. only very light or no damage at all may be sustained by the exposed communities. this signal may be upgraded to the next higher level. THE PHILIPPINE PUBLIC STORM WARNING SIGNAL PSWS # 1 METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS:
A tropical cyclone will affect the locality.
When the tropical cyclone is strong or is intensifying and is moving closer. In the meantime.D. Unless this warning signal is upgraded during the entire existence of the tropical cyclone. business may be carried out as usual except when flood occur.
Disaster preparedness is activated to alert status. The waves on coastal waters may gradually develop and become bigger and higher.
PSWS # 2 METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS:
A tropical cyclone will affect the locality.)
IMPACT OF THE WINDS:
• • • •
Twigs and branches of small trees may be broken. Some banana plants may be tilted or downed. however. The people are advised to listen to the latest severe weather bulletin issued by PAGASA every six hours. Winds of greater than 60 kph and up to 100 kph may be expected in at least 24 hours. (When the tropical cyclone develops very close to the locality a shorter lead time of the occurrence of the winds will be specified in the warning bulletin. Rice crop.
Winds of greater than 100 kph up to 185 kph may be expected in at least 18 hours. Special attention should be given to the latest position. Few big trees may be uprooted. Disaster preparedness agencies / organizations are in action to alert their communities.
and the intensity of the storm as it may intensify and move towards the locality. the direction and speed of movement The general public especially people travelling by sea and air are cautioned to avoid Outdoor activities of children should be postponed.
The sea and coastal waters are dangerous to small sea crafts. Almost all banana plants may be downed and a large number of trees may be uprooted.IMPACT OF THE WINDS:
• • • • • • •
Some coconut trees may be tilted with few others broken. Secure properties before the signal are upgraded. In general. the winds may bring light to moderate damage to the exposed communities. Some old galvanized iron roofing may be peeled off. Many banana plants may be downed.
• • •
PSWS # 3 METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS:
A tropical cyclone will affect the locality. Rice and corn crops may suffer heavy losses.
• Majority of all nipa and cogon houses may be unroofed or destroyed and there may be
IMPACT OF THE WINDS:
• • •
Many coconut trees may be broken or destroyed. Large number of nipa and cogon houses may be partially or totally unroofed. considerable damage to structures of light to medium construction. Rice and corn may be adversely affected.
Travel is very risky especially by sea and air. PSWS # 4 METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS:
A very intense typhoon will affect the locality. moderate to heavy damage may be experienced. • Classes in all levels should be suspended and children should stay in the safety of strong buildings.• There may be widespread disruption of electrical power and communication services. • In general. • When the "eye" of the typhoon hit the community do not venture away from the safe shelter because after one to two hours the worst weather will resume with the very strong winds coming from the south. Rice and corn plantation may suffer severe losses.
• People are advised to seek shelter in strong buildings. Many large trees may be uprooted. PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES:
• • •
The disturbance is dangerous to the communities threatened/affected.
. • Disaster preparedness and response agencies/organizations are in action with appropriate response to actual emergency. The sea and coastal waters will be very dangerous to all sea crafts. particularly in the agricultural and industrial sectors. evacuate low-lying areas and to stay • Watch out for the passage of the "eye" of the typhoon indicated by a sudden occurrence of fair weather immediately after very bad weather with very strong winds coming generally from the north. IMPACT OF THE WINDS:
• • •
Coconut plantation may suffer extensive damage. away from the coasts and river banks. Very strong winds of more than 185 kph may be expected in at least 12 hours.
As the eye of the typhoon approaches. • The disaster coordinating council’s concerned and other disaster response organizations are now fully responding to emergencies and in full readiness to immediately respond to possible calamity. damage to affected communities can be very heavy.50. In the overall. • Storm number 1
• Evacuation to safer shelters should have been completed since it may be too late under this • With PSWS #4. This time the very strong winds will come generally from the south. All travels and outdoor activities should be cancelled. This means that the eye of the typhoon is over the locality.
The situation is potentially very destructive to the community. situation. the locality is very likely to be hit directly by the eye of the typhoon. 2007)
The Department of Education set the rules on the suspension of classes to keep parents aware and students danger-free in cases of typhoons and other calamities. E. This improved weather may last for one to two hours depending on the diameter of the eye and the speed of movement. REVISED GUIDELINES ON THE SUSPENSION OF CLASSES AND WORK IN THE GOVERNMENT DURING INCLEMENT WEATHER (Based on DepEd Order No. Then a sudden improvement of the weather with light winds (a lull) will be experienced. Electrical power distribution and communication services may be severely disrupted. As the eye moves out of the locality. the worst weather experienced before the lull will suddenly commence. the weather will continuously worsen with the winds increasing to its strongest coming generally from the north.•
Most residential and institutional buildings of mixed construction may be severely damaged. July 19.
• Storm signal number 3
Classes in all levels are automatically suspended. is a Department of Science and Technology (DOST) national service institution.ph • PAGASA. F. meteorological. productivity and development of the country. • Storm signal number 2
Classes in pre-school. RESPONSIBLE PHILIPPINE AGENCIES AND NON-GOVERNMENT
ORGANIZATIONS DURING TYPHOON Disaster-assistance and Preparedness Agencies • DOST.gov. programs and projects to support national development. Hotline: (02) 837-2071 Website: www. 11
. The Philippine Atmospheric. warnings for floods. and of formulating policies. Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (or PAGASA). • Storm signal number 4
All travel and outdoor activities are cancelled. elementary and high school in all public and private schools will be automatically suspended. and other scientific information and services to protect life and property and support the economy. It provides public weather forecasts and advisories. astronomical. leadership and coordination of all scientific and technological activities. climatological.dost.Classes in pre-school level in all public and private schools will be automatically suspended. The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) is the premiere science and technology body in the country charged with the twin mandate of providing central direction. giant waves and typhoons.
Other Information: Address: Agham Road. research and publication. (CDP) is now serving for ten years. and gives government units the power to allocate funds for disaster preparedness activities. 911506 Help Hotlines: 7342118. 9111406. 25°N 135°E. National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) is under the Department of National Defense. Quezon City Website: www. conduct drills and exercises. Center for Disaster Preparedness Foundation. Inc. They have given communities and service providers from the nongovernmental organizations and government units the avenue to participate in trainings. registered as an independent institution in the Philippine Securities and Exchange Commission. Emergency Hotlines: 9125668.com. they have made significant contributions. the CDP started as the Disaster Resource Training Center. prepare a National Calamities and Disaster Preparedness Plan. it became the NDCC with the PD 1566 that provided the NDCC the obligation to organize disaster coordinating councils from the national to the municipal level.PAGASA monitors tropical storm activity and broadcasts warnings and safety measures every six or twelve hours within its area of responsibility which is 25°N 120°E. interactive forums. 21°N 120°E and back to 25°N. So far. 15°N 115°E. networking and advocacy.dost. and it is responsible for the protection and welfare of people in cases of disasters or emergencies. Other Agencies and their Hotlines: (Disaster Emergency)
. Diliman.pagasa. 9122665.ph • NDCC. consultancies. 7342120 • CDP. Formerly the National Emergency Council. especially with capability building as their core competency. 5°N 115°E. 5°N 135°E.
(632) 722-9585. (+632920-9072902) • Petron & San Miguel Corporation are lending choppers for rescue operations. 4×4 Trucks. +632-6462423. +632-6347824) • ABS-CBN Typhoon Ondoy Hotline: (+632-4163641) • Jam 88.Rescue Operations: • Philippine National Police CALL 117. 412-3227 OR TEXT 2920 • Philippine Coast Guard (+632-5276136) • Air Force (+63908-1126976. +632-9115061) • You can also text (+632917-4226800 or +632927-6751981) for rescue dump trucks. there are many drop-off centers. among them are the following: 13
. +632-9111406. +632-8383354 • Private citizens who would like to lend their motor boats for rescue please call emergency nos: +632-9125668. +632-9122665. Tel No.3: (+632. Chopper Requests • NCRPO (+632-8383203. +632-8535023) • Metro Manila Development Authority (136) • Marikina City Rescue (+632-6462436. +632920-9072902) • Pasig Rescue Emergency Number (+632-6310099) • Quezon City Rescue (161) • San Juan City Hall Command Post (+632-4681697) • Bureau of Fire Protection Region III (Central Luzon) Hotline: (+63245-9634376) Civil Society/ Media: • Philippine National Red Cross (143. call/text: (+632917-8140655) ask for Lydia Ragasa For IN-KIND DONATIONS. • For those who are able to lend 4×4 trucks for rescue: Please send truck to Greenhills Shoppng Center Unimart Grocery to await deployment. +632-5270000) • Philippine National Red Cross Rizal Chapter operations center hotline: (+632-6350922.6318803) or SMS at JAM (space) 883 (space) your message to 2968 Rubber Boat.
Samar Streets. beside Alex III. INC.• ABS-CBN SAGIP KAPAMILYA WAREHOUSE at 13 Examiner St.. ACTIONS OF THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT BEFORE. • ATENEO DE MANILA UNIVERSITY – drop-off at MVP (Manny V. • CARITAS MANILA OFFICE at Jesus St.. Pangilinan Building) Lobby. Tel 413-2667 / 416-0387. Tel 982. Also at Cervini Hall Lobby at 12nn. Pandacan Manila near Nagtahan Bridge (tel. Manila (gate nearest to McDonalds). Quezon City.go to Gate 2 along Ortigas Avenue. 9901 & 9905. Taft Avenue. – 2nd Floor GMA Kapuso Center. DURING AND AFTER A TYPHOON Before • Addressing the root causes of vulnerabilities to disasters. • LA SALLE GREEN HILLS. • DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY – proceed to South Gate. Diliman. Quezon City.5639298/5639308) or Radio Veritas at Veritas Tower West Ave. strengthening the country’s institutional capacity for disaster risk reduction and management and building the resilience of local communities to disasters including climate change impacts •Community-based planning and preparedness •Improvement of meteorological monitoring •Requesting aid grants in preparation of need •Procuring rubber boats and motorized bancas and other equipment that will be needed during rescue missions in cases of flood •Broadcast through television and radio warnings and reminders for people to be prepared during the typhoon
. West Triangle QC or at ABS-CBN Center along Mother Ignacia QC/Scout Bayoran corner Tomas Morato.no. please contact 0917 631 2423 or 0917 703 5357. For details. GMA Network Drive cor. • GMA KAPUSO FOUNDATION. Mandaluyong. Corner EDSA (tel no.7777 loc. 9257931-40) G.
2. Stay away from rivers. DURING AND AFTER A TYPHOON Before 1. Stay away from mountain sides or cliffs. Typhoons usually cause rivers to swell or water to rise. Bring your pets and useful animals. Store enough food. 7. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS BEFORE. 3. fuel and medicine.•Prevention of floods thru prevention of excessive logging – Presidential Decree 705. helicopters to rescue those who are stuck in danger zones and whose lives are in peril if not rescued immediately After • Programs to fix destroyed infrastructures • Initiating search and rescue missions • Disseminating food and basic necessities for the refugees of typhoons or floods • Assessment of damage and estimation of the cost of repair H. Listen to the radio for further news. 8. Evacuate to a safer place if you think your house is not strong enough. Strong 15
. revising Presidential Decree No. Buttress (support) the house to prevent it from falling down. Typhoons usually cause landslides. Prepare a good flashlight with new batteries. 4. 389. 6. otherwise known as the Forestry Reform Code of the Philippines •Establish evacuation centers anticipating a large population to be accommodated During • Transfer residents living near bodies of water to safer zones • Acquire sufficient goods that can be delivered to the respective residents that are stranded in their homes due to flood and heavy rains • Send motor boats or if possible. 5. clean water. Close and fasten up all windows.
11. Avoid going out for a picnic or excursion immediately after a typhoon. then it is probably the best place to be during a storm. Make emergency repairs during the lull if necessary. It is usually calm after a typhoon. Whenever applicable. 2. Check everything that may be blown away or turn loose. Be calm. Makeshift boarding may do more harm than good. Flying objects are dangerous during typhoons. Stay in a safe place. Board up and securely fasten windows. then leave early. be sure they work. 7. 6. 2.water currents can carry you and your animals away. 9. 4. After 1. asses the damages and then look for basic necessities or aid in the vicinity. 16
. 12. You walk out cautiously. Your ability to handle an emergency will inspire others and help them. If your house can’t be affected by a high tide and is well-built or anchored. Get extra food. Remember that electric power may be cut off. 5. Store water as water service may be cut off. Don’t pay attention to rumors. Always keep a flashlight handy. During 1. If the eye of the typhoon has passed your house. 3. Wait until the typhoon has totally left the place. 8. there may be a lull lasting for a few minutes to half an hour. 10. Stay away from low-lying beaches or other locations which may be swept away by high tides or storm waves. If emergency cooking facilities are necessary. particularly those that don’t need to be cooked and are easy to prepare. If your only passage to high ground is over a road likely to be under water during a severe storm. anchor the house with strong wires. Keep your radio on and listen to the latest weather bulletin and announcements. But remember that the wind will return suddenly from the opposite direction with even greater violence.
321 172 Eastern-Western (Roxas) Visayas. Mindoro MILENYO (Xangsane) September 25-30.787 250 (Virac) Bicol. October 11.375 260 (OverNorthern Luzon 1998 water) LOLENG (Babs) October 15-24. bring them to the nearest disaster coordinating council hospital or medical centers. 2009 (PAGASA Cordillera estimate at Cagayan) ONDOY (Ketsana) 7 September 24-27. NCR. I. December 1.3. CALABARZON. Listen to radio announcements to know about the typhoon and the weather. check and fix it. 5.279 5.9 180 Southern NCR 2006 ILIANG (Zeb) October 7-18. estimate atCentral Luzon Aurora) FRANK (Fengshen) 3 June 18-23. Central1998 Northern Luzon
. Central Luzon REMING (Durian) 4 November 26-754**** 5.195 120 Northern Luzon. Marinduque. Check the roofs or construction of your house. 2009 (PAGASA CALABARZON. HISTORICAL TYPHOONS IN THE PHILIPPINES
PERIOD OFDEATHS DAMAGE HIGHEST AREAS MOST OCCURRENCE IN WIND AFFECTED BILLION SPEED IN PESOS KPH (Place Recorded) PEPENG (Parma) 6 September 30-492 27.121 85 NCR. 4.303 6. 2008 938** 13.464 11. 2006 CALABARZON. Romblon. If your roof was damaged.086 320 (Virac) Bicol.75 5. If there is any neighbors injured during the typhoon. Marinduque.
260 (ViracBicol Region. DEFINITION OF TERM • Flood is an abnormal progressive rise in the water level of streams or rivers which may result in overflowing. 7 .Had a very erratic movement causing numerous forecasting errors catching millions offguard at its path.Criss-crossed Northern Luzon making initial landfall at Cagayan. NCR
Legend: 1 .ROSING (Angela) 2
October November 1995
30-936 4. Cainta.The typhoon unusually maintained winds of at least 240 kph for 60 hours. 1972 at the same station.The most powerful typhoon ever recorded by PAGASA. 5 . and much of Metro Manila drowning hundreds. FLOOD A. recorded during the passage of Super Typhoon SENING (Joan) in Oct 13. Induced monsoon rains spawned floods in Western and Central Mindanao. 4 . Marikina.Brought record flooding in Antipolo. data collection
.A very large super typhoon with a radius covering the whole Philippines. then looping back to landfall in Ilocos Norte. II. 3 . 2 . Radar) CALABARZON. most of it while over land. It erased the old record of 275 kph. stranding millions. registering a 320-kph wind gust at Virac Weather Station before the anemometer was damaged. • Flash flood is a sudden and extreme volume of water which flows rapidly and causes inundation and which.
10. The principal activities are: flood monitoring. • Flood watch is the designation of the period during which flood monitoring forecasting and flood warnings are carried out. Manila. Pasig. 6 . because of its nature. is difficult to forecast. looped back again and entered Cagayan the second time.Only a Tropical Storm. Quezon City.
Flooding is relatively shallow and there is no perceptive flow of water as when inundation is rapidly spreading to adjacent areas. unexpected and serious breaks in dikes.an d processing. Coverage of a wide continuous area and rapid spreading to adjacent areas of relatively lower elevation. PHASES OF FLOOD WATCH
. Currents of flowing flood water will be swift as the flood spreads to other areas. Flooding is relatively deep in most parts of the flood-stricken areas.
Due to overflowing of rivers and lakes. Flood waters consigned to the flood plain immediately along a river/channel or in random low lying and topographically depressed areas. B. levees and other protective structures or uncontrolled releases of dam water . CAUSES OF FLOODS
• • • • • •
Heavy Rainfall Dam or levee failures Torrential rains from cyclones Tsunamis Storm Surges Burst water mains
D. LEVELS OF FLOODING MINOR FLOODING
Due to the accumulation of excessive surface runoff. assessment of probability of flooding and dissemination of information to public.
E. monitoring and assessment. Present and forecasted hydrological situation. * Emergency Action: Official announcements are issued before during and after the occurrence of floods. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS BEFORE.Alert: Period of intense data collection. Content of Announcements:
• • • • • • •
Present and expected situation of the meteorological cause of flooding. Safety precautions to be taken before the flood. Time and severity of flooding Precautionary measures recommended. location. when the possibility of flooding is present. but its probability is relatively low. Warning: Issued when indications show that water levels will exceed the alert level within 24 hours.
history of the region. topography and flood Know your elevation above flood stage and the history regarding flooding of your Learn first aid and CPR at your local Red Cross chapter or community organization. Areas likely to be affected. when Advisories are issued and during and after the flood.
. These are intended to appraise the public in the affected area of the present and projected flood situation. The Flood Watch converts to flood warning and the appropriate Advisories are issued. Routine announcement of next bulletin. DURING AND AFTER A FLOOD Before • • • Learn to recognize environmental clues such as heavy rains.
Listen to radio or TV broadcasts for emergency information and evacuate Secure shelves and water heaters to nearby walls. • • • • • • • • • • • •
Learn the safest route from your home or business to high. medicine and first aid supplies and Plan what to do with your pets. closed containers. drinking water. Store drinking water in clean.
. safe ground should you Develop and practice a 'family escape' plan and identify a meeting place if family Make an itemized list of all valuables including furnishings. Be aware of weather conditions that could prompt flooding. Have a small disaster supply kit in the trunk of your Find out how many feet your property is above and below possible flood levels. you can determine if you may be flooded. Raise electrical system components. personal property. extra batteries and emergency cooking equipment Keep your automobile fueled.
immediately if told to do so. plastic sheeting and lumber handy for Know the flood warning system in your community and ensure that your family Learn all you can about the flooding Monitor weather conditions Keep a portable transistor radio with spare batteries and emergency equipment. If electric power is cut off. Keep the list in a safe place. clothing and other Stockpile emergency supplies of canned food. plywood. gasoline stations may not
have to leave in a hurry.
available. members become separated. Store livestock feed and supplies above expected water levels. Store all chemicals away from flood waters. knows the warnings.• • • • • • • car. emergency water-proofing. Have a portable radio.
When predicted flood levels are broadcast. Keep materials like sandbags. be able to pump fuel for several days. flashlights.
do so. Know where the shelters are located. Even six inches of moving water is dangerous. gas. Secure your home: lock all doors and windows. Beware of water-covered roads and bridges Never walk or drive through rushing floodwaters. place above flood height. Disconnect electrical appliances that cannot be moved. Turn off gas and electricity. legal and business documents in watertight containers and
securely. do so promptly. Move to higher ground. Put dangerous. Never enter buildings surrounded by floodwaters. Avoid areas subject to flash flooding Don't attempt to cross rivers or flowing streams where water is above the knees. Watch out for snakes and small animals that might seek shelter in your home. Avoid rising waters. lock and leave vehicles at a higher elevation. Bring outside possessions inside the house or tie them down securely. Stay away from downed power lines and electrical wires. If directed to a specific location. flammable or explosive liquids in a safe place and close containers Seal important personal. Take furniture to upper floors or raise on a sturdy table. storm drains and sewers. If there is time. and other movable objects. During
• • • •
If local officials advise evacuation.
• • • • • •
. This includes lawn furniture.
• • • • • •
If you are told to shut off water. Release animals and poultry. or electrical services before leaving. Listen to a portable radio. garbage cans. move essential items and furniture to upper floors in the house. Park. Unplug electrical appliances. DO NOT touch them if you are wet or standing in water.• • • • •
Consider installing check valves in your plumbing to prevent floodwater backup. go there.
• Before entering a building. dried and thoroughly checked for damage. • Wait until an area has been declared safe before entering it. If your car stalls. gas and telephone) to the appropriate authorities.• •
Keep children indoors and upstairs. Gas may be trapped inside. abandon it and climb to higher ground or onto the vehicle's roof. wait for professional assistance. • Boil all water and don't eat left-over food until it is checked for contamination • Keep away from disaster areas as your presence may hamper rescue efforts. check for structural damage. When surrounding waters have subsided. Wells should be pumped out and water tested for drinking. • Report utility lines (electricity. • Listen to the radio or TV for instructions from local officials. Structural damage can occur if drained too quickly. DO NOT use an open flame as a source of light. • Check on your neighbours. • Upon entering the building. • If the building has been under water. • Test drinking water for portability. Let the building air out to remove foul odors or escaping gas. • Throw out any medicine or food that has had contact with flood waters. about 1/3 of the water volume each day. water for drinking and cooking should be boiled vigorously for 10 minutes. Be careful driving. Never touch electrical switches while wet or standing in water • Don't use appliances or equipment until they have been cleaned.
After • Be alert for fire hazards such as broken electrical wires. since roads may be damaged and power lines may be down. 23
. • Flooded basements should be drained and cleaned as soon as possible. • When inspecting the building. Turn off any outside gas lines at the meter or tank. do not switch on the main. use a battery-powered flashlight. • If the public water system is declared 'unsafe' by health officials. or becomes stuck. wear rubber boots and gloves. begin draining the basement in stages. water.
This apparent shift in illness is attributed more to the transmission of communicable diseases such as influenza or even tuberculosis in crowded temporary shelters. see sparks or broken and frayed wires switch off the electricity at the mains panel. Sewerage and Water Line Damage: If the water lines are damaged. IMPACT OF TYPHOON AND FLOOD Physical Impact • Injuries and deaths due to drowning
• Blunt trauma injuries are not uncommon in floods due to the amount of debris that may be
caught in the moving floodwaters along with the unsuspecting victims. How to inspect for gas.• Take photographs of your property. if damaged. After about an hour of allowing the gas to dissipate through open doors and windows. open a window and door and turn off the gas at the tank. and stress and anxiety in the aftermath of natural 24
. and severe bruising. use your emergency water supply.
• Risk of accidental hypothermia • Respiratory illnesses start to show a substantial increase in the days to weeks after a
disaster. Electrical Systems: If you smell burning. electricity. If it backs up the line is not good.
break down of public health safe guards. Get out of the building fast and stay out. call the Fire Service at 991. lacerations. do not drink water from the tap. Injuries in this case resemble projectile injuries and commonly include extremity and torso fractures. for insurance purposes. Proceed with extreme care.
• It has also been shown that due to the common occurrence of dehydration. To check for damaged sewer lines try flushing your toilet. water and sewerage problems in your home: Gas: If you smell gas or hear blowing and hissing noises. Do not turn off lights or appliances. Damaged water lines can lead to contaminated water. Make sure you are wearing dry rubber soled shoes and you are not standing in water. III. if you still smell gas. malnutrition. Do not re-enter the building until it has been checked by a professional.
diarrhea. Even trees cannot
withstand the sheer force of a typhoon's strength indefinitely. waterborne infections. They eventually contribute to human well-being by delivering a range of ecosystem services.
• For marine agriculture when typhoon hits some fishermen loses their boat or sometimes
gets destroyed. Floods also can increase the risk of cholera. acute or chronic effects of exposure to chemical pollutants released into floodwaters. schistosomiasis.) and coastal ecosystems (mangroves. and it also causes soil erosion. a higher demand
for basic commodities but small supply this will cause an increase in price.
• When a flood strikes an area. vector borne diseases.
• Flood or flood risk management options can increase the discharge of pollutants and
sediments to the coastal zones. etc. etc. cost of rebuilding infrastructures. agricultural lands.
• Floodwater can seriously disrupt public and personal transport by cutting off roads and
railway lines. food shortage. While for owners of fish pens. an individual is more prone to serious infection from a familiar vector (for example. the livestock and crops of the area is greatly affected and
therefore causes a food supply shortage resulting to hunger. fishery.
• Plant life can easily be swept away by floods and severe winds. which are beneficial to the floodplain ecosystems
(wetlands. and crops.
• This can be a decline in tourism. Hantavirus. This will increase the prices of fishes. when the water elevates beyond their nets their fishes can swim out to the sea. as well as communication links when telephone lines are damaged. yellow fever. mudflats. and others). and other diseases. fishery.). causing the house inhabitable and disrupt transportation by blocking the roads. Economic and Social Impact
• Floods and storm waters bring nutrients.disaster. malaria. dengue. ripping up their roots and killing the plant. Excessive rain can cause plants to drown. • Buildings and houses residing at unstable ground or living in high areas may experience damage by mudslide or landslide. reefs. Mudslides often take plants down with them.
• Assess and arrange storage of supplies. equipments. A-ccept directions and take orders from an organized authority. possibly billeting in massive temporary shelters. • Provide medical treatment like cleaning wounds. • Determine magnitude of event. S-erve the best of the most. NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES D-isseminate information on the prevention and control of environment hazards. IV. • Establish nursing care priorities and plan for health care supervision. T-each the meaning of warning signs. • Atleast one registered nurse must be present at any kind of emergency and disaster. As shelters are usually places of last resort. sudden phobias.Psychological Impact
• Commonly mass evacuation of communities leads to total disruption of an individual’s
personal coping mechanisms. Families and neighborhoods find themselves tossed from their homes. The weight of the situation is compounded by the lack of privacy and even by the isolation of natural support groups within a specific community. I-nterpret health laws and regulations.
• In many instances victims and survivors complain of some of the following symptoms:
night terrors. providing medications. grief. 26
. individuals remain vulnerable to the lack of information and control that are awarded them. E-xercise leadership. many patients will suffer from such
psychological disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or general anxiety disorder (GAD). guilt. • Evaluate health care needs. S-erve yourself of self-survival. loss of appetite or flashbacks and hallucinations. R-efer to appropriate agencies. insomnia. and monitor the sick persons.
• In the weeks and months following a disaster event. depression. and medications for the victims and check routinely for any need of restocking.
April 6). 2010.dost. Retrieved September 18. 2010. from PAGASA: http://kidlat. November 13).kalikasan.org/cms/?q=node/307 NOAA/ National Weather Service. Retrieved September 17. Unity Statement of Philippine Climate Watch Alliance. Umil. (2009). 2010.kalikasan. Flood Safety Rules.ph/home/images/DRRM_Act_2010/drrm%20act%20of %202010. (2010. People's Network for the Environment: http://www. 2010.org/cms/?q=node/311 KALIKASAN-PNE. and Padua D.gov/aboutgloss.com/special_events/disaster_preparedness_seminar_phil ippines. Destructive Typhoons of the National Capital Region.ph/genmet/floods/safety_rules. (2009. Retrieved September 17.ndcc. from National Weather Service National Hurricane Center: http://www. from Clark Subic Marketing: http://www. Retrieved September 18.). 2010. from Barangay RP:
. (2010.gov.• Identify potential problems and trends in the shelter.html KALIKASAN-PNE.pagasa.typhoon2000. 13th Asia-Pacific Policy Forum and Launch of Australian Government Aid Initiatives on Disaster Risk Reduction. R. April 14).Wash feet immediately with soap and water if feet got soak in flood water. Critique of Philippine Climate Change Act of 2009. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS PROGRAM. from KALIKASAN. Disaster Risk Reduction Management Act of 2010. 11 24). (2010.pdf Smith. Prioritize Disaster Preparedness. from Typhoon2000. 2010.clarksubicmarketing.shtml PAGASA. Glossary of NHC terms. 2010.html Republic of the Philippines. Welcome Address by Ambassador Rod Smith. Aquino Urged.noaa.ph/stormstats/DestructiveTyphoonsNCR. February 22). • Provide health teaching: -Wear boots to prevent soaking of feet to the flood water. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Alojado.htm Clark Subic Marketing. July 31). Australian Embassy. from KALIKASAN. (n.com: http://www. 2010.gov. People's Network for the Environment: http://www. Retrieved September 17.nhc. (2009.d. D. Retrieved September 18. Retrieved September 17. (2010. A. • Establish lines of communication with the health service officer and health care team. from National Disaster Coordination Commission: http://www. M. July 19). (2010. . Retrieved September 17.
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