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Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools

Curriculum Specifications

Form 2

Curriculum Development Centre

Ministry of Education Malaysia
Copyright © 2002 Curriculum Development Centre
Ministry of Education Malaysia
Pesiaran Duta Off Jalan Duta
50604 Kuala Lumpur

First published 2002

Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by
any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, and
recording is forbidden without the prior written permission from the Director of the Curriculum Development
Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia.


The National Philosophy v

National Philosophy of Education vii
National Science Education Philosophy ix
Preface xi

Introduction 1
Aims and Objectives 2
Scientific Skills 3
Thinking Skills 4
Scientific Attitudes and Noble Values 10
Teaching and Learning Strategies 11
Content Organisation 14
Management and Continuity of Life 16
Man and the Variety of Living Things 26
Matter in Nature 33
Force and Motion 45
Technological and Industrial Development in Society 50
Acknowledgements 54
Panel of Writers 55

Our nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; maintaining a
democratic way of life; creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably
shared; ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; building a progressive
society which shall be orientated towards modern science and technology;

The people of Malaysia pledge their united efforts to attain these ends guided by the following



Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of individuals in a holistic
and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and
physically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is
designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high
moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well being
as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, society and the nation
at large.


In consonance with the National Education Philosophy,

science education in Malaysia nurtures
a Science and Technology Culture by focusing
on the development of individuals who are competitive,
dynamic, robust and resilient and able
to master scientific knowledge and technological competency.


The aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised In a recent development, the Government has made a
society depends on science and technology. It is decision to introduce English as the medium of instruction
envisaged that success in providing quality science in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics.
education to Malaysians from an early age will serve to This measure will enable students to keep abreast of
spearhead the nation into becoming a knowledge society developments in science and technology in contemporary
and a competitive player in the global arena. Towards this society by enhancing their capability and know-how to tap
end, the Malaysian education system is giving greater the diverse sources of information on science written in the
emphasis to science and mathematics education. English language. At the same time, this move would also
provide opportunities for students to use the English
The Science curriculum has been designed not only to language and hence, increase their proficiency in the
provide opportunities for students to acquire science language. Thus, in implementing the science curriculum,
knowledge and skills, develop thinking skills and thinking attention is given to developing students’ ability to use
strategies, and to apply this knowledge and skills in English for study and communication, especially in the
everyday life, but also to inculcate in them noble values early years of learning.
and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that the educational
process en route to achieving these aims would produce The development of this curriculum and the preparation of
well-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the the corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been the
harmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. work of many individuals over a period of time. To all those
who have contributed in one way or another to this effort,
may I, on behalf of the Ministry of Education, express my
The Science curriculum aims at producing active learners.
sincere gratitude and thanks for the time and labour
To this end, students are given ample opportunities to
engage in scientific investigations through hands-on
activities and experimentations. The inquiry approach,
incorporating thinking skills, thinking strategies and
thoughtful learning, should be emphasised throughout the
teaching-learning process. The content and contexts
suggested are chosen based on their relevance and
appeal to students so that their interest in the subject is
Curriculum Development Centre
Ministry of Education Malaysia


As articulated in the National Education Policy, education innovative, and able to apply scientific knowledge in decision-
in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential making and problem solving in everyday life.
of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce
individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and The elective science subjects prepare students who are
physically balanced and harmonious. The primary and secondary more scientifically inclined to pursue the study of science at post-
school science curriculum is developed with the aim of producing secondary level. This group of students would take up careers in
such individuals. the field of science and technology and play a leading role in this
field for national development.
As a nation that is progressing towards a developed nation
status, Malaysia needs to create a society that is scientifically For every science subject, the curriculum for the year is
oriented, progressive, knowledgeable, having a high capacity for articulated in two documents: the syllabus and the curriculum
change, forward-looking, innovative and a contributor to scientific specifications. The syllabus presents the aims, objectives and the
and technological developments in the future. In line with this, outline of the curriculum content for a period of 2 years for elective
there is a need to produce citizens who are creative, critical, science subjects and 5 years for core science subjects. The
inquisitive, open-minded and competent in science and curriculum specifications provide the details of the curriculum
technology. which includes the aims and objectives of the curriculum, brief
descriptions on thinking skills and thinking strategies, scientific
The Malaysian science curriculum comprises three core skills, scientific attitudes and noble values, teaching and learning
science subjects and four elective science subjects. The core strategies, and curriculum content. The curriculum content
subjects are Science at primary school level, Science at lower provides the learning objectives, suggested learning activities, the
secondary level and Science at upper secondary level. Elective intended learning outcomes, and vocabulary.
science subjects are offered at the upper secondary level and
consist of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Additional Science.

The core science subjects for the primary and lower

secondary levels are designed to provide students with basic
science knowledge, prepare students to be literate in science, and
enable students to continue their science education at the upper
secondary level. Core Science at the upper secondary level is
designed to produce students who are literate in science,


The aims of the science curriculum for secondary school are to

provide students with the knowledge and skills in science and 5. Face challenges in the scientific and technological world
technology and enable them to solve problems and make and be willing to contribute towards the development of
decisions in everyday life based on scientific attitudes and noble science and technology.
6. Evaluate science- and technology-related information
Students who have followed the secondary science curriculum will wisely and effectively.
have the foundation in science to enable them to pursue formal
and informal further education in science and technology. 7. Practise and internalise scientific attitudes and good moral
The curriculum also aims to develop a concerned, dynamic and
progressive society with a science and technology culture that 8. Realise the importance of inter-dependence among living
values nature and works towards the preservation and things and the management of nature for survival of
conservation of the environment. mankind.

9. Appreciate the contributions of science and technology

OBJECTIVES towards national development and the well-being of

The science curriculum for secondary school enables students to: 10. Realise that scientific discoveries are the result of human
endeavour to the best of his or her intellectual and mental
1. Acquire knowledge in science and technology in the capabilities to understand natural phenomena for the
context of natural phenomena and everyday life betterment of mankind.
11. Create awareness on the need to love and care for the
2. Understand developments in the field of science and environment and play an active role in its preservation and
technology. conservation.

3. Acquire scientific and thinking skills.

4. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and critical

manner for problem solving and decision-making.

Using using numbers and tools with
Numbers standardised units. Measuring
SCIENTIFIC SKILLS makes observation more accurate.

Science emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry and

problem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills are Inferring Using past experiences or
utilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientific investigation previously collected data to draw
such as conducting experiments and carrying out projects. conclusions and make
explanations of events.
Scientific skills encompass science process skills and
manipulative skills.
Predicting Stating the outcome of a future
Science Process Skills event based on prior knowledge
gained through experiences or
Science process skills enable students to formulate their collected data.
questions and find out the answers systematically.

Communicating Using words or graphic symbols

Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows: such as tables, graphs, figures
or models to describe an action,
object or event.
Observing Using the sense of hearing, touch,
smell, taste and sight to collect
information about an object or a Using Space- Describing changes in
phenomenon. Time parameter with time. Examples
Relationship of parameters are location,
direction, shape, size, volume,
Classifying Using observations to group weight and mass.
objects or events according to
similarities or differences.
Interpreting Data Giving rational explanations
about an object, event or pattern
Measuring and Making quantitative observations derived from collected data.

Defining Defining concepts by describing Manipulative Skills
Operationally what must be done and what
should be observed. Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor skills
that enable students to:

Controlling Identifying the fixed variable, x Use and handle science apparatus and laboratory substances
Variables manipulated variable, and correctly.
responding variable in an x Handle specimens correctly and carefully.
investigation. The manipulated x Draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory substances
variable is changed to observe accurately.
its relationship with the x Clean science apparatus correctly, and
responding variable. At the x Store science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly
same time, the fixed variable is and safely.
kept constant.
Hypothesising Making a general statement
about the relationship between a
Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to
manipulated variable and a
responding variable in order to integrate knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to understand
explain an event or observation. the environment.
This statement can be tested to
One of the objectives of the national education system is to
determine its validity.
enhance the thinking ability of students. This objective can be
achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful
Experimenting Planning and conducting learning. Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills is
a foundation for thoughtful learning.
activities to test a certain
hypothesis. These activities
include collecting, analysing Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved in
the teaching and learning process. Activities should be organised
and interpreting data and

to provide opportunities for students to apply thinking skills in criteria such as common
conceptualisation, problem solving and decision-making. characteristics or features.

Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skills and Sequencing Arranging objects and
creative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always information in order based on
evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A the quality or quantity of
person who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is common characteristics or
able to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas features such as size, time,
and products. shape or number.

Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes that

involve various steps. Each step involves various critical and Prioritising Arranging objects and
creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking strategies information in order based on
is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in the teaching their importance or priority.
and learning process.

Critical Thinking Skills Analysing Examining information in detail

by breaking it down into
smaller parts to find implicit
A brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows:
meaning and relationships.
Attributing Identifying criteria such as
characteristics, features,
Detecting Bias Identifying views or opinions
qualities and elements of a
that have the tendency to
concept or an object.
support or oppose something
in an unfair or misleading way.
Comparing and Finding similarities and
Contrasting differences based on criteria
such as characteristics, Evaluating Making judgements on the
features, qualities and quality or value of something
elements of a concept or based on valid reasons or
event. evidence.
Grouping and Separating and grouping
Classifying objects or phenomena into Making Making a statement about the
categories based on certain Conclusions outcome of an investigation

that is based on a hypothesis.

Creative Thinking Skills

A brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: Synthesising Combining separate elements
or parts to form a general
Generating Ideas Producing or giving ideas in a picture in various forms such
discussion. as writing, drawing or artefact.

Relating Making connections in a

certain situation to determine a Making Making a general statement
structure or pattern of Hypotheses on the relationship between
relationship. manipulated variables and
responding variables in order
Making Using past experiences or to explain a certain thing or
Inferences previously collected data to happening. This statement is
draw conclusions and make thought to be true and can be
explanations of events. tested to determine its validity.

Predicting Stating the outcome of a future

event based on prior Making Analogies Understanding a certain
knowledge gained through abstract or complex concept
experiences or collected data. by relating it to a simpler or
concrete concept with similar
Making Making a general conclusion characteristics.
Generalisations about a group based on
observations made on, or
some information from, Inventing Producing something new or
samples of the group. adapting something already in
existence to overcome
Visualising Recalling or forming mental problems in a systematic
images about a particular idea, manner.
concept, situation or vision.

an inductive and deductive manner. Figure 1 gives a general
picture of thinking skills and thinking strategies.

Thinking Strategy

Description of each thinking strategy is as follows:

Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS)
through the teaching and learning of science can be developed
Conceptualising Making generalisations based through the following phases:
on inter-related and common
characteristics in order to 1. Introducing TSTS.
construct meaning, concept or 2. Practising TSTS with teacher’s guidance.
model. 3. Practising TSTS without teacher’s guidance.
4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’s guidance.
Making Decisions Selecting the best solution from 5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish
various alternatives based on thinking tasks.
specific criteria to achieve a
specific aim. Further information about phases of implementing TSTS can be
found in the guidebook “Buku Panduan Penerapan Kemahiran
Problem Solving Finding solutions to challenging Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
or unfamiliar situations or Sains” (Curriculum Development Centre, 1999).
unanticipated difficulties in a
systematic manner.

Besides the above thinking skills and thinking strategies,

another skill emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is a skill
used in making logical, just and rational judgements.
Mastering of critical and creative thinking skills and thinking
strategies is made simpler if an individual is able to reason in

Science process skills are skills that are required in the process of
finding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a systematic
Figure 1 : TSTS Model in Science

Thinking Skills manner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, creative,

analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of science process
skills and the possession of suitable attitudes and knowledge
enable students to think effectively.
Critical Creative
The mastering of science process skills involves the
xAttributing xGenerating ideas mastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that are
xComparing and xRelating related to a particular science process skill are as follows:
contrasting xMaking inferences
xGrouping and xPredicting
classifying xMaking
xSequencing hypotheses Science Process Skills Thinking Skills
xPrioritising xSynthesising
xAnalysing xMaking
xDetecting bias generalisations Observing Attributing
xEvaluating xVisualising Comparing and contrasting
xMaking xMaking analogies Relating
conclusions xInventing
Classifying Attributing
Comparing and contrasting
Thinking Strategies Grouping and classifying
x Conceptualising
Measuring and Using Relating
x Making decisions
Numbers Comparing and contrasting
x Problem solving
Making Inferences Relating
Comparing and contrasting
Relationship between Thinking Skills and Making inferences
Science Process Skills

Science Process Skills Thinking Skills Science Process Skills Thinking Skills

Predicting Relating Predicting Relating

Visualising Visualising

Using Space-Time Sequencing Using Space-Time Sequencing

Relationship Prioritising Relationship Prioritising

Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting Interpreting data Comparing and contrasting
Analysing Analysing
Detecting bias Detecting bias
Making conclusions Making conclusions
Generalising Generalising
Evaluating Evaluating

Defining operationally Relating Defining operationally Relating

Making analogy Making analogy
Visualising Visualising
Analysing Analysing

Controlling variables Attributing Controlling variables Attributing

Comparing and contrasting Comparing and contrasting
Relating Relating
Analysing Analysing

Making hypothesis Attributing Making hypothesis Attributing

Relating Relating
Comparing and contrasting Comparing and contrasting
Generating ideas Generating ideas
Making hypothesis Making hypothesis
Predicting Predicting
Synthesising Synthesising

Science Process Skills Thinking Skills
Experimenting All thinking skills
To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge of the
Communicating All thinking skills characteristics and uses of metals and non-metals in everyday
life are learned through comparing and contrasting. The mastery
Teaching and Learning based on Thinking Skills of the skill of comparing and contrasting is as important as the
and Scientific Skills knowledge about the elements of metal and the elements of

This science curriculum emphasises thoughtful learning based on SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES
thinking skills and scientific skills. Mastery of thinking skills and
scientific skills are integrated with the acquisition of knowledge in Science learning experiences can be used as a means to
the intended learning outcomes. Thus, in teaching and learning, inculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students. These
teachers need to emphasise the mastery of skills together with the attitudes and values encompass the following:
acquisition of knowledge and the inculcation of noble values and
scientific attitudes. x Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment.
x Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data.
The following is an example and explanation of a learning x Being diligent and persevering.
outcome based on thinking skills and scientific skills. x Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the
x Realising that science is a means to understand nature.
x Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living.
x Appreciating the balance of nature.
Learning Outcome: Compare and contrast metallic x Being respectful and well-mannered.
elements and non-metallic elements. x Appreciating the contribution of science and technology.
x Being thankful to God.
x Having critical and analytical thinking.
Thinking Skills: Comparing and contrasting x Being flexible and open-minded.
x Being kind-hearted and caring.
x Being objective.
x Being systematic.
x Being cooperative.

x Being fair and just. Example:
x Daring to try.
x Thinking rationally. Form One
x Being confident and independent.

Learning Area: 1. Matter

The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally
occurs through the following stages:
Learning Objective: 2.3 Appreciating the importance of
x Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific the variety of earth’s resources to
attitudes and noble values. man.
Learning Outcome:
Practise reducing the use, reusing
and recycling of materials, e.g.
x Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values. using old unfinished exercise books
x Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and noble as notebooks and collecting old
values. newspaper for recycling.
Suggested Learning
When planning teaching and learning activities, teachers Activities Carry out projects, campaigns, or
need to give due consideration to the above stages to ensure the competitions on reducing the use,
continuous and effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and reusing and recycling of materials.
values. For example, during science practical work, the teacher Scientific attitudes and
should remind pupils and ensure that they carry out experiments noble values Love and respect for the
in a careful, cooperative and honest manner. environment.

Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of Being responsible for the safety of
scientific attitudes and noble values during science lessons. oneself, others and the
Before the first lesson related to a learning objective, teachers environment.
should examine all related learning outcomes and suggested
teaching-learning activities that provide opportunities for the Appreciating the balance of nature.
inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values.
Being systematic.
The following is an example of a learning outcome
pertaining to the inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. Being cooperative.

Inculcating Patriotism Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning through experiences.
Inquiry generally means to find information, to question and to
The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the environment.
development and strengthening of patriotism among students. For Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. Learning through
example, in learning about the earth’s resources, the richness and discovery occurs when the main concepts and principles of
variety of living things and the development of science and science are investigated and discovered by students themselves.
technology in the country, students will appreciate the diversity of Through activities such as experiments, students investigate a
natural and human resources of the country and deepen their love phenomenon and draw conclusions by themselves. Teachers
for the country. then lead students to understand the science concepts through
the results of the inquiry. Thinking skills and scientific skills are
TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES thus developed further during the inquiry process. However, the
inquiry approach may not be suitable for all teaching and learning
situations. Sometimes, it may be more appropriate for teachers to
Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum present concepts and principles directly to students.
emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process
that helps students acquire knowledge and master skills that will
help them develop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful
learning can occur through various learning approaches such as
inquiry, constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery learning. Constructivism suggests that students learn about something
Learning activities should therefore be geared towards activating when they construct their own understanding. The important
students’ critical and creative thinking skills and not be confined to attributes of constructivism are as follows:
routine or rote learning. Students should be made aware of the
thinking skills and thinking strategies that they use in their ƒ Taking into account students’ prior knowledge.
learning. They should be challenged with higher order questions ƒ Learning occurring as a result of students’ own effort.
and problems and be required to solve problems utilising their ƒ Learning occurring when students restructure their
creativity and critical thinking. The teaching and learning process existing ideas by relating new ideas to old ones.
should enable students to acquire knowledge, master skills and ƒ Providing opportunities to cooperate, sharing ideas and
develop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated experiences, and reflecting on their learning.
Science, Technology and Society
Teaching and Learning Approaches in Science
Meaningful learning occurs if students can relate their learning
Inquiry-Discovery with their daily experiences. Meaningful learning occurs in learning

approaches such as contextual learning and Science, Technology Learning Activities.” However, teachers can modify the suggested
and Society (STS). activities when the need arises.

The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods can

Learning themes and learning objectives that carry elements of
enhance students’ interest in science. Science lessons that are
STS are incorporated into the curriculum. STS approach suggests
not interesting will not motivate students to learn and
that science learning takes place through investigation and
subsequently will affect their performance. The choice of teaching
discussion based on science and technology issues in society. In
methods should be based on the curriculum content, students’
the STS approach, knowledge in science and technology is to be
abilities, students’ repertoire of intelligences, and the availability of
learned with the application of the principles of science and
resources and infrastructure. Besides playing the role of
technology and their impact on society.
knowledge presenters and experts, teachers need to act as
Contextual Learning
facilitators in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers need
to be aware of the multiple intelligences that exist among
Contextual learning is an approach that associates learning with
students. Different teaching and learning activities should be
daily experiences of students. In this way, students are able to
planned to cater for students with different learning styles and
appreciate the relevance of science learning to their lives. In
contextual learning, students learn through investigations as in the
inquiry-discovery approach.
The following are brief descriptions of some teaching and learning
Mastery Learning

Mastery learning is an approach that ensures all students are able Experiment
to acquire and master the intended learning objectives. This
approach is based on the principle that students are able to learn An experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. In
if they are given adequate opportunities. Students should be experiments, students test hypotheses through investigations to
allowed to learn at their own pace, with the incorporation of discover specific science concepts and principles. Conducting an
remedial and enrichment activities as part of the teaching-learning experiment involves thinking skills, scientific skills, and
process. manipulative skills.

Teaching and Learning Methods Usually, an experiment involves the following steps:

Teaching and learning approaches can be implemented through ƒ Identifying a problem.

various methods such as experiments, discussions, simulations, ƒ Making a hypothesis.
projects, and visits. In this curriculum, the teaching-learning ƒ Planning the experiment
methods suggested are stated under the column “Suggested - controlling variables.
- determining the equipment and materials needed.

- determining the procedure of the experiment and situations so that students can visualise the said objects or
the method of data collection and analysis. situations and thus understand the concepts and principles to be
ƒ Conducting the experiment. learned.
ƒ Collecting data.
ƒ Analysing data. Project
ƒ Interpreting data.
ƒ Making conclusions.
A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by an
ƒ Writing a report.
individual or a group of students to achieve a certain learning
objective. A project generally requires several lessons to
In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guiding complete. The outcome of the project either in the form of a report,
students to do an experiment, where appropriate, teachers an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to the teacher
should provide students with the opportunities to design their and other students. Project work promotes the development of
own experiments. This involves students drawing up plans as to problem-solving skills, time management skills, and independent
how to conduct experiments, how to measure and analyse data, learning.
and how to present the outcomes of their experiment.

Discussion Visits and Use of External Resources

A discussion is an activity in which students exchange questions

and opinions based on valid reasons. Discussions can be The learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in the
conducted before, during or after an activity. Teachers should play school compound. Learning of science can be enhanced through
the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking questions the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, science
that stimulate thinking and getting students to express centres, research institutes, mangrove swamps, and factories.
themselves. Visits to these places make the learning of science more
interesting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learning
Simulation opportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Students may be
involved in the planning process and specific educational tasks
In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation is should be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is
carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and the complete without a post-visit discussion.
use of models. In role-play, students play out a particular role
based on certain pre-determined conditions. Games require
procedures that need to be followed. Students play games in Use of Technology
order to learn a particular principle or to understand the process of
decision-making. Models are used to represent objects or actual

Technology is a powerful tool that has great potential in enhancing natural inculcation of attitudes and values. Learning areas in the
the learning of science. Through the use of technology such as psychomotor domain are implicit in the learning activities.
television, radio, video, computer, and Internet, the teaching and
learning of science can be made more interesting and effective. Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurable
Computer simulation and animation are effective tools for the behavioural terms. In general, the learning outcomes for a
teaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts. particular learning objective are organised in order of complexity.
Computer simulation and animation can be presented through However, in the process of teaching and learning, learning
courseware or Web page. Application tools such, as word activities should be planned in a holistic and integrated manner
processors, graphic presentation software and electronic that enables the achievement of multiple learning outcomes
spreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation according to needs and context. Teachers should avoid employing
of data. a teaching strategy that tries to achieve each learning outcome
The use of other tools such as data loggers and computer separately according to the order stated in the curriculum
interfacing in experiments and projects also enhance the specifications.
effectiveness of teaching and learning of science.
The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on the
scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning activities
CONTENT ORGANISATION stated under the column Suggested Learning Activities are given
with the intention of providing some guidance as to how learning
outcomes can be achieved. A suggested activity may cover one
or more learning outcomes. At the same time, more than one
The science curriculum is organised around themes. Each theme
activity may be suggested for a particular learning outcome.
consists of various learning areas, each of which consists of a
Teachers may modify the suggested activity to suit the ability and
number of learning objectives. A learning objective has one or
style of learning of their students. Teachers are encouraged to
more learning outcomes.
design other innovative and effective learning activities to enhance
the learning of science.
Learning outcomes are written based on the hierarchy of the
cognitive and affective domains. Levels in the cognitive domain
are: knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis
and evaluation. Levels in the affective domain are: to be aware of,
to be in awe, to be appreciative, to be thankful, to love, to practise,
and to internalise. Where possible, learning outcomes relating to
the affective domain are explicitly stated. The inculcation of
scientific attitudes and noble values should be integrated into
every learning activity. This ensures a more spontaneous and



Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.1 Carry out activities to make A student is able to: The five sensory brain – otak
Understanding connection between the five organs have been nerve – saraf
the sensory senses, the sensory organs and x identify and relate a sensory introduced in response – gerakbalas
organs and the stimuli. organ to its stimulus, Primary Science. stimuli – rangsangan
their functions. x state the pathway from stimulus sensory organ – organ
Discuss what happens in our body to response: deria
after a stimulus is detected. StimulusÆ Sensory organs Æ
NervesÆ BrainÆ Nerves Æ

1.2 Carry out activities to study the A student is able to: The structures of the cold – kesejukan
Understanding following: receptors are not heat – kepanasan
the sense of a) structure of the human skin x identify the structure of the required. pain – kesakitan
touch. involved in stimuli detection, human skin involved in stimuli pressure – tekanan
b) sensitivity of the skin at detection, receptor – hujung saraf
different parts of the body x state the function of different sensitivity – kepekaan
towards stimuli. receptors – pressure, heat, pain, skin – kulit
x draw conclusion on the touch – sentuhan
Discuss the sensitivity of the skin sensitivity of the skin at different
in connection to the following parts of the body towards stimuli.
a) receiving an injection,
b) using Braille.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.3 Discuss the structure of the nose A student is able to: nose – hidung
Understanding and the position of the sensory sensory cells – sel deria
the sense of cells using models, charts, x identify the structure of the nose,
smell. computer software and other x identify the position of the
teaching aids. sensory cells in the detection of

1.4 Carry out activities to detect the A student is able to: bitter – pahit
Understanding different areas of the tongue that salty – masin
the sense of respond to different tastes. x identify the different areas of the sour – masam
taste. tongue that respond to different sweet – manis
Carry out activities to find how taste, taste – rasa
taste is related to smell. x relate the sense of taste with the tongue – lidah
sense of smell.

1.5 Observe and identify the structure A student is able to: Teacher is cochlea – koklea
Understanding of the human ear. encouraged to use ear – telinga
the sense of x identify the structure of the computer simulation ear drum – gegendang
hearing. Discuss the function of each part human ear, to illustrate the telinga
of the ear. x explain the function of the hearing mechanism.
different parts of the ear,
Discuss the hearing mechanism. x describe how we hear.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.6 Examine the cow’s eye or model A student is able to:

Understanding of a human eye.
the sense of x identify the structure of the
sight. Collect information on structure human eye,
and function of each part of the x explain the functions of different
eye. parts of the eye,
x describe how we see.
Discuss how we see.

1.7 Carry out activities to study: A student is able to: Relate the density – ketumpatan
Understanding properties of light to medium –
light and sight. a) reflection of light, x describe the properties of light natural phenomena bahantara/medium
b) refraction of light between two i.e. reflection and refraction, and daily usage. reflection – pantulan
mediums of different density. x state the various defects of Angles of incidence, refraction – pembiasan
vision, reflection, refraction
x explain ways to correct vision and normal are not
Collect information about the types defects, required.
of defects of vision and the x state and give examples of the
contribution/use of technology to limitations of sight, Astigmatism,
rectify them. x connect stereoscopic and optical illusions,
monocular visions with the blind-spot,
survival of animals, monocular and
x identify the appropriate device to stereoscopic visions
overcome the limitations of sight. should be

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Carry out activities to show what astigmatism –

short sightedness and long astigmatisme
sightedness are and how to blind spot – bintik (or titik)
correct them. buta
long sightedness – rabun
Discuss what astigmatism is and dekat
the way to correct it. monocular vision –
penglihatan monokular
Carry out activities to investigate optical illusion – ilusi optik
the following: periscope – periskop
a) optical illusion, short sightedness – rabun
b) blind-spot. jauh
stereoscopic vision –
Discuss the connection between penglihatan stereoskopik
stereoscopic vision and monocular
vision with the survival of animals.

Gather information about the Microscope,

device to overcome the limitation magnifying glass,
of sight. telescope,
ultrasound scanning
device, X-ray,
periscope should be

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.8 Carry out activities to investigate: A student is able to:

Understanding a) the production of sound,
sound and b) the need of medium for sound x describe the properties of sound,
hearing. to travel, x explain the reflection and
c) the reflection and absorption of absorption of sound,
sound. x explain the defects of hearing,
x explain ways of rectifying the
Collect information about defects in hearing,
a) the defects of hearing, x state the limitations of hearing,
b) ways to rectify the defects of x state the device used to Include devices
hearing. overcome the limitations of such as hearing aids
hearing, and stethoscope.
Discuss the limitations of hearing x explain stereophonic hearing.
and ways of improving it.

Carry out activities to investigate

the need for stereophonic hearing
in determining the direction of

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.9 Carry out experiments to A student is able to: Responses in

Understanding investigate and identify: plants should
the stimuli and a) stimuli detected by plants, x state the stimuli that cause include
responses in b) the parts of the plants sensitive response in plants, phototropism,
plants. to specific stimulus. x identify the parts of plants geotropism,
sensitive to specific stimulus, hydrotropism,
Discuss in what ways the x relate the response in plants to nastic movement,
response of plants towards stimuli their survival. tigmotropism.
are important for their survival.


Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.1 Discuss the classes of food i.e. A student is able to: Only the major fats – lemak
Analysing the carbohydrate, protein, fats, vitamins (A, B, C, fibre – pelawas
classes of food. vitamins, minerals, fibre and x explain through examples the D, E and K) and potassium – kalium
water and state their functions. classes of food, minerals (calcium, starch – kanji
x state the function of each class sodium, iron, sodium – natrium
Carry out activities to test for of food, iodine, phosphorus
starch (iodine solution), glucose x test for starch, glucose, protein and potassium) are
(Benedict solution), protein and fats. required.
(Millon’s reagent) and fats Vitamin B need not
(alcohol-emulsion test). be classified into
B1, B2 and so on.
Introduce alcohol-
emulsion test for

2.2 Discuss: A student is able to: balanced diet – gizi

Evaluating the a) what a balanced diet is, seimbang
importance of a b) the factors that determine a x state what a balanced diet is, calorific value – nilai kalori
balanced diet. person’s balanced diet: age, x state the factors that must be climate – cuaca
size, sex, job, climate, state considered when planning a food wrapper – bungkusan
of health. balanced diet, makanan
x explain how the factors affect a The unit of energy
Collect food wrappers that show balanced diet, in food can be
calorific value of food and make a x state the quantity of energy in measured either in
list to show the calorific value for each gram of carbohydrate, joules or calories.
each type of food. protein and fats,

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Discuss to estimate the calories x estimate the calories of food

of food taken in a meal. taken in a meal,
x plan a balanced diet.
Plan a balanced diet for a day.
(breakfast, lunch and dinner)

2.3 Discuss that digestion is the A student is able to: alimentary canal – salur
Understanding breakdown of large food penghadaman
the digestive molecules into smaller soluble x explain what digestion is, anus – dubur
system in man. molecules that can be readily x identify the parts of the digestive appendix – umbai usus
absorbed by the body. system, bile – jus hempedu
x describe the flow of food digestion – penghadaman
Identify parts of the digestive particles in the alimentary canal, enzyme – enzim
system and the flow of food x state the functions of the organs gall bladder – pundi
particles in the alimentary canal in the digestive system, hempedu
using model/chart/CD ROM. x describe the process of digestion Enzymes should gut – salur penghadaman
in the alimentary canal, only include insoluble – tidak larut
Discuss the functions of the x list the end products of digestion amylase, protease large intestine – usus
various organs in the digestive of carbohydrate, protein and and lipase. besar
system and the enzymes found. fats. liver – hati
saliva – air liur
Carry out activities to show the small intestine – usus kecil
action of the enzyme in the saliva stomach – perut
on starch.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.4 Discuss the process of A student is able to: The structure of absorption – penyerapan
Understanding absorption of the products of vilus is not analogise – membuat
the process of digestion in the small intestine. x explain the process of required. Need only analogi
absorption of absorption of the products of mention vilus blood stream – aliran
digested food. Carry out an experiment to show digestion, increases the darah
the absorption of glucose through x make inference about the surface area for diffusion – resapan
a Visking tube. absorption of glucose through a absorption.
Visking tube.

2.5 Discuss the reabsorption of water A student is able to: constipation – sembelit
Understanding by the large intestine and the defecation – penyahtinjaan
the reabsorption process of defecation. x state how water is reabsorbed large intestine – usus
of water and in the large intestine, besar
defecation. Discuss the importance of good x explain defecation, reabsoption – penyerapan
eating habits to avoid x relate the problem of defecation semula
constipation. with eating habits.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.6 Plan and carry out a healthy A student is able to: habits – amalan
Put into practice eating habit. needy – sangat miskin
the habits of x justify the importance of eating nutritious food – makanan
healthy eating. Discuss the following topics : nutritious food, berkhasiat
a) practicing good eating x put in practice good eating underprivileged – kurang
habits i.e. eating nutritious habits, bernasib baik
food and eating in x justify the generous distribution religious beliefs –
moderation, of food to the underprivileged / kepercayaan agama
b) the generous distribution needy,
of food to the x relate the dining culture of
underprivileged / needy, different people conforming to
c) cultural practices in dining sensitivities and religious
conforming to sensitivities beliefs.
and religious beliefs.



Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.1 Discuss the diversity in the general A student is able to: Basic concept on amphibian – amfibia
Understanding characteristics of living organisms. variety of living bird – burung
variety of living x explain the diversity of living organisms has dicotyledon – dikotiledon
organisms and Collect and classify various plants organisms in a habitat, been introduced in diversity – kepelbagaian
their and animals into a system based x classify various animals based primary science. fish – ikan
classification. on common characteristics. on common characteristics, flowering plant – tumbuhan
- Animal: Invertebrate, x classify various plants based berbunga
vertebrate, mammal, fish, bird, on common characteristics, Emphasize only on invertebrate –
amphibian, reptile. x explain the importance of the classification in invertebrata
- Plant : Flowering plant, non- biodiversity to the environment. the suggested living organism –
flowering plant, monocotyledon, learning activities. organisma hidup
dicotyledon. mammal – mamalia
- Build a concept map on living monocotyledon –
organisms based on the monokotiledon
classification above. non-flowering plant –
Malaysia is one of tumbuhan tidak berbunga
Discuss the importance of the twelve mega- reptile – reptilia
maintaining the biological diversity biodiversity vertebrates – vertebrata
as one of the country’s natural countries in the
heritage. world should be


Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.1 Carry out a field work to study A student is able to: Basic concept of community – komuniti
Analysing the species, habitat, population, habitat has been ecosystem – ekosistem
interdependence community in an ecosystem. x state what species, population introduced in environment –
among living and community are, primary school. persekitaran
organisms. Carry out a discussion on x state what habitat and habitat – habitat
interdependence among living ecosystem are, interdependence – saling
organisms and the environment x identify various habitats in one During the field bersandaran
to create a balanced ecosystem. ecosystem, work the concept of predict – meramal
x explain through examples the ecology will be population – populasi
interdependence among living constructed species – spesis
organisms and the environment through contextual
to create a balanced ecosystem. learning.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.2 Collect and interpret data on the A student is able to: Basic concept of advantage – kebaikan
Evaluating the types of interactions between prey predator and biological control –
interaction living organisms as follows: x list the types of interactions competition has kawalan biologi
between living a) prey-predator, between living organisms, been taught in competition – persaingan
organisms. b) symbiosis: commensalism, x explain with examples the primary school. disadvantage – keburukan
mutualism and parasitism interactions between living interaction – interaksi
e.g. remora and shark, organisms, parasitism – parasitisme
algae and fungi, tape worm x justify the importance of pest – perosak
and man, interaction between living prey predator –
c) competition. organisms and the environment, mangsa pemangsa
x explain through examples the Refer to local regulate – mengawal
Conduct an activity to show the advantages and disadvantages issues like the crow symbiosis – simbiosis
importance of the interaction of biological control in regulating problem in Kelang.
between organisms and the the number of pest in certain
environment. areas.

Discuss the advantages of

biological control in regulating the
numbers of pests in certain areas.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.3 Collect and interpret data on the A student is able to: Food chain has balance in nature-
Synthesizing producer, consumer, decomposer been taught in keseimbangan alam
food web. and pyramid number. x explain what producers, primary science. consumer- pengguna
consumers and decomposers decomposer-pengurai
Construct a food web from a few are, food web-siratan makanan
food chains and identify the x combine a few food chains to primary consumer –
producer, consumer and construct a food web, pengguna primer
decomposer. x identify the producer, consumer producer-pengeluar
and decomposer in a food web, pyramid number-piramid
Discuss the energy flow in the x construct a pyramid number nombor
food web constructed. from a food chain, secondary consumer –
x relate the food web and the pengguna sekunder
Conduct a game to show the pyramid number to energy flow, tertiary consumer –
effects of an increase or decrease x predict the consequences if a Refer to the crown pengguna tertier
in the number of organisms in a certain component of living of thorn problem in
pyramid number. Discuss the organisms in the ecosystem is the coral reef in the
consequences if a component of missing. marine parks.
living organisms in an ecosystem
is missing.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.4 Carry out discussion on what A student is able to: balanced ecosystem –
Analysing photosynthesis is. ekosistem yang seimbang
photosynthesis. x state what photosynthesis is, oxygen cycle - kitar
Carry out experiments to x state the factors required for The carbon and oksigen
determine the factors needed for photosynthesis, oxygen cycles carbon cycle – kitar karbon
photosynthesis i.e. carbon x state the products of should be included. photosynthesis-fotosintesis
dioxide, water, light and photosynthesis,
chlorophyll. x control the variables that are
required for photosynthesis,
Discuss the importance of x explain the role of
photosynthesis in maintaining a photosynthesis in maintaining a
balanced ecosystem. balanced ecosystem.
Discuss the carbon and oxygen

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.5 Collect and interpret data on the A student is able to: The role of man in conservation-pemuliharaan
Evaluating the conservation and preservation of conservation and reserve forest – hutan
importance of living organisms. xexplain what conservation and preservation has simpan
conservation preservation are, been highlighted highland forest – hutan
and Carry out a field work in a natural xexplain the steps taken to in primary school. tanah tinggi
preservation of forest reserve (wetlands, highland preserve and conserve living indigenous people – orang
living forest or tropical rain forest) or an organisms, asli
organisms. animal sanctuary to study the xjustify the importance of preservation-pemeliharaan
conservation and preservation of conservation and preservation of sanctuary-santuari
living organisms. living organisms, tropical rainforest – hutan
xsupport activities organised by hujan tropika
Carry out a discussion on how the various parties to preserve and wetlands – tanah bencah /
improvement in science and conserve the living organisms. lembap
technology helps in the
conservation and preservation of
living organisms.

Run a campaign to stress on the Forest is also home

importance of conservation and to some indigenous
preservation / Carry out a role play people should be
involving the parties concerned in included.
solving problems related to the
conservation and preservation of
living organisms.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.6 Carry out a brainstorming session A student is able to: Examples of acid rain – hujan asid
Evaluating the to discuss the environmental environmental brainstorming –
role of man in issues affecting the balance in x explain the effects of human issues: sumbangsaran
maintaining the nature and how to solve it. activities on the balance in Global climate climate change –
balance in nature, change, perubahan iklim
nature. Carry out a discussion to justify x describe how man solves habitat destruction, deforestation –
that man needs stable and problems related to environment, species extinction, penebangan hutan
productive ecosystem to ascertain x justify that human need a stable, air, soil and water excessive – berlebihan
a harmonious life. productive and balanced pollution, loss of land overuse –
ecosystem. wetlands, penggunaan tanah yang
solid waste tidak terkawal
management, green house effect – kesan
deforestation, land rumah hijau
overuse, over over fishing –
fishing, toxin in the penangkapan ikan tidak
environment, terkawal
(release of pollution – pencemaran
excessive solid waste management –
chemicals into our pengurusan sisa pepejal
environment – pesticides – pestisid
includes pesticides, species extinction –
fertilizers and kepupusan spesis
pollutants). toxin – toksin



Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.1 Carry out activities to determine A student is able to: The Kinetic Theory boiling point – takat didih
Analysing the the following: should be freezing point – takat beku
physical x the freezing point of water, x state the meaning of the introduced. impurities – bendasing
characteristics x the boiling point of water. freezing point of water, inference – inferens
of water. x state the meaning of the boiling Relate the freezing physical characteristics –
Carry out an activity to observe the point of water, and boiling point of ciri-ciri fizikal
effects of impurities on the x describe the physical water to the Kinetic
physical characteristics of water. characteristics of water, Theory.
x explain through examples the
effects of impurities on the
physical characteristics of

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.2 Carry out an electrolysis to A student is able to: The ionic theory anode – anod
Analysing the determine the ratio of hydrogen to on electrolysis is cathode – katod
composition of oxygen in a molecule of water. x determine the composition of not needed. composition – komposisi
water. water, Understanding that ionic theory – teori ionik
x test the presence of hydrogen hydrogen is electrolysis – elektrolisis
and oxygen. discharged at the discharge – terhasil
cathode and
oxygen at the
anode is adequate.
The ratio of gases
is required.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.3 Carry out experiments to study the A student is able to: agricultural product – hasil
Analysing the factors affecting the rate of pertanian
process of evaporation of water i.e. humidity, x explain what evaporation is, evaporation – penyejatan
evaporation of the temperature of the x explain through examples the evaporation of water –
water. surrounding, surface area and the factors that affect the rate of penyejatan air
movement of air. evaporation of water with humidity – kelembapan
reference to the Kinetic Theory, movement of air –
Discuss the factors affecting the x compare and contrast between pergerakan udara
rate of evaporation in relation to evaporation and boiling, preservation – pengawetan
the Kinetic Theory. x describe the application of the processing of food –
evaporation of water in daily pemprosesan makanan
Discuss the similarities and life. rate of evaporation – kadar
differences between evaporation penyejatan
and boiling. surface area – luas
Gather information on evaporation temperature of the
process and its application in daily surrounding – suhu
life.i.e. drying of clothes, sekeliling
preservation of agricultural
products and processing of food.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.4 Discuss the differences between A student is able to: concentrated solution –
Analysing solute, solvent and solution. larutan pekat
solution and Carry out activities to prepare a x explain what solute, solvent dilute solution – larutan
solubility. dilute solution, a concentrated and solution are, cair
solution and a saturated solution. x contrast and compare nature of solute – jenis zat
between dilute solution, pelarut
Discuss the similarities and concentrated and saturated nature of solvent – jenis
differences between dilute solution, pelarut
solution, concentrated solution x explain what suspension is, organic solvent – pelarut
and saturated solution. x explain what solubility is, organik
x explain the factors affecting residue – baki/sisa
Carry out activities to illustrate the the solubility of solutes in Introduce insoluble suspension – bahan
differences between a solution water, sediments are terampai
and a suspension. x explain the importance of known as residue. saturated solution – larutan
water as a universal solvent in tepu
Carry out experiments to life, sediment – bahan
determine the factors affecting the x give examples on the uses of mendapan
solubility of a solute. organic solvents in our solubility – kelarutan
x Nature of solvent, everyday life. solute – zat pelarut
x Nature of solute, solution – larutan
x Temperature. solvent – pelarut
universal solvent – pelarut
volume of solvent – isipadu

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Carry out experiments to

determine the factors affecting the
rate of dissolving:
x temperature,
x rate of stirring,
x size of solute particle.

Discuss the importance of water

as a universal solvent in life.

Gather information on the

application of organic solvents in
daily life.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.5 Carry out activities to study: A student is able to: Caution: active metal – logam aktif
Analysing acid alkaline substance –bahan
and alkali. x the properties of acid in x identify the properties of acid, Chemicals in the beralkali
terms of pH value, taste, identify the properties of alkali, laboratory should concentration – kepekatan
corrosive nature, effect on x state that acid and alkali only not be tasted. concentrated acid – asid
litmus paper, reaction with show their properties in the pekat
metals such as magnesium presence of water, Use only dilute acid concentrated alkali – alkali
and zinc, x explain through examples the and dilute alkali. pekat
definition of acid and alkali, corrosive – mengkakis
x the characteristics of alkali in x identify the substances which Do not use active dilute acid – asid cair
terms of pH value, taste, are acidic or alkaline in metals such as dilute alkali – alkali cair
corrosive nature, effect on everyday life, Potassium and equation in words –
litmus paper, x state the uses of acid and Sodium in the persamaan perkataan
alkali in daily life, reaction with acid. hydrochloric acid – asid
x carry out a discussion to x explain the meaning of hidroklorik
define acid and alkali neutralisation, litmus paper – kertas
operationally. x write an equation in words to litmus
describe the neutralisation metal – logam
Carry out activities to determine process, neutralization –
the acidic and alkaline substances peneutralan
x explain through examples the
in daily life. operational definition –
uses of neutralisation in daily
definisi secara operasi
potassium – kalium
sodium – natrium
sodium hydroxide –
natrium hidroksida

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Gather information on the usage of

acid and alkali in everyday life
such as in agriculture and industry.

Discuss on the meaning of


Carry out an activity

to show neutralisation using the
hydrochloric acid and sodium
hydroxide of the same

Discuss the application of

neutralisation in daily life e.g.
using shampoo and conditioner
and, insect bite.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.6 Make a visit to a water purification A student is able to: boiling – pendidihan
Analysing the site. x list the natural sources of chlorination – pengklorinan
methods of water, distillation – penyulingan
water Brainstorming on the following: x state the reasons for water filtration – penurasan
purification. x natural resources of water, purification, natural resources –
x the reasons for water x describe the various types of sumber semula jadi
purification. water purification, water purification site – loji
x compare the strengths and pembersihan air
Discuss the various types of water weaknesses of the various
purification such as filtration, types of water purification.
boiling, chlorination and distillation.
Carry out activities to study the
various types of water purification
such as filtration, boiling and

Pupils present their findings to

discuss the strengths and The latest
weaknesses of the various types developments in
of water purification. water purification
e.g. ultra-violet
treatment can be

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.7 Make a visit to a water processing A student is able to: domestic uses –
Analysing the plant to study the water supply penggunaan domestik
water supply system and stages involved in x describe how the water supply usage of water –
system. water purification. system works, penggunaan air
x explain ways to save water. water supply system –
Discuss the ways to save water. sistem bekalan air
Do a project on how much water
the average household uses.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.8 Collect and interpret data on types A student is able to: construction – pembinaan
Understanding of water pollutants which include: x give examples of water deforestation –
the x industrial waste such as pollutants, penebangan hutan
preservation of chemical and radioactive x explain the effect of water domestic waste – bahan
water quality. residues, pollution on living things, buangan domestik
x domestic waste such as x explain ways to control water fertiliser – baja
garbage and sewage, pollution, garbage – sampah-sarap
x chemicals from the x explain ways to preserve water industrial waste – bahan
agricultural activities such and its quality. buangan industri
as fertilisers and pesticide – pestisid
pesticides, preservation –
x siltation caused by pemeliharaan
constructions and radioactive residue – sisa
deforestation, radioaktif
x accidental spillage from siltation – pengelodakan
tankers. sewage – sisa / bahan
Conduct discussion on the effect water pollutant – bahan
of water pollution on living things. cemar air

Generate ideas on ways to control

water pollution.

Discuss ways to conserve and

preserve water and its quality. Run
a campaign on ‘Love Our Rivers’.


Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.1 Carry out an activity to discuss the A student is able to : air pressure – tekanan
Understanding kinetic theory of gases. udara
air pressure. x explain the existence of air appliances – peralatan
Carry out an activity to show that pressure with reference to the existence – kewujudan
air exerts pressure. Kinetic Theory, temperature – suhu
x explain the factors affecting air volume – isipadu
Carry out activities to show the pressure.
factors affecting air pressure, i.e.
volume and temperature.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.2 Collect and interpret data on A student is able to: Caution: syringe – picagari
Applying the appliances that use the principle of siphon – sifon
principle of air air pressure. x explain with examples things Do not place tank spray – penyembur
pressure in that use the principle of air containing gas drinking straw – penyedut
daily life. Gather information and discuss pressure, under high minuman
the application of air pressure in x generate ideas to solve pressure near heat. blockage – tersumbat
syringe, siphon, spraying pump problems using the principle of gas under high pressure –
and drinking straw. air pressure, gas di bawah tekanan
x relate the safety measures tinggi
Discuss ways of using the taken when using gas under safety measures – langkah
principle of air pressure to solve high pressure. keselamatan
daily problems such as blockage
in sinks and pouring condensed
milk from a can.

Gather information on how a gas

tank containing gas under high
pressure works.

Discuss the safety precautions

taken when using gas under high



Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.1 Carry out activities to show A student is able to: electrostatic force – daya
Understanding pushing and pulling are forces. elektrostatik
force. x state that a force is a push or a frictional force – daya
Carry out activities to show the pull, geseran
effects of force (changes in shape, x explain the effects of forces, gravitational force – daya
position, speed and direction). x explain the various types of graviti
forces. magnetic force – daya
Carry out activities to show magnetik
different types of forces (frictional, speed – kelajuan
gravitational, electrostatic and
magnetic force).

1.2 Discuss the unit of force and the A student is able to: magnitude – magnitud
Understanding principle of a spring balance. spring balance – neraca
the x state the unit of force, spring
measurement Carry out activity to measure the x explain how a spring balance
of force. magnitude of force. works,
x measure the magnitude of force.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.3 Discuss with examples to show A student is able to: existence – kewujudan
Application of the existence of frictional force. surface – permukaan
frictional force. x explain with example the
Carry out activities to identify the existence of frictional force,
direction of frictional force and x state the direction and the
measure the magnitude of the magnitude of frictional force,
force. x carry out an experiment to show
how different types of surfaces
Carry out an experiment to show affect frictional force,
how different types of surfaces x explain the advantages and
affect the magnitude of frictional disadvantages of friction, Ignore static
force. x explain ways to increase friction, frictional force.
x explain ways to reduce friction,
Gather information and discuss x explain with examples the
the advantages and application of friction in daily life.
disadvantages of friction.

Carry out activities on ways to

a) increase friction,
b) reduce friction.

Discuss the application of

increasing and decreasing friction
in our daily life.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.4 Discuss with examples to show A student is able to:

Application of work is done when an object is
work. moved by a force. x explain with examples how work distance – jarak
is done, work – kerja
Carry out activities to determine x state the unit of work,
the work done by using: x calculate the work done.

Work (J)
= Force (N) X Distance (m)

1.5 Carry out activities to determine A student is able to: power – kuasa
Application of power by using:
power. x state the meaning of power,
Power (W) = Work (J) x state the unit of power,
Time (s) x calculate power on the work

1.6 Create an activity e.g. drawing a A student is able to: sketch – lakaran
Analysing the poster, sketching or acting to show
importance of how life would be without force. x describe how life will be if force
force in life. does not exist.


Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.1 Gather information and discuss A student is able to: For invertebrates aquatic – akuatik
Understanding the various support systems in introduce buoyancy –
the support a) land and aquatic vertebrates, x explain the support system in exoskeleton, keapungan
systems in b) land and aquatic invertebrates. vertebrates and the various endoskeleton, chitin – kitin
animals. support systems in hydrostatic cuticle – kutikel
Carry out discussions on the invertebrates, skeleton. endoskeleton – rangka
following: x compare and contrast the dalam
a) similarities and differences support system between land exoskeleton – rangka luar
between support systems in and aquatic vertebrates, hydrostatic – hidrostatik
land and aquatic vertebrates, x compare and contrast the shell – cangkerang
b) similarities and differences support system between land skeletal system –
between support systems in and aquatic invertebrates. sistem rangka
land and aquatic invertebrates. support system – sistem

2.2 Carry out field work to study A student is able to: Features that help
Understanding various support systems of plants. non-woody plants
the support x explain the various support include tendrils,
systems in Carry out activities to classify systems in woody and non- thorns, air sacs in
plants. plants based on their support woody plants, aquatic plants.
systems. x classify plants based on their
support systems.

Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

2.3 Discuss issues e.g. A student is able to: beached whale – paus
Appreciating a) inability of whales to move yang terdampar di pantai
the support back to sea after being x justify the importance of the crippled – tempang
system in washed ashore, support system to living things. crutches – tongkak ketiak
living things. b) a crippled person using inability – ketidakupayaan
crutches for support.



Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary


1.1 Carry out activities to find A student is able to: base area – luas
Understanding that the the point of equilibrium in tapak
centre of gravity regular and irregular x determine the point of center of gravity –
affects stability. shapes. equilibrium in regular and pusat graviti
irregular shapes, height – ketinggian
Carry out an experiment to x relate the point of manipulating –
find out how the centre of equilibrium as the centre mengubah
gravity affects the stability of gravity of objects, point of equilibrium –
of an object by x relate the centre of gravity titik keseimbangan
manipulating the to the stability of objects. stability – kestabilan
a) height,
b) base area.

Discuss the relationship

between the centre of
gravity and stability.

Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

1.2 Carry out a brainstorming A student is able to:

Appreciating the session on ways to
importance of stability. improve stability. x suggest ways to improve
the stability of objects
Carry out activities like around them,
doing projects or playing x explain with examples the
games to build models by application of stability in
applying the concept of life.


Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary


2.1 Discuss how a small effort A student is able to: When we open the fulcrum – fulcrum
Analysing levers. can overcome a large load door or use a wrench force – daya
with the use of a lever. x list things around them to loosen a nut, we are lever – tuas
that use the principle of applying a force that load – beban
Make an observation on the lever, causes a turning effect perpendicular
devices that use the x state what a lever can do, to accomplish the distance – jarak
principles of levers. desired task. The tegak
x identify load, force and
Identify the load, force and turning effect is called
fulcrum in the lever,
fulcrum, and then classify the moment of a
x classify levers,
the systems into first, force.
second and third class x explain what is meant by
the moment of a force,
levers. Discuss how
humans apply the x solve problems related to
principles of levers to help levers.
them overcome large load.
Discuss that the moment
of force
= force X perpendicular
distance from the pivot to
Carry out an activity to
show the relationship
between moment and the
product of force and

Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Solving problems related

to levers using the
following formulae:
Load (N) X distance of the
load from fulcrum (m) =
Force (N) X distance of
the force from the fulcrum

2.2 Carry out a project to build A student is able to: design – reka
Appreciating the a device using the innovative – inovatif
innovative efforts in principle of a lever. x design or improvise a
the design of machine device that use the
to simplify work. principle of a lever.


Advisors Sharifah Maimunah Syed Zin (Ph.D) Director

Curriculum Development Centre

Rohani Abd. Hamid (Ph.D) Deputy Director

Curriculum Development Centre

Editorial Ahmad Hozi H.A. Rahman Principal Assistant Director (Science and Mathematics)
Advisors Curriculum Development Centre
Yeap Chin Heng (Ph.D) Assistant Director (Head of Core Science Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre
Cheah Eng Joo Assistant Director (Head of Elective Science Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre
S. Sivagnanachelvi Assistant Director (Head of English Unit)
Curriculum Development Centre

Editor Aizatul Adzwa Mohd. Basri Assistant Director

Curriculum Development Centre


Yeap Chin Heng (Ph.D) Curriculum Development Centre Salbiah Mohd. Som Curriculum Development Centre

Cheah Eng Joo Curriculum Development Centre Salehuddin Mustafa Curriculum Development Centre

Aizatul Adzwa Mohd. Basri Curriculum Development Centre Salina Hanum Osman Curriculum Development Centre

Ho Heng Leng Curriculum Development Centre Zaidah Mohd. Yusof Curriculum Development Centre

Norani Abd. Bari Curriculum Development Centre Zaidi Yazid Curriculum Development Centre

Rosli Suleiman Curriculum Development Centre Zainon Abdul Majid Curriculum Development Centre

Lanita Md. Yusoff SMK Taman Connaught, Cheras, Rosita Wati Abdul Aziz SMK Sultan Salahuddin Abd.
Kuala Lumpur Aziz Shah, Shah Alam
Lee Yuet Lai SMK Sulaiman, Bentong, Pahang Rosnaza Abdul Razak SMK Ahmad, Pekan, Pahang

Narimah Mohd. Yusof SMK Seksyen 16, Shah Alam, Rusilawati Mohd. Salleh SMK Rantau Panjang, Kapar,
Selangor Selangor
Noor Anum Abdullah SM Sains Sultan Haji Ahmad Yap Poh Kyut SMK Ketari, Bentong, Pahang
Shah, Kuantan, Pahang
Rohani Mustaffa SMK Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah, Zainol Azhar Kolej Sultan Abdul Hamid, Alor
Kajang, Selangor Setar, Kedah

Curriculum Development Centre
Ministry of Education