Q1. What are the components of systems productivity?

Explain how CAD and CIM help
System Productivity: Enhancement of productivity is achieved by either reducing the inputs for the same output or increasing the output by using the same input. Productivity can be calculated for a: • Single operation • Functional unit • Department or division • Plant Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of the system and looks at the economies achieved during the processes. Every process will have a number of contributors which help in achieving maximum productivity. The processes are: People, Machines, Facilitating goods, Ancillary equipments, and Technology. Each of these elements attempts to enhance the contribution of other elements. Opportunities exist at all stages of the work flow in the entire system to introduce measures for increasing productivity. However in actual manufacturing situations, the inefficiencies will have cascading effect in hampering productivity. Communication, effective review processes and innovative methods will ensure optimization of resources. Building up reliability into the equipments, managing the supply chain to economize on the cost factors improves productivity. Quality circles are very efficient in incorporating low cost and non-intrusive methods of improving productivity and quality throughout the organization. Quality circles: • Involve all persons who are actually involved in the production system and the information they elicit and bring about improvements that are highly cost effective. • Unveil creativity and encourage team work and bring about improvements almost on a day to day basis. • Bring continuous incremental changes in a harmonious way instead of dramatic changes. • Encourage identification of possible failures and seek methods of preventing things going wrong Computers in Design – CAD Designs of products are increasingly depending on Computer Aided Design (CAD). It is an electronic system for designing new parts or products or altering existing ones, replacing drafting traditionally done by hand. The designs are made using powerful desktop computers and graphics software. Designer can create drawings and view them from any angle on a display monitor. Images of different components can be seen as ‘assembled’; sections taken and relative positions can be checked to great accuracies. Views can be made from different angles and positions, so that the visualization process of the designed component/product helps the designer to suggest alternatives to the customer and the production department. The drawings can be sent via intranet or internet to the concerned persons and their opinions taken. Corrections and incorporations can be made very quickly. The computer can also simulate the reaction of a part to strength and stress tests. Using the design data stored in the computer’s memory, manufacturing engineers and other users can quickly obtain printouts of plans and specifications for a part or product. The software can generate the volume, weights of components as also other engineering parameters like center of gravity, deflections under estimated loads, and various other design parameters on complicate forms, either for single components or assemblies. Laborious mechanical drawings or complicated calculations need not be drawn for people using this software. The database can be prepared, updated continuously and their access to executive. Analysts use CAD to store, retrieve, and classify data about various parts.

CIMs are included in different areas of production process such as in engineering design. distribution. What do you understand by ‘industry best practice’? Briefly explain different types of Benchmarking. As all products or services are meant to serve needs of the customers. Such practices would get refined to a great extent giving rise to what we call industry best practices. and feedback happen almost in real time so that intended activities are conducted apidly. Industry Best Practices : Each industry would have developed over years or decades. As response times decrease. production planning. marketing and other activities so that they will be aware of the status of any order. So. This information is available to all concerned personnel responsible in planning. CIM process helps in rapid production and also reduces indirect costs. This integration allows the processes to exchange information with each other and thus they become capable of initiating actions. the various firms in any industry would end up adopting almost similar methods of getting an output required. Bar coded labels that accompany materials contain instructions for processing them which are read by sensing devices and display the status on monitors.CAD helps to increase the efficiency of a designer’s work. This implementation also cuts the cost of product development and sharply reduces the time to market new products. CIM is the complete automation of a manufacturing plant. they will be able to seek intervention. This aids in reducing the time required for making a design or modifying a product and thus concept market period gets drastically cut. The three major functions in manufacturing are production. rather than start from scratch. distribution and many other areas. The three computer aids in CIM are: • Computer aid to the production function (automated flow of materials) • Computer aid to the design function (automated flow of technological information) • Computer aid to the management function (automated flow of managerial information) When it comes to production. It saves time by enabling designers to access and modify old designs quickly. The design function transforms customer specifications into design. Finally the management functions plan and control production activities. Identifying shortages and ensuring faster deliveries become easy with CIM. Materials and methods go on improving incessantly because of the research that is conducted. These tend to get stabilised . Transmission. During this development materials would have changed and processes would have changed. CIM helps in avoiding accumulation of materials resulting in better throughput and better utilisation of space. order processing. Q2. Information flow across all the functions takes place with the help of computers. material control. Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) Integration occurs when a broad range of manufacturing and supporting activities are linked. and management function. shop control. design. they undergo continuous changes both in shapes and features. with all processes functioning under computer control and digital information tying them together. If expediting is needed to meet deadlines. The companies that were at the front innovate to stay in business as new entrants would be adopting the latest techniques that the pioneers had taken decades to establish. processing. customer satisfaction increases resulting in better business. Production function converts resources into products. CIM uses computers to control the entire production process.

and communication. A manufacturer. Example of Pareto Analysis 1. and implement actions without losing initiative. Analysis: Analyzed data gives inputs for comparison with the target company’s performance on the parameter benchmark on which data was collected. a few of the operations can be done on a single machine with a number of attachments. Sometimes. What do you understand by Line Balancing? Explain with an example Automated Flow Lines When several automated machines are linked by a transfer system which moves the parts by using handling machines which are also automated. Integration involves putting together resources like people. After completing an operation on a machine. Action: When changes are needed. • Process Benchmarking – Business Process • Financial Benchmarking • Performance Benchmarking • Product Benchmarking • Strategic Benchmarking • Functional Benchmarking Tools like Pareto Analysis (an example is shown in figure) are used to make the choice or choices from among many aspects in any one of the above categories. Measuring gaps helps in identifying the process which should be improved for reaching the benchmark. They are moved further to other machines for performing further operations. rotated. 4.or changed owing to the development of new equipments which are designed. with an eye on growing markets. The parts at various stages from raw material to ready for fitment or assembly are processed continuously to attain the required shapes or acquire special properties to enable them to perform desired functions. List out the various automated systems for transfer of materials in the production plant. } Q3. so that. Planning: Planning determines the process. the semi-finished parts are moved to the next machine in the sequence determined by the process requirements and a flow line is established. When . it is necessary to maintain the focus. service or the product to be benchmarked on which metrics are assigned for collection of data. The materials need to be moved. 2. Human intervention may be needed to verify that the operations are taking place according to standards. we have an automated flow line. demands for higher quality and reduced prices. Since benchmarking is done in specific areas. and positioned for completing different operations.getElementById("latency-5593305032069672779")). Industry best practices open up the field for benchmarking by companies which need to improve their performance. progress is unhindered and all activities reach their logical conclusions without loss of initiative or time. 3. The following are the types of benchmarking considered by various firms. Competition benefits those who can use all these to their advantage. held. Integration: Resources are required across all functions to achieve the target needs. lifted. Teams are provided with necessary leadership. so that. and supporting facilities to enable them to complete all activities within the time frame set for the purpose. equipments. authority. results become demonstrable. actions have to be planned according to the steps earlier stated. if (window['tickAboveFold']) {window['tickAboveFold'] (document.

Methodologies of achieving the final result may vary. The main consideration is to balance times that different machines take to complete the operations assigned to them. the operation times are the same throughout the sequence in the flow of the martial. Assembly Line Balancing.these can be achieved with the help of automation and the processes are conducted with self regulation. or simply Line Balancing (LB). Line balancing: Line and work cell balancing is an effective tool to improve the throughput of assembly lines and work cells while reducing manpower requirements and costs. This process is called assembly. All parts or subassemblies are fitted to enable the product to be in readiness to perform the function it was designed to. according to a recent survey by Becker and Scholl (2004). A typical example are operations that require the vehicle to be elevated above the operators: such operations can only be assigned to workstations with enough space to contain the elevated vehicle. Yet despite the practical importance of the problem. it is possible to achieve this condition. This situation appears to be paradoxical. is the problem of assigning operations to workstations along an assembly line. Usually. there appear to be currently just two commercially available packages featuring both a state of the art optimization algorithm and a user-friendly interface for data management. In fixed automation or hard automation. LB is a classic Operations Research (OR) optimization problem. one would expect several software packages vying to grab a part of those economies. We assume that product life cycles are sufficiently stable to invest heavily on the automated flow lines to achieve reduced cost per unit. body. where one component is manufactured using several operations and machines. a frame. In fact. LB has been an optimization problem of significant industrial importance: the efficiency difference between an optimal and a sub-optimal assignment can yield economies (or waste) reaching millions of dollars per year. . or SALBP). little commercially available software is available to help industry in optimizing their lines. Ever since Henry Ford’s introduction of assembly lines. Many algorithms have been proposed for the problem. in such a way that the assignment be optimal in some sense. which leaves only one package available for industries such as automotive. we will have automated flow lines established. one of those packages appears to handle only the “clean” formulation of the problem (Simple Assembly Line Balancing Problem. Automated Assembly Lines All equipments needed to make a finished product are laid out in such a way as to follow the sequence in which the parts or sub-assemblies are put together and fitted. base will be the starting point of an assembly. having been tackled by OR over several decades. Furthermore. or at least unexpected: given the huge economies LB can generate. and the OR efforts that have been made to tackle it. The frame itself consists of a construction made up of several components and would have been “assembled‟ or „fabricated‟ in a separate bay or plant and brought to the assembly line. It is necessary to design the machines in such a way that. but the basic principle is to fit all parts together and ensure linkages so that their functions are integrated and give out the desired output.

It helps in locating the points at which a problem exists or an improvement is possible. The flow chart helps in pin-pointing the exact points at which errors have crept in. c) Histogram – Histograms are graphical representations of distribution of data. or many peaks and also the extent of variation around the peak value. Scatter Diagram. Pareto Analysis. and Cause and Effect Diagram are the basic seven control tools considered for achieving quality. They reveal whether the pattern of distribution has a single peak. Explain the different types of Quality Control Tools with examples? How do Crosby’s absolutes of quality differ from Deming’s principles? Quality Control Tools Flow Chart. When used in conjunction with comparable parameters. if (window['tickAboveFold']) {window['tickAboveFold'] (document. Control Chart. . It helps to implement a corrective procedure at the point where the frequencies are more. Criteria and consequences that go with decisions are amenable to evaluation for purposes of assessing quality. the percentages are shown to demonstrate the relative contribution of each of the parameters. locations at which they are occurring. if need be. Sample histogram chart The values shown are the number of observations made regarding a parameter. Histogram. types of defects. Quality Control Tools a) Flow Chart: Flow chart is a visual representation of process showing the various steps. They are generally used to record huge volumes of data about a process. times at which they are occurring.Zoning constraints are typical in the automotive industry – any algorithm to be applied there must support them. The table shows that the number of defects 1 and 5 are not many as compared to defect no 2 which increased over the days and appears to be stabilising at the higher side and therefore needs to be attended immediately. analysed.getElementById("latency-7545830538923721546")). Sometimes. } Q4. Check sheet. This helps in identifying whether the problem is serious. The sheet keeps a record of the frequencies of occurrence with reference to possible defect causing parameters. The various steps include: • Listing out the various steps or activities in a particular job • Classifying them as a procedure or a decision Each decision point generates alternatives. the visual patterns help us to identify the problem which should be attended to. The column which shows days can be changed to observed by the hour. and methods for correction can be developed using flow charts. Detailed data can be collected. and workmen by whom they are occurring. Sample flow chart b) Check Sheet: Check sheets are used to record the number of defects.

Assuming normal distribution. Do not depend on inspection to deliver quality . Adopt the TQM philosophy for economic purposes 3.6 for Sample cause and effect diagram). It will be easy to focus on these 2 or 3 and reduce the number of defects to a great extent. e) Scatter Diagram: Scatter diagram is used when we have two variables and want to know the degree of relationship between them (See Figure 6. 147 of them have been caused by just 2 or 3 of them. When each of them is investigated thoroughly we will be able to pin-point some factors which cause the problem. Samples are taken and the mean and range of the variable of each sample (subgroup) is recorded. Deming’s approach is summarised in his 14 points. g) Cause and Effect Diagram: Cause and effect diagram represents all the possible causes which lead to a defect on quality characteristics. When the cause of these defects has been attended. The range of permitted deviations is determined by design parameters. in which we can change one parameter being sure that it has no effect on the other parameter. Variables. Pareto principle. Sample scatter diagram f) Control Charts: Control charts are used to verify whether a process is under control. Sometimes. we try to identify all possible sources of the causes of defects. we can observe that there is no relationship. we expect 99. when they remain within a range. We will also observe that a few of them can have cumulative effect or even a cascading effect. also called 8020 rule. we are marching toward zero defects. it is observed that 80 percent of them.d) Pareto Analysis: Pareto analysis is a tool for classifying problem areas according to the degree of importance and attending to the most important. If we find that. we will observe that some other defect becomes predominantly observed and if the process is continued. states that 80 percent of the problems that we encounter arise out of 20 percent of items. we have 184 assemblies having problems and there are 11 possible causes. Constancy of purpose for continuous improvement 2. in a day. Deming Principle Deming's TQM helps organisations to improve the quality of the products and services they offer. When we observe that we have excessive defects from a machine.97 percent of all values to lie within the Upper Control Limit (UCL) and Lower Control Limit (LCL) – corresponding to + 3σ. will render the product and maintain the specifications. that is. These are arranged in such a way that different branches representing causes connect the stem in the direction of the discovery of the problem (See Figure 6. This is called the quality of conformance. We can determine if there is cause and effect relationship between the variables and the degree of extent over a range of values of the variables. The graphical representation of data helps in changing settings to bring back the process closer to the target. We make a study of each of them and try to correct it. 1.5 for Sample scatter diagram). The mean of the means of the samples gives the control lines.

Crosby’s absolutes of quality Like Deming. State and exhibit top management’s commitment for quality and productivity Using the above principles. Deming gave a four step approach to ensure a purposeful journey of TQM . Education and training to be given vigorously 14. • Plan means that a problem is identified. Remove fear from the minds of everyone connected with the organisation 9. maintaining quality is more economical than compromising on its achievement. not ‘goodness’ • Prevention. Remove barriers between departments and people 10. In the long run. repeat slogans. processes are determined and relevant theories are checked out. Crosby also lays emphasis on top management commitment and responsibility for designing the system so that defects are not inevitable. • Check means that the trials taken according to the plan are in accordance with the expected results. The slope is shown to indicate that if efforts are let up the programme will roll back. Give pride of workmanship to the workmen 13. He urged that there be no restriction on spending for achieving quality. Improve the system of production and service constantly 6. All inputs are correctly measured and recorded. is the path to quality • Quality is measured as the price paid for non-conformance and as indices .4. • Act means when all the above steps are satisfactory regular production is started so that quality outcomes are assured. Do not set-up numerical quotas and work standards 12. • Do means that the plan is implemented on a trial basis. Do not award any business based on price alone 5. Adopt modern methods of supervision and leadership 8. His absolutes can be listed as under: • Quality is conformance to requirements. Do not exhort. and put up posters 11. Conduct meaningful training on the job 7. not appraisal.

List the various project management knowledge areas? What are the reasons for failure of a project? A project cycle consists of the various activities of operations. formulation. } Q5. Project management knowledge areas The knowledge areas of project management are the following: • Project integration management.getElementById("latency-4044715779618227296")). error cause removal and continuously reinforcing the system. Define project cycle. skills. time. corrective action. There are no quality problems. communications management • Project scope management.• Quality originates in all factions. increasing awareness. cost management. He opined that the quality management regimen should improve the overall health of the organization and prescribed a vaccine. Some of the other definitions of project management are shown below. quality management. defined by Project Management Institute (PMI)) Scope of the project refers to the various parameters that affect the project in its planning. project management. “Project management is the complete set of tasks. – DIN 69901 (German Organisation for Standardisation) “Project management is the application of knowledge. every time 2) Communication: Flow of information between departments. and executions. – PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge. risk management • Project time management. tools. manpower. and the limitations imposed on them. suppliers. and processes that create problems Crosby also has given 14 points similar to those of Deming. and scope of project. human management. procurement management . such as cost. Project management involves understanding the scope and various processes in a project cycle. and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements”. so that advantages derived are not lost over time. customers helps in identifying opportunities 3) Systems and operations: These should bring in a quality environment so that nobody is comfortable with anything if (window['tickAboveFold']) {window['tickAboveFold'] (document. and tools applied during project execution”. and software involved in the project. The ingredients are: 1) Integrity: Honesty and commitment help in producing everything right first time. Project Management Managing a project is the practice of controlling the use of resources. designs. techniques. His approach emphasizes on measurement of quality. It is the people. resources. hardware. It usually starts with a problem statement and ends with delivery of a complete product.

strategic planning. it is necessary to understand its relationship with other management disciplines. Project management knowledge areas A project may fail because of one or more of the following reasons: • Incidence of project failure • Factors contributing to project success not emphasised • Overview of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) projects • Common problems encountered during projects Let us know more in detail the reasons for the failure of a project in this section. and domain knowledge. team members. estimation. execution.For a project to be successful. controls and reviews. and satellites • Enable societies to produce. more rapidly and at reduced costs • Offer enormous opportunities for enhancing business and economic viability Common problems encountered during projects: • No prioritisation of project activity from an organisational position • One or more of the stages in the project mishandled • Less qualified/non-dedicated manpower • Absence of smooth flow of communication between the involved parties 6. and stake holders • Prior experience of project manager in a similar project Overview of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) projects: • Involve information and communications technologies such as the World Wide Web. human resource management. Incidence of project failure: The incidents of project failure are due to following reasons: • Projects being initiated at random at all levels • Project objective not in line with business objective • Project management not observed • Project manager with no prior experience in the related project • Non-dedicated team • Lack of complete support from clients Factors contributing to project success not emphasised: • Project objective in alignment with business objective • Working within the framework of project management methodology • Effective scoping. Explain the necessity and objectives of SCM. . e-mail. fiberoptics. Other management supporting disciplines are business legal issues. access. planning. closure intertwined with quality • Proactive approach towards project bottlenecks • Communication and managing expectations effectively with clients. Explain the various phases in project management life cycle. logistics. adapt and apply information in greater amounts.

System design: Choose a general design that can fusil the requirements. Closure and post completion analysis phase upon satisfactory completion and delivery of the intended product or service the staff performance has to be evaluated. Trade off analysis: To understand and examine the various alternatives which could be considered. Project evolution: Evaluate the project in terms of expected profit. This proposal has to contain the strategies adopted to market the product to the customers. Document the lessons from the project. For the MBA assignments it is the most valuable chapter in production management. the project manager has to ensure ways of managing the customer. project budget and the success rate of completing the project. Prepare the reports on project feedback analysis followed by the project execution report. Estimation: To estimate the project cost. A project proposal is prepared by a group of people including the project manager. Execution phase: In this phase the project manager and the teams members work on the project objectives as per the plan. Project management life cycle is the integrated part of management. perform quality control work. details on what the problem is a method of solving the problem. At every stage during the execution reports are prepared. The phase which involve in the above are: .This is the initial phase of any project. effort requires for the project and functionality of various process in the project. The important tasks of this phase are as follows: Specification Requirements Analysis (SRA): It has to be conducted to determine the essential requirements of a project in order to achieve the target. Testing and Delivery phase during this phase. The report must also contain information and the project feasibility. The entire project has to be planned and it should be done in a strategic manner. Feasibility study: To analyze whether the project is technically. Design phase: This phase involves the study of inputs and outputs of the various project stages. list of the objectives to be achieved. The project team works under the guidance of the project manager. Control – Inspecting. economically and practically feasible to be undertaken. The project manager conducts the analysis of the problem and submits a detailed report to the top project justification. The project manager has to ensure that the team working under his. In this phase information is collected from the customer pertaining to the project and the requirements are analyzed. cost and risks involved marketing phase. It is attach with project responsibility or failure of a project. implements the project designs accurately. and the risks involved in the project.

material. The next stage involves selecting and briefing the project team about the proposals followed by discussions on the roles and responsibility of the project member and the organization. employees and executives. Enhancement of satisfaction level of customer and clients. Software and Documentation like financial reports statements ISO 9000 Documents etc. Now.men. Enhancement of value of products. Accounting. project plan and project budget. It is considered by many express worldwide as the ultimate solution towards efficient enterprise management. operations and services and consequently. communication systems. supporting institutions. Enhancement of flexibility in the organization to help in easy implementation of schemes involving . we explain the necessity and objectives of SCMSCM is required by and enterprise as a tow to enhance management effectiveness with a following organizational objective: Reduction of inventory Enactment in functional effectiveness of existing systems like ERP. supporting institutions. Optimization of money flow cycle within the organization as well as to and from external agencies. documentation system and secure. Design R&D systems etc. suppliers and vendors. Enhancement of participation level and empowerment level Effective integration of multiple systems like ERP. statutory control agencies. enhancements of profitability. Better utilization of resources.The preparation stage involves the preparation and approval of project outline. equipment and money. The project management life cycle: A Life cycle of a project consists of the following: Understanding the scope of the project Establishing objectives of the project Formulating and planning various activities Project execution and Monitor and control the project resources SCM is the abbreviation of supply chain Management. statutory control agencies.

. Enhancement of coverage and accuracy of management information systems.modernization. A relatively new SCM option involves web based software with a browser interface. Several electronic marketplaces for buying and selling goods and materials. merges and acquisitions. expansion and divestment. With the objectives of SCM its implementation are required. Implementation is in the form of various functional blocks of an organization inter penetrated through which a smooth flow of the product development is possible.

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