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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

Integrated Curriculum For Secondary Schools Curriculum Specifications ADDITIONAL SCIENCE Form Four

Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia 2005

Copyright © 2003 Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia Pesiaran Duta Off Jalan Duta 50604 Kuala Lumpur

First published 2003

Copyright reserved. Except for use in a review, the reproduction or utilization of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, and recording is forbidden without the prior written permission from the Director of the Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education Malaysia.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page The National Philosophy National Philosophy of Education National Science Education Philosophy Preface Introduction Aims Objectives Scientific Skills Thinking Skills Scientific Attitudes and Noble Value Teaching and Learning Strategies Content Organisation Themes Measurement and Force Learning Area: 1. Physical Quantity Learning Area: 2. Measuring Process Themes Energy in Life Learning Area: 1. Energy Learning Area: 2. Heat Learning Area: 3. Electricity Learning Area: 4. Sources of Energy v vi vii ix 1 1 2 2 4 9 10 14

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22 24 30 34

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Themes Matter in Nature Learning Area: 1. Periodic Table Learning Area: 2. Chemical Bonding Learning Area: 3. Mole Concept Themes Maintenance and Continuity of Life Learning Area: 1. Respiratory System Learning Area: 2. Digestive System Learning Area: 3. Circulatory System Learning Area: 4. Excretory System Learning Area: 5. Reproductive System Themes Balance and Management of The Environment Learning Area: 1. Biodiversity Learning Area: 2. Biotic Resources Learning Area: 3. Balance in An Ecosystem Acknowledgements Panel of Writers 73 76 79 83 84 52 57 60 65 67 38 45 48

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THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY Our nation, Malaysia, is dedicated to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples; maintaining a democratic way of life; creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared; ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural traditions; building a progressive society which shall be orientated towards modern science and technology; The people of Malaysia pledge their united efforts to attain these ends guided by the following principles:

? ? ? ? ?

BELIEF IN GOD LOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRY SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION RULE OF LAW GOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY

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NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, society and the nation at large.

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NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY

In consonance with the National Education Philosophy, science education in Malaysia nurtures a Science and Technology Culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient and able to master scientific knowledge and technological competency.

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PREFACE
The aspiration of the nation to become an industrialised society depends on science and technology. It is envisaged that success in providing quality science education to Malaysians from an early age will serve to spearhead the nation into becoming a knowledge society and a competitive player in the global arena. Towards this end, the Malaysian education system is giving greater emphasis to science and mathematics education. The Science curriculum has been designed not only to provide opportunities for students to acquire science knowledge and skills, develop thinking skills and thinking strategies, and to apply this knowledge and skills in everyday life, but also to inculcate in them noble values and the spirit of patriotism. It is hoped that the educational process en route to achieving these aims would produce well-balanced citizens capable of contributing to the harmony and prosperity of the nation and its people. The Science curriculum aims at producing active learners. To this end, students are given ample opportunities to engage in scientific investigations through hands-on activities and experimentations. The inquiry approach, incorporating thinking skills, thinking strategies and thoughtful learning, should be emphasised throughout the teaching-learning process. The content and contexts suggested are chosen based on their relevance and appeal to students so that their interest in the subject is enhanced. In a recent development, the Government has made a decision to introduce English as the medium of instruction in the teaching and learning of science and mathematics. This measure will enable students to keep abreast of developments in science and technology in contemporary society by enhancing their capability and know-how to tap the diverse sources of information on science written in the English language. At the same time, this move would also provide opportunities for students to use the English language and hence, increase their proficiency in the language. Thus, in implementing the science curriculum, attention is given to developing students’ ability to use English for study and communication, especially in the early years of learning. The development of this curriculum and the preparation of the corresponding Curriculum Specifications have been the work of many individuals over a period of time. To all those who have contributed in one way or another to this effort, may I, on behalf of the Ministry of Education, express my sincere gratitude and thanks for the time and labour expended.

(Dr. SHARIFAH MAIMUNAH SYED ZIN) Director Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education Malaysia

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INTRODUCTION
As articulated in the National Education Policy, education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious. The primary and secondary school science curriculum is developed with the aim of producing such individuals. As a nation that is progressing towards a developed nation status, Malaysia needs to create a society that is scientifically oriented, progressive, knowledgeable, having a high capacity for change, forward-looking, innovative and a contributor to scientific and technological developments in the future. In line with this, there is a need to produce citizens who are creative, critical, inquisitive, open-minded and competent in science and technology. The Malaysian science curriculum comprises three core science subjects and four elective science subjects. The core subjects are Science at primary school level, Science at lower secondary level and Science at upper secondary level. Elective science subjects are offered at the upper secondary level and consist of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Additional Science. The core science subjects for the primary and lower secondary levels are designed to provide students with basic science knowledge, prepare students to be literate in science, and enable students to continue their science education at the upper secondary level. Core Science at the upper secondary

level is designed to produce students who are literate in science, innovative, and able to apply scientific knowledge in decision-making and problem solving in everyday life. The elective science subjects prepare students who are more scientifically inclined to pursue the study of science at post-secondary level. This group of students would take up careers in the field of science and technology and play a leading role in this field for national development. For every science subject, the curriculum for the year is articulated in two documents: the syllabus and the curriculum specifications. The syllabus presents the aims, objectives and the outline of the curriculum content for a period of 2 years for elective science subjects and 5 years for core science subjects. The curriculum specifications provide the details of the curriculum which includes the aims and objectives of the curriculum, brief descriptions on thinking skills and thinking strategies, scientific skills, scientific attitudes and noble values, teaching and learning strategies, and curriculum content. The curriculum content provides the learning objectives, suggested learning activities, the intended learning outcomes, and vocabulary.

AIMS
The aims of the science curriculum for secondary school are to provide students with the knowledge and skills in science and technology and enable them to solve problems and make decisions in everyday life based on scientific attitudes and noble values.

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6. Students who have followed the secondary science curriculum will have the foundation in science to enable them to pursue formal and informal further education in science and technology. The curriculum also aims to develop a concerned, dynamic and progressive society with a science and technology culture that values nature and works towards the preservation and conservation of the environment. 7. 8.

Evaluate science- and technology-related information wisely and effectively. Practise and internalise scientific attitudes and good moral values. Realise the importance of inter-dependence among living things and the management of nature for survival of mankind. Appreciate the contributions of science and technology towards national development and the well-being of mankind. Realise that scientific discoveries are the result of human endeavour to the best of his or her intellectual and mental capabilities to understand natural phenomena for the betterment of mankind. Create awareness on the need to love and care for the environment and play an active role in its preservation and conservation.

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OBJECTIVES
The science curriculum for secondary school enables students to: 1. Acquire knowledge in science and technology in the context of natural phenomena and everyday life experiences. Understand developments in the field of science and technology. Acquire scientific and thinking skills. Apply knowledge and skills in a creative and critical manner for problem solving and decision-making. Face challenges in the scientific and technological world and be willing to contribute towards the development of science and technology.

10.

11.

2. 3. 4. 5.

SCIENTIFIC SKILLS
Science emphasises inquiry and problem solving. In inquiry and problem solving processes, scientific and thinking skills are utilised. Scientific skills are important in any scientific investigation such as conducting experiments and carrying out projects. Scientific skills encompass science process skills and manipulative skills.

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Science Process Skills
Science process skills enable students to formulate their questions and find out the answers systematically.

Using Space-Time Relationship

Describing changes in parameter with time. Examples of parameters are location, direction, shape, size, volume, weight and mass. Giving rational explanations about an object, event or pattern derived from collected data. Defining concepts by describing what must be done and what should be observed. Identifying the fixed variable, manipulated variable, and responding variable in an investigation. The manipulated variable is changed to observe its relationship with the responding variable. At the same time, the fixed variable is kept constant. Making a general statement about the relationship between a manipulated variable and a responding variable in order to explain an event or observation. This statement can be tested to determine its validity. Planning and conducting activities to test a certain hypothesis. These activities include collecting, analysing and interpreting data and making conclusions.

Interpreting Data Descriptions of the science process skills are as follows: Defining Operationally Controlling Variables

Observing

Using the sense of hearing, touch, smell, taste and sight to collect information about an object or a phenomenon. Using observations to group objects or events according to similarities or differences. Making quantitative observations using numbers and tools with Measuring standardised units. makes observation more accurate. Using past experiences or previously collected data to draw conclusions and make explanations of events. Stating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences or collected data. Using words or graphic symbols such as tables, graphs, figures or models to describe an action, object or event.

Classifying

Measuring and Using Numbers

Hypothesising

Inferring

Predicting

Experimenting

Communicating

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Manipulative Skills
Manipulative skills in scientific investigation are psychomotor skills that enable students to: ? ? ? ? ? use and handle science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly. handle specimens correctly and carefully. draw specimens, apparatus and laboratory substances accurately. clean science apparatus correctly, and store science apparatus and laboratory substances correctly and safely.

thinking skills in conceptualisation, problem solving and decision-making. Thinking skills can be categorised into critical thinking skills and creative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A person who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is able to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas and products. Thinking strategies are higher order thinking processes that involve various steps. Each step involves various critical and creative thinking skills. The ability to formulate thinking strategies is the ultimate aim of introducing thinking activities in the teaching and learning process.

THINKING SKILLS Critical Thinking Skills
Thinking is a mental process that requires an individual to integrate knowledge, skills and attitude in an effort to understand the environment. One of the objectives of the national education system is to enhance the thinking ability of students. This objective can be achieved through a curriculum that emphasises thoughtful learning. Teaching and learning that emphasises thinking skills is a foundation for thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is achieved if students are actively involved in the teaching and learning process. Activities should be organised to provide opportunities for students to apply A brief description of each critical thinking skill is as follows: Attributing Identifying criteria such as characteristics, features, qualities and elements of a concept or an object. Finding similarities and differences based on criteria such as characteristics, features, qualities and elements of a concept or event. Separating and grouping objects or phenomena into categories based on certain criteria such as common characteristics or features.

Comparing and Contrasting

Grouping and Classifying

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Sequencing

Prioritising

Analysing

Arranging objects and information in order based on the quality or quantity of common characteristics or features such as size, time, shape or number. Arranging objects and information in order based on their importance or priority. Examining information in detail by breaking it down into smaller parts to find implicit meaning and relationships. Identifying views or opinions that have the tendency to support or oppose something in an unfair or misleading way. Making judgements on the quality or value of something based on valid reasons or evidence. Making a statement about the outcome of an investigation that is based on a hypothesis.

Making Inferences

Predicting

Making Generalisations

Detecting Bias

Visualising

Synthesising

Evaluating

Making Conclusions

Making Hypotheses

Creative Thinking Skills
A brief description of each creative thinking skill is as follows: Generating Ideas Relating Producing or giving ideas in a discussion. Making connections in a certain situation to determine a structure or pattern of relationship. Making Analogies

Using past experiences or previously collected data to draw conclusions and make explanations of events. Stating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences or collected data. Making a general conclusion about a group based on observations made on, or some information from, samples of the group. Recalling or forming mental images about a particular idea, concept, situation or vision. Combining separate elements or parts to form a general picture in various forms such as writing, drawing or artefact. Making a general statement on the relationship between manipulated variables and responding variables in order to explain a certain thing or happening. This statement is thought to be true and can be tested to determine its validity. Understanding a certain abstract or complex concept by relating it to a simpler or concrete concept with similar characteristics. Producing something new or adapting something already in existence to overcome problems in a systematic manner.

Inventing

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Thinking Strategy
Description of each thinking strategy is as follows: Conceptualising Making generalisations based on interrelated and common characteristics in order to construct meaning, concept or model. Selecting the best solution from various alternatives based on specific criteria to achieve a specific aim. Finding solutions to challenging or unfamiliar situations or unanticipated difficulties in a systematic manner.

3. Practising TSTS without teacher’ guidance. s 4. Applying TSTS in new situations with teacher’ guidance. s 5. Applying TSTS together with other skills to accomplish thinking tasks. Further information about phases of implementing TSTS can be found in the guidebook “ Buku Panduan Penerapan Kemahiran Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Sains”(Curriculum Development Centre, 1999).

Making Decisions

Problem Solving

Besides the above thinking skills and thinking strategies, another skill emphasised is reasoning. Reasoning is a skill used in making logical, just and rational judgements. Mastering of critical and creative thinking skills and thinking strategies is made simpler if an individual is able to reason in an inductive and deductive manner. Figure 1 gives a general picture of thinking skills and thinking strategies. Mastering of thinking skills and thinking strategies (TSTS) through the teaching and learning of science can be developed through the following phases: 1. Introducing TSTS. 2. Practising TSTS with teacher’ guidance. s

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Figure 1 : TSTS Model in Science

Relationship between Thinking Skills and Science Process Skills
Science process skills are skills that are required in the process of finding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a systematic manner. It is a mental process that promotes critical, creative, analytical and systematic thinking. Mastering of science process skills and the possession of suitable attitudes and knowledge enable students to think effectively. The mastering of science process skills involves the mastering of the relevant thinking skills. The thinking skills that are related to a particular science process skill are as follows: Science Process Skills Observing Thinking Skills Attributing Comparing and contrasting Relating Attributing Comparing and contrasting Grouping and classifying Relating Comparing and contrasting Relating Comparing and contrasting Analysing Making inferences

Thinking Skills

Critical
? Attributing ? Comparing and contrasting ? Grouping and classifying ? Sequencing ? Prioritising ? Analysing ? Detecting bias ? Evaluating ? Making conclusions

Creative
? Generating ideas ? Relating ? Making inferences ? Predicting ? Making hypotheses ? Synthesising ? Making generalisations ? Visualising ? Making analogies ? Inventing

Reasoning

Thinking Strategies
? Conceptualising ? Making decisions ? Problem solving

Classifying

Measuring and Using Numbers Making Inferences

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Science Process Skills Predicting Using Space-Time Relationship Interpreting data

Thinking Skills Relating Visualising Sequencing Prioritising Comparing and contrasting Analysing Detecting bias Making conclusions Generalising Evaluating Relating Making analogy Visualising Analysing Attributing Comparing and contrasting Relating Analysing Attributing Relating Comparing and contrasting Generating ideas Making hypothesis Predicting Synthesising All thinking skills All thinking skills

Teaching and Learning based Thinking Skills and Scientific Skills

on

This science curriculum emphasises thoughtful learning based on thinking skills and scientific skills. Mastery of thinking skills and scientific skills are integrated with the acquisition of knowledge in the intended learning outcomes. Thus, in teaching and learning, teachers need to emphasise the mastery of skills together with the acquisition of knowledge and the inculcation of noble values and scientific attitudes. The following is an example and explanation of a learning outcome based on thinking skills and scientific skills. Example: Learning Outcome: Compare and contrast metallic elements and non-metallic elements. Comparing and contrasting

Defining operationally

Controlling variables

Thinking Skills: Explanation:

Making hypothesis

To achieve the above learning outcome, knowledge of the characteristics and uses of metals and non-metals in everyday life are learned through comparing and contrasting. The mastery of the skill of comparing and contrasting is as important as the knowledge about the elements of metal and the elements of non-metal.

Experimenting Communicating

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SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES
Science learning experiences can be used as a means to inculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students. These attitudes and values encompass the following: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data. Being diligent and persevering. Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the environment. Realising that science is a means to understand nature. Appreciating and practising clean and healthy living. Appreciating the balance of nature. Being respectful and well-mannered. Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. Being thankful to God. Having critical and analytical thinking. Being flexible and open-minded. Being kind-hearted and caring. Being objective. Being systematic.

? ? ? ? ?

Being cooperative. Being fair and just. Daring to try. Thinking rationally. Being confident and independent.

The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally occurs through the following stages: ? ? ? Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific attitudes and noble values. Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values. Practising and internalising these scientific attitudes and noble values.

When planning teaching and learning activities, teachers need to give due consideration to the above stages to ensure the continuous and effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. For example, during science practical work, the teacher should remind pupils and ensure that they carry out experiments in a careful, cooperative and honest manner. Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values during science lessons. Before the first lesson related to a learning objective, teachers should examine all related learning outcomes and suggested teaching-learning activities that provide opportunities for the inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values.

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The following is an example of a learning outcome pertaining to the inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. Example: Form: Learning Area: Learning Objective: Four 1. Respiratory System 1.5 Appreciating the presence of healthy respiratory organs.

Appreciating the balance of nature. Being systematic. Being cooperative.

Inculcating Patriotism
The science curriculum provides an opportunity for the development and strengthening of patriotism among students. For example, in learning about the earth’ resources, the s richness and variety of living things and the development of science and technology in the country, students will appreciate the diversity of natural and human resources of the country and deepen their love for the country.

Learning Outcome:

Practise a healthy lifestyle. Preserve healthy air and conserve the environment. Discuss a healthy lifestyle such as abstaining from smoking and regular exercise. Do a powerpoint presentation on preservation of the air and the conservation of environment.

Suggested Learning Activities

TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES
Teaching and learning strategies in the science curriculum emphasise thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process that helps students acquire knowledge and master skills that will help them develop their minds to the optimum level. Thoughtful learning can occur through various learning approaches such as inquiry, constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery learning. Learning activities should therefore be geared towards activating students’ critical and

Scientific attitudes and noble values

Love and respect for the environment. Being responsible for the safety of oneself, others and the environment.

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creative thinking skills and not be confined to routine or rote learning. Students should be made aware of the thinking skills and thinking strategies that they use in their learning. They should be challenged with higher order questions and problems and be required to solve problems utilising their creativity and critical thinking. The teaching and learning process should enable students to acquire knowledge, master skills and develop scientific attitudes and noble values in an integrated manner. Teaching and Learning Approaches in Science Inquiry-Discovery Inquiry-discovery emphasises learning through experiences. Inquiry generally means to find information, to question and to investigate a phenomenon that occurs in the environment. Discovery is the main characteristic of inquiry. Learning through discovery occurs when the main concepts and principles of science are investigated and discovered by students themselves. Through activities such as experiments, students investigate a phenomenon and draw conclusions by themselves. Teachers then lead students to understand the science concepts through the results of the inquiry. Thinking skills and scientific skills are thus developed further during the inquiry process. However, the inquiry approach may not be suitable for all teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it may be more appropriate for teachers to present concepts and principles directly to students.

Constructivism
Constructivism suggests that students learn about something when they construct their own understanding. The important attributes of constructivism are as follows: ? Taking into account students’prior knowledge. ? Learning occurring as a result of students’own effort. ? Learning occurring when students restructure their existing ideas by relating new ideas to old ones. ? Providing opportunities to cooperate, sharing ideas and experiences, and reflecting on their learning.

Science, Technology and Society
Meaningful learning occurs if students can relate their learning with their daily experiences. Meaningful learning occurs in learning approaches such as contextual learning and Science, Technology and Society (STS). Learning themes and learning objectives that carry elements of STS are incorporated into the curriculum. STS approach suggests that science learning takes place through investigation and discussion based on science and technology issues in society. In the STS approach, knowledge in science and technology is to be learned with the application of the principles of science and technology and their impact on society.

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Contextual Learning
Contextual learning is an approach that associates learning with daily experiences of students. In this way, students are able to appreciate the relevance of science learning to their lives. In contextual learning, students learn through investigations as in the inquiry-discovery approach.

students’abilities, students’repertoire of intelligences, and the availability of resources and infrastructure. Besides playing the role of knowledge presenters and experts, teachers need to act as facilitators in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers need to be aware of the multiple intelligences that exist among students. Different teaching and learning activities should be planned to cater for students with different learning styles and intelligences. The following are brief descriptions of some teaching and learning methods. Experiment An experiment is a method commonly used in science lessons. In experiments, students test hypotheses through investigations to discover specific science concepts and principles. Conducting an experiment involves thinking skills, scientific skills, and manipulative skills. Usually, an experiment involves the following steps: ? Identifying a problem. ? Making a hypothesis. ? Planning the experiment controlling variables. determining the equipment and materials needed. determining the procedure of the experiment and the method of data collection and analysis. ? Conducting the experiment. ? Collecting data. ? Analysing data. -

Mastery Learning
Mastery learning is an approach that ensures all students are able to acquire and master the intended learning objectives. This approach is based on the principle that students are able to learn if they are given adequate opportunities. Students should be allowed to learn at their own pace, with the incorporation of remedial and enrichment activities as part of the teaching-learning process.

Teaching and Learning Methods
Teaching and learning approaches can be implemented through various methods such as experiments, discussions, simulations, projects, and visits. In this curriculum, the teaching-learning methods suggested are stated under the column “ Suggested Learning Activities.” However, teachers can modify the suggested activities when the need arises. The use of a variety of teaching and learning methods can enhance students’ interest in science. Science lessons that are not interesting will not motivate students to learn and subsequently will affect their performance. The choice of teaching methods should be based on the curriculum content,

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? Interpreting data. ? Making conclusions. ? Writing a report. In the implementation of this curriculum, besides guiding students to do an experiment, where appropriate, teachers should provide students with the opportunities to design their own experiments. This involves students drawing up plans as to how to conduct experiments, how to measure and analyse data, and how to present the outcomes of their experiment.

said objects or situations and thus understand the concepts and principles to be learned.

Project
A project is a learning activity that is generally undertaken by an individual or a group of students to achieve a certain learning objective. A project generally requires several lessons to complete. The outcome of the project either in the form of a report, an artefact or in other forms needs to be presented to the teacher and other students. Project work promotes the development of problem-solving skills, time management skills, and independent learning.

Discussion
A discussion is an activity in which students exchange questions and opinions based on valid reasons. Discussions can be conducted before, during or after an activity. Teachers should play the role of a facilitator and lead a discussion by asking questions that stimulate thinking and getting students to express themselves.

Visits and Use of External Resources
The learning of science is not limited to activities carried out in the school compound. Learning of science can be enhanced through the use of external resources such as zoos, museums, science centres, research institutes, mangrove swamps, and factories. Visits to these places make the learning of science more interesting, meaningful and effective. To optimise learning opportunities, visits need to be carefully planned. Students may be involved in the planning process and specific educational tasks should be assigned during the visit. No educational visit is complete without a post-visit discussion.

Simulation
In simulation, an activity that resembles the actual situation is carried out. Examples of simulation are role-play, games and the use of models. In role-play, students play out a particular role based on certain pre-determined conditions. Games require procedures that need to be followed. Students play games in order to learn a particular principle or to understand the process of decision-making. Models are used to represent objects or actual situations so that students can visualise the

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Use of Technology
Technology is a powerful tool that has great potential in enhancing the learning of science. Through the use of technology such as television, radio, video, computer, and Internet, the teaching and learning of science can be made more interesting and effective. Computer simulation and animation are effective tools for the teaching and learning of abstract or difficult science concepts. Computer simulation and animation can be presented through courseware or Web page. Application tools such, as word processors, graphic presentation software and electronic spreadsheets are valuable tools for the analysis and presentation of data. The use of other tools such as data loggers and computer interfacing in experiments and projects also enhance the effectiveness of teaching and learning of science.

to be aware of, to be in awe, to be appreciative, to be thankful, to love, to practise, and to internalise. Where possible, learning outcomes relating to the affective domain are explicitly stated. The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values should be integrated into every learning activity. This ensures a more spontaneous and natural inculcation of attitudes and values. Learning areas in the psychomotor domain are implicit in the learning activities. Learning outcomes are written in the form of measurable behavioural terms. In general, the learning outcomes for a particular learning objective are organised in order of complexity. However, in the process of teaching and learning, learning activities should be planned in a holistic and integrated manner that enables the achievement of multiple learning outcomes according to needs and context. Teachers should avoid employing a teaching strategy that tries to achieve each learning outcome separately according to the order stated in the curriculum specifications. The Suggested Learning Activities provide information on the scope and dimension of learning outcomes. The learning activities stated under the column Suggested Learning Activities are given with the intention of providing some guidance as to how learning outcomes can be achieved. A suggested activity may cover one or more learning outcomes. At the same time, more than one activity may be suggested for a particular learning outcome. Teachers may modify the suggested activity to suit the ability and style of learning of their students. Teachers are encouraged to design other innovative and effective learning activities to enhance the learning of science.

CONTENT ORGANISATION
The science curriculum is organised around themes. Each theme consists of various learning areas, each of which consists of a number of learning objectives. A learning objective has one or more learning outcomes. Learning outcomes are written based on the hierarchy of the cognitive and affective domains. Levels in the cognitive domain are: knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Levels in the affective domain are:

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THEME LEARNING AREA

: :

MEASUREMENTS AND FORCE 1. PHYSICAL QUANTITY Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Learning Objectives 1.1 Understanding base quantities and derived quantities

Discuss base quantities and derived quantities. Based on a text passage, identify base quantities, their symbols and SI units.

A student is able to: ? ? ? ? ? ? explain what base quantity is. state the symbols of base quantities. explain what derived quantity is. state the symbols of derived quantities. list base quantities and their SI units. list some derived quantities and their SI units.

Base quantities are: length (l ) mass (m) time (t) temperature ( K) current (I) Suggested derived quantities are: force (F) density (?) volume (V) velocity (v) Pupils should be reminded that there are other derived quantitites.

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base quantity – kuantiti asas derived quantitykuantiti terbitan length – panjang mass – jisim temperature – suhu current – arus force – daya density – ketumpatan volume – isipadu velocity – halaju

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Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the values of prefixes and their symbols. ? ?

Learning Outcomes express quantities using prefixes. solve problems involving conversion of prefixes. express quantities using scientific notation. solve problems involving conversion of units.

Notes Suggested prefixes are : tera (T) 1012 giga (G) 109 mega(M) 106 kilo (k) 103 centi (c) 10 -2 milli (m) 10-3 micro (µ ) 10-6 nano (n) 10-9 pico (p) 10-12 Scalar quantities are: length mass time current temperature Vector quantities are: force weight velocity acceleration

Vocabulary prefix – imbuhan derive – terbit standard form – bentuk piawai

? Solve problems that involve the conversion of units and the ? use of standard forms and prefixes.

1.2 Understanding scalar and vector quantities

Discuss the definition of scalar and vector quantities.

A student is able to: ? define scalar quantity. ? define vector quantity. ? ? give examples of scalar quantity. give examples of vector quantity. compare scalar and vector quantities.

Carry out activities to show the ? difference between scalar and vector quantities. ?

Discuss and solve problems involving scalar and vector quantities.

solve problems involving scalar and vector quantities.

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Learning Objectives 1.3 Realising the importance of using a standard unit of measurement for global communication

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the importance of the use of standard measuring units in business, tourism, construction and others. Discuss the importance of the use of SI units in science and technology.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? explain the importance of the units of physical measurement in daily life. ? explain the importance of SI units in science and technology.

Notes

Vocabulary length – panjang mass – jisim time – masa current – arus temperature – suhu force – daya weight – berat

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THEME LEARNING AREA

: :

MEASUREMENTS AND FORCE 2. MEASURING PROCESS Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Learning Objectives 2.1 Understanding measurements

Choose the appropriate instrument for measurements. Discuss the technique used in :a) vernier calipers and micrometer screw gauge to measure length. b) stop watch to measure time. c) measuring cylinder, pipette and burette to measure volume. d) thermometer to measure temperature. Use appropriate techniques to reduce errors in measuring such as repeating measurements to find the average and compensating for zero errors.

A student is able to: ? measure physical quantities using appropriate instruments. Need to address parallax and zero error during measurements. Make the necessary corrections to the readings of the vernier calipers and the micrometer screw gauge to address parallax and zero error.

parallax – paralaks zero error – ralat sifar vernier calipersangkup vernier micrometer screw gauge – tolok skrew mikrometer.

?

use appropriate techniques to reduce errors.

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Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Carry out activities to measure: a) length b) time c) volume d) temperature Discuss consistency, accuracy and sensitivity based on examples. Carry out activities to compare the results of measurements in terms of consistency, accuracy and sensitivity of measuring instruments such as a vernier calipers, micrometer screw gauge, stop watch, graduated cylinder, pipette and burette. ?

Learning Outcomes

Notes

Vocabulary consistencykepersisan accuracy-kejituan sensitivity- kepekaan

?

define a) consistency b) accuracy c) sensitivity of a measuring instrument. compare and contrast consistency, accuracy and sensitivity of a measuring instrument. identify a suitable measuring instrument to obtain an accurate measurement.

A dart game can be used as an anology to demonstrate the concept of accuracy and consistency.

?

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Learning Objectives 2.2 Understanding graphs

Suggested Learning Activities

Learning Outcomes A student is able to:

Notes

Vocabulary

Examin the results of the experiment and carry out the following activities: a) determine the variables on the x and y axis and the corresponding scales. b) draw the best line for graph. c) interpret the plotted graph. d) draw conclusion on the relationship between the two variables of the graph.

? ? ? ? ? ?

determine the variables for the x and y axes. determine the manipulated and responding variables from a table to plot a graph determine suitable scales on the axes of the graph. draw the best line for a graph.

variable – pemboleh ubah manipulated – manipulasi software-perisian

interpret a graph. make conclusions from a graph.

The best graph is the line that is closest to all the points.

The curve graph drawn must be smooth or using suitable computer software

20

Learning Objectives 2.3 Appreciating the invention of measuring instruments used in daily life

Suggested Learning Activities Carry out a simulation to show what is it like without measuring instruments.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? practise accuracy, consistency and sensitivity in measurements justify the importance of having standardised measuring instruments in daily life.

Notes

Vocabulary

21

THEME LEARNING AREA

: :

ENERGY IN LIFE 1. ENERGY Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Learning Objectives 1.1 Understanding energy

Discuss what energy is. Discuss kinetic energy and potential energy.

A student is able to : ? ? ? explain what energy is. Explain what kinetic energy is. explain what potential energy is.

kinetic energy – tenaga kinetic potential energy – tenaga keupayaan define – takrif variable – pemboleh ubah

Solve problems involving kinetic energy and potential energy using the formulae: a) kinetic energy (KE) = ½ mv2 b) potential energy (PE) = mgh where, m= mass v= velocity g= acceleration due to gravity h= height

? ?

solve problems that involve kinetic energy. solve problems that involve potential energy.

22

Learning Objectives 1.2 Analysing changes in energy forms

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the changes of energy forms in: a) oscillation of a pendulum. b) hydroelectric generator.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? explain with examples the change in energy forms.

Notes

Vocabulary oscillation – ayunan pendulum – bandul conservation – keabadian hydroelectric generator – janakuasa hidroelektrik

Carry out an activity to investigate the principle of conservation of energy in a simple pendulum.

? ?

state the principle of conservation of energy. explain with examples the principle of conservation of energy. apply the principle of conservation of energy to solve problems. The usage of a computer simulation is encouraged.

Solve problems involving the principle of conservation of energy.

?

1.3 Realising that energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be changed from one form to another

Conduct a forum to discuss the importance of conservation of energy.

A student is able to : ? justify the importance of conservation of energy.

justify - mewajarkan

23

THEME LEARNING AREA

: :

ENERGY IN LIFE 2. HEAT Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

Learning Objectives 2.1 Understanding the concept of heat and temperature

Gather information and discuss the concept of heat, temperature and their relationship.

A student is able to : ? ? ? ? explain the concept of heat. explain the concept of temperature. state the relationship between heat and temperature. state the units for heat and temperature. state the meaning of thermal equilibrium.

Units oC and K are introduced.

equilibrium – keseimbangan thermal – haba temperature – suhu

Carry out an activity to show the occurrence of thermal equilibrium. Discuss the use of thermal equilibrium in the measurements of temperature.

?

?

explain the uses of thermal equilibrium in the measurement of temperature.

24

Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Carry out activities to measure temperature using the following: a) liquid-in-glass thermometer b) resistance thermometer Discuss the working principle of : a) liquid-in-glass l thermometer b) resistance thermometer ? ?

Learning Outcomes explain the working principle of different types of thermometers. use different types of thermometer to measure temperature.

Notes

Vocabulary resistance - perintang

2.2 Understanding specific heat capacity

Observe a demonstration on the increase in temperature of different liquids supplied with the same amount of heat for the same duration. Discuss and relate the observation to heat capacity. Gather information, discuss and compare: a) heat capacity b) specific heat capacity

A student is able to : ? ? explain what heat capacity is. explain what specific heat capacity (c) is. Heat capacity only relates to a particular object whereas specific heat capacity relates to a material. heat capacity muatan haba specific heat capacity – muatan haba tentu

25

Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Plan and carry out an activity to determine the specific heat capacity of : a. a solid b. a liquid. Carry out an experiment to investigate how the following affects the temperature of a substance (water) when it is heated: a) mass of substance b) amount of heat supplied. Carry out and activity to discuss the factors that affect the increase in temperature of an object when it is heated. Investigate the relationship between quantity of heat (Q), specific heat capacity (c), mass (m) and temperature change (?) by using computer simulation. ? ?

Learning Outcomes

Notes

Vocabulary

explain the factors that affect the increase in temperature of an object when it is heated. State the relationship between the amount of heat supplied (Q), specific heat capacity )c), mass (m) and the change in temperature (?).

Notes : Formulae: i. Q = mc? ii. Q = E = Pt are introduced.

26

Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Carry out activity to determine the specific heat capacity of a substance : a) solid (example aluminium) b) liquid (example water). Gather information from magazine, newspapaers and Internet and discuss the application of specific heat capacity in daily life. ? ?

Learning Outcomes determine the specific heat capacity of solids. determine the specific heat capacity of liquid (water).

Notes

Vocabulary generate - menjana

?

explain with examples the application of specific heat capacity in daily life.

27

Learning Objectives 2.3 Understanding latent heat

Suggested Learning Activities

Learning Outcomes

Notes

Vocabulary

Discuss: a) latent heat b) specific latent heat.

A student is able to: ? ? ? explain what latent heat (L) is. explain what specific latent heat (l ) is. relate specific latent heat to thermal energy and mass l = Q m explain the process of a) melting/solidification or b) boiling/condensation in terms of kinetic theory of matter.

Notes : The formula Q = ml is introduced.

View computer simulations or videos to understand the process of melting, solidification, boiling and condensation as a process where energy is transfered without a change in temperature. Carry out an activity to investigate the change in state of matter during heating of a substance and plot a temperature-time graph. Interpret the graph in terms of kinetic theory of matter.

latent heat – haba pendam melting – peleburan solidification – pemejalan boiling – pendidihan condensation – kondensasi kinetic theory – teori kinetic

?

28

Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Plan and carry out an activity to determine the specific latent ? heat of : a) fusion ? b) vaporisation ? Solve problems involving specific latent heat. ?

Learning Outcomes

Notes

Vocabulary specific latent heat – haba pendam tentu vapourisation – pengewapan fusion - lakuran

state what specific latent heat of fusion is. state what specific latent heat of vapourisation is. determine the specific latent heat of fusion. determine the specific latent heat of vaporisation.

?

solve numerical problems involving specific latent heat.

2.4 Be aware that the existence of substances with different thermal properties can be beneficial to man

Discuss the variety of substances with different thermal properties and their benefits to man.

A student is able to : ? explain the use of substances with different thermal properties in daily life.

29

THEME LEARNING AREA

: :

ENERGY IN LIFE 3. ELECTRICITY Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the concept of electric current as the rate of flow of charges. Discuss the relationship between electirc current and charge to obtain the formula Q = It. Discuss the relationship between electric current and electrical energy to obtain the formula E = QV. Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? explain the concept of electric current. relate electric current with the flow of electric charge. relate electrical energy with the flow of electric charge. Notes : Q = It and E=QV are introduced. Charge – cas voltage – voltan Notes Vocabulary

Learning Objectives 3.1 Analysing the relaltionship between the flow of electric charge with electrical energy

?

Solve problems involving electric current and eletrical energy.

Solve numerical problems involving charge (Q), electric current (I), time (t), voltage (V) and electrical energy (E).

30

Learning Objectives 3.2 Understanding electromotive force (e.m.f) and internal resistance

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the following: a) the concept of electromotive force (e.m.f) b) the concept internal resistance. c) the relationship between electromotive force (e.m.f) and energy stored in a battery.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? ? explain the concept of electromotive force. relate electromotive force with energy stored in a battery. explain the meaning of internal resistance. relate electromotive force, potential difference, current and internal resistance.

Notes

Vocabulary internal resistance rintangan dalam electromotive force – daya gerak elektrik

The formula E = V + Ir is introduced.

Draw a graph of potential difference against electric current to find the relationship between electromotive force (E ), potential difference(V), electric current(I) and internal resistance(r).

31

Learning Objectives 3.3 Analysing alternating (a.c.)

Suggested Learning Activities

Learning Outcomes

Notes

Vocabulary

current

Discuss the meaning of alternating current (a.c.) Observe and investigate the display of an oscilloscope produced by an alternating current generator. Discuss peak voltage(Vo), peak current(I 0), period and the frequency(f ) of an alternating current. Discuss the concept of root mean square voltage Vrms . Discuss the relationship between Vrms and P mean. Solve problems using the formulae: P = IV = V2/R P mean = Vrms 2 / R and E = P mean. t

A student is able to: ? explain what alternating current is. ? determine peak voltage, peak current, period and the frequency of an alternating current. explain peak voltage, peak current, period and the frequency of an alternating current. relate the concept of root mean square voltage Vrms with the mean power, P mean The formula Vrms =

?

alternating current – arus ulangalik peak voltage – voltan puncak peak current – arus puncak period – tempoh generator – penjana root mean square – punca min kuasa dua power - kuasa

?

V0 2

?

solve problem on energy produced by alternating current.

is introduced.

32

Learning Objectives 3.4 Realising the importance of striking a balance between economic benefit and social responsibility in the generation of electrical energy

Suggested Learning Activities

Learning Outcomes

Notes

Vocabulary

Gather information from video, Internet and magazines on the economic benefits and negative impacts of generating electricity. Present the information gathered.

A student is able to: ? ? ? identify the economic benefits of generation of electrical energy. identify the negative impact of generation of electric energy to society and environment. justify the need to strike a balance between economic benefits and social responsibility.

Debate on the importance of striking a balance between the economic benefit and social responsibility in the generation of electrical energy.

33

THEME LEARNING AREA Learning Objectives 4.1 Understanding the production of nuclear energy

: :

ENERGY IN LIFE 4. SOURCES OF ENERGY Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes Notes Vocabulary

View a video or computer simulation and discuss the following: a) nuclear fission and generation of energy b) nuclear fusion and generation of energy. c) chain reaction Hold a discussion to compare and contrast nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Discuss : a) the structure and working principle of a nuclear reactor. b) the production of energy in a nuclear reactor. c) the safety features of a nuclear reactor. d) the safe ways to dispose nuclear wastes.

A student is able to: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? explain the concept of nuclear fission. explain what chain reaction is. explain the concept of nuclear fusion. compare and contrast nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. describe the structure of a nuclear reactor. explain the working principle of a nuclear reactor. state the safety features of a nuclear reactor. list safe ways of disposing nuclear wastes.

nuclear fission – pembelahan nukleus nuclear fusion – pelakuran nukleus chain reaction – tindakbalas berantai

34

Learning Objectives 4.2 Understanding the use of solar energy

Suggested Learning Activities

Learning Outcomes

Notes

Vocabulary

Carry out activities to discuss a) the methods of harnessing solar energy. b) the working principles of a solar cell. Carry out activiities to find out how the following factors affect the efficiency in harnessing and transfering of solar energy: a) size of solar cells b) types of materials for making solar cells c) light intensity d) temperature. Gather information on the uses and the advantages of using solar energy. Carry out a project on harnessing solar energy to solve daily problems.

A student is able to: ? ? ? explain the methods of harnessing solar energy. explain the principle of a solar cell. explain the factors that affect the output of a solar cell.

harnessing – penyadapan solar energy – tenaga solar light intensity – keamatan cahaya solar cell – sel solar

? ? ?

explain the uses of solar energy. explain the advantages of using solar energy. solve daily problems with the use of solar energy.

35

Learning Objectives 4.3 Analysing the sources of renewable energy

Suggested Learning Activities

Learning Outcomes

Notes

Vocabulary

Discuss sources of renewable energy. Gather and interpret data on the various ways of harnessing renewable energy from the following sources: biomass, wind, waves and geothermal activities.

A student is able to: ? list the sources of renewable energy.

?

explain how renewable energy is harnessed.

Discuss the advantage of renewable energy from the following aspects : a) economic b) social c) environmental.

renewable energy – tenaga yang boleh diperbaharui biomass – biojisim waves – ombak geothermal – geoterma advantage – kelebihan disadvantage – kelemahan social impact – kesan sosial cost efficiency – keberkesanan kos

?

explain the importance of exploration of renewable energy sources.

36

Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Collect and interpret data on the various ways to increase the efficiency of energy use. Carry out a project to build a functional devise for harnessing renewal energy. ?

Learning Outcomes state the various ways to increase the efficiency of energy use. design a simple device for harnessing renewable energy.

Notes

Vocabulary

?

4.4 Be grateful for the availability of the various sources of renewable energy

Prepare a folio on the efforts to explore renewable sources of energy.

A student is able to: ? ? carry out an energy audit. practise efficient use of energy. .

grateful – bersyukur

Carry out a campaign on the efficient use of energy sources. Practise efficient use of energy at homes or in schools.

37

THEME LEARNING AREA Learning Objectives 1.1 Understanding the Periodic Table

: :

MATTER IN NATURE 1. PERIODIC TABLE Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? discuss the development of the arrangement of elements in the Periodic table. Notes Vocabulary Periodic Table – Jadual Berkala atomic mass – jisim atom synthetically – sintetik radioactive characteristics – sifat keradioaktifan

On a copy of the Periodic Table, highlight and label the following seven groups : a) noble gases b) halogens c) alkali metals d) alkaline earth elements e) transition metals f) actinides g) lanthanides. Use a table to present the electron configurations of elements with proton numbers 1 to 20.

?

write the electron configurations of elements with proton numbers 1 to 20.

Discuss the existence and classification of natural elements and elements that are produced synthetically in the Periodic Table.

? ?

state the basic principle of arranging the elements in the Periodic Table. classify elements based on electron configuration.

38

Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Carry out activities to determine the positions of unknown elements in the Periodic Table based on: a) proton number b) electron configuration. ?

Learning Outcomes determine the positions of unknown elements in the Periodic Table based on their proton numbers.

Notes

Vocabulary

1.2 Understanding the elements of Group 1

Gather and interpret data to investigate the physical properties of the elements lithium, sodium and potassium in terms of: a) hardness b) density c) melting point. Carry out activities to investigate the reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with water. Discuss the physical and chemical properties of other elements in Group 1.

A student is able to : ? ? ? list all the elements of Group 1. list the physical properties of lithium, sodium and potassium. list the chemical properties of lithium, sodium and potassium Activity using lithium, sodium and potassium must be performed or demonstrated by the teacher.

? ? ? ?

explain the changes in physical properties from lithium to potassium. generalise the changes in reactivity of the elements of Group 1. predict the physical properties of other elements in Group 1. predict the chemical properties of other elements in Group 1.

hardness - kekerasan density – ketumpatan melting point – takat lebur fume chamber – kebuk wasap physical properties – sifat fizikal chemical properties – sifat kimia

39

Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the position of hydrogen in the Periodic Table in terms of: a) electron configuration b) physical properties c) chemical properties ?

Learning Outcomes state the position of hydrogen in the Periodic Table.

Notes

Vocabulary

1.3 Understanding the elements of Group 17

Gather information to investigate the physical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine in terms of: a) physical state b) colour c) density d) boiling point. Discuss the chemical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine.

A student is able to: ? ? ? list all the elements of Group 17. list the physical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine. explain the changes in physical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine. list the chemical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine.

Warning : The activity must be carried out taking into consideration the safety procedures.

physical state keadaan jirim colour – warna density – ketumpatan boiling point – takat didih safety procedure – langkah keselamatan

?

Carry out activity to investigate the reactions of chlorine and iodine with : a) water b) metals c) sodium hydroxide.

?

generalise changes in reactivity of the elements in Group 17.

40

Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the physical and chemical properties of other elements in Group 17. ? ?

Learning Outcomes predict the physical properties of other elements in Group 17. predict the chemical properties of other elements in Group 17.

Notes

Vocabulary

1.4 Understanding the elements of Group 18

Collect and interpret data to investigate the physical properties of all the elements in terms of a) density b) boiling point.

A student is able to: ? ? ? ? list all the elements in Group 18. list the physical properties of the elements in Group 18. explain the changes in the physical properties of the elements in Group 18. state the inert characteristic of the elements in Group 18. relate the electron configuration to the inert characteristic of the elements in Group 18. explain the uses of the elements in Group 18 in daily life.

unreactive characteristic – sifat ketidakreaktifan fluorescent lamps lampu pendaflour advertisement lights – lampu iklan cooling substances bahan penyejuk

Gather information on a) the unreactive properties of Group 18 elements in terms of electron configuration b) the use of the Group 18 elements such as in fluorescent lamps, advertisement lights and cooling substances.

? ?

41

Learning Objectives 1.5 Understanding the elements in Period 3

Suggested Learning Activities Study the Periodic Table to investigate the properties of the elements of Period 3 in terms of : a) number of protons b) atomic size c) physical characteristics.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? state all the elements in Period 3. explain the changes in characteristics of the elements in Period 3 from sodium to argon.

Notes

Vocabulary metallic characteristic – sifat kelogaman acidity - keasidan basicity - kebesan metalloids – separuh logam period - kala

Carry out activities to investigate the properties of magnesium, silicon and sulphur in terms of : a) physical characteristics. b) acidity and basicity of oxides by carrying out the reaction of magnesium oxide (MgO), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and oxides of sulphur (SO2) with water and testing the products with universal indicator. Gather information on the use of silicon and other metalloids in daily life.

?

explain using examples the use of the metalloids in daily life.

42

Learning Objectives 1.6 Understanding the transition elements in Period 4

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the meaning of transition element. Prepare a Periodic Table and determine the position of the transition elements in it. Collect and interpret data and investigate the physical properties of the transition elements in terms of : a) density b) melting point c) colour. Collect and interpret data on the uses of transition elements in daily life such as making: a) precious stones b) conductors c) decorative materials.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? ? state the meaning of transition element. determine the position of the transition elements in Period 4. list the transition elements in Period 4. describe the physical properties of the transition elements in Period 4.

Notes

Vocabulary transition element – unsur peralihan precious stone – batu permata

?

state the uses of transition elements in daily life.

43

Learning Objectives 1.7 Appreciate the existence of elements and compounds

Suggested Learning Activities

Learning Outcomes A student is able to:

Notes

Vocabulary

Carry out a project to collect information and gather specimens of compounds.

?

justify the importance of using our intelligence to reap maximum benefits from naturally occurring elements.

Discuss the importance of using our intelligence to reap maximum benefits from elements found naturally.

44

THEME LEARNING AREA Learning Objectives 2.1 Understanding the stability of an element in terms of its electron configuration

: :

MATTER IN NATURE 2. CHEMICAL BONDING Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? explain what the duplet electron configuration for an inert gas is. explain what the octet electron configuration for an inert gas is. explain the meaning of a stable element. Notes Noble gases are also known as inert gases. Vocabulary stability - kestabilan donating - pendermaan receiving - penerimaan noble gas/ inert gas gas adi / lengai

Write and draw the duplet and octet electron configurations for the noble gases such as helium, neon and argon.

? Discuss the stability of an element based on its duplet and octet ? electron configuration. ?

Discuss the relationship between the electron configuration and the stability of an inert gas. Make a comparison on how other elements achieve stability by : a) sharing electrons b) donating and receiving electrons.

relate the stability of an inert gas to its electron configuration.

?

explain using examples how other elements achieve stability.

45

Learning Objectives 2.2 Understanding the formation of an ionic bond

Suggested Learning Activities

Learning Outcomes

Notes

Vocabulary formation – pembentukan electrostatic force – daya elekrostatik electrical conductivity – kekonduksian elektrik ionic bond – ikatan ionik solubility in water – keterlarutan dalam air dot and cross diagram – rajah titik silang

Draw and discuss the formation of A student is able to: ions by: a) the donation of electrons ? explain the formation of a positive b) the receiving of electrons. ion. ? explain the formation of a negative ion. ? draw the electron configuration for Discuss the electrostatic force of a positive ion. attraction between the ions in an ? draw the electron configuration for ionic bond. a negative ion. ? explain the formation of an ionic Discuss the formation of ionic bond. compounds with valency +1 and +2 in a dot and cross diagram. Carry out experiments to investigate the properties of ionic compounds in terms of : a) electrical conductivity b) melting point c) solubility in water. ? generalise the characteristics of an ionic compound.

Elements that forms positive ions are metals and those that form negative ions are non metals.

46

Learning Objectives 2.3 Understanding the formation of a covalent bond

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the formation of a covalent bond by the sharing of electrons in a dot and cross diagram.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? explain the formation of a covalent bond. draw the electron configuration for a covalent bond. explain the formation of covalent compounds.

Notes

Vocabulary covalent bond – ikatan kovalen

Carry out activities to investigate the properties of covalent compounds in terms of : a) electrical conductivity b) melting point c) solubility in water

?

generalise the characteristics of covalent compounds.

47

THEME LEARNING AREA Learning Objectives 3.1 Understanding relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass

: :

MATTER IN NATURE 3. MOLE CONCEPT Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? explain the concept of relative atomic mass. explain the concept of relative molecular mass. relate relative molecular mass to relative atomic mass for a molecule. relate relative molecular mass to relative atomic mass for a compound. calculate the relative molecular mass of a simple molecule. calculate the relative molecular mass of a simple compound. Notes Vocabulary relative atomic mass – jisim atom relatif relative molecular mass – jisim molekul relatif

Discuss the : a) concept of relative atomic mass. b) concept of relative molecular mass.

Collect and interpret data on the determination of relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass. Discuss relative molecular mass as a sum of the relative atomic mass of each atom in a molecule or compound. Calculate relative molecular mass of a simple molecule and a simple compound from the chemical formula of a molecule or compound.

? ?

Chemical formula of a molecule or compound is given.

? ?

48

Learning Objectives 3.2 Understanding the relationship between moles and the number of molecules

Suggested Learning Activities Gather and interpret data and discuss the meaning of mole.
Formulae introduced are : (i) No. of moles of atom = mass of atom relative atomic mass (ii) No.of moles of molecule = mass of molecule relative molecular mass (iii) No. of atoms = s no. of moles X Avogadro’ number of atom

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? explain what a mole is. relate the number of moles of an atom to the atomic mass and relative atomic mass. relate the number of moles of molecules to the molecular mass and the relative molecular mass. state the meaning of Avogadro’ number (NA). s relate the number of moles and the number of atoms to Avogadro’ number (NA). s relate the number of moles to the number of molecules. solve problems involving mole number.

Notes Avogadro’ s Number (NA) = 6.02 x 10 23 should be introduced.

Vocabulary atomic mass – jisim atom molecular mass – jisim molekul

? ?

(iv)

No. of molecules = no. of moles X Avogadro’ number s of molecules

Compare the quantity of different substances for a particular unit as below :
Substance Shoes Eggs Pins Papers 12 g Carbon 16 g Oxygen Unit Pair Dozen Gross Ream Mole Mole Quantity 2 12 144 480 23 6.02 x 10 atoms 23 6.02 x 10 atoms

? ?

49

Learning Objectives 3.3 Understanding the mole concept in a chemical equation

Suggested Learning Activities Write a simple balanced chemical equation and use the mole concept to balance a chemical equation using the examples given below: a) neutralisation between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide b) formation of copper (II) sulphate by the reaction between copper (II) oxide and sulphuric acid c) burning of magnesium ribbon in air d) reaction between sodium and water. Solve problems on the mole concept. ?

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? write a balanced chemical equation for a simple chemical reaction. explain using examples the use of mole concept to balance chemical equations. construct a chemical formula based on the mole concept.

Notes

Vocabulary chemical equations – persamaan kimia neutralisation peneutralan magnesium ribbon – pita magnesium

solve problems on the mole concept based on a balanced chemical equation for a simple reaction.

50

Learning Objectives 3.4 Appreciating the introduction of mole concept to understand and solve problems invoving chemical reactions

Suggested Learning Activities Collect and interpret data on the contributions of scientist in the study of mole concept.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? compare the balance of nature with the balance of chemical reactions.

Notes

Vocabulary contribution – sumbangan balance of nature – keseimbangan alam

Discuss the use of the mole concept to measure the total number of particles.

?

accept the mole as a unit for measuring the total number of particles.

51

THEME LEARNING AREA Learning Objectives 1.1 Analysing the process of gaseous exchange during respiration

: :

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE 1. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? describe the structure of the alveolus. explain the process of gaseous exchange in the alveolus. Notes Vocabulary inhaled air- udara sedutan exhaled air- udara hembusan respiratory system sistem respirasi compositionkandungan transportpengangkutan role – peranan

Draw, label and discuss the structure of a respiratory system. Discuss the process of gaseous exchange in the alveolus. Investigate the composition of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inhaled and exhaled air. Discuss the transport process of oxygen from the alveolus to the body cells and carbon diokside from the body cells to the alveolus. Discuss the role of haemoglobin in the transport of oxygen.

?

? ?

explain the transport of oxygen from the alveolus to the body cells. explain the transport of carbon diokside from the body cells to the alveolus.

52

Learning Objectives 1.2 Understanding the production of energy during respiration

Suggested Learning Activities State the main sources of energy for the human life processes. Discuss the production of energy by oxidation of glucose during respiration. Discuss the role of ATP. Write an equation on: a) the formation of ATP molecules ADP + P + energy ? ATP b) the breakdown of ATP molecules ATP ? ADP + P + energy Discuss aerobic and anaerobic respiration and their roles in life processes. ? ? ?

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? state the main sources of energy for the human life processes. explain the production of energy from glucose.

Notes

Vocabulary oxidationpengoksidaan aerobic-keadaan beroksigen anaerobic-keadaan tanpa oksigen ADP- adenosina difosfat ATP- Adenosina Trifosfat P- fosfat

The word equation for aerobic respiration is introduced.

explain the function of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration. explain using examples situations which involve aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

53

Learning Objectives 1.3 Understanding respiratory aids and resuscitation

Suggested Learning Activities Collect and interpret data on the use of a respirator and an iron lung.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? explain the use of the iron lung to aid breathing. explain the use of a respirator to aid breathing. compare and contrast between a respirator and an iron lung. explain the technique of cardiopulmonary resuscitation to revive breathing. demonstrate cardio-pulmonary resuscitation

Notes Teachers or students who are members of Red Crescent Society or St John’ s Ambulance can help to show the technique of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Vocabulary resuscitationpemulihan pernafasan iron lung- peparu besi CPR- pemulihan kardiopulmonari revive-pulih

Discuss the technique of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Simulate the technique of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

? ?

54

Learning Objectives 1.4 Analysing respiratory diseases and allergies

Suggested Learning Activities View video,charts or computer simulation on diseases such as lung cancer, pneumonia, asthma and bronchitis and discuss the following: a) symptoms of diseases and allergies, b) factors that contribute to the development of these diseases and allegies, c) methods of preventing these diseases and allergies. .

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? ? ? list diseases and allergies associated with respiratory organs. state the symptoms of each disease and allergy. identify the factors which cause the diseases and allergies. relate the factors causing the diseases and allergies to these symptoms. explain the measures to prevent diseases and allergies associated with respiratory organs.

Notes

Vocabulary allergies-alahan pneumonia-radang paru-paru yang kronik disebabkan jangkitan bakteria. asthma – asma/lelah bronchitis – bronchitis/ radang pada tiub bronkus contributemenyebabkan.

55

Learning Objectives 1.5 Appreciating the presence of healthy respiratory organ

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss a healthy lifestyle such as abstaining from smoking and having regular exercise. Carry out powerpoint presentation on preservation of the air and the conservation of environment.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to : ? ? practise a healthy lifestyle. preserve healthy air and conserve the environment.

Notes

Vocabulary environment – persekitaran preserve – memelihara conserve memulihara

56

THEME LEARNING AREA Learning Objectives 2.1 Analysing the digestive system

: :

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE 2. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? identify the organs of the human digestive system. Notes Vocabulary digestive systemsistem pencernaan liver-hati gall bladder-pundi hempedu salivary glands kelenjar liur stomach-perut observationpemerhatian

Make observations on the structure of the human digestive system which consists of the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum, colon, rectum, anus, liver, gall bladder, salivary glands and pancreas Collect and interpret data on the action of digestive enzymes which are found in the mouth, stomach, duodenum and ileum.

57

Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Carry out experiments to investigate the effects of temperature and pH on the rate of action of: ? amylase ? pepsin. ? ?

Learning Outcomes explain the actions of the digestive enzymes. control the variables to investigate the effects of temperature and pH on the rate of enzyme action.

Notes

Vocabulary variable - pemboleh

2.2 Analysing diseases related to the digestive system

Collect and interpret data on the symptoms and factors causing the diseases such as : a) gastritis b) appendicitis c) constipation d) diarrhea. Discuss the causes and the symptoms of the diseases.

A student is able to : ? ? ? ? list the diseases related to the digestive system. state the causes of the diseases. state the symptoms of the diseases. explain the measures to prevent the diseases related to the digestive organs.

constipation –sembelit gastritis -radang pada membran mukus yang melapik perut. appendicitis -penyakit pada appendik diarrhoea-cirit birit digestive organ-organ pencernaan relationship-hubungan.

Discuss the methods of preventing diseases related to the digestive organs.

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Learning Objectives 2.3 Appreciating the presence of a healthy digestive system

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the following topics : ? practising good eating habits. ? taking a balanced diet. Carry out the activities discussed.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? practise a healthy eating habit.

Notes

Vocabulary eating habit -amalan pemakanan. balanced diet makanan seimbang healthy-sihat

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THEME LEARNING AREA Learning Objectives 3.1 Analysing the composition of blood and blood groups

: :

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE 3. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? state the composition of blood. ? state the functions of the components of blood. ? discuss the differences between blood groups. Notes The use of human blood in the class-room for demonstration is discouraged. Vocabulary compatible –serasi blood transfusion pemindahan darah blood clotting – pembekuan darah blood groups kumpulan darah donor – penderma receiver – penerima composition-komposisi

Collect and interpret data on the functions of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Collect and interpret data on blood groups based on antigens and antibodies. Discuss a) the compatibility of the blood groups of a donor and a receiver.

The disease haemophilia should be discussed as it involves blood clotting.

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Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities b) the importance of compatibility of blood groups during a blood transfusion. Collect and interpret data about the a) Rh factor b) effect of different Rh factors c) blood clotting process

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? determine the compatibility of blood groups during blood transfusion. ? explain the Rh factor. ? explain the effect of Rh factors towards the foetus during pregnancy. ? elaborate the blood clotting process.

Notes

Vocabulary

Rh factor (protein of the red blood cells in certain people) – faktor Rhesus (Antigen yang terdapat dalam sel darah merah dalam badan manusia tertentu).

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Learning Objectives 3.2 Analysing the circulatory system

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss systole and diastole in a heartbeat. Discuss the roles of auricles, ventricles and heart valves in a heartbeat. Carry out activities to measure blood pressure by using a sphygmomanometer and discuss the results of measurement with reference to heartbeat.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? explain systole and diastole in a heartbeat. relate heart beat to blood pressure.

Notes

Vocabulary circulatory system sistem peredaran darah. heart valves - injap jantung heartbeat - denyutan jantung blood pressure tekanan darah systole - fasa pegecutan otot ventrikel diastole - fasa pengenduran otot ventrikel

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Learning Objectives 3.3 Understanding the lymphatic system

Suggested Learning Activities Collect and interpret data on the flow of lymph and its return to the circulatory system through the opening in the right and left subclavian vein. Collect and interpret data on the functions of the lymphatic system in the defense of the body. Discuss the role of the lymphatic system in preventing the attack of pathogens such as bacteria and virus.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? ? draw and label the lymphatic system. explain the lymphatic system. explain the flow of lymph. explain the functions of the lymphatic system.

Notes

Vocabulary lymph- limfa subclavian vein – vena subklavikal

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Learning Objectives 3.4 Understanding the diseases related to the circulatory system

Suggested Learning Activities Collect and interpret data on arteriosclerosis, high and low blood pressure, heart attack, angina, diabetes and G6PD and the symptoms related to them. Discuss the methods taken to prevent diseases related to the circulatory system.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? ? list the diseases related to the blood circulatory system. state the symptoms for each disease. identify the factors causing the diseases. discuss the measures taken to prevent the diseases related to the blood circulatory system.

Notes

Vocabulary angina- sakit yang disebabkan oleh penyempitan arteri koronari. circulatory system sistem peredaran darah.

3.5 Be concerned with the health of others

Collect information on blood donation and ways to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Prepare a brochure to disseminate the information to the class.

A student is able to: ? ? develop the willingness to donate blood when the need arises. help to disseminate information on a healthy life style to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

blood donation – pendermaan darah.

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THEME LEARNING AREA Learning Objectives 4.1 Analysing the roles of kidney and skin in excretion

: :

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE 4. EXCRETORY SYSTEM Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? ? explain the meaning of excretion. compare and contrast the process of excretion and defecation. explain the process of urine formation, explain the process of sweating. Notes Vocabulary excretory system – sistem perkumuhan kidney – ginjal / buah pinggang defecation penyahtinjaan urine formation pembentukan air kencing sweating – berpeluh.

Make observations on the excretory system by using models or diagrams and discuss: a) explain the meaning of excretion and the organs involved in excretion. b) the similarities and difference between excretion and defecation. Draw and label the excretory system that is : a) urinary system b) nephron c) structure of the skin (sweat formation) Collect and interpret data to discuss the formation of urine and sweat.

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Learning Objectives 4.2 Understanding diseases related to the excretory system

Suggested Learning Activities Collect and interpret data on diseases related to the excretory system such as kidney failure, formation of gall stones and the symptoms related to them. Collect and interpret data on the factors causing diseases related to the excretory system. Listen to talk by a medical officer and discuss the measures to prevent kidney related diseases.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? ? list the diseases related to the excretory system. state the symptoms for each disease. identify the factors causing the diseases. describe the measures taken to prevent kidney related diseases.

Notes The release of carbon dioxide to the lungs during gaseous exchange in the alveolus is an example of an excretory process.

Vocabulary gall stone-batu karang kidney failure -kegagalan ginjal untuk berfungsi

4.3 Appreciating the presence of a healthy excretory system.

Prepare a folio on the care of a excretory system. Collect and interpret data on the efforts of humans to find ways to treat those with kidney related problems.

A student is able to: ? ? appreciate the practice to care for the health of the excretory system. justify the efforts of humans to find ways to treat kidney related problems.

treatment –rawatan obligationtanggung jawab

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THEME LEARNING AREA Learning Objectives 5.1 Analysing the menstrual cycle

: :

MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE 5. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? explain the changes that occur in the ovary during menstrual cycle. explain the hormonal changes during menstruation. explain the changes that occur in the uterus during the menstrual cycle together with the hormones involved. describe the changes in the walls of the uterus in one menstrual cycle. Notes Vocabulary menstrual cycle - kitar haid menopause -putus haid FSH-hormon perangsang folikel LH- hormon peluteinan

Collect and interpret data on the changes that occur in the ovary and uterus during a menstrual cycle. Discuss the roles of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH).

?

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Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Collect and interpret data on the physical and physiological changes during menopause. ?

Learning Outcomes explain what menopause is.

Notes The duration of a menstrual cycle on the average is about 28 days. Nevertheless, the duration could be shorter or longer.

Vocabulary physiological changes perubahan fisiologi.

5.2 Analysing the process of gamete formation

Collect and interpret data on spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

A student is able to: ? ? explain what spermatogenesis is. explain what oogenesis is.

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Learning Objectives 5.3 Analysing the stages in foetal development

Suggested Learning Activities View charts, videos or computer simulations and discuss: a) the process of fertilization, b) the different stages of foetal development.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? explain the process of fertilisation. describe the stages of foetal development.

Notes Students should be introduced to IVF, test tube baby, GIFT, ZIFT and cloning issues .

Vocabulary fertilisationpersenyawaan foetal development perkembangan fetus IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation) - persenyawaan invitro. GIFT (Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer) pemindahan gamet ke dalam tiub fallopio ZIFT (Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer ) pemindahan zigot ke dalam tiub fallopio

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Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Collect and interpret data on the functions of amniotic fluid and placenta. Give an analogy and show the importance of amniotic fluid as a medium to absorb shock and facilitate movement of the foetus. View charts or video and discuss: a) the stages of birth b) the possible complications during the birth of a baby. ? ? ? ?

Learning Outcomes explain the functions of amniotic fluid. explain the functions of the placenta. describe the different stages of birth. explain the complications during birth.

Notes

Vocabulary amniotic fluid – bendalir amnion absorb shockpenyerap hentakan facilitate movementmemudahkan pergerakan complication –komplikasi birth-kelahiran

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Learning Objectives 5.4 Understanding diseases related to the reproductive system and sexually transmitted diseases(STD)

Suggested Learning Activities Browse the Internet and gather information on: a) diseases related to the reproductive system such as cervical cancer, prostate gland cancer and their symptoms . b) sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, AIDS and their symptoms . Gather information and discuss the factors which cause: a) diseases related to the reproductive system b) sexually transmitted diseases.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? list the diseases related to the reproductive system and sexually transmitted diseases state the symptoms of each disease. identify the factors causing the diseases.

Notes

Vocabulary sexually transmitted diseases - penyakit jangkitan seks AIDS - Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.Sindrom kurang daya tahan penyakit.

? ?

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Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Prepare posters on the measures to prevent disease related to the reproductive system and sexually transmitted diseases. ?

Learning Outcomes explain the measures to prevent diseases related to the reproductive system and sexually tranmitted diseases.

Notes

Vocabulary

5.5 Maintaining a healthy family lifestyle.

Discuss the ways to show gratitude to our parents for bringing us to this world. Discuss the need to uphold integrity and purity among married couples.

A student is able to: ? appreciate the birth of individuals by the natural process of sexual reproduction. preserve integrity and purity as a means to prevent sexually transmitted diseases.

integrity – maruah purity - kesucian

?

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THEME LEARNING AREA Learning Objectives 1.1 Understanding the concept of biodiversity

: :

BALANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT 1. BIODIVERSITY Suggested Learning Activities Discuss biodiversity in terms of: a) genetic b) species c) ecosystem Carry out field work to compare biodiversity in a few habitats. Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? state the meaning of biodiversity. make inferences about biodiversity in a habitat. Notes Vocabulary biodiversity – biodiversiti / biokepelbagaian survival – kemandirian genetics – keturunan /baka species – spesis ecosystem - ekosistem

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Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Collect and interpret data on the relationship between biodiversity and the survival of species in terms of: a) food web b) habitat c) symbiosis ?

Learning Outcomes relate biodiversity to the survival of species in an ecosystem.

Notes

Vocabulary food web - siratan makanan symbiosis - simbiosis

1.2 Understanding sea, wetlands and tropical rainforest ecosystems

Collect and interpret data on the biotic and abiotic components in the following ecosystems: a) marine b) wetlands c) tropical rainforest

Discuss the inter-relationship between the biotic and abiotic components towards biodiversity. Explain the stress factors and the effects of decline on the biotic and abiotic components.

A student is able to: ? identify the biotic components in an ecosystem. ? identify the abiotic components in an ecosystem. ? describe the interrelationship between the biotic and abiotic components in a marine ecosystem. ? describe the interrelationship between the biotic and abiotic components in a wetland ecosystem.

Wetlands include marshes, mangroves, lakes, ponds and rivers.

stress factor faktor kemerosotan wetland – kawasan tanah berair tropical rainforest – hutan hujan tropika marine – laut mangrove - paya bakau

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Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Make field trips to marine parks/ agricultural parks/ and forest parks. Carry out projects to: a) investigate the factors which disrupt the ecosystem and b) examine the effects of the decline of the biotic and abiotic components. ?

Learning Outcomes describe the interrelationship between the biotic and abiotic components in a tropical rainforest ecosystem. ? explain the factors which disrupt the ecosystem of the sea, wetlands and tropical rainforest. explain the effects of the decline of the biotic and abiotic components.

Notes

Vocabulary disrupts – gangguan agricultural park - taman pertanian forest park - taman perhutanan marine park - taman laut biotic - benda hidup abiotic - benda bukan hidup

?

1.3 Appreciating biodiversity.

Debate or prepare a folio on the effects of the decline of biodiversity.

A student is able to: ? ? justify the measures taken to prevent the decline of biodiversity. predict what happens if there is a decline of the biodiversity in an ecosystem.

appreciate – mengagumi prevent – menghalang decline - merosot

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THEME LEARNING AREA Learning Objectives 2.1 Analysing biotic resources which can be obtained from the ecosystem

: :

BALANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2. BIOTIC RESOURCES Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? state the meaning of biotic resources. list the natural resources obtained from the ecosystem. explain using examples the economic values of biotic resources. Notes Vocabulary natural sources - sumber asli agriculture – pertanian medicine – perubatan nutrition – pemakanan construction – pembinaan cosmetics - kosmetik / bahan kecantikan predict – meramal optimum - optima / mapan

Discuss the meaning of biotic resources. Collect and interpret data on the various uses of natural resources in the fields of : a) agriculture b) medicine c) nutrition d) construction e) cosmetics Carry out projects to produce substances from natural resources. Generate ideas about the optimum use of biotic resources.

Projects involving production of food are not encouraged. (time consuming)

?

predict the prospects of using biotic resources.

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Learning Objectives 2.2 Evaluating tropical rainforest as a catchment area

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the meaning of a catchment area. Discuss the role of tropical rainforest as a catchment area. Make charts or models to display tropical rainforest as a catchment area. Collect and interpret data on sources of the following resources: a) water b) energy c) food Discuss the effects of development on tropical rainforest. ?

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? ? ? explain the meaning of a catchment area. relate a tropical rainforest to a catchment area. describe biotic resources which can be obtained from a catchment area.

Notes

Vocabulary encatchment - kawasan tadahan biotic sources - sumber biosis

evaluate the effects of development on tropical rainforest.

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Learning Objectives 2.3 Appreciating biotic resources

Suggested Learning Activities Carry out a project on herbal garden. Discuss the optimum use of biotic resources.

Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? practise the use of biotic resources wisely.

Notes

Vocabulary herbal garden – taman herba

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THEME LEARNING AREA Learning Objectives 3.1 Analysing a balanced ecosystem

: :

BALANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT 3. BALANCE IN AN ECOSYSTEM Suggested Learning Activities Learning Outcomes A student is able to: ? state the meaning of a balanced ecosystem. The project is suggested to be carried out a month or two earlier before this topic is taught. mangrove – paya unused land - tanah terbiar stages – peringkat community – komuniti Notes Vocabulary

Discuss the meaning of a balanced ecosystem.

Carry out activities and study the gradual displacement of plants in : a) pond b) mangrove c) unused land

?

explain the stages of community development in an ecosystem.

Carry out projects to investigate the ? relationship between the stages of community development and biodiversity.

relate the stages of community development in an ecosystem to biodiversity.

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Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the idea of dynamic equilibrium in an ecosystem by giving examples. ?

Learning Outcomes explain using examples the meaning of dynamic equilibrium in an ecosystem.

Notes Do computer simulations and study the equilibrium of an ecosystem as a dynamic process.

Vocabulary dynamic equilibrium – keseimbangan dinamik.

3.2 Evaluating the preservation and conservation of the ecosystem

Discuss the meanings of preservation and conservation of the ecosystem. Collect information from newspaper cutting, magazines or website and investigate the effects of man’ activities on the s ecosystem. Invite officers from PERHILITAN / Jabatan Alam Sekitar (JAS) / RAMSAR (wetlands) to give a talk on the methods of preservation and conservation of an ecosystem.

A student is able to: ? explain the concepts of preserving and conserving the ecosystem. explain the effects of man’ s activities on the ecosystem. explain the methods of preserving and conserving the ecosystem. preservation –memelihara conservation –memulihara

? ?

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Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Discuss the effects of extinction of an organism on an ecosystem. Discuss the importance of preservation and conservation of ecosystem. ? ?

Learning Outcomes explain the effects of extinction of an organism on an ecosystem. justify the importance of preservation and conservation of ecosystem.

Notes Organise field trips to forest reserve, national parks, FRIM to understand the efforts taken to preserve and conserve the balance of an ecosystem.

Vocabulary extinction – pupus importance – kepentingan FRIM (Forest Research Institute of Malaysia) – ( Institiut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia) reserve forest - hutan simpan

3.3 Realising the importance of preservation and conservation of the ecosystem

Draw posters for a campaign to preserve and conserve the balance of an ecosystem. .

A student is able to: ? participate in activities to preserve and conserve an ecosystem.

Participate in activities related to the preservation and conservation of ecosystems.

predict - meramal

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Learning Objectives

Suggested Learning Activities Generate ideas to predict the conditions on earth if measures to preserve and conserve the ecosystem are not taken. Hold discussion on the extinction of the flora and fauna of the country. ?

Learning Outcomes predict the conditions on earth if steps are not taken to preserve and conserve the ecosystem.

Notes

Vocabulary flora – tumbuhan fauna - haiwan

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Advisors

Mahzan Bakar SMP, AMP

Director Curriculum Development Centre Deputy Director Curriculum Development Centre Principal Assistant Director for Science and Mathematics Section Curriculum Development Centre Assistant Director (Head of Core Science Unit) Curriculum Development Centre Assistant Director (Head of Elective Science Unit) Curriculum Development Centre Assistant Director (Head of Core Science Unit) Curriculum Development Centre (until July 2005) Assistant Director Curriculum Development Centre

Zulkifli Mohd. Wazir

Editorial Advisors

Cheah Eng Joo

Ho Heng Ling Zaidi Yazid Yeap Chin Heng (Ph.D) Editor

Zulkifli bin Baharudin

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PANEL OF WRITERS
Cheah Eng Joo Yeap Chin Heng (Ph.D) Aizatul Adzwa Mohd. Basri Ho Heng Leng Rosli Suleiman Salbiah Mohd. Som Norani Abd. Bari Alice Tan Jafri Mohamed Saad Majidah Mohamad Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre SM Sains Selangor, Kuala Lumpur SMK Durian Tunggal, Melaka SMK Darul Ehsan, Selangor. Salehuddin Mustafa Salina Hanum Osman Mohamed Siti Noridah Ujang Zaidah Mohd. Yusof Zaidi Yazid Zainon Abdul Majid Yusof bin Ismail Nik Hashimah Nik Ismail Nor Ruzaini Jailani Ramli Ibrahim (Ph.D) Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Bahagian Buku Teks Bahagian Pendidikan Guru Fakulti Sains dan teknologi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tg. Malim Sek. Tinggi Methodist, Perak. Jabatan Fizik, Universiti Malaya.

Marina Mokhtar Mohd Nazri Saad

Fakulti Sains dan teknologi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tg. Malim Fakulti Sains dan teknologi, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tg. Malim SMK Syed Alwi, Perlis SMK Seri Berang, Terengganu. SMK Panji Alam, Terengganu

Vigneswaran a/l Thavachellvam Wan Ahmad Tajuddin (Ph.D) Zulkefli Zamrood (Ph.D)

Mokhtar Arshad Zainon Jusoh Rosli Chik

Pusat Pengajian Biosains & Bioteknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia SMK Seri Ampang, Kuala Lumpur.

Kalairajan a/l Palanisamy

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Curriculum Development Centre Ministry of Education 2003