This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
. Drip irrigation (or trickle irrigation) is a modern irrigation method in which water is delivered directly into the root zone of the plant. This kind of system uses low pressure and low flow rates and water is applied only to specific zones in the field, where plants are grown. Typical drip emitter flow rates are 0.6 – 16 L/hr (0.164.0 gal/hr), and the most commonly used emitters are of 1-4 L/hr. When properly designed and managed, drip irrigation has many advantages over other irrigation methods, including: elimination of surface runoff, high uniformity of water distribution, high water usage efficiency, flexibility in fertilization, prevention of weed growth and plant disease. Drip systems are also easily integrated in fertigation systems and automation.
Efficient application of Nutrients Drip irrigation allows for flexibility in the application of fertilizers, since fertilizers can be easily applied through the irrigation water. Since the nutrients are delivered with the irrigation water, they are directly supplied to the active root zone of the plants. Nutrients are supplied frequently at low concentrations, to meet the plants’ needs. It was found that roots in the wetted area increase their efficiency of water and nutrient uptake. Therefore, selective wetting of the soil, as achieved by drip irrigation, allows for savings both in water and fertilizers. Drip irrigation can also reduce nitrate losses due to leaching. Irrigation & Soil-water content Traditional irrigation methods are characterized by high fluctuations in soil-moisture content, as high quantities of water are applied at long intervals. These fluctuations affect plant growth and crop yields. Drip irrigation systems are able to supply small amounts of water at high frequency intervals. As a result, a relatively constant moisture level of the soil can be maintained. The optimal range of moisture in the soil can be maintained at all times and managed more easily, because water is applied in precise quantities on a precise schedule, according to the crop requirements. This promotes water saving, as well as enhances growth and production. In addition, the selective wetting prevents evaporation of water from areas outside the wetted zone.
The high frequency of fertilizer applications. Drip emitters create different sub-soil wetting patterns in different soil types. In coarse textured soils (sandy soils) water will tend to spread more vertically. using a sprinkler system. resulting in a larger radius of the wetted zone. while in fine textured soils (clay soils) there will be a considerable lateral movement. Emitter Number and Spacing The main challenge in designing a drip irrigation system is selecting the right combination of dripper spacing. leach the salts periodically. Because water is applied at high frequencies and the moisture content of the soil is relatively high. can prevent salt stress to the crop. in drip irrigation salts tend to accumulate close to the margins of the wetted zone. פה מתאימה תמונה קטנה להבהרה .Salt content If properly designed and managed. In addition. The two major factors that affect the selection of the proper combination are the physical characteristics of the soil and the water requirements of the crop. their total number and their required discharge for a given soil and crop. given at precise rates. the high concentration of salts at the top soil may prevent the germination of new seeds and damage young plants planted in the regions of high salt concentrations. fertilizers applied through the irrigation water are much more diluted. and a lower salt content of the soil can be achieved. Another problem that might occur is that during the change of crops. midway between the drip emitters. drip irrigation allows for better salinity management. the salt content of the soil is similar to that of the irrigation water. The texture of the soil determines the vertical and horizontal distribution of water in it. However. compared with other irrigation methods. Possible solutions to these problems are to design the drip system with closely spaced emitters or alternatively. The accumulated salts may be washed by rain into the root zone of the plants and cause salinity shock.
emitters tend to clog frequently. then: Water amount needed per irrigation : 3 l/day/plant X 4 days = 12 liter/plant.2 l/hr/emitter) = 5 drip emitters per plant. Another factor affecting the radius of the wetted zone is the emitter discharge The water requirement of the crop and the time available for irrigation are used to determine the number of emitters needed. irrigation frequency is once in 4 days and time available for irrigation is 2 hours. Irrigation rate required: 12 liter / 2 hours = 6 l/hr.Therefore. spacing between drip emitters in sandy soils should be smaller than in fine textured soils. For example. To get a uniform irrigation in row crops. spacing between drip emitters should result in an overlap between the wetted zones of each two drip emitters. Number of drip emitters required: (6 l/hr) / (1. the water requirement of the crop is 3 l/day. if 1. Drip Emitter plugging Because pores in the drip emitters are very small. Read more about emitters clogging potential. .2 l/hr drip emitters were selected.