Korean Names In general, Korean names consist of 3 syllables.
The first part is the Surname ( such as Kim, Lee and Pak ), it is the followed by a two-syllable first name. In Korean, the surname always comes first which is opposite of Western Names such as Doojin Pak instead of the Korean method of Pak Doojin. When you are referring to someone who you know well, then you may be able to refer to them directly, such as using their first name. However when youare introduced to someone to whom you are not familiar with, or am meeting for the first time, then you would add -ssi to the end of the name. An example of this would be Doojin-ssi. Making Polite Sentences With verb stems which end in vowels such a ka-, ha- and sa-, it is possible to make these into polite sentences by adding -yo to the end of the words, such as Kayo ( which means "to go", or "I go" or "he goes" ). Verbs in the polite style can be used as statements, questions, suggestions or commands, and may be further emphasised by the tone of your voice. For example, Chal Chinaessoyo may be both expressed as a question by asking how someone is, or can be a question stating that you are fine. Another example is the more common Annyong Haseyo. Korean Sentence Structure and Word order In Korean the structure of sentence differ to English sentences, for example the phrase Chal Chinaessooyo literally means "Well have you been getting on?" which is the opposite from English. In general the structure of the Korean sentences is broken down as subject - object - verb "Jon the ball kicked" "To Go" in order to do sentences There are a few words that you may add to the end of verb stems at the end of sentences, these include -yo which makes sentences polite, and -ro which means "in order to". In some cases the verb stems may in effect end in consonants in which case -uro is utilised. The order of the sentences for an example sentence of "in order to buy bread I am goin to the shops" is restructured as "bread buy-in order-to the shops go" In Korean unlike English, the subject of the sentences is optional like "I", then the "in order section" is next, which is then followed by "the place you are going". (In English) (in Korean) I go to the shops in-order -to buy bread I (optional) bread buy - in-order to shops to go
The Konglish for this sentence in Korean would be na-do ppang sa-ro kayo (I-do bread buy-in order-to go). * The construction can only be used in verbs involving 'going' and 'coming' and cannot be used with other verbs at the end of sentences. There Are / There is The Korean verb which means either "there are" and "there is" is issoyo ( 있 어요 ) They are dependent on the context in which you use them, and on what you are talking about. The stem of the verb is iss- with the inclusion of o and the polite particle -yo, thus forming the ending -oyo. However in the case where the verb stem ends in vowel, we use -a or -o, such as -ayo. Vowel stem Consonant stem Consonant Stem - yo - ayo - oyo if the last vowel ends with -a or -o
In context the oppposite of iss- is ops- which literally means "there isnt" or "there arent". Uses of the verbs chogi issoyo means "it exist over there", or "its over there" Issoyo on its own can mean "I have/he has" Opsoyo means "I dont have" or "I havent got"
it is the opposite. For females the word ajumma meaning aunt is used. then she may referred to as Kim songsaengnim-puin (Kim mr-wife). we would say 'with-me'. If you want to say A is B(like "This is a Korean book"):A B-ieyo (or B-eyo) this Korean book-ieyo It is obvious that you would use -eyo when B ends in a vowel. and for younger woman agassi is used for young women. the word for and is -hago. songsaengnim-ieyo (is teacher) soju-eyo (is soju) IMPORTANT to note that in Korean the copula is only used to describe when this "is equivalent to". The word chuseyo utilises the polite word stem -yo. this is a particle so when it is to be used it must be attac hed to a noun. In Korea. whereas Korean is 'me-with'. It cant be used to say "is located in"(is underneath". Doojin-hago shinae-e kayo meaning 'I am g oing to town with Doojin'. and behaves a little differently to ordinary verbs. but -ieyo when B ends on a consonant. For example. such as na-do (me-to o). Koreans use ajossi literally meaning uncle. For that same reason. In Korean. you will have to use special verbs called copula. soju hana chuseyo meaning "soju one give me please". which means "give me please" In Korean. The particle hago can also mean with such as. one would say Yoo Songsaegnim or with the full name Yoo SangHyun Songsaegnim. this literally means teacher. but would rather say SangHyun-ssi. we use a particle which comes after a noun that it relates to. In English. However if it were to be used in a formal way. attached to chu-. For example if Mrs Han is married to Mr Kim. It is not possible to a Korean persons first name. "is near") nor can it be used to say
.In a shop When addressing a shop keeper or waiters. when you use the ssi. you cannot say Yoo-ssi. one would use the word songsaegnim attached to their surname or full name. Using 'and' In Korean. in Korean it would be 'burgerhago chips. For example we would say. when you say 'burger and chips'. The word hago becomes part of burger. Ordering with numbers When asking for 'one' item we say 'hana' which is said after you have selected the meal you wish to order. this copula is present at the end of a sentence. such like SangHyun Songsaegnim. if you want to describe A is B . it is only for the referral of a man. or she maybe reffered to in a similar English terminology such as Misesu Han(Mrs Han). for people over 35-ish. Addressing Korean women. Using Copula to describe "this is that" In Korean. when you want to address men politely. For example. in Korea women do not take their husbands surname when they get married. but is u sed as a general word when addressing someone in a shop. or Yoo SangHyun-ssi.
. When saying 'A is not B'.e "is red". she hates it. On the other hand it may be used as a question Kuraeyo? meaning "is it like that?".. shillye hamnida (excuse me). it is possible to add polite endings to verbs. -hamnida and -jiman In Korean. I love shopping as for mum (ma-nun). which is comprised of the verb stem shille ha-. We would use -iseyo. and may be used as a statement such as "it's like that". songsaenim-i ( teacher ) or maekju-ga (beer) give emphasis on each of these subjects in a sentence. Asking a person In Korean. there is a special verb which may be used in the event where you want to ask someone if they are someone. "really?" or "is that so?". whereas -un is attached to a vowel. we use the negative copula anieyo. Ottaeyo means is how?. when you are trying to say something is not something else. and simply add this to the end of a phrase. For a sentence . hanguk hakkwa-ga anieyo ( Not the Korean department ). we would say :cho-nun songsaengnim-i anieyo ( I am not a teacher ). Describing how things are Korean possess words which mean "is a certain way". EG soju-nun (as for soju)... Songsaengnim-un (as for teacher). For instance. -nun is attached to a noun. shillye-jiman (I'm sorry but. Korean has a special particle. "it is". for example. by adding -un or nun."is a certain way" (i. "is happy"). Han songsaengnim-iseyo? ( Are you Mr Han?) Hangungmal songsaengnim-iseyo? (Are you the Korean Teacher?) Subjects and topics of Korean sentences In Korean. and is best used in order to compare two things. as in: songsaengnim ottaeyo? ( How is teacher ? or What is teacher like? ) saob ottaeyo? (How is business? or What is business like? ) Kuraeyo literally means "it is like that". is similar to that of the english "As for". used in attachment to place emphasis on what is being talked about. For example. this is switched back to the topic particle. we attach -i to the end of nouns which end with consonants.. For example. Negative Copula In Korean. but later on in a conversation. the subject in this case would be The man.for example "Are you Mr Han". There is also the verb and stem. and the verb ending hamnida (note this is the formal style).
Answering questions with Yes and No in Korean
. or attach -ga to the end of nouns which end in a vowel. "thats right". containing the ending -jiman which means but.) which is a abbreviation of the verb and stem shillye ha-jiman . it makes As for Business or As for me.. By doing this. the subject particle is used. when a subject is mentioned for the first time. The topic particle.. as for me ( na-nun ). On the other hand. on subjects in sentences. "The man kissed the dog". it is possible to give emphasis.
chom may be used to soften up requests by making it more polite.) iss.. ( But you are also showing special respect for him ). I do like it" or "Yes i dont" As you can see.but. it is quite different to how we would speak in English...) Note that for the word iss-jiman the double ss is re-written to itjiman Using polite requests In Korean. Making requests more polite The polite honorific -seyo can be used to make requests more polite. when you use chom in a request immediately before the verb at the end of the sentence..( go ) ka-jiman ( goes.) anj.but.. Examples of these are:mashi..becomes mashiseyo ha....) mok....when making requests.but. but . however do not mistake it to mean the same as the English word for please for all occurances....becomes kidariseyo iss. As you can see..) mashi. and -useyo is used when the verb stem ends in a consonant.. you would say kidariseyo (Please wait !!).( is/are.becomes haseyo kidari. It is most frequently using in relation to chu. Using Korean sentences with but.(sit ) anj-jiman ( sits. for example if you say hansongsaengnim-i hakkyo-e kaseyo ....( drink ) mashi-jiman ( drinks." .. for example Han songsaengnim chom pakkwo-juseyo( Can I speak to Mr Han ). For instance.. it is also possible to say (X-subject) odi issoyo? When answering a Where is question.. it takes on the effect of please. here are a few of them:ka. Where is it? When asking where something is in Korean.it can be confusing at first. The use of -seyo means that you have a special respect for the person.This is a tricky aspect of the Korean language. What you want to do ? Koreans use -ko ship'oyo which literally means want to. have ) it-jiman ( has.but.... but.( do ) ha-jiman ( does.( eat ) mok-jiman ( eats.you are saying Mr Han is going to school.. We have previously seen that shillye hamnida and the equivalent shillye-jiman mean "Excuse me.. but. For example: Question in English = "Do you like Korea ?" Answer in English = "Yes I do like it" or "No i dont" Answer in Korean = "No.... and this can be added to a verb
.) sa. so you will need to think carefully... or you might use it in Soju chom chuseyo ( Please give me the Soju ).becomes issuseyo anj. There are lots of verbs where you may attach -jiman onto.becomes anjuseyo If you want to request someone to wait for you. you would say (X-subject) odieyo? However. but..( buy ) sa-jiman ( buys.but" or "I'm Sorry. the word chom is used to mean "please". you must always use issoyo as a verb such that:hakkyo-ga kogi issoyo ( the school is over there ).... -seyo is used when the verb stem ends in in a vowel..) ha...
and -upshida is attached to verbstems ending in a consonant. [Particle with the meaning of 'also. -(에)서. 네가. too' May be attached to the end of other particles as in '에게도 and -과도. 명사 뒤에 봍어서 주어를 나타내는 조사로는 '-께서. I buy an eraser.] 1. . There is a pencil. "-이" --> 선행 명사가 자음으로 끝날 때 : When the noun ends in a consonant. When ㄱ.] 1. When 이/가 is attached at the end of '나. "-가" --> 선행 명사가 모음으로 끝날 때 : When the noun ends in a vowel. 02. 영화를 보고 커피를 마셨어요. -pshida is attached onto verb stems ending in a vowel.' 내가 가요. 안경이 없습니다. 누가 갑니까? 예문~ . Grammar 3 도 조사. . . 너. 저. add 가 보기~ 1.. Grammar 2 을/를 조사. I swim. Rules: 01. it may be omitted or abbreviated into '-ㄹ' after a vowel. too'] 보기~
. 또한. "-을" --> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant. 04. [Object particle. b. ㄷ. a hyphen can be used. '또.연필이 있습니다. '-에게도. I read a newspaper. Making Suggestions When making suggestions. 네가 갔니? 제가 가겠습니다. 책: 책 + 을 --> 책을 2. add 을 2. the -ko is utilised by being added to the end of the verb stem. etc. Here are some examples:Umryosu mashipshida ( Lets have a drink ) Grammar 1 이/가 주격 조사. 커피를 마십니다. p. r. 딸기가 맛있습니다. Comes after a noun and shows the "object" of the verb. 03. 신문을 봅니다. 시계가 비쌉니다. d. 자우개를 삽니다. Example: 다시 (again) wou ld be dashi.' the words change into '내가. "-를" --> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a vowel.. it should be romanized as shi. [ In spoken language. they are romanized as g. notice that when it is used. t. 역시'의 의미를 나타내는 보조사. 제가. ㅂ are found directly before a consonant. 너. 저.stem. as you may have guessed. ㄹ. and 누가. 교과서: 교과서 + 를 --> 교과서를 참고~ 구어에서는 생략되거나 모음 뒤에서 '-ㄹ'만으로 줄여 쓰기도 한다. 사과: 사과 +가 --> 사과가 참고 '나. cho-nun mok-ko ship'oyo which means I want to eat. --> "영활 보고 커필 마셨어요. r. Particles which come after a noun shows 'subject' are: -께서. Example: 후에 (after) would be hu-e. [Subject particle. There is not a pair of glasses. add 이 2." 예문~ . 책상: 책상 + 이 --> 책상이 2. -와/과도' 처럼 다른 조사 뒤에 붙기도 한다. they should be romanized as k. 누구' 뒤에 붙으면 '내가. When ㅅ is followed directly by ㅣ. add 를 보기~ 1. . When ㄱ. ㄹ. Example: 밥 (rice) wo uld be bap.'] [Similar to 'also. Koreans use -(u)pshida ( literally means lets do). 네가. 05. 수영을 합니다. that is what the letter sh ould be romanized as the final letter when found at the end of a syllable. To avoid confusion of syllables. For example you may say. -(에)서' 등이더 있다. I drink a cup of coffee. and 누구. 누가'로 된다. ㅂ are found directly before vowel.. If a character has a romanization with letters separated by an "/". . 제 가. . The strawberry is delicious. 명사에 붙어서 동사의 '목적어'를 나타낸다. The watch is expensive.. ㄷ.
other particles or endings. I go to the bank now. 밤에 착을 읽어요. 2. too] . 예문~ . [Locative particle. 일 주일에 두 번 갑니다. ] Grammar 5 에 위치격 조사.ah buh ji Father in law . 도서관: 도서관 + 에 ---> 도서관에 [방향: direction] 예문~ . add "는" 보기~ 1. However. The novel is interesting. Grammar 6 에 셈을 세는 단위 명사와 결합하여 단위나 셈의 '기준'을 나타낸다.아버지 . ] . 복습도 합니다.여름이 덥습니다. -----> 한 그롯을 이천 원입니다. -----> 책이 있습니다. I go over the lessons. though. [ There is a book. it shows the 'standard' of the counting or uni t. Attached to nouns. 한 시간에 20페이지를 읽습니다. or by'] 보기~ 1. '위치'나 '방향'.장인어른 . 물: 물 + 은 ---> 물은 2. too] . [ I meet a teacher. [ I prepare the lessons. 소설책도 재미있습니다. 우유가 가게에 있어요. .넥타이가 쌉니다.jang in uh reun Dad .] [ S imilar to 'in/at or to' ] 보기~ 1.할머니 . 가족이 교회에 있어요. too] . t oo] Grammar 4 은/는 조사.책이 있습니다. However. 수박도 먹습니다. 선생님을 만납니다.shi ah buh ji Father in law .아줌마 . My family is at church. I read a book at night. There are 10 students in a class.버스가 느립니다.] [Similar to 'a.아저씨 .ajumma (auntie) [Less Polite] Older Man .여섯 개입니다. 지금 은행에 가요. I meet a friend. 옷은 비쌉니다.1.hara buh ji (Grandpa) [Less Polite] Father .시아버지 . adverbs. direction or time'. ] . the subway train is fast.친척과 관계된 호칭 Older Woman .아주머니 . Used after place or time noun and shows 'location. [ Topic particle. 만 원 -. 지하철은 빠릅니다. 옷 한 벌에 4만원입니다. 겨울은 춥습니다. [Added to the unit noun which counts numbers. + 노트가 있습니다. . 책을 읽습니다. . 명사나 부사. 한 반에 10명입니다. '때'를 나타낸다. Relative Titles . it shows the subj ect of the sentence or may be used to show 'contrast' or 'emphasis'. There is not a dictionary. [ It's hot in summer. . ] 1. 사전은 없습니다. 다른 조사나 어미에 붙어서 문장의 주제임을 나타내거나 '대조'. 예문~ . However.appa [Informal]
. I read 20 pages per hour. 신문도 읽습니다. ------> 사과를 먹습니다. 장소나 시간 명사 뒤에 쓴다. "는" ----> 모음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in vowel.ajumni (aunt) [Polite] Older Woman . per. 친구도 만납니다. It costs 40. Milk is in the shop. 사과를 먹습니다. + 수박을 먹습니다. [ I read a book. 우유: 우유 + 는 ---> 우유는 예문~ .000 won by the set. 예습을 합니다. -----> 만 원에 여섯 개입니다. add "은" 2. [ The tie is cheap.hal muh ni (Grandmother) [Polite] Elderly Man . [ The bus is slow. the clothes are expensive. 책이 있습니다. ] . [ The movie is interesting. . . 영화가 재미있습니다.할아버지 . 한 그롯 -. 아침: 아침 + 에 ---> 아침에 [때: time] 3. '강조'의 뜻으로 쓴다. I read a newspaper.아빠 .ajussi (Uncle) Elderly Woman . "은" ----> 자음으로 끝나는 명사일 때: When the noun ends in a consonant.이천 원입니다. it's cold in winter. 2. I go twice a week. 냉장고: 냉장고 + 에 ---> 냉장고에 [위치: place] 2. 노트도 있습니다.
hyung (If the speaker is male) Younger Sibling .장모님 .누나 .nuna (If the speaker is male) Older Brother .umma Mother .oppa (If the speaker is female) Older Sister .Mum .shi uh muh ni Mother in law .어머니 .시어머니 .동생 .오빠 .손위 형제 자매 Older Sister .uh muh ni Mother in law .언니 .형 .엄마 .unni (If the speaker is female) Older Brother .jang mo nim Siblings .dong saeng (Regardless of speaker's gender)