INTRODUCTION: SMPS i. before starting to introduce this topic we first have to know what power supplies are Power Supply A device for the conversion of available power of one set of characteristics to another set of characteristics to meet specified requirements. tend to be very inefficient.e. Switch mode power supplies uses a high frequency switch (in practice a transistor) with varying duty cycle to maintain the output voltage. These are current state of art in high efficiency. therefore. Depending on the type of output voltage. : Conventional series regulated linear supplies maintain a constant voltage by dissipating excess power in ohmic losses. they are:  AC power supplies  DC power supplies 4 . power supplies can be categorized into two types. The linear regulator can. Switch Mode Power Supply. The output variations caused by the switching are filtered out by a LC filter.

AC ripple frequency rises which can be easily filtered by L and C filters circuits which are small in size and less weighty. The output DC voltage is controlled by varying the duty cycle of the chopper by PWM of FM techniques. On the other hand SMPS works like DC chopper. however. Unlike a linear regulator.What is switch mode power supply? SMPS are an extraordinary array of high frequency alternative. This makes the DC power supply inefficient bulky and weighty. an SMPS can also provide a step up function and an inverted output function. physical size of the filter circuits required is quite large. down and invert the input voltage Why we go for SMPS? Controlled dc supply can also be obtained from phase controlled rectifiers. In order to obtain almost negligible ripple in the DC output voltage. It may therefore be inferred that it is the requirement of small physical size and weight that has led to the wide spread use of SMPS. By operating the on/off switch very rapidly. These are the switching regulators of high efficiency that can step up. 5 . SMPS can be used as linear supplies to step down a supply voltage. But An AC to DC rectifier operates at supply frequency of 50 Hz (or 60 Hz).

Output filter capacitors The coil and large yellow capacitor below E are additional input filtering components that are mounted directly on the power input connector and are not part of the main circuit board. 6 .Output filter coil E .input EMI filtering A .A .Secondary side heat sink D .Input filter capacitors Between B and C .Bridge rectifier B .Primary side heat sink C .Transformer Between C and D .

a constituent of some forms of switched mode power supplies. therefore. The buck regulator steps down the input voltage to a lower regulated output voltage. The buck booster regulator.BACKGROUND: ORIGIN OF SWITCHED MODE TECHNIQUES: The origins of switched mode converters are linked with the developments in inverter circuitry. is used to regulate a negative voltage at a level higher or lower than the positive input voltage. also referred to as fly back regulator. The method of regular control in all 7 . They are the buck boost regulators. The inverters like AC-DC. employed valves as switching elements. The various forms of transistors switching circuits developed during the 1950s were categorized into three main groups by the end of the decade. Self oscillating push pull and Drive push pull converters. An inverter is a processor for generating AC from DC and is. DEVELOPMENTS OF SWITCH MODE TECHNIQUES: The 1960s heralded the development of modern forms of switching regulators and switched mode power supplies. DC-DC etc were developed before the first transistors appeared and therefore. During the early 1960s three forms of non dissipative switching regulators were developed for low voltage DC to DC applications. such as a push pull inverter described by Wagner and thereby came transistors. namely    Ringing choke. The boost regulator steps up the input voltage to a higher regulated level.

annual production of SMPSs may be as high as 70% to 80% of the total number power supplies produced. this power supply became popular and presently.cases is achieved by varying the duty ratio of the electronic switch. most commonly by pulse width modulation. NASA was the first to develop a light weight and compact switched mode power supply in 1960 s for use in its space vehicles. The advances in electronics need for dc power supplies for use in Integrated circuits (ICs) and digital circuits has increased manifold. Subsequently. For such electronic circuits. An adjustable switched-mode power supply for laboratory use 8 .

Regulation: A feedback circuit monitors the output voltage and compares it with a reference.ARCHITECTURE: Input Rectifier Stage: If the SMPS has an AC input then first stage is to convert the input to DC. 9 . This is called Rectification. whether directly from the input or from the rectifier stage described above. Inverter stage: The inverter stage converts DC. Voltage converter and Output rectifier: The out transformer converts the voltage up or down to required output level. if DC output is required then transformer output is rectified. to AC.

The three multiple switch topologies. y y y Half bridge Full bridge Push-pull converters. which is obtained by rectifying the line voltage and therefore it will fluctuate due to changes in the line voltages. especially when operating from a rectified AC mains supply. i. 10 . There are two methods of obtaining the controlled DC output voltage at a desired level. the average DC output voltage must be controlled to equal a desired level. The input to these converters is an unregulated DC voltage.e. where the current rating of the transistor switch needs to be much greater. They are: y y Multiple switch topologies Alternative topologies MULTIPLE SWITCH TOPOLOGIES: The main disadvantage of the single topologies is the need for the high voltage blocking capacity of the transistor switch (twice the DC input voltage). However in the DC-DC converters. Also the single switch topology is not an ideal solution for higher power converters.TYPES OF CONTROLLED DC VOLTAGE: DC-DC converters are widely used in regulated power supplies and in DC motor drive applications. Therefore another group of isolated converters utilizing more than one switch can be identified.

These converters have tuned circuits as part of the power conversion stage and exhibit sinusoidal voltages or currents. To eliminate this problem an alternative topology is Weinberg push-pull converter. transistor switching overlap can occur which could cause catastrophic failure to converter by effectively applying a short circuit to the same supply source. can lead to transistor destruction during the turn off transition due to the inherent BJT second breakdown phenomenon. the finite duration of the switching transition will cause high peak pulse power dissipation in the device. This produces degradation in converter efficiency and worst of all. 11 .All are buck derived due to nature of switching involving pulsating input current and non-pulsating current and also having an identical ideal voltage gain of the forward converter. ALTERNATIVE TOPOLOGIES: In multiple switch converters. so leading to transistor switching transitions at the ideal conditions. In all basic switched mode topologies. Therefore the greatest amount of research into alternative switched mode topologies has been in the field of resonant converters. which is inherently self protecting when there is any possibility of component imbalance or conduction overlap.

off-line converter input stage. D is the duty cycle of the converter. if it is negative. Vin is assumed to be greater than zero. DC in DC out: voltage converter or current converter.CLASSIFICATION OF SMPS:  Based on the type of input and output waveforms: y y y y AC in DC out: rectifier. with the three basic types using a single inductor for energy storage.  Buck  Boost  Buck-Boost y Isolated topology: All isolated topologies include a transformer. In the Voltage relation column.  Based on circuit topology: y Non isolated topology: Non-isolated converters are simplest. 12 . cyclo converter. AC in AC out: frequency changer. and can vary from 0 to 1. and thus can produce an output of higher or lower voltage than the input by adjusting the turns ratio. negate Vout to match. DC to DC converter. DC in AC out: inverter.

causing the primary current to rise excessively. so destroying the switch (i.FORWARD CONVERTER: The forward converter is a DC/D converter that uses transformer windings to boost the voltage and provide galvanic isolation for the load. The extra winding of a forward converter s transformer ensures that at the start of switch conduction. It is more energy efficient.. The diode on the secondary that is connected between the 0V line and the junction of the inductor and rectifying diode is often called the flywheel diode . If there were no extra winding. then after few cycles the transformer core would magnetically saturate. 13 .e. the net magnetization of the transformer core is zero. transformer).

Waveforms for the forward converter are shown below. 14 .

Where: n1 = secondary turns on T1 n2 = primary turns on T1 Ton= conduction time of switch f= frequency of operation FLYBACK CONVERTER: The forward converter is a DC/DC converter that uses transformer windings to boost the voltage and provide galvanic isolation for the load.The output voltage of a forward converter is equal to the average of the waveform applied to the LC filter and is given by: Where. 15 .

the control circuit will reduce the duty cycle accordingly. Likewise if the load is reduced and Vout rises. It can be seen that the output voltage changes when the duty cycle. The current flow in a flyback converter can have either trapezoidal or saw tooth characteristics. is changed. If Vin increases. The trapezoidal current characteristic is due to the switching transistor turning on again before the secondary current has dropped to zero. but instead it is a hyperbolic function. as seen below. However the relationship between the output voltage and duty cycle is not linear. so as to maintain a constant output. the control circuit will act in the same way. Whilst the saw 16 . will cause the duty cycle to be increased.The output voltage for a flyback converter (trapezoidal current flow operation) may be calculated as follows: Where: n2 = secondary turns on T1 n1 = primary turns on T1 Ton = conduction time of Q1 The control circuit monitors Vout and controls the duty cycle of the drive waveform to Q1. Ton x f. as was the case with the forward converter. Conversely a decrease in Vin or increase in load.

tooth characteristic is due to the secondary current falling to zero and there being a period of 'dead time' when there is no current flow in either secondary or primary. 17 . PUSH-PULL CONVERTER: A push pull converter is a type of DC to DC converter that uses a transformer to change the voltage of a DC power supply.

Both transistors must not conduct together. and this would cause destruction of Q1 and Q2. The magnetic behavior of the circuit must be uniform. Q1 conducts and the cycle repeats. current flows through the 'lower' half of T1's primary and the magnetic field in T1 expand. the magnetic field in T1 collapses and after a period of dead time (dependent on the duty cycle of the PWM drive signal). When Q1 turns off. the polarity is such that D2 is forward biased and D1 reverse biased. Now the direction of the magnetic flux is opposite to that produced when Q1 conducted. current flows through the 'upper' half of T1's primary and the magnetic field in T1 expands. as this would effectively short circuit the supply. Q2 conducts. D2 conducts and charges the output capacitor C2 via L1. This requires that the individual 18 . L1 and C2 form an LC filter network. There are two important considerations with the push pull converter: 1. Which means that the conduction time of each transistor must not exceed half of the total period for one complete cycle. The expanding magnetic field in T1 induces a voltage across T1 secondary. After a period of dead time. otherwise conduction will overlap. when Q1 switches on. With reference to the diagram above. 2. D1 conducts and charges the output capacitor C2 via L1. the polarity is such that D1 is forward biased and D2 reverse biased. otherwise the transformer may saturate. The expanding magnetic field induces a voltage across T1 secondary.The push pull converter belongs to the feed forward converter family.

q2 = time period of Q2 conduction Seconds The control circuit monitors Vout and controls the duty cycle of the drive waveforms to Q1 and Q2. If Vin increases. a decrease in Vin or increase in load will cause the duty cycle to be increased.Seconds Ton. Conversely. so as to maintain a constant output.conduction times of Q1 and Q2 be exactly equal and the two halves of the centre-tapped transformer primary be magnetically identical. 19 .Hertz Ton.Volts n2 = half of total number of secondary turns n1 = half of total number of primary turns f = frequency of operation .Volts Vin = Supply Voltage . the control circuit will reduce the duty cycle accordingly. q1 = time period of Q1 conduction . These criteria must be satisfied by the control and drive circuit and the transformer. The output voltage Vout equals the average of the waveform applied to the LC filter: Where: Vout = Average output voltage . Likewise if the load is reduced and Vout raises the control circuit will act in the same way.

The diagram below shows associated waveforms from the push pull converter. 20 .

but a centre tapped primary is not required. 21 . This type of converter is found in high power applications. The reversal of the magnetic field is achieved by reversing the direction of the primary winding current flow.HALF BRIDGE CONVERTER: The half bridge converter is similar to the push pull converter.

q1 = Q1 conduction time .For the half bridge converter.Hertz Ton. q2 = Q2 conduction time . 22 .Seconds Ton.q1 = Ton.Seconds Note that Ton. the output voltage Vout equals the average of the waveform applied to the LC filter Where: Vout = Output Voltage . The control circuit of a half bridge converter is similar to that of a push-pull converter.Volts n2 = 0.Volts Vin = Input Voltage .q2 and that Q1 and Q2 are never conducting at the same time.5 x secondary turns n1 = primary turns f = operating frequency .

This type of converter is found in high power applications. but a centre tapped primary is not required. the output voltage Vout equals the average of the waveform applied to the LC filter 23 . For the full bridge converter. The reversal of the magnetic field is achieved by reversing the direction of the primary winding current flow.FULL BRIDGE CONVERTER: The full bridge converter is similar to the push pull converter.

The control circuit operates in the same manner as for the push-pull converter and half-bridge converter. and with Q2 and Q3 conducting. q1 = Q1 conduction time .Where: Vout = Output Voltage . current flow will be 'downwards' through the transformer primary. except that four transistors are being driven rather than two. thus achieving current reversal in the transformer primary. q2 = Q2 conduction time Seconds Diagonal pairs of transistors will alternately conduct.Seconds Ton.with Q1 and Q4 conducting. 24 . Q3 and Q4.Hertz Ton. current flow will be 'upwards' through the transformer primary.Volts Vin = Input Voltage .5 x secondary turns n1 = primary turns f = operating frequency .Volts n2 = 0. Q2. This can be illustrated as follows . The control circuit monitors Vout and controls the duty cycle of the drive waveform to Q1.

the circuit turns off. SMPS 'Hiccup' Mode: In switch-Mode Power Supplies the 'hiccup' mode is often used for limiting output current. it immediately goes off again. if the overload is still present. In some designs. and the supply then shuts down permanently until the overload is removed and the circuit reset. Another control method finding favor with power supply designers is fed forward which improves the transient load and line response of mains driven power supplies. The time period over which the SMPS is capable of maintaining an output when mains power is lost is frequently known as 'hold up time'. as it were. SMPS HOLD UP: Most offline switchers are designed to maintain a steady output over a few cycles of lost mains input. If an overload occurs. 25 . PWM is used for controlling the convertors output voltage through feedback control of the switching transistors. Other forms of control are becoming increasing popular. This can be achieved by sizing the input capacitor such that its voltage will not fall significantly during the power interruption. this happens a few times.has a look.CONTROL METHODS: In the majority of convertor Topology application. One such technique is current mode control which utilizes the switching transistor current as a control parameter and has the benefit of providing an inherently more stable closed loop response. After an interval it comes on .

with a large number of power supply manufacturers worldwide providing a wide range of units for the commercial and military markets. +15V for operational amplifiers and +24V for DC motors such as disc drivers. used in low power single or multiple output AC to DC convertors and multiple switched apologies are used for higher output power application. and the various telecommunications systems. +12V for C MOS Logic. -5V for ECL Logic. used as secondary regulators in some multiple output power supplies are linear regulators. isolated single ended configuration are. +12V. The topologies and control methods use to achieve the desired output voltages in the various power ranges tends to vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. A typical system often requires a number of output voltages from its power supply the therefore the majority of the power supplies tend to be multiple output forms typically power supply voltages or +5 V for bipolar logic. +2V. both large main frame and smaller.SWITCHED MODE TOPOLOGY APPLICATIONS: The switched mode power supply market is now well established within the electronic sector. The main endures system for switched mode supplies. In general switching regulators are usually used as secondary regulators on multiple output units. Also. personnel and word processor. or computers. mainly 3 terminals integrated circuits in low current outputs and magnetic amplifiers for higher current outputs. 26 .

Since high frequency transformer is used the size and weight of switching supplies is significantly reduced. A significant reduction in power loss is thus achieved. 27 . SMPS is source of both electromagnetic and radio interference due to high frequency switching 3. The advantage possessed by SMPS for outweigh they are short comings. 3. They are 1. SMPS has higher output ripple and its regulation is worse 2.ADVANTAGES OF SMPS: There are three main advantages of switching power supplies. SMPS is less sensitive to input voltage variations. DISADVANTAGES OF SMPS: 1. Switching elements operate as a switch by avoiding their operations in the active region. Control of radio frequency noise requires the use of filters on both input and output of SMPS. This is the reason for the vide spread popularity and growth. This results in a higher efficiency (70%90%). 2.

with rated frequencies from 50 Hz to 60 Hz and voltages from 100 V to 240 V.APPLICATIONS OF SMPS:  Switched-mode PSUs in domestic products such as personal computers often have universal inputs. meaning that they can accept power from most mains supplies throughout the world. 28 .

29 . Recently the demand for even lower no load power requirements in the application has meant that flyback topology is being used more widely in mobile phone chargers.

30 . Compact Fluorescent Lamps use a simple form of boost converter to generate the required 1200 V ignition and 600 V for sustained operation from the mains.

31 . Airplane ground support. More on aircraft electric power: Avionics.

an excellent regulation of the power supply can be shown by using a variac. In the case of TV sets. and the image will show absolutely no alterations. and go as low as 40 V and as high as 260 V (a peak voltage of 260×sqrt (2) 360 V p-p). for example. 32 . the power supply starts when the voltage reaches around 90 V. From there. For example. in some TV-models made by Philips. one can change the voltage with the variac.

8 V for a low voltage CPU to 1. Most modern desktop and laptop computers also have a voltage regulator module -.2 1. 33 .a DC DC converter on the motherboard to step down the voltage from the power supply or the battery to the CPU core voltage.5 V for a desktop CPU as of 2007. which is as low as 0.

The reason being to reduce even further the overall size of the power supply in line miniaturization trends in electronic and computer systems. Therefore. 34 . any new device or topology will have to justify its implementation based on mainly commercial criteria. There is now growing trend in research work and new power supply designs in increasing the switching frequencies upwards to 100 KHz and above. MOSFETs inherit lack of storage and fall time affects when turned off. Therefore. In future. Therefore the device is highly suited to high power. The driving force in every manufacturers design will always be the combined component and production costs. Another new device likely to displace the BJT in many high power applications is the insulated gate transistor (IGT).FUTURE SCOPE: Most commercial switch mode power supplies in the market today operate in the range 10 KHz to 50 KHz. more and more integrated power devices will be introduced so simplifying board layout and reducing component count. power MOSFET is only useful up to voltage ratings of 500V. This device combines the low power drive characteristic of MOSFET with the low conduction losses and high blocking voltage characteristic of the BJT. But still the intrinsic characteristics of the MOSFET produce a large on resistance which increases excessively when the devices breakdown voltage is raised. Therefore MOSFETs are now increasingly replacing BJTs in new designs operating at much higher frequencies. high voltage applications.

All power losses are due to less than ideal parts and power loss in the control circuitry. The advantage is that the switch dissipates very little power in either of this two states and power conversion can be accomplished with a minimal power loss. on or off. which equates to high efficiency. BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1) POWER ELECTRONICS BY Dr.COM WWW.GOOGLESEARCH. Designs relay upon the efficiency of a switch to control amount of power with relatively little losses. RASHID WEBSITES: WWW.WIKIPEDIA.COM 35 . S. Inductors and Transformers and the use of switches that are in one of the two states. The primary advantage of the switching mode power supplies is then can accomplish power conversion and regulations at 100% efficiency given ideal parts. P. BHIMBRA 2) POWER ELECTRONICS BY MUHAMMAD H.CONCLUSION: A Switching mode power supply is a power supply that provides the power supply function through low loss components such as capacitors. SMPS.

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