Basic Trends Across the Periodic Table

1) Draw a line in the middle of a piece of graph paper, separating the page into top and bottom. On the top, plot a graph of number of outer electrons and, in the same coordinate system, a second graph of number of protons (y-axis) vs. atomic number (x-axis). On the bottom plot a separate graph of atomic radius vs. atomic number. For each graph connect successive dots with straight lines. Also, ensure that identical atomic numbers are plotted on the same vertical position on the sheet (i.e. atomic number 1 in the top graph should be on the same line as atomic number 1 in the bottom graph). 2) Examine your graph of electron number vs. atomic number. a) Which elements are found at the main peaks on your graph (there should be 3)? What do these elements have in common? b) Which elements are found at the main valleys on your graph (there should be 3)? What do these elements have in common?
Atomic Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Element Symbol H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Number of Protons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number of Outer Electrons 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 Atomic Radius 32 31 123 90 82 77 75 73 72 71 154 136 118 111 106 102 99 98 203 174

3) Examine your graph of atomic radius versus atomic number. a) Which elements are found at the peaks on your graph? What do these elements have in common? b) Which elements are found at the valleys on your graph? What do these elements have in common?

4) How are proton number and atomic radii related (i.e. as the proton number increases, what happens to the atomic radius)? Use this to explain the trends in atomic radius across a period. 5) Generally, as you go from left to right across a period on the periodic table, what happens to atomic radius? 6) Generally, as you go down a group in the periodic table, what happens to atomic radius? 7) Why does radius increase as you go down a group?
Sum up your results to be able to present them to your classmates: 1. Going across a period, the atomic radius ___________________. 2. As you move from left to right across a period the number of _________________ in the _______________ increases, so that there is an __________________ in nuclear charge. 3. The added extra electrons go into the ________________ outer shell. 4. The increasing _______________ _________________ attracts the outer electrons more strongly moving across the period, so ____________________ the atomic radius of the elements.

and the non-metallic elements in different colours 2) Examine your graph of electron number vs. ensure that identical atomic numbers are plotted on the same vertical position on the sheet (i.6 97. as you go from left to right across a period on the periodic table. Metals are ______________ electrical conductors than non-metals.4 219. atomic number (x-axis).e.e. . atomic number. the semi-metallic elements. Metallic properties ______________ as you move from left to right across the period.1 16 17 18 19 20 6 7 8 1 2 112. Why do phosphorus and Sulphur not follow the trend of nitrogen and oxygen? Sum up your results to be able to present them to your classmates: 1. 2. plot a graph of number of outer electrons (yaxis) vs. a) Which elements are found at the peaks on your graph? What do these elements have in common? b) Which elements are found at the valleys on your graph? What do these elements have in common? 4) How are outer electron numbers. what happens to the melting points? Atomic Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Element Symbol H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P (molecule s of 4 P atoms) S (molecule s of 8 S atoms) Cl Ar K Ca Number of Outer Electrons 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 Type of element nonmetal nonmetal metal metal nonmetal nonmetal nonmetal nonmetal nonmetal nonmetal metal metal metal semimetal nonmetal nonmetal nonmetal nonmetal metal metal Melting point/ °C 259.Basic Trends Across the Periodic Table 1) Draw a line in the middle of a piece of graph paper. Also. atomic number 1 in the top graph should be on the same line as atomic number 1 in the bottom graph). what happens to the melting points? 7) Which type of structures do you find as you go across the period? Use this to explain the trends in melting point across a period. For each graph connect successive dots with straight lines.98 -189 63. colour the dots for the metallic elements.9 -218.8 650 660. In your graph.62 -248.54 1278 2300 3500 -209. atomic number. metallic character and melting points related (i. Melting points _____________ from sodium to aluminium because the number of _________ _____________ increases and there are more delocalised electrons that form a stronger metallic bond. On the top. separating the page into top and bottom. as the outer electron number increases in metals. The melting point of phosphorus is ______________ than sulphur’s melting point because the molecules of phosphorus consist of __________ atoms than the sulphur molecules and thus have less van-der-Waals forces. what happens to the melting point)? 5) Generally. On the bottom plot a separate graph of melting point vs. 4. a) Which elements are found at the main peaks on your graph (there should be 3)? What do these elements have in common? b) Which elements are found at the main valleys on your graph (there should be 3)? What do these elements have in common? 3) Examine your graph of melting points versus atomic number.14 -272 180.8 100. as you go down a group in the periodic table.65 839 6) Generally.37 1410 44. 3.

2. numbers of protons and numbers of electrons 1. electric conductivity and melting points 1. 3. so that there is an __________________ in nuclear charge. the atomic radius ___________________. . The melting point of phosphorus is ______________ than sulphur’s melting point because the molecules of phosphorus consist of __________ atoms than the sulphur molecules and thus have less van-der-Waals forces. Going across a period. The increasing _______________ _________________ attracts the outer electrons more strongly moving across the period. Metallic properties ______________ as you move from left to right across the period. so ____________________ the atomic radius of the elements. As you move from left to right across a period the number of _________________ in the _______________ increases. The added extra electrons go into the ________________ outer shell. 3. Melting points _____________ from sodium to aluminium because the number of _________ _____________ increases and there are more delocalised electrons that form a stronger metallic bond. 4. Metals are ______________ electrical conductors than non-metals. 2. 4. Metallic properties.Atomic radii.

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