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Loads on Structures

„ Dead Load / Fixed Load

„ Live Load / Imposed Load
„ Earthquake Load
„ Wind Load
„ Snow Load
Characteristics of Wind Load
Depends upon -
„ velocity and density of the air
„ height above ground level
„ shape and aspect ratio of the building
„ topography of the surrounding ground surface
„ angle of wind attack
„ solidity ratio or openings in the building
Determination of Wind Loads as per
IS 875 (Part 3)

Design wind speed –

Vz = Vbk1k2k3

Vb = Basic wind speed

k1 = Probability factor or risk coefficient
k2 = Terrain and height factor
k3 = Topography factor
Basic wind speed

„ IS 875 (Part 3) gives the basic wind speeds

having a return period of 50 years and at a
height of 10 m above ground level.

„ Entire country is divided into six wind

• Basic wind speeds
in m/s
(Based on 50yr
return period)

• For some
important cities,
basic wind speed
is given in
Appendix A of the
Probability factor / Risk Coefficient (k1)
„ Basic wind speed is based on a 50yr return period.
„ There is always a probability (howsoever small) that basic
wind speed may be exceeded in a storm of exceptional
violence; the greater the number of years over which there
will be exposure to wind, the greater is the probability.
„ The factor k1 is based on statistical concepts, which take
account of the degree of reliability required, and period of
time during which there will be exposure to wind i.e. life
of the structure.
„ IS 875 gives values of k1 for different classes of buildings.
• For some important structures (nuclear power plants, satellite
communication towers etc.) code gives a formula to calculate the value of
k1 .
Terrain and Height Factor (k2)
„ Four terrain categories have been considered by the code
depending on the surroundings of structure.
„ Category 1 : Exposed open terrain with few or no obstructions –
Avg. height of surrounding objects is 1.5 m.
Eg. Open sea coasts, flat treeless plains.

„ Category 2 : Open terrain with well scattered obstructions with

height b/w 1.5 – 10 m.
Eg. includes airfields, open parklands etc.

„ Category 3 : Terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions

having the size of building-structures up to 10 m
Eg. Towns and industrial areas, full or partially developed
„ Category 4 : Terrain with numerous large high closely spaced
Eg. Large city centres
• Buildings have been divided into 3 classes –

– Class A : Structures having maximum dimension (greatest

horizontal or vertical dimension) less than 20 m.

– Class B : Maximum dimension b/w 20 – 50 m.

– Class C : Maximum dimension greater than 50 m.

• IS 875 gives the values of k2 at different heights for the

above four categories and different classes of buildings.
• Wind profile does not develop fully at the start of the terrain. Height of
development increases with the upward distance or fetch distance.

• For structures of height greater than the developed height velocity profile
can be determined from the method described in Appendix B of the code.
Topography Factor (k3)

„ Vb does not take into account the local topography features

such as hills,valleys etc.

„ Topography features affect the wind speeds.

„ Accelerated near the summits and decelerated in the

• Value of k3 level ground or when upwind slope is less than 30
is equal to 1.0

• Otherwise k3 = 1 + Cs

where C = 1.2 Z / L for θ = 3o – 17o

= 0.36 for θ > 17o

Z = height of the crest or hill

L = length of the upward slope
θ = upwind slope of ground

• s is the factor obtained from figures.

Design Wind Pressure
„ Design wind pressure –

pd = 0.6 Vz2

where pd = design wind pressure

Vz = design wind speed

„ Note : In cyclone prone regions, design wind speed is

increased by a certain factor to account for drastic increase
in wind speed during cyclone.
Wind Pressure on Roofs
„ Pressure acts normal to the element

F = (Cpe - Cpi ) A pd
F = net wind force on the element
A = surface area of the element
pd = design wind pressure
Cpe = external pressure coefficient
Cpi = internal pressure coefficient
External Pressure Coefficients
Y = h or 0.15 W
whichever is less
Internal Pressure Coefficients

• Depends upon permeability of the building and the direction of


Type of building Cpi

Low permeability (less than 5% openings) 0.2
Medium permeability (5 – 20% openings) 0.5
Large permeability (openings > 20%) 0.7

• Different coefficients for buildings with large openings on

one side.
Internal Pressure coefficients for buildings with large openings
on one side and top closed.
• Positive pressure coefficients - Pressure
• Negative pressure coefficients - Suction
Mini-Design Project #1
„ Problem Statement
„ An industrial shed of 32 m×16 m is to be built for a manufacturing
unit. The frames are spaced at 4 m centers and the ceiling height is
8 m measured at the roof truss bottom from the shop floor. The
shed is located in a fully developed industrial area.

„ Analyse and design the building considering various load

combinations (DL+ LL+ WL).
Sectional Elevation
Side Elevation

Elevation at Centre
in Top


Top Chord Level (Roof Plan)

Eaves Level (Roof Plan)

Basic Design Data

Roof span 16 m

Bay width 4m

Column height 8m

Total roof dead load on plan (due to CGI 0.5 kPa

sheeting, insulation & lighting, purlins)
Total roof imposed load on plan 0.75 kPa

Roof slope with horizontal 3o

Required Work
„ Calculate the wind load acting on the roof (as per IS 875: Part
3). Ignore the frictional drag and dynamic effects due to wind.
Also calculate total dead and live load as per IS 875 (pt 1 and
2). These loads are transferred to the truss via purlins (i.e. a
concentrated load will be transferred on the truss at the purlin
„ Model and analyze the truss in SAP 2000 with the loads
calculated in the part (a) and determine the forces in the
members of the truss for applicable load cases as per IS 800
with suitable load factors. Analyze the 2D truss only.
„ Determine the member which is in maximum tension and size
the section for economical design. You can use either a double
angle or a pipe section.
Project Report

„ The report will be graded for its technical accuracy and

presentation, which include the following:
„ Lightest section where appropriate
„ Correct numerical calculations
„ Appropriate solution procedure and
„ Appropriate documentation of work.
Marks distribution
Items Weight
Estimation of loads 25 %
Analysis of frame for design forces showing five most 20 %
stressed members in all considered load combinations in
Table with proper identification of members
Design of tension member 25 %
Documentation 30 %
„ Neat sketches showing the loads and forces in the truss
„ Neat sketches showing the details of the design of the
tension member
„ Appropriate and sequential approach to solve the problem.