Trends in Food Science & Technology 18 (2007) 599e608

Review

Philip John Kanua,b, Kerui Zhua, Jestina Baby Kanub, Huiming Zhoua,*, Haifeng Qiana and Kexue Zhua
State Key Laboratory of School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi 214122, PR China (Tel.: D86 510 85913539; fax: D86 510 85329037; e-mails: philipkanu@yahoo.com, hmzhou@sytu.edu.cn) b Milton Margai College of Education and TechnologydAffiliated to the University of Sierra Leone, Goderich Campus, Freetown, Sierra Leone
a

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* Corresponding author.

Sesame is one of the oldest oilseed in the world that also contains very good nutritional value that has been reported. They contain unique oil which is very easily digested and is stable to oxidative stress and for these reasons they are useful and healthy for consumption. Sesame not only contained an oil that has the ‘‘good’’ fat (monounsaturated fat), but they are also high in a variety of helpful antioxidants or chemicals that protects the human being from the damaging effects of free radicals when sesame oil is consumed because of the presence of sesamin and sesamolin in sesame seed. Sesame is also a source of helpful biologically active components found in plant foods, such as phytochemicals and it is a functional food. This article discusses bioactive compounds

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Biologically active components and nutraceuticals in sesame and related products: a review and prospect

Introduction Sesame is a plant specie of Sesamum indicum L., and herbaceous annual plant belonging to the Pedaliaceae family (Sugano & Akinmoto, 1993). Sesame seed is one of the world’s important and oldest oilseed crops known to man (Sontag, 1981). Sesame has different names according to the region of production, in some areas it is known as Sesamum (China, Mexico, South and Central America), gingelly (South India, Burma), benniseed (Sierra Leone, Guinea in West Africa), sim-sim (Middle East) and till (East and North Africa). It has been cultivated for centuries, particularly in Asia and Africa, for its high content of edible oil and protein (Salunkhe, Chavan, Adsule, & Kadam, 1991). China, India, Sudan, Mexico and Burma are the major producers of sesame seeds in the world by contributing to approximately 60% of its total world production. In Burma, it is the major source of edible oil for local consumption (USDA, 2004). Sesame is an important source of food worldwide and constitutes an inexpensive source of protein, fat, minerals and vitamins in the diets of rural populations, especially children (El-Shafei, 1990; Namiki, 1995). The chemical composition of sesame shows that the seed is an important source of oil (44e52.5%), protein (18e 23.5%). It was also reported to have carbohydrate (13.5%) and ash (5.3%) moisture (5.2%) (Johnson, Suleiman, & Lucas, 1979; Kahyaoglu & Kaya, 2006). The edible parts of sesame seeds consist of the embryo. The embryo of the sesame seeds are used to make sesame butter-like that is called ‘‘tehineh’’ (a popular food in the Middle East), ‘‘Ogerie’’ in Sierra Leone West Africa, used in bakeries, confectionaries, in the formulation of baby food, and sesame oil (Basim, Kamal, & Hesham, 2002). Literatures have reported many health benefits associated with the consumption of sesame including, weight gain control (Budowski, 1964; Kang, Kawai, Naito, & Osawa, 1999), prevention against cardiovascular diseases (Fremont, 2000; Hsu & Liu, 2002), protection against ageing, smoothing of the skin and Alzheimer disease and cancer inhibition (Bhide,

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and nutraceuticals in sesame that could be used in the prevention, controlling and even the management of illnesses such as cancer, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and other degenerative diseases. This paper also briefly discusses the biological activity of anti-nutritional factors in sesame.

for example in the liver against diethylnitrosamine (Tanaka. R ET Ethyl protocatechuate Chang. Hence. It was also reported to inhibit the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic imidazoquinoxaline type heterocyclic amines through the unstable free radical maillard intermediates (Kato.. Yen. it protects lipids against oxidation. these tocopherols are lipid-soluble natural antioxidants which have been reported to possess the ability to bring most of the above health benefits mentioned above (Kajimoto. Kanomi. in the glandular stomach tissue against N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (Tanaka. lipopolysaccharide (Kee. Yen. in the following percentages 45.. Moriya. micronutrients such as vitamin E. Yoshimi. and health-promoting phytochemicals. The main objective of this review is to discuss sesame as a potential source of nutraceuticals. In fact. has been suggested to decrease blood pressure (Sankar. Different articles on specific and different biologically active components in sesame have been written by various authors (Ahmad et al. Torikai. if EP is to be used as a food additive or phytochemical in any food formulation.600 P. an overdose of EP (500 mg/kg) enhanced tumorigenesis. magnesium. The biological activity of most components in sesame is desirable but that of a few components is undesirable (in the area of allergy) and often makes sesame unacceptable to some individuals in society. John Kanu et al. & Hamtani. 2001). sesame. Hsieh. EP protects these organs against the damaging effect of free radicals. Ramakrishna.. & Wall. 1990). 1996). 1994). Sesamin from sesame seeds has also been reported to possess in vivo hypocholesterolemic activity and suppressive attributes activity against chemically induced cancer. Huang. Toyoshima. in the colon against azoxymethane (Kawamori et al. and in the bladder against N-butyl-N(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (Hirose. an important edible oil source in the world.. Liyana. trypsin and chymotrypsin in sesame that often give it negative publicity in some societies in the world. & Shinoda. & Mori. fiber.3e 49. induced contact hypersensitivity in mouse skin and disturbed the detoxification of ultimate carcinogens (Nakamura. do not contain trans-fatty acids. & Ling. 1995). Kawamori. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 18 (2007) 599e608 Azuine. Numerous studies have indicated that vitamin E present in sesame contributes to these healthy benefits as tocopherols derivatives of vitamin E has been found to be present in sesame EP. Jenga. particularly resveratrol (Fremont. control and management of diseases such as cancer. & Ohigashi. which include sesame. 2000. Sugano et al. 1996). & Hiramoto. cardiovascular disease. 1996). Previously. & Mori. & Mori. & Namiki. 1993. EP may be utilized in food preservation particularly foods with high fatty content. Sesame oil generally contains fatty acids. 2006. In addition. Wang. Sambandam. Rolis. 1994). 1999. 2001). EP has been demonstrated to be an effective antioxidizing agent in different tissues. However. Therefore. & Campbell. 2006. Hou. 2005) and lower the cholesterol level in blood (Sankar et al. 2005) and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (Kee et al. R AC TE Sesame oil Sesame oil is considered to be a health-promoting food because it contains a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and it also contains bioactive compounds such as tocopherol and phytosterols (Yamashita et al. 1998). Kawamori. Smith. and Duh (2002) isolated and identified an antioxidant.7e41.4% oleic. Yamashita.. while being rich in mono.. Kojima. Lahiri. the safety and toxicology of EP have to be distinguished in detail and extensively studied. 1999). Nohara. & Pugalendi.2% linoleic and 12e16% SFAs D . Furthermore. Liebler. Katayama. Kawakami. Ohnishi. but it can be utilized from sesame at an approved dose for it benefits. Studies have shown that sesamol in sesame is an inhibitor of several steps in the generation of neoplasia. & Ho. 1992).and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (Kris et al. folate. This is so because sesamol has been shown to inhibit the excessive production of nitric oxide in the lipopolysaccharide/ gamma-interferon stimulated C6 astrocyte cells (Soliman & Mazzio. and Lau (2001) noted that EP was a major source of the inhibitory effect against human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative modification induced by Cu2þ ions. Kojima. Nakajin. Efendy. sesamol has also been shown to be a classical inhibitor of lipid peroxidation (Uchida. osteoporosis and other degenerative illnesses that are caused by oxidative stress from eating unhealthy fatty foods. all of which are involved in the initiation stage of carcinogenesis.. These benefits are mainly attributed to the fact that some natural agricultural products. natural phytochemicals present in our diet have been shown to protect LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis progression (Campbell. 1992. minerals (potassium. antioxidants and bioactive compounds that could be used in the prevention.. 1996). but so far no one has tried to put all those different biologically active components and functional attributes of sesame in one article to give a more balanced approach that addresses both the positive and negative aspects of sesame. 2005)... 1999) and other phenolic compounds can be found in sesame. and zinc). The paper also briefly discusses the biological activity of some anti-nutritional factors such as allergens. Uchida et al. 2005). ethyl protocatechuate (EP) from the sesame seed coat. 2002. 1994).. Studies have also shown that including sesame in the diet can reduce the risk of heart disease (Kang et al. & Telang. Shahidi. Yen.. For example. 1995). Its anti-tumor promoting potentials have been demonstrated in which sesamol inhibited the development of pre-neoplastic hepatocytic foci formation in rats (Hagiwara et al. 1992). Kikugawa. Harashima. Kaeamori. Jin. 37. Govind et al. 1993). Tanaka. in the oral cavity against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (Tanaka et al.

Khanna. 1998. foods and in biological systems (Kato. Microglia. Major phytosterols in sesame oil are b-sitosterol (>80% of total phytosterols). 1985). while Sen. with one double bond in its chain. Leonard. Phytosterols Plant sterols (phytosterols) are minor components of all vegetable oils constituting major portions of the unsaponifiable fraction of the oil (Fremont.. Animal studies showed that a-tocopherols and g-tocopherols were able to prevent cerebral ischaemia-induced brain damage in mice (Mishima et al. 1. and it protects PUFAs in cell membranes from free radical attack through its scavenging activity in biomembranes at early stages of LP (Lu. Sesame oil contains 900e3000 ppm total phytosterols. Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from activated microglia and other glial cells may also participate in the neurodegenerative process (Wang et al.7e41.3e49.5 0. such as multiple sclerosis. a resident macrophage-like population of brain cells. 1999. piperitol. & Bucht. Shigezaki. the principal form of vitamin E. & Kajimoto. (1983). Takagi. sesamolinol. Parkinson’s disease. These lignans have been characterized as a novel type of lipidsoluble antioxidant that exerts strong antioxidative effects in AC TE Percentage 45. Kalil. 1999). Blatt. Chu. Bioactive components of sesame Tocopherol Tocopherols. sugar moieties or phenolic acids.. E. campesterol (about 10%) and stigmasterol (<5%) (Choi & Kim. 1994). Nitric oxide has pleiotropic effects in the CNS (Verity. 2002). a-Tocopherol also exerts an anti-inflammatory action by inhibiting the production of the superoxide radicals in activated neutrophils. Sesame lignan can correct such problems since it has the antioxidant properties that have been reported. 1983). 2003). is involved in inflammatory cytokine mediated central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Yoshida. lipid oxidation. Kinukawa. derivatives of vitamin E. are lipid-soluble natural antioxidants produced only by plants like sesame and other oilseeds (Kajimoto et al. (Choi & Kim. belongs to the group of MUFAs while linoleic acid with two double bonds. is a lipid-soluble antioxidant and it functions as a chain-breaking antioxidant for lipid peroxidation (LP) in cell membranes and also as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen (O ) (Liebler. Sankar et al. Their difference is a-tocopherol regulates protein transfer to the plasma tissue. Fatty acid composition of sesame oil Fatty acid Oleic Linoleic Palmitic Stearic Arachidic Hexadecenoic Myritic Saturated fatty acids Adapted from Weiss.. R D  . 2000). Scott. with lower chylomicron remnant concentration.6e4. while g-tocopherols lower lipid contents in the blood to the rate at which tissue concentration reaches it equilibrium so that excess lipids will not be allowed to stay in the plasma tissue (David. 2001). & Lewis. 1971). It is considered to serve as the first line of defense against LP. & Augusto. Dietary MUFAs particularly from vegetable oils have also been shown to elicit a smaller postprandial lipemic response (Weiss. adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells.P. John Kanu et al. (2005) reported that addition of sesame oil or other MUFA-rich nuts to the diet significantly improves the blood lipid profile. 1993). Roy. and Packer (2000) showed that a-tocopherols can inhibit glutamate-induced apoptosis also. their chemical structures are shown in Fig. Iwai. 1983).7 0.2 7. and transendothelial mi´ gration of neutrophils (Rocksen. Dutta. & Tamai. sesamin and sesamolin have been isolated and their chemical structures as shown in Fig. and LDL susceptibility to oxidation (Nakao. 2003).0e0. 1992). and Andersson (in press).. triacylglycerol (TAG). Phytosterols may occur in the free form but also esterified to free fatty acids. Substitution of SFAs with MUFAs leads to increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and decreased LDL cholesterol.1 0. Weiss. Sesame oil is composed of various fatty acids.1 12e16 (Weiss. Ellegard. Johansson.1 3. 2. Sesame seeds are a good source of tocopherols. Sesame oil mainly contains a-tocopherol (50e373 ppm) and g-tocopherols (90e390 ppm) (Firestone.4 37. Brants. including astrocytes and neurons (Wang et al. belongs to the group of PUFAs. The health benefits of tocopherol as a bioactive compound are well documented.4e1. a-Tocopherol. as shown in Table 1 of which good percentages accounted for by only oleic and linoleic acids (LA) (Weiss. 2002). and Alzheimer’s disease (Aloisi. 2003). 1985). Yoshida. Oleic acid. The fatty acid composition of sesame may also have beneficial effects on blood lipid profiles.8e9. Shimura. & Maret. The tocopherol content of sesame varies with variety and production location. Ekstrand. Free phytosterols of both black and white colour type sesame seeds consisted of about 65% of the total sterols in the oil as ´ ˚ reported by Normen. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 18 (2007) 599e608 601 R ET Sesamin and sesamolin Sesamin and sesamolin in the sesame seed oil also reduced LPS-activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-kB activations.A. Several sesame lignans including pinoresinol. Davin. 1995). and excessive NO production in the CNS can be toxic to many different cell types. Table 1. 1999). sesaminol. 1971).

texture. which are derivatives of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylcholine (lecithine). R The cholesterol-lowering properties of phytosterols were first demonstrated about 55 years ago by Peterson (1951) who fed chicks with plant sterols in their diet. Phospholipids Phospholipids. 1. Elleuch... (Sugano et al. including phenolic acids (caffeic acid. 2003). characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule (Shahidi et al. and especially b-sitosterols. AC TE Fig. chlorogenic acid. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 18 (2007) 599e608 R ET Fig. in press).. They may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer (Arts & Hollman.. Several authors reported that phytosterols (esters).. which might be applicable to human beings as well when sesame is consumed. have (phyto) oestrogenic potential and act as an effective oestrogen-like agonists (Malini & Vanithakumari. and Attia (2007) reported that different polyphenols were found in sesame seed coat. John Kanu et al. 1990). Weststrate and Meijer (1998) also demonstrated the plasma cholesterollowering effect of a phytosterol ester (PE) contained in margarine in human. 2. 2006). Hany. Phospholipids in sesame is the major constituents of cell membranes. 1993. and Fereidoon (2000) reported that sesame comprised 38e48% of the total phospholipids present in it. phytosterols can also be used as major components of oral contraceptives (Kamel & Appelpvist. and has a high degree of unsaturation. Blecker. are generally useful as syngerists in reinforcing the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds (Wu & Sheldon. Therefore. Research suggests that polyphenols are antioxidants with potential health benefits.602 P. ´ Normen et al. 2006). Phospholipids also contribute to the smoothness. and mouth feel of foods and improve the stability of the product because of their inherent antioxidant properties. Chemical structure of a-tocopherols and g-tocopherols. ferulic acid and coumaric acid). Abou. A D . The chemical structures of sesame lignans. Besbes. It is one of the bioactive compounds with several beneficial effects including improved learning and memory in rats (Ahmad et al. 2005). Consumption of 1.8e2. Adel. flavonoids (catechins and procyanidins). Polyphenols Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants.0 g/day of plant sterols has been shown to lower both total LDL and cholesterol concentrations by 10e15% in a variety of different population groups (Katan et al. 1994). 1988). and stilbene (resveratrol). Roiseux.

that may protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease by acting as an antioxidant. The structure of resveratrol and sesamol.. Slowing. Cai. Fig. antiallergic and anticancer activities (Kahkonen et al. and anti-inflammatory (Landcake & Price. & Delpal. Soleas.. Udeani. Nonetheless. & Goldberg. & Goldberg. Findings have reported that sesame seeds are a source of resveratrol and phytochemical with human health benefits. D . prevented the development of mouse skin carcinogenesis (Govind et al. Govind et al. (2002) reported that comparatively sesame resveratrol was the most potent followed by other resveratrols like sunflower. 1999). Shiow. phenolic acids and flavonoids appear to have antimicrobial. Wen. 1999). Belguendouz. 1992). Catechins. inhibitor of platelet aggregation (Pace. (2007) reported that the compounds found in sesame seed coats are considered potent antioxidants. grapes (Landcake & Price. limited studies suggest that sesame seed coat may contain potent procyanidin compounds. 4. and other oilseed plants or food products. which is both a phytoalexin (an antibiotic produced by a plant that is under attack) with antifungal activity and a photochemical associated with reduced cancer risk and R Fig. Procyanidins. 3. promotion and progression (Jang et al.12-dimethylbenz-anthracene. Mohamed and Awatif (1998) reported that the phenolic compound extracted from sesame could significantly reduce the oxidation of food to extend their storage stability. antiviral. (À)-epicatechin. guercint and (þ)-catechins are some of the well studied flavonoids in sesame so far. The most important beneficial effect of resveratrol is its cancer chemopreventive activity as it is involved in the inhibition of tumor initiation. anti-inflammatory. 1997). flavonoids and resveratrol. Over the years. & Beecher. especially red wine. According to Lee et al. Choi and Kim (1985) reported that sesame is one of the limited number of plant species that synthesize resveratrol. reduced cardiovascular disease. 2004). 1995). These few studies have shown the potential of sesame as a potentially rich and inexpensive source of nutraceutical and functional ingredients such as phenolics. Sesame and its products might help in preventing the development of carcinogenesis in human beings. procyanidins trimers. Diamandis. Hahn. Resveratrol has been used for the treatment of hyperglycemia. 1997). It has been associated with reduced human pathological processes such as atherosclerosis (Shahidi et al.. 2002). The American Heritage Dictionary defines resveratrol as a natural compound found in grapes. It also contains some good derivatives which have good health effects. which causes inflammation. 1976) and wine (red wine produced from grapes) (Siemann & Creasy. A-type procyanidin dimers. the health protecting properties of resver´ atrol have been well described as an antioxidant (Fremont.. mulberries. 4. particularly. which is part of sesame resveratrol. and Pin (2002) in their study identified A-type procyanidins in sesame seed coat. Diamandis. and carcinogenesis (Jang. plant phenolic compounds can be used as potent natural antioxidants in food systems. When the chemoprotective capabilities of these products (sesame resveratrol and resveratrol from sunflower) were compared and observed. Thomas. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 18 (2007) 599e608 603 R ET Resveratrol Resveratrol (3. Flavonoids are most commonly known for their antioxidant activity and are also commonly referred to as bioflavonoids since all of them are biological in origin (Answers. 3 with sesamol is a phytochemical occurring naturally in various spermatophytes and present in sesame particularly the brown colour on the skin after the seed coat has been removed (Namiki. Lee. 1997). Elleuch et al. Flavonoids Flavonoids are a class of plant secondary metabolites based around a phenylbenzopyrone structure as shown in Fig.P. In addition to antioxidant activity. the in vivo. 1976). antimutagen. (2006) found that the seed coat of sesame particularly the black colour contains about 150 mg total polyphenols per gram of defatted dry seed coat. modulator of lipoprotein metabolism (Soleas. John Kanu et al. (2002). an enzyme that is responsible for the release of histamine. peanuts.40 -trihydroxystilbene) shown in Fig. 2006). It is important to realize that in addition to the positive biological effects in humans consuming them. 1992). ¨ 1999). arteriosclerosis and allergic and inflammatory diseases (Siemann & Creasy. Molecular structure of flavone.5. 7. AC TE O O Flavone study by Shahidi et al. This compound was found to inhibit the activity of hyaluronidase. they are resveratrol and flavonoids. 1995) and vaso-relaxing agent (Jager & Nguyen.

mechanisms of action at the molecular level and structureefunction relationships. because of their high nutritional value. and intensively promote hair growth by enhancing proliferation of mouse hair epithelial cells in vitro and activating hair follicle growth in vivo. two critical proteins in the connective tissue. Lavy. Gonzalez. But Pastorello et al. Bardina. Desai. 2002. this lectin has been widely used as a probe for malignant phenotype in several tissues. & Schmitz. should help researchers continue to examine and clearly understand the therapeutic effects. (2001) reported that administration of lectins to experimental animals can also alter the bacterial flora. 2000). Some lectins isolated from legumes and cereals have been shown to inhibit the growth of experimental animals and reduce the digestibility and biological value of dietary proteins (Reynoso. Procyanidins were reported to selectively inhibit protein kinase C (Takahashi. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 18 (2007) 599e608 Lectins Lectins possess a remarkable array of biological activities that have been found in sesame among other sources. 1998. Kamimura. Biological activity of anti-nutritional factors in sesame Allergens Sesame. Natella. lectins are among the phytochemicals that are being intensively studied for their role in cancer chemoprevention (Abdullaev & Gonzalez. unlike the jack fruit seed lectin. & Rouge. The information from clinical studies using pure lectins is promising. Products derived from sesame have been recommended for young children in societies of the Mediterranean region and Africa. Furthermore. 2002). Beyer. Some observations suggest that sesame lectins. HPLC was used to characterize these allergens from sesame seed. Hammerstone. Nonetheless. 1997). 2000). 2002). and immunology. and promote proliferation of normal pancreas b-cells (Zhong. & Loarca. 45 kDa and 78 kDa as minor sesame allergens from globulin. John Kanu et al. Human studies also show that diet rich in procyanidins decrease/inhibit lipid peroxidation of LDL cholesterol and increase free radical scavenging capacity (Fuhrman. Anti-nutritional effects are most likely caused by the fact that some lectins impair the integrity of the intestinal epithelium (Reynoso et al. Shirai. may have interesting applications in the formulation of new approaches regarding cancer treatment (Govind et al. later identified as 2S albumin precursor. who reviewed in detail the potential for lectins in cancer management. The increasing D . During recent decades their use has increasingly spread to North America as well as Europe. milk proteins and eggs.. & Williams. 1999). the Galb1 / 3GalNAc. prevention and diagnosis of chronic diseases. by strongly inhibiting several enzymes involved in degradation of collagen.. 1998). Additional research. which exhibit growth-promoting effects on the gut. Even though the presence of procyanidins found in sesame was reported to be small (20 ppm). Pusztai (1996) and Radberg et al.. (2003) reported that the reactivity of the 14 kDa protein with most of the sera indicates that this is the major sesame allergen. 1995. Thus dietary lectins have generally been considered to be toxic and anti-nutritional factors. such as cancer. 2S albumin. Disease-dependent polyagglutin ability of red blood cells was also assessed using lectin (Springer et al. and its peptide which reacted positively in the dot blot test evidently contains an epitope(s).. & Aviram. including clinical trials. especially as it sharply discriminates between sialylated and non-sialylated forms of its most powerful inhibitor carbohydrate group. peanut. Some minor sesame allergens. 2003). Procyanidins have affinity for vascular tissue and they play a role in the protection of collagen and elastin. jacalin (Carvalho & Sgarbieri. elastin.604 P. and oligomers with higher degrees of polymerization were also reported to be present in sesame (Lazarus. Procyanidins were also found to slow the proliferation and decrease apoptosis of pancreas b-cells induced by hydrogen peroxide.(T antigen). (2001) suggested that the major sesame seed allergen is a 9 kDa. 1989). nutritional benefits. sesame has been proven to be a potential structure-specific probe in glycobiology. For many years lectins have been considered toxic substances to cells and animals. Grishina. thus also the absorption and utilization of nutrients. 2003) and R ET R AC TE tetramers. 2003). Since the demonstration by Springer. An interesting aspect of the lectins in sesame is that high heat treatment does not destroy them (Hany et al. Williams. Belelli. mainly because of agglutination of erythrocytes and other cells. and Banatwala (1974) that sesame agglutinin binds malignant cells in preference to normal cells in breast glands. Gonzalez and Prisecaru (2005). 2002). El-Shafei. 1990). A fairly stable and non-glycosylated lectin. Wolffa et al. & Gentili. Vandamme et al. Various authors have reported that lectins are used as tools in the field of biochemistry. and Sampson (2002) reported to have identified 10 IgE-binding proteins in sesame seeds. 34 kDa. Mallory. Shirel. account for approximately 80% of adverse reactions to foods in patients with atopic dermatitis individuals particular children (Burks. Barre. 1998). Lectins are a group of proteins with the common characteristic of reversibly binding carbohydrates including those found on the surfaces of cells particularly in sesame seed ´ (Vandamme. and toxic consequences of lectins.. Studies on laboratory animals show that ingested lectins have a wide range of effects that might be relevant to human diseases. 1974). as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in cancer research (Sharon & Lis. of higher molecular weight. and hyaluronic acid. 2003). cell biology. as sesame proteins are rich in methionine (Dalal et al. Peumanns. Adamson. concluded that lectins have great potential in the treatment. were also revealed. & Yokoo. 4 of which were 7 kDa.. that amount was reported to be enough to exact the health benefit to the human system as 15e17 ppm is needed by the human body (Zhong.

P. I. The most common allergic reactions are mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE).. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Abdullaev. 157e163. 55e61.. washing and filtration during the manufacture of products for general human consumption (Melcion & Colonna. F. Asero. Damme. 2000). W. anti-IgE therapy. Shirel. Johnson et al. such as fermentation.. Peanut. 1986. 280e285. 2004. Bardina. investigators have developed several therapeutic modalities that are potentially applicable to the treatment and prevention of food allergy. Life Sciences. prevention and diagnosis of chronic diseases. K. the presence of anti-nutritional factors such as allergens. leading to an inflammatory response and specific clinical manifestations (Asero. for individuals who are not allergic to sesame. Mistrello. it remains a very good source of nutrients and phytochemicals.. appetizers. Roncarolo. G.. and immunization with immunostimulatory sequences. Azuine.. Mallory. 123e133. Rueff. G.. (2002). 5. 154e159. & Sampson. I. (1964). Bhatia. & Falagiani. tocopherol.. A. 79(20). Fazli. D’Hondt. trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors in sesame could be tackled well so that it will not lose it functional potentialities. such as certain proteins from pollen or foods. 16. S. leukotrienes and cytokines. 41. 110. (1999). ethyl protocatechuate. sesamin. Budowski. Bhide. Therapeutic options currently under investigation include peptide immunotherapy. A. such as cancer. 317Se325S. Mukhopadhyay & Bandyopadhyay. N. have greatly improved the image of sesame as functional ingredients that could be supplemented in the food system because it serves as both bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. 1979).. D . W.. cakes. Food Hydrocolloids. 1921e1928. flavonoids. I. / Trends in Food Science & Technology 18 (2007) 599e608 605 R ET Trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors Like most oilseeds. John Kanu et al. (1994). protein as a major cause of adverse food reactions in patients with atopic dermatitis. Effect of dietary sesame oil as antioxidant on brain hippocampus of rat in focal cerebral ischemia.. F. osteoporosis. M. A. 1999)... Rheological characterization of milled sesame (Tehineh). bread. Tauheed.P. V. Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. T.. (1979) also reported that heat treatment destroys their inhibitory activity. 526e533. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. which occur in the serum and involve activation of effector cells. sesamolin. and tocopherols having great potential in the treatment. A. 54. J. C. (2005). Natural Toxins. 10. D. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Nonetheless. C. When antigens. M. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. lectins.. prostaglandins. M. M. Kamal. Aloisi. Conclusion Sesame contains very useful phytochemical such as resveratrol. 30. L. Recent research on sesamin. Arts. Chemoprevention of mammary tumor virus-induced and chemical carcinogen induced rodent mammary tumors by natural plant products. vegetarian dishes. The role of microglia and astrocytes in CNS immune surveillance and immunopathology. DNA immunization.. and the diagnosis relies on biological and clinical specific features. sesame. Burks. (2002). 1991. sesame also contains both trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors (Johnson et al... Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 1995). B. precipitation. 81(Suppl. Grishina. However.. A case of sesame seed-induce anaphylaxis. & Williams. Ahmad. Basim. K. These inhibitors interfere with the process of digestion and lower the digestibility of sesame proteins. control and management of diseases such as cancer. L. Mistrello. These exciting developments hold promise for the safe and effective treatment and prevention of food allergy in the next several years. Lahiri. S. Answers. cardiovascular disease. 233e242. With better characterization of allergens and better understanding of the immunologic mechanism. 2001). phytosterols. mainly mast cells and basophils.g.. This increase in sesame-induced allergic reactions called for additional studies on the characterization and identification of the specific sesame allergens. H.. Allergy. sesamin. & Gonzalez. & Hesham.. related compounds. A. C. (2006). It could help in the prevention.. M.. Eberlein.com. P. 2003). & Przybilla. 468. S. (1999). Identification of sesame seed allergens by 2-dimensional proteomics and Edman sequencing: seed storage proteins as common food allergens. & Falagiani. Heating is the most commonly used treatment for the elimination of anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors although other processes are also used. Antoniotti. L.. P. S. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. E. & Telang. (1997). L. Yousuf. sesamolin and other R consumption of foods containing sesame seeds and oil (e.. AC TE References phytochemicals which could be extracted for the purpose of the above to be utilized as functional ingredients. M. IgE-mediated reactions are believed to be responsible for most food-induced allergic reactions of the immediate hypersensitivity type (Type 1). The combination of functional ingredients and rich nutritional composition of sesame makes it very unique and a very good functional food that could be developed as food for the children as well as for the aged. However. Anti-tumor effect of plant lectins. R. and genetic modification of foods (Wild & Lehrer. A. S. Antoniotti. producing an acute inflammatory reaction (Leimgruber et al. and salad dressings) seems to be paralleled by an increase in reported sesame-induced allergic reactions (Pajno et al. mid-eastern foods. Dictionary definition on flavonoid on answers. bind to specific preformed IgE antibodies attached to the surface of basophils in the blood or mast cells in tissues. 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