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' 2e prrgv lq zklfk h{dfwo rqh vwdwhphqw lv ri wsh A ru O/ dqg hdfk ri wkhvh jlyhv d e0ruelw1 Rqh H0ruelw lv IEI0/ IEI02/ IEI0.
/ IEI0e/ EII0/ EII02/ EII0.
/ EII0e1 Wkh rwkhu H0ruelw lv jrwwhq e lqwhufkdqjlqj E*v dqg I*v1 Dv iru wkh ruelwv ri C lwvhoi/ lq wkh elj vsdfh/ hdfk frqwdlqv H hohphqwv dqg wkhuh duh D2 ri wkhp1 Fohduo hdfk C ruelw lv frqwdlqhg lq d C ruelw/ dqg qr C ruelw frqwdlqv pruh wkdq rqh C ruelw1 Wkh lqgluhfw0uhgxfwlrq vxeprqrlg T / zklfk dfwv rq wkh vsdfh ri vwdqgdug voorjlvpv/ kdv He ruelwv ri .
/ dqg e {hg srlqwv= AAO0e/ EEI0e/ IIE0e/ W W W 48 .
dqg OOA0e1 Wzhqw ri wkh .
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' .
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0 ruelwv/ wzr e0ruelwv/ wzhoyh S0ruelwv/ dqg whq 20ruelwv1 2 n H .
n 2 e n 2 S n f 2 ' 2DS iru d wrwdo ri 2 n H n 2 n 2 n f ' ee ruelwv1 Ri wkh fe ruelwv ri CT lq wkh elj vsdfh/ ee frqwdlq vwdqgdug voorjlvpv1 49 .
/ wkluw wzr S0ruelwv dqg wzhqw . 43 7 .Vwdqgdug Ruelw Ruelwv voorjlvpv vl}h 3 . 5 3 57 4. Eduedud lv lq dq ruelw ri vl}h eH frqwdlqlqj wkh wkuhh vwdqgdug voorjlvpv/ Eduedud/ Edurfr/ dqg Erfdugr1 Fhoduhqw lv lq dq ruelw ri vl}h eH frqwdlqlqj wkh uhpdlqlqj wzhoyh ydolg vwdqgdug voorjlvpv1 Xvlqj mxvw reyhuvlrq zh jhw Sf ruelwv= Se {hg srlqwv +Iljxuh 7. 73 4 49 5 6 57 . . 6 7. 5 9 7. 45 45 57 5 45 7. 3 7. dqg bS ruelwv ri 21 Iljxuhv 4/ 5 dqg 6 hdfk dgplw d xqltxh reyhuvlrq1 Xvlqj lqgluhfw uhgxfwlrq dqg reyhuvlrq zh jhw DS ruelwv= irxu {hg srlqwv +vdph dv iru lqgluhfw uhgxfwlrq dorqh.
0ruelwv1 Wkh .
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voorjlvpv/ h{fhsw iru wkh irxu dqwlorjlvpv ri wkh irup XXX0e/ zklfk frqwdlq rqh voorjlvp dslhfh1 Zh kdyh vhhq wkdw wkhuh duh He n e ruelwv ri T frqvlvwlqj ri irxu {hg srlqwv/ wzhqw .
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xvh wzr/ dqg wkh H ' 2 e xvh wkuhh1 Li zh dovr doorz reyhuvlrq/ wkh Se dqwlorjlvpv lq Iljxuh 4 sdlu xs wr jlyh .
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ri lwv vlghv1 Wkh lghd lv wkdw wkh vlghv zlwk duurzv uhsuhvhqw vwdwhphqwv ri wsh A ru O/ dqg wkrvh zlwkrxw duurzv uhsuhvhqw vwdwhphqwv ri wsh E ru I1 E frqvlghulqj dqwlorjlvpv zlwk vpphwul}hg jxuhv/ zh exlog erwk frqyhuvlrq dqg lqgluhfw uhgxfwlrq lqwr wkh slfwxuh1 Wkhuh duh vhyhq vpphwul}hg dqwlorjlvp jxuhv/ zklfk pd eh ghvfulehg dv= qr duurzv/ rqh duurz/ wzr duurzv rxw/ Iljxuh 7/ wzr duurzv lq/ Iljxuh 4/ wzr duurzv dorqj= / / / v3 / / / / / / v4 / / ! / / / ' .zklfk frqwdlqv Eduedul/ dqg AAE0e/ zklfk frqwdlqv Eudpdqwls/ dqg EAA0 / zklfk frqwdlqv Gdudswl/ duh doo wklv uxohv rxw/ ri wkrvh wkdw sdvv wkh uvw wzr whvwv.5 / G / ! / / / / 1 G 7 // ! /  1  E d vpphwul}hg jxuh zh phdq d wuldqjoh wkdw kdv duurzv rq vrph +srvvleo doo ru qrqh.4 / / ! / / / ) / 6 / / ! / / / / ' .v6 / / " / 4< .1 Li zh holplqdwh wkh wklug uxoh/ zh jhw wkh wudglwlrqdo 2e ydolg dqwlorjlvpv1 Dowhuqdwlyho/ wkh iroorzlqj wzr uxohv vx!fh iru wkh D ydolg dqwlorjlvpv= Hdfk whup lv glvwulexwhg h{dfwo rqfh Wkhuh duh wzr srvlwlyh vwdwhphqwv dqg rqh qhjdwlyh vwdwhphqw .v5 / / / ! / / / ) / ' . Vpphwul}hg dqwlorjlvp jxuhv Zh kdyh vhhq wkdw wkhuh duh irxu zdv wr sxw duurzv rq wkh vlghv ri d wuldqjoh fruuhvsrqglqj wr wkh irxu wudglwlrqdo jxuhv ri d voorjlvp1 / / ) / ' .
Ij/ zklfk fdq eh grqh lq vl{ zdv1 Iru s./ / / ' .v4 / G / ! / / / ) / ' .v5 / / / Wr frxqw wkh qxpehu ri htxlydohqfh fodvvhv ri dqwlorjlvpv xqghu lqgluhfw uhgxfwlrq dqg frqyhuvlrq/ zh vlpso frxqw wkh qxpehu ri glvwlqfw zdv zh fdq dvvljq ohwwhuv wr wkhvh jxuhv1 Iru sf wkh ohwwhuv pxvw eh I dqg E dqg lw rqo pdwwhuv krz pdq ri hdfk1 Vr wkhuh duh irxu fodvvhv= EEE/ EEI/ EII/ dqg III1 Iru s zh kdyh wzr vpphwulf wshv durxqg dq dvpphwulf wsh1 Wkhuh duh hljkw zdv wr gr wklv1 Iru s2 zh pxvw slfn wzr iurp iA. Oj dqg rqh iurp iE.v3 / G / / / / / ' .
Oj/ vr wkhuh duh hljkw fodvvhv1 Iru s2 zh slfn dq rughuhg sdlu iurp iA. Ij/ vr wkhuh duh hljkw fodvvhv1 sf s s2 s. Oj dqg dq hohphqw ri iE. Oj dqg rqh iurp iE./ wkh ohwwhuv pxvw eh A dqg O/ dqg lw rqo pdwwhuv krz pdq ri hdfk1 Vr wkhuh duh irxu fodvvhv= AAA/ AAO/ AOO/ dqg OOO1 Iru sf zh pxvw slfn wzr iurp iA. Ij/ zklfk fdq eh grqh lq vl{ zdv1 Iru s zh slfn dq rughuhg wulsoh iurp iA.
77 Zh fdq dovr frxqw dqg fodvvli wkh HH dqwlorjlvpv iurp wklv= sf s 2n2nen2 e H s2 2 e s. . 9 7 9 . sf s s2 wrwdo 7 .
sf s s2 wrwdo e 2 e 2 e 2 e e HH 53 .
Vl{ ri wkh vhyhq jxuhv duh sdluhg e reyhuvlrq1 Hdfk ri wkh sulphg jxuhv dgplwv h{dfwo rqh reyhuvlrq/ zklfk wdnhv lw wr wkh fruuhvsrqglqj xqsulphg jxuh/ dqg dq reyhuvlrq ri wkh xqsulphg jxuh lv hlwkhu lwvhoi ru wkh fruuhvsrqglqj sulphg jxuh1 Zh fdq frxqw wkh htxlydohqfh fodvvhv ri dqwlorjlvpv xqghu reyhuvlrq/ lqgluhfw uhgxfwlrq/ dqg frqyhuvlrq/ e vhhlqj lq krz pdq glvwlqfw zdv zh fdq dvvljq ohwwhuv wr wkh xqsulphg jxuhv1 Iru sf/ s2/ dqg s.
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// D ) ' / / / 54 .// H ' / / ! / / D .// D ) ' / / ! / D H Wkh uvw fodvv frqvlvwv ri Fhodurqw/ Fhvdur/ dqg Gdudswl> wkh vhfrqg frqvlvwv ri wkh vl{ voorjlvpv Eduedul/ Eudpdqwls/ Fdphqrs/ Fdphvwurs/ Ihodswrq/ dqg Ihvdsr1 / H . wrwdo 7 9 9 7 53 Wkh ydolg voorjlvpv frph iurp wkh fodvv AEI0s1 Wklv vsolwv lqwr wzr fodvvhv lq wkh devhqfh ri reyhuvlrq= AEI0s dqg AAO0/ wkh odwwhu*v vp0 phwul}hg jxuh ehlqj s 1 D R Wkh uvw fodvv frqvlvwv ri wkh wzhoyh voorjlvpv Fdphqhv/ Fdphvwuhv/ Fhodu0 hqw/ Fhvduh/ Gdull/ Gdwlvl/ Glpdulv/ Glvdplv/ Ihulr/ Ihulvrq/ Ihvwlqr/ dqg Iuhvlvrq> wkh vhfrqg frqvlvwv ri Eduedud/ Edurfr/ dqg Erfdugr1 Wkh svhxgrydolg voorjlvpv/ wkrvh wuxh iru qrqhpsw vhwv exw qrw lq jhq0 hudo/ duh lq wkh fodvv AAE0s21 Wklv vsolwv lqwr wzr fodvvhv lq wkh devhqfh ri reyhuvlrq= AAE0s2 dqg AAE0s2 1 / / H L / / / ! / / D .
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how to derive valid ones from other valid ones. the space of syllogisms is enlarged to include nonstandard syllogisms. and various groups operating on that space are considered. to be equivalent if they can be transformed into each other by certain transformations. every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. “Our principal interest in invalid inferences is to discard them. Categorical syllogism 0 1 . Primary 03B99 Keywords.Equivalence of syllogisms Fred Richman Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton. We will deﬁne what we mean by equivalence of syllogisms in Section 4 2000 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation. valid or invalid.” Here we are interested in the invalid syllogisms too. that preserve validity. It is shown that two syllogisms are equivalent if and only if they have the same models. FL 33431 Abstract We consider two categorical syllogisms. why they are valid. Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoi. into an equivalent one. Happy families are all alike. The traditional methods for transforming one valid syllogism into another also transform any syllogism. Anna Karenina 1 Categorical syllogisms Studies of categorical syllogisms typically focus on the valid ones: which syllogisms are valid. how the valid ones are classiﬁed. valid or not. As Lear [5] put it. To make the development more natural. going back to Aristotle. Counts are obtained for the number of syllogisms in each equivalence class.
Categorical syllogisms are inferences of the form p ∧ q ⇒ r where p. and E is the negation of I. and we take that arrow from left to right. and m the middle term. and r are statements about pairs of classes. Each statement is of one of the four types Axy All x is y Exy No x is y Ixy Some x is y Oxy Some x is not y Note that O is the negation of A. The major premise is traditionally written ﬁrst (so p is the major premise). The subject and predicate of the conclusion are the subject term and the predicate term of the syllogism. the other is the minor premise. A typical example of a statement is “all dogs are animals”. These are the traditional ﬁgures. p the predicate term. With this structure there are exactly four ways for the statements to share terms. described by the following table. the statement r is the conclusion. where s denotes the subject term. The terms x and y refer to classes. The premise containing the predicate term is the major premise. q. Major Minor Conclusion Figure mp sm sp 1 pm sm sp 2 mp ms sp 3 pm ms sp 4 We can represent the ﬁgures by triangles. The base of the triangle represents the conclusion. the sides to the statements. We put an arrow on each side from the subject to the predicate. so the major premise is the right side of the triangle and the minor premise is the left side. The vertices of the triangles correspond to the terms. The term x is called the subject. The traditional syllogism contains precisely three terms. The statements p and q are the premises. y the predicate. each of which occurs in two of the three statements. The term common to the two premises is called the middle term. Here are the triangles for the four ﬁgures: s ¶S ¶ S ¶ w S 7 ¶ 1 S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ S ¶ S 7 ¶ 2 S o ¶ S ¶ s Ss 2 .
an instantiation of a valid form. we get EAE2. and the two premises are then interchanged. if necessary. the forms are obtained by assigning one of the four statement types. In terms of triangles. For example. The name of this form is Festino. This is a valid syllogism. Celarent. I would like to thank Dawne Richards for inspiring this paper. Its triangular representation is s ¶S ¶S I ¶ S E 7 ¶ o S ¶ S ¶ s Ss s ¶S ¶ S / ¶ w S 3 S ¶ Ss s¶ ¶ S s ¶S S ¶ S / ¶ o 4 SS ¶ s¶ ¶ Ss O Having pointed out the distinction between forms and their instantiations. to each side of the triangle. we assign a class to each vertex. “cats”. the conclusion will be true if the premises are. Cesare.There are 256 forms of a syllogism. Many of the ideas developed here are contained in [7]. this transformation is eﬀected by reversing the arrow on the right side: 3 . 64 in each ﬁgure. Therefore. E. Some carnivores are cats. were conversion and indirect reduction (reductio ad impossibile). so that the major one come ﬁrst. EIO2 is exempliﬁed (or instantiated) by the argument No dogs are cats. and O. For each ﬁgure. To get a syllogism from a form. and “carnivores”. In conversion the subject and predicate of an E or I statement are interchanged. 2 Transformations and nonstandard syllogisms The classical transformations. the reader is warned that we will tend to use the terms “syllogism” and “form” interchangeably. This assignment is called the mood of the syllogism. used by Aristotle [1]. Applying conversion to the major premise of EAE1. If we replace the terms “dogs”. some carnivores are not dogs. I. by terms denoting any classes whatsoever. A.
Barbara. For example. if necessary. we get AEE4. and AOO2. a second premise. to insure that the major premise comes ﬁrst. to AOO2. after interchanging premises: s ¶S ¶ A ¶ SS E w 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ A ¶ SS E w 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s ¾ S s ¶S S E ¶¶ S A / o S ¶ S ¶ s ¶ Ss s ¶S ¶ A ¶ SS E w 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶S A¶ S E 7 ¶ o S ¶ S ¶ s Ss E E E In indirect reduction. Baroco. Geometrically. no interchange is necessary if we think of a syllogism as being a major premise. Barbara. and changing the letters on the adjacent sides: s ¶S ¶ A ¶ SS A w 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶S O¶ S A 7 ¶ o S ¶ S ¶ s Ss A O With conversion and indirect reduction the 15 valid forms can be reduced to two: Barbara and Celarent. It’s quite indisputable. a minor premise. S. A more serious objection is that the transformations are not onetoone. 4 . Camenes. seems a little hokey. You shall have it in ‘Barbara’ or ‘Celarent’–whichever you please. The Force of Argument The interchange of premises. hence do not form a group. However. W. and a conclusion. for I’ll prove it with singular ease. Baroco and back. Gilbert. rather than a ﬁrst premise. that is we pass from p ∧ q ⇒ r to p ∧ ¬r ⇒ ¬q or to ¬r ∧ q ⇒ ¬p and then interchange the two premises. and a conclusion.E E Applying conversion to the conclusion of EAE1. both AAA1. In this way we go from AAA1. one of the premises and the conclusion are interchanged and negated. we are ﬂipping the triangle around one of the base vertices.
Each orbit is composed half of standard ﬁgures and half of nonstandard ﬁgures. of course. It is less clear that this is the right setting for conversion. we can enlarge the deﬁnition of a syllogism slightly. In the triangle representation. then we have to deﬁne it also when the conclusion is not of type E or I. To get around this. rather than OAO3. base. Note that the arrow on the base goes from right to left for nonstandard ﬁgures if we keep the convention that the statements on the sides of the triangles are read in order: right side. There are 84 orbits of this group action of size six. Allowing the major premise to appear in the second position. we simply ﬂip the EIO2 triangle. and {OOA4. which we denote 10 . but that seems a little unnatural. by applying indirect reduction to the major premise and the conclusion. Therefore. 30 . EEI40 }. The latter are {AAO4. IIE40 }. to conversion of the conclusion. Bocardo. we get AOO 30 . The two ﬂips about the vertices of the base generate this sixelement group. say. and four of size two. If we want a transformation on the space that corresponds. Bocardo 0 . OOA40 }. The group may be thought of as the group D3 of symmetries of an equilateral triangle. No dogs are cats. For example. 20 . rather than just in the ﬁrst. Bocardo. Now. Festino. in which the major premise comes second. AAO40 }. The nonstandard ﬁgures seem to provide the right setting for indirect reduction–we get a space of 512 syllogisms with a natural group action on it. More natural would be to interchange subject 5 . We could. We can only convert statements of type E and I. {EEI4.are transformed to OAO3. around its vertical axis so the premises are interchanged: s 7o ¶ S S I E¶ ¶ S ¶ S ¶ s¾ Ss O We might call this form Festino 0 . IEO20 is exempliﬁed by the argument Some carnivores are cats. necessitates four more ﬁgures. say that conversion leaves statements of type A or O unaﬀected. some carnivores are not dogs. left side. Baroco. {IIE4. when we apply indirect reduction to the major premise and the conclusion of AOO2. and 40 . and the transformation is onetoone.
e. the obverse of the statement Ixy y is Ox¯. is obversion. that is. A third transformation. and o deﬁned by: axy exy ixy oxy = A¯y = E xy x¯ ¯ = E xy = A¯y ¯¯ x = I xy = O¯y ¯¯ x = O¯y = I xy x¯ ¯ (Boole [2] also considered these as four of “the eight fundamental types of propositions. We can apply obversion to a syllogism provided that some term appears only as a predicate. such as Aaa2.” De Morgan [3] introduced the statement types a and o in such a way that axy is equivalent to Ayx. and the letters O and o. This would require a type of statement that “quantiﬁes the predicate.”) Note that axy = Ayx and oxy = Oyx. Each y ¯ statement is equivalent to its obverse–to say that all dogs are animals is to say that no dogs are nonanimals. do not correspond so directly to standard syllogisms. so that the resulting statement is equivalent to the original one. Unlike the other six types. For example. in every ﬁgure except the fourth. Thus any syllogism with a standard ﬁgure can be put into any standard ﬁgure by arrow reversals on the top sides. and thus do not diﬀer essentially from A and O. De x y Morgan [3] called this type e. like Exy is equivalent to Ax¯. So. not used systematically by Aristotle. and vice versa. No form containing e or i corresponds to a standard syllogism just by arrow reversals and interchanging premises. i. we would like to obvert at any term in a syllogism. so adding the types a and o enables arbitrary arrow reversals. Here x denotes the complement of the class denoted by x. which comes from Barbara by reversing the right arrow. the second ﬁgure version of Barbara is aAA2. and change the type of the statement. While a and o can be viewed as simply quantifying the predicate. The obverse of the statement Axy is Ex¯. not just at those that are double predicates. if necessary. we can deﬁne conversion of the conclusion to reverse the arrow on the base and interchange the letters A and a.and predicate. the statement types e and i are essentially diﬀerent. we would like a sentence type that is equivalent to A¯y. and oxy is equivalent to Oyx. He considered nonstandard types a. they involve unbounded 6 . With these additional statement types. Forms with nonstandard conclusion types. As with conversion. for example. If we apply it to the predicate of Celarent we get Barbara.
3 The syllogism group If we include the four nonstandard ﬁgures and the four nonstandard statement types. we get a space of 84 = 4096 syllogistic forms. then side 1 is the major premise. conversion at each side. the arrow on side 3 goes from left to right. Note that each of these generators of G has order two. The undercount is 3(2 · 2 · 4) + 2(4 · 2 · 4) = 112. These are the 256 traditional forms. a. Of the 4096 syllogisms. requires considering objects outside the two classes in question. This is convenient for theoretical purposes because it is closed under obversion at each vertex. and indirect reductions. Because of the phenomenon that EAA1 and EAA2 are associated with the same second ﬁgure form. the i statement “there is something that is neither a cat nor a dog”. the second term counts those forms that contain an I or E in one premise. we can construct 83 = 512 forms. So it is acted on naturally by the group G generated by obversions. and indirect reduction at each base vertex. 512 involve only standard types and 256 of those have the major premise on side 1. each in the second ﬁgure. and if the arrow on side 3 goes from left to right. number the sides of a triangle as follows s ¶S ¶ 2 ¶ SS1 ¶ S ¶ 3 using the same numbers for the opposite vertices. that is. the number 144 undercounts the number of standard syllogisms. Side 3 is the conclusion. The 6 · 6 · 4 = 144 forms not containing e or i and having a standard conclusion type correspond to the standard syllogisms. O. The operations are: • Conversion: ci reverses the arrow on side i and changes the case of the letters A. 7 ¶ s Ss S . and o on that side. The 2 · 2 · 4 in the ﬁrst term counts those forms that contain I or E in both premises. conversions. With De Morgan’s extended set of 8 statement types. For example. What is the structure of G as an abstract group? To ﬁx the notation.quantiﬁcation.
2). Here i = 1. o ∈ O. 2. It is part of propositional calculus rather than predicate calculus. 2. O. q. 2). a. • Indirect reduction: τi ﬂips the triangle around vertex i and negates the letters on the adjacent sides. The same analysis applies to the subgroup OT . The case changes and negations can be ignored because the relations are right. Clearly G is a semidirect product 8 . Each element in G can be written uniquely as a product τ oc with τ ∈ T . What are the relations among the generators of G? Note that changing the case of A. and the operation τ3 takes it to q ∧ p ⇒ r. and r. The subgroup CT can be thought of as the group of symmetries of the cube by taking the sides of the triangles to be the principal axes of the cube. the symmetries of the (undecorated) triangle. 2. Indirect reduction (reductio ad impossibile) does not consider the internal structure of the statements p. With the arrow toward the vertex. 2. For τ3 we don’t want to negate the letters. With the arrow away from the vertex. and o commutes with negating. the permutation is (Ae)(Io)(Ea)(Oi). and c ∈ C. the operation τ2 takes it to ¬r ∧q ⇒ ¬p.• Obversion: oi changes the letters on each side adjacent to vertex i. the symmetric group on three letters. the operation τ1 takes it to p∧¬r ⇒ ¬q. This subgroup is the kernel of the map from CT onto the group of permutations of the terms. Starting from the syllogism p ∧ q ⇒ r. and τ3 is not an indirect reduction but simply the interchange of premises. 2. The subgroup OC. which is abelian of type (2. The groups OT and CT are isomorphic. 2. In any event τ3 = τ1 τ2 τ1 = τ2 τ1 τ2 . The order of CT is 48 = 24 3. the permutation is (AE)(IO)(ae)(io). The following relations hold: o2 = c2 = τi2 = 1 i i (τ1 τ2 )3 = 1 ci cj = cj ci ci τi = τi ci c3 = τ1 c2 τ1 = τ2 c1 τ2 oi oj = oj oi oi τi = τi oi o3 = τ1 o2 τ1 = τ2 o1 τ2 ci oj = oj ci The τi generate a subgroup T isomorphic to S3 . The group C is a normal subgroup of order 8 in CT . The oi and the ci generate commuting eightelement abelian normal subgroups O and C of type (2. is the kernel of the map from G onto the group of permutations of the three terms. so G has order 27 3 = 384.
(Łukasiewicz [6] claims that Aristotle himself thought of syllogisms as implications rather than inferences.) When we say that a syllogism is true. It will be convenient to think of a syllogism as an implication rather than an inference. z) we mean the truth value of the syllogism that instantiates α when x is the class referred to by the subject term. while conjugation by τ1 or τ2 interchanges τ2 τ1 and τ1 τ2 . These elements generate a 24element subgroup ﬁxing the threeelement subgroup hτ1 τ2 i under conjugation. is a natural subgroup of G. We want to show that this corresponds to a semantic notion. 1. Thus OC. their intersection. By Rα (x. Conjugation by c1 c2 c3 or o1 o2 o3 ﬁxes τi . we think of p ∧ q ⇒ r as a statement that is either true or false. y. Rα = Rβ ◦π. where π is a permutation of the variables 3. gives rise to a function from ordered triples of sets to truth values–a ternary relation among sets. It’s not hard to show that this subgroup is the normalizer of hτ1 τ2 i. that is. Rα = Rβ 2. The group G has exactly three Sylow 2subgroups: hOC. hOC. we are saying that the statement of the implication is true. the latter subgroup mapping isomorphically onto the symmetries of the triangle. on the other hand. That is. and hOC. Thus there are 384/24 = 16 conjugates of hτ1 τ2 i. We will consider three increasingly weaker notions of equivalence of syllogistic forms α and β. where π permutes the variables and may also complement some of them. and z by the predicate term. A syllogism is valid. z) is true for all sets x. Rα = Rβ ◦ π. A syllogistic form. The form α is valid if Rα (x. If α is a form we denote its ternary relation by Rα . 9 . which constitute the Sylow 3subgroups of G. 4 Equivalence of syllogistic forms We have a syntactic notion of when two syllogisms are equivalent: when they can be transformed into each other by an element of G. like EIO2. if its form is valid. The semantic notion comes from considering instantiations. y. y. τ3 i. τ2 i.of OC by T . The third one will be our deﬁnition of equivalence. y by the middle term. it contains all elements that ﬁx hτ1 τ2 i under conjugation. and z. τ1 i.
∅. gives a fairly restrictive equivalence although it is nontrivial. then the number of triples of subsets of S making Rα true is equal to the number of triples of subsets of S making Rβ true. we must allow a permutation of the inputs into the ternary relations. we must pass to Deﬁnition 2. Deﬁnition 3 respects obversion in addition to conversion and indirect reduction. and we see that Rα (x. whereas we might expect equivalence because the symmetry of I results in the logical equivalence of the two implications Eyz ∧ Axy ⇒ Ixz and Axy ∧ Eyz ⇒ Izx For these two forms to be equivalent. If two syllogisms are in the same orbit of G. then we can transform one into the other by a sequence of conversions. y). we act on the relations with a 48element group isomorphic to the symmetry group of a cube: we can think of the inputs as the (directed) major axes of the cube with complementation occurring if the directions get reversed. {0}) is true. Clearly any form equivalent to a valid form is also valid. z. if α is equivalent to β. The forms EAI1 and EAI2 are equivalent because of the symmetry of E. which we will ignore. where we also allow the inputs to be complemented. and indirect reductions. That is. Our ﬁrst question is 10 . z) = Rβ (x. The forms α = EAI1 and β = AEI4 are not equivalent because Rα (∅. and S is any set. That is. the two implications Eyz ∧ Axy ⇒ Ixz and Ezy ∧ Ayz ⇒ Ixz are logically equivalent. By indirect reduction we go from α = AAA1 to β = AOO2. obversions. In Deﬁnition 3. In Deﬁnition 2 we act on the ternary relations by permuting the inputs–a sixelement group isomorphic to the symmetry group of an equilateral triangle. Two syllogisms are in the same orbit of G if some element of G transforms the one into the other. ∅. 5 Orbits of the syllogism group G An orbit of G is a set of the form {gα : g ∈ G} for some syllogism α. {0}) is false and Rα (∅. More generally. Deﬁnition 2 respects conversion and indirect reduction. y.Deﬁnition 1.
and indirect reductions without leaving the subspace of standard syllogisms? We will also want to answer the corresponding question with G replaced by CT . then we get EAE40 . is so strong that they are thought of as the same syllogism. then there exists g so that g(β) = α. where the major and minor premises are interchanged. and a conclusion. to OAO3. What is important is that the functions be locally invertible: if f (α) = β. we get AEE4. then they are equivalent in the sense of Section 4. the group of classical transformations. we ﬁrst show that every orbit of G contains a standard syllogism. For example. taking standard syllogisms to standard syllogisms. but the identiﬁcation of α with τ3 α. Bocardo. a minor premise. are they in the same orbit of G? To answer both questions. We need to clarify this question a bit. obversions. The main reason for allowing nonstandard ﬁgures. Then we consider the (not necessarily invertible) transformations o∗ . rather than a ﬁrst premise. As far as the computation of orbits is concerned.• If two standard syllogisms are in the same orbit of G. EAE1. that doesn’t really matter. can we transform one into the other by a sequence of conversions. and AOO2. Barbara. Indeed they are the same syllogism if we think of a syllogism as consisting of a major premise. is that the transformations generated by indirect reduction form a group on that space–each transformation has an inverse. i i 11 . Camenes. But simply writing the major premise ﬁrst. The point is that the syllogism space was enlarged for convenience. and a conclusion. then τ2 takes both AAA1. If we restrict ourselves to standard ﬁgures by writing the major premise ﬁrst in the transformed syllogism. and enlarging the standard space to 512. Our second question is about the converse: • If two syllogisms are equivalent. that include nonstandard ﬁgures but only standard statement types. If two syllogisms are in the same orbit of G. not so that a standard syllogism could be transformed into more standard syllogisms than it could before. Even the classical transformations take you out of the standard space of 256 forms. Then we can still talk about orbits. a nonstandard form. a second premise. in which we allow the minor premise to come ﬁrst. we can operate just as well with a monoid of functions that are not onetoone. Baroco. c∗ and τi∗ . as we have been doing. So we really need only stay within the space of 512 forms. if we convert the conclusion of Celarent.
If one of the top edges points to the base. then τi∗ τi∗ (α) = α. or standard syllogisms. EAA4. we can reduce to one nonstandard type in the same way. Indeed. and indirect reductions. AEa1. By passing to τ3 (α). AEA40 . otherwise τi∗ (α) = τ3 τi (α). We will calculate the orbits of G∗ and verify that elements of diﬀerent orbits are inequivalent. If there is exactly one nonstandard type. α is a valid syllogism and α cannot also be valid ¯ 12 . if necessary. replaces each statement type by its negation and leaves the ﬁgures alone. By applying conversions. To see that every orbit of G contains a standard syllogism. we may assume that the only nonstandard statement types that appear in α are i and e. giving standard types. then its full negation α is transformed to β by that same ¯ transformation. 3. then τj∗ τi∗ (α) = α. AAO4 is the unique standard form in its orbit. o3 . i i then τi∗ (α) = τi (α). c3 . These are the traditional obversions. if oi (α) is standard. Otherwise. extended in a harmless manner to standard syllogisms where they don’t apply. i i and. eAa2. If there are three nonstandard types. For i = 1. then α is true ¯ ¯ for that triple. then o∗ (α) = oi (α). it suﬃces to show that the generators are. we can bring it to the conclusion with τ1 or τ2 . we may assume that the ﬁgure is standard. Let G∗ be the monoid generated by these functions. if τi (α) is nonstandard. a standard form α cannot be equivalent to its full negation α. These forms are transformed to a standard form by the sequence of transformations o2 . if τi (α) is standard. for i and j distinct elements of {1. For example. The full negation symmetry on the space of syllogisms. It is interesting to note that the much maligned Figure 4 is the only standard ﬁgure that appears with standard statement types in each orbit of G. 2. τ3 . and the same for c∗ (α). we can convert the nonstandard sentence so that it points away and obvert. This last step is computer assisted. i otherwise o∗ (α) = α. while if τi (α) is standard. conversions. If there is a triple of classes that makes α false. 2}. aEa2. c1 . Moreover. 2. then by applying conversion we can point their arrows away from each other and obvert the subjects.deﬁned as follows. So we need only consider Figure 2. AAe2 is transformed as follows: AAe2. To show that G∗ is locally invertible. start with a syllogism α. Elements of G and G∗ commute with the full negation symmetry: It’s easy to see that if the form α is transformed to β by one of the generating ¯ transformations. If α has two nonstandard statement types. For i = 1. Clearly o∗ and c∗ are their own inverses.
with the sizes of the orbits given on the left. . one orbit being the full negation of the other. and look at all triples of subsets of it.because of the rules “there can be at most one negative premise” and “if one premise is negative. Barbara. . 18. 1 3 7 9 9 15 15 18 21 30 AAO4 AAA4 AAI2 AAE3 AAI1 AAA1 AAO1 AAE1 AAE2 AAA2 OOA4 AOA4 IIE1 AIA2 IOA1 AOA3 IIA1 AOE3 AIA1 AIE1 It remains to verify that no two of the syllogisms listed in the table are equivalent. There is a test for inequivalence that avoids headtohead comparison of syllogisms. If two syllogisms are equivalent. 2. We choose a ﬁnite universe. 13 . Here are those counts for n = 3. and the ﬁrst syllogism in the orbits on the right. . Here are the 20 orbits of G∗ . paired by the full negation symmetry. AAI1. and two each with 1. AAA1. but it doesn’t quite do the job. is in a 15orbit consisting of the valid syllogisms. Fortunately we can get by with a small value of n. 3. However. there are 48 ways to hook up two syllogisms by permuting and complementing inputs in order to test for equivalence. 21 and 30 points. n}. then they will be false on the same number of triples of subsets. So the orbits come in pairs. This is a diﬀerent kind of calculation–a semantic rather than a syntactic one. Barbari. The monoid G∗ has 20 orbits: four each with 9 and 15 points. say {1. the conclusion must be negative” (see the rules for valid antilogisms below: there must be two positive statements and one negative statement in a valid antilogism). 7. . is in a 9orbit consisting of those syllogisms that are true for all nonempty classes (these are valid syllogisms if we assume existential import: Axy entails there exist x’s).
Here are the counts for a few other syllogisms. which can be done in 5n ways. and s intersects m and is not contained in p. m = m. This happens 4n times. the second that m intersects p − s. m = s. is gotten by choosing 4 disjoint sets. In short. To see that the counts for AAA2 and AAE2 are always the same look at the correspondence s = s. The count. which is 5n − 4n . then subtracting the 4n ways that this is done with the ﬁrst set empty. They all failed. So we have answered the two questions in the aﬃrmative. The syllogism AAO1 is false only if s contains m and m contains p. gives a correspondence. as we now demonstrate. once for each subset of 14 . This happens 2n times.AAO4 AAA4 AAI2 AAE3 AAI1 AAA1 AAO1 AAE1 AAE2 AAA2 8 56 64 98 27 0 64 37 61 61 OOA4 48 AOA4 96 IIE1 175 AIA2 115 IOA1 90 AOA3 30 IIA1 114 AOE3 54 AIA1 30 AIE1 91 We still need to compare AAA2 with AAE2. The correspondence is s = m. AOA3 with AIA1. One might hope that a bigger universe would distinguish these. The ﬁrst says also that m intersects s. So letting s = (s \ p) ∪ (p \ s). A sort of relative obversion. but prudent). a program was written to try all 48 possibilities on each of the three pairs. and AAI2 with AAO1. To check that the program was doing the right thing (theoretically unnecessary. and p = p. The syllogism AAI2 is false only if m contains the disjoint sets s and p. The syllogism AAO4 is false only if s = p = m. Conversely. s = m \ p. and s does not contain m and is not contained in p. it was run on some pairs that were in the same orbit. and p = m \ p. The second is false if p contains m. It’s not hard to see that the counts will always be 4n for AAI2 and AAO1. By exclusion—inclusion the count is 6n − 2 · 5n + 4n . To show that none of these three pairs were equivalent. both conditions say p contains m but not s. m = s ∪ p and p = p. which also happens 4n times. but this is not the case. What about AIA1 and AOA3? The ﬁrst is false if p contains m. They passed.
was because it was thought that one should always use the stronger Barbara instead. The syllogism AAE3 is false only if m is contained in s and p. Of course all of the sizes divide the order of G. if i i you are trying to convert an A or an O). 6 Orbits of subgroups of G How many orbits are there in the 256 syllogisms if we just allow conversion? Let c∗ (α) = ci (α). E}. So the sizes of the orbits can only be 1.) It turns out that if two orbits of G contain the same number of standard syllogisms. of order 8. This happens 3n times. This was ascertained by a program that computed the orbits. This generates a group. To construct an element of 15 . O}. 3}. The syllogism AAI1.the universe. (Because Barbari is true for all nonempty classes. 4. the quotient being the number of symmetries of a syllogism in that orbit. then they have the same size. For example. and m ∈ {2. and c∗ (α) = α otherwise (that is. There are 114 orbits which break down as follows: size of orbit 1 2 4 8 number of orbits 40 44 28 2 Of the 1orbits (ﬁxed points) 32 are boring: those syllogisms in which all sentence types are A or O. Barbari. The only reason that it was not part of the standard list of 19 valid syllogisms. standard syllogisms 1 3 7 9 15 18 21 30 syllogisms 64 192 64 192 192 384 192 384 number of orbits 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 Note that the size of four of the orbits is the order of G. or 14 excluding Figure 4. The count is 5n − 3n . The following table shows the number of standard syllogisms for each of the 20 orbits of G. and the number of orbits containing that number of standard syllogisms. The 8 interesting ﬁxed points are XXY m where X ∈ {A. Y ∈ {I. C ∗ . if ci (α) is standard. 2. it is sometimes considered valid. the corresponding size of the orbit. is false only if p is empty and m is contained in s. and s intersects p. or 8. the syllogism AAO4 is left invariant by the sixelement subgroup T .
(It’s easier to see this in terms of antilogisms. each contains 8 elements and there are 512 of them.a 2orbit. One 8orbit is IEI1. IIIn. containing one syllogism from each ﬁgure: EEIn. IEI3. in the big space. The other 8orbit is gotten by interchanging E’s and I’s. In addition. there are 3 · 23 = 24 moods in which exactly one statement is of type A or O. and 4 ﬁxed points: AAO4. The indirectreduction submonoid T ∗ . There are four 4orbits with just E’s and I’s. EII2. IEI4.) 16 . and each of these gives a 4orbit. EII1. resulting 3 · 8 · 4 − 8 = 88 elements in 2orbits. then 23 choices for the mood (the other sides must have A or O) and 4 choices for the ﬁgure. Twenty of the 3orbits involve only fourth ﬁgure syllogisms. Clearly each C ∗ orbit is contained in a C orbit. EII3. IEI2. which acts on the space of standard syllogisms. These 64 orbits are what make G∗ fail to be a group.) The orbits of the indirectreduction subgroup T . in the big space. IIE4. Finally you must subtract the 8 interesting ﬁxed points. it is noted that the 24 valid forms group into triples by indirect reduction. the other 64 contain one syllogism from each of the other three ﬁgures. Each orbit looks like τ1 τ2 ¯¯ ¯ ¯ XY Z1 ←→ X Z Y 2 ¿ ZY X3 ←→ XY Z1 ∗ τ1 ∗ ∗ τ2 ∗ while the fourthﬁgure orbits look like ¯ ¯ ¯¯ XY Z4 ¿ ZX Y 4 ¿ Y Z X4 ¿ XY Z4 ∗ τ1 ∗ τ1 ∗ τ1 ∗ τ2 ∗ τ2 ∗ τ2 (In [4]. EEI4. for example. and EEEn. EII4. As for the orbits of C itself. and no C orbit contains more than one C ∗ orbit. has 84 orbits of 3. have size 6 except for the eight 2orbits AAO4 AAO40 EEI4 EEI40 IIE4 IIE40 OOA4 OOA40 aao4 aao40 eei4 eei40 iie4 iie40 ooa4 ooa40 That gives (4096 − 16)/3 = 1360 orbits of size 6. there are 3 choices for where the I or E goes. and OOA4. IIEn.
2 and 3 each admit a unique obversion. two 4orbits. Using conversion and obversion we get 42 orbits: eight ﬁxed points (Figure 4 with A’s and O’s). Standard Orbit Orbits syllogisms size 0 8 2 0 24 18 0 48 40 1 16 2 3 24 8 3 48 10 4 8 2 6 48 12 12 24 2 12 48 8 Barbara is in an orbit of size 48 containing the three standard syllogisms. and Bocardo. The only ﬁxed points are AAO4 and OOA4. Antilogisms are represented by the same kind of 17 . eighteen 3orbits. and two 14orbits. Barbara. four 7orbits. four 3orbits. ten 6orbits. we simplify the representation of indirect reduction. 7 Antilogisms By considering antilogisms instead of syllogisms. Using indirect reduction and obversion we get 56 orbits: four ﬁxed points (same as for indirect reduction alone). Of the 104 orbits of CT in the big space. four 5orbits. ten 10orbits. Celarent is in an orbit of size 48 containing the remaining twelve valid standard syllogisms. thirty two 6orbits and twenty 3orbits. Using just obversion we get 160 orbits: 64 ﬁxed points (Figure 4) and 96 orbits of 2. Figures 1. 44 contain standard syllogisms. There are two 1orbits. twelve 6orbits.Using both indirect reduction and conversion we get 44 orbits. Baroco. 2 · 1 + 18 · 3 + 2 · 4 + 12 · 6 + 10 · 12 = 256 for a total of 2 + 18 + 2 + 12 + 10 = 44 orbits. and ten 12orbits. The 3orbits contain the rest of the Figure 4 forms.
where we might have to interchange premises to standardize the syllogism. The 88 orbits correspond to the 88 distinct standard antilogisms. The antilogism p ∧ q ∧ r contains the three syllogisms p ∧ q ⇒ ¬r. We call these Figures 4 and 1. We say that the syllogism p ∧ q ⇒ r belongs to the antilogism p ∧ q ∧ ¬r. so x is distributed in Axy and Exy while y is distributed in Exy and Oxy. • Each term is distributed in some statement • There are two positive statements and one negative statement • There are two universal statements and one particular statements (or just not three universal statements) 18 . We have seen that there are 84 + 4 orbits of T ∗ consisting of four ﬁxed points. is considered the same antilogism–the antilogism is the decorated triangle itself. 2. I. That is. There are 64 = 43 ¡¢ antilogisms in Figure 1 and 24 = 4 + 12 + 8 in Figure 4: The 4 = 4 use one 1 ¡ ¢ of the letters A. independent of its placement. except for the four antilogisms of the form XXX4. Antilogisms in Figure 1 contain syllogisms in Figures 1. Each standard antilogism contains exactly 3 syllogisms. and 3. twenty 3orbits involving only Figure 4 syllogisms. and the 8 = 2 4 use 1 three. The diﬀerence is that the intent of an antilogism is that the three statement are incompatible. the 12 = 4 · 3 use two. p ∧ r ⇒ ¬q. Because of the complete symmetry of the statements p. The following rules suﬃce to distinguish the 15 valid antilogisms. There are only two antilogism ﬁgures–cyclic and acyclic– depending on whether the arrows are all head to tail or not. In terms of triangles. Rules for testing the validity of (standard) antilogisms are simpler than those for syllogisms. A term is distributed in a statement if decreasing its class cannot change the statement from true to false. the 64 antilogisms in Figure 1 pair up to give 32 + 24 = 56 orbits. we view the conjunction of any permutation of those statements to be the same antilogism. an antilogism claims that p ∧ q ∧ r is false. If we also allow obversion. and q ∧ r ⇒ ¬p. any of the six placements of a triangle with given arrows and statement types on the sides. which contain one syllogism apiece. and r. or that the antilogism p∧q ∧r contains the syllogism p∧q ⇒ ¬r. One virtue of considering antilogisms is that one antilogism contains many syllogisms.triangles as syllogisms are. q. and O. E. and sixtyfour 3orbits containing one syllogism from each of the other three ﬁgures.
If we eliminate the third rule. the following two rules suﬃce for the 15 valid antilogisms: • Each term is distributed exactly once • There are two positive statements and one negative statement 8 Symmetrized antilogism ﬁgures s ¶S ¶ S ¶ w S 7 ¶ 1 S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ S / ¶ w S 3 S ¶ Ss s¶ ¶ S s ¶S ¶S ¶ S 7 ¶ 2 S o S ¶ ¶ s Ss s ¶S S ¶ S / ¶ o 4 SS ¶ ¶ s ¶ Ss We have seen that there are four ways to put arrows on the sides of a triangle corresponding to the four traditional ﬁgures of a syllogism. and those without arrows represent statements of type E or I. take proper nonempty sets that make the opposite side true (oneelement sets suﬃce). Three positive statements fail with the same oneelement set at each vertex. which contains Bramantip. and EAA1. which contains Barbari. which may be described as: 19 . of those that pass the ﬁrst two tests). Three universal statements fail by putting the empty set on each vertex (AAE1. Three negative statements fail by putting three diﬀerent oneelement sets on the vertices. By considering antilogisms with symmetrized ﬁgures. There are seven symmetrized antilogism ﬁgures. and a diﬀerent oneelement set (the complement) on the third vertex. then take the third set to be bigger than each of those two sets. By a symmetrized ﬁgure we mean a triangle that has arrows on some (possibly all or none) of its sides. The idea is that the sides with arrows represent statements of type A or O. and AAE4. are all this rules out. we get the traditional 24 valid antilogisms. which contains Darapti. Alternatively. Two negative statements fail by putting the same oneelement set on the vertices of the positive statement.If a term is not distributed. we build both conversion and indirect reduction into the picture.
and III. so there are eight classes. I}. • For s0 the letters must be I and E and it only matters how many of each. so there are eight classes. AAO. • For s10 we pick an ordered triple from {A. There are eight ways to do this. EEI. • For s3. Figure 1. two arrows along: S ¶ S ¶ s0 S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ S ¶ S 7 ¶ s0 S o ¶ S ¶ s Ss s ¶S ¶ s ¶S ¶ S ¶ S ¶ s1 S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ S ¶ S S Ss S To count the number of equivalence classes of antilogisms under indirect reduction and conversion. the letters must be A and O. Figure 4. So there are four classes: EEE. two arrows in. and it only matters how many of each. • For s00 we must pick two from {A. two arrows out. we simply count the number of distinct ways we can assign letters to these ﬁgures. • For s2 we must pick two from {A. So there are four classes: AAA. O} and an element of {E. O}. AOO. • For s1 we have two symmetric types around an asymmetric type. O} and one from {E. I}. which can be done in six ways. and OOO. I}. O} and one from {E. EII. which can be done in six ways. s0 s1 s2 s3 s00 s10 s20 total 4 8 6 4 6 8 8 44 We can also count and classify the 88 antilogisms from this: 20 s ¶S ¶ S ¶ S 7 ¶ s1 S o ¶ S ¶ s Ss ¶ s 7 ¶ ¶ s2  s ¶S ¶ S ¶ w S 7 ¶ s2 S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ S ¶ w S 7 ¶ s3 S ¶ Ss ¶ s ¾ S . one arrow. • For s20 we pick an ordered pair from {A.no arrows.
Datisi. Cesare. and Darapti. For s1. Camenop. This splits into two classes in the absence of obversion: AEIs1 and AAO1. those true for nonempty sets but not in general. by seeing in how many distinct ways we can assign letters to the unprimed ﬁgures. Ferison. Felapton. and AIE and OEE. Festino. So there are six classes. (We list the asymmetric type ﬁrst. s ¶S ¶ E ¶ SS E 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ A ¶ SS A w 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S A E The ﬁrst class consists of Celaront. Celarent. and Fresison. The pseudovalid syllogisms. and s3 the analysis is the same as above. Camestrop.s0 s1 2+2+4+2 4·8 s2 2·4 s3 s00 s10 s20 total 4 2·4 2·4 2·4·4 88 Six of the seven ﬁgures are paired by obversion. Bramantip. there are two pairs that are equivalent under obversion: AII and OEI. which takes it to the corresponding unprimed ﬁgure. indirect reduction. Dimaris. This splits into two classes in the absence of obversion: AAEs2 and AAEs20 . 21 . Disamis. Darii. are in the class AAEs2. Camestres. and the type it points to second. s0 s1 s2 s3 total 4 6 6 4 20 The valid syllogisms come from the class AEIs1. the latter’s symmetrized ﬁgure being s10 . Each of the primed ﬁgures admits exactly one obversion. and any obversion of the unprimed ﬁgure is either itself or the corresponding primed ﬁgure. For s0. the second consists of Barbara. We can count the equivalence classes of antilogisms under obversion. s2. s ¶S ¶ I ¶ SS E ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ A ¶ SS A w 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S A O The ﬁrst class consists of the twelve syllogisms Camenes. and conversion. the second consists of the six syllogisms Barbari. Cesaro. Baroco. Ferio. and Bocardo. and Fesapo.) The obversion changes AI to OE.
Aristotle’s syllogistic. edited by Peter Heath. Yale University Press 1966. Dover Publications [3] De Morgan. Prior analytics.References [1] Aristotle. Augustus. Oxford University Press 1957 [7] Richards. August 2000. Camb. [4] Encyclopaedia Britannica. Soc. 1979. 22 . Trans. Aristotle and logical theory. Cambridge University Press 1980 [6] Łukasiewicz. Phil. Florida Atlantic University. 1854. pp. MST thesis. George. 15th Ed. Jonathan. (Günther Patzig) [5] Lear. Jan. Dawne. [2] Boole.. in On the syllogism and other logical writings. translation and commentary by Robin Smith. 890898. Indianapolis 1989. VIII (1846) 379—408. Categorical syllogisms. Hacket Publishing. On the structure of the syllogism. The laws of thought.
Categorical syllogism 0 I would like to thank my student Dawne Richards for inspiring this paper. using grouptheoretic methods. Primary 03B99 Keywords. Counts are obtained for the number of syllogisms in each equivalence class. As Lear [5] put it. Happy families are all alike. She insisted on writing a masters thesis in logic although she was not required to. to be equivalent if they can be transformed into each other by certain transformations. every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. how to derive valid ones from other valid ones. the space of syllogisms is enlarged to include nonstandard syllogisms. FL 33431 26 July 2003 Abstract We consider two categorical syllogisms. Anna Karenina 1 Categorical syllogisms Studies of categorical syllogisms typically focus on the valid ones: which syllogisms are valid. going back to Aristotle.Equivalence of syllogisms Fred Richman Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton. Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoi. valid or invalid. Many of the ideas developed here are mentioned in her thesis [7]. how the valid ones are classiﬁed. “Our 2000 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation. why they are valid. For a more natural development. 0 1 . that preserve validity. and various groups of transformations on that space are studied. It is shown that two syllogisms are equivalent if and only if they have the same models.
We put an arrow on each side from the subject to the predicate.” But the valid syllogisms exist in the context of all syllogisms. p the predicate term. To understand them and the ways we manipulate them. The statements p and q are the premises. and E is the negation of I. The subject and predicate of the conclusion are the subject term and the predicate term of the syllogism. A typical example of a statement is “all dogs are animals”. and m the middle term. The major premise is traditionally written ﬁrst (so p is the major premise). and r are statements about pairs of classes. q. y the predicate. The terms x and y refer to classes.principal interest in invalid inferences is to discard them. Each statement is of one of the four types Axy All x are y Exy No x are y Ixy Some x are y Oxy Some x are not y Note that O is the negation of A. just as tautologies exist in the context of all propositional forms. the sides to the statements. With this structure there are exactly four ways for the statements to share terms. The vertices of the triangles correspond to the terms. The term common to the two premises is called the middle term. The traditional syllogism contains precisely three terms. The base of the triangle represents the conclusion. as is done in [7]. the statement r is the conclusion. 2 . we need to consider this context. and we take that arrow from left to right. Major Minor Conclusion Figure mp sm sp 1 pm sm sp 2 mp ms sp 3 pm ms sp 4 We can represent the ﬁgures by triangles. where s denotes the subject term. These are the traditional ﬁgures. The term x is called the subject. each of which occurs in two of the three statements. The premise containing the predicate term is the major premise. described by the following table. Categorical syllogisms are inferences of the form p ∧ q ⇒ r where p. In this paper we examine the structure on the set of all syllogisms induced by the traditional methods for transforming one valid syllogism into another. the other is the minor premise.
E. This assignment is called the mood of the syllogism. the conclusion has type O. A. Like this: m s minor ¶ s ¶S ¶S S major 7 ¶ o S ¶ S ¶ s Ss conclusion p Here are the triangles for the four ﬁgures: s ¶S ¶ S ¶ w S 7 ¶ 1 S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ S / ¶ w S 3 S ¶ Ss s¶ ¶ S s ¶S ¶S ¶ S 7 ¶ 2 S o ¶ S ¶ s Ss s ¶S S ¶ S / ¶ o 4 SS ¶ ¶ s ¶ Ss A form of a syllogism is obtained taking a ﬁgure and assigning one of the four statement types. an instantiation of a valid form: if we replace the terms “dogs”. Thus there are 256 forms. by terms denoting any classes whatsoever. and the ﬁgure is 2. This is a valid syllogism.so the major premise is the right side of the triangle and the minor premise is the left side. is traditionally called Festino. some carnivores are not dogs. we assign a class to each vertex. the minor premise has type I. a mnemonic whose vowels are EIO. Therefore. For example. Some carnivores are cats. 64 in each ﬁgure. and O. I. the conclusion will be true if the premises are. and “carnivores”. which means the major premise has type E. We denote the forms by symbols like EIO2. EIO2. to each side of the triangle. To get a syllogism from a form. “cats”. Its triangular representation is 3 . This form. EIO2 is exempliﬁed (or instantiated) by the argument No dogs are cats.
For example. we get EAE2. The 5 forms marked with a dagger come from other forms of the same ﬁgure by weakening the conclusion (assuming existential import). Here are the traditional mnemonic names ﬁgures: 1 2 3 Barbara Cesare Darapti ∗ Celarent Camestres Felapton ∗ Darii Festino Disamis Ferio Baroco Datisi Barbari † Camestrop † Bocardo Celaront † Cesaro † Ferison of 24 of the forms.s ¶S ¶S I ¶ S E 7 ¶ o S ¶ S ¶ s Ss O The 15 unmarked forms are the valid ones. are conversion and indirect reduction (reductio ad impossibile). Cesare. Applying conversion to the major premise of EAE1. arranged by 4 Bramantip ∗ Camenes Dimaris Fesapo ∗ Fresison Camenop † 2 Transformations and nonstandard syllogisms The classical transformations. this transformation corresponds to reversing the arrow on the right side: 4 . so that the major one comes ﬁrst. if necessary. In conversion the subject and predicate of an E or I statement are interchanged. Having pointed out the distinction between forms and their instantiations. the conclusion of Barbari is that some x are y. Celarent.” This is known as attributing existential import to A. and there are some x. the reader is warned that we will tend to use the terms “syllogism” and “form” interchangeably. and the two premises are then interchanged. while the conclusion of Barbara is that all x are y. The 9 marked forms are valid if Axy is interpreted as “all x are y. used by Aristotle [1]. In terms of triangles.
rather than a ﬁrst premise. Baroco and back. that is we pass from p ∧ q ⇒ r to p ∧ ¬r ⇒ ¬q or to ¬r ∧q ⇒ ¬p. both AAA1. we get AEE4. It’s quite indisputable. In this way we go from AAA1. Barbara. and a conclusion. we are ﬂipping the triangle around one of the base vertices. and a conclusion. if necessary. 5 . after interchanging premises: s ¶S ¶ A ¶ SS E w 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ A ¶ SS E w 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s ¾ S s ¶S S E ¶¶ S A / o S ¶ S ¶ s ¶ Ss s ¶S ¶ A ¶ SS E w 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶S A¶ S E 7 ¶ o S ¶ S ¶ s Ss E E E In indirect reduction. Baroco. Barbara. no interchange is necessary if we think of a syllogism as being a major premise. The Force of Argument The interchange of premises. for I’ll prove it with singular ease. a second premise.E E Applying conversion to the conclusion of EAE1. and AOO2. A more serious objection is that the transformations are not onetoone. You shall have it in ‘Barbara’ or ‘Celarent’–whichever you please. one of the premises and the conclusion are interchanged and negated. For example. hence do not form a group. Gilbert. to insure that the major premise comes ﬁrst. seems a little hokey. S. Camenes. to AOO2. and changing the letters on the adjacent sides: s ¶S ¶ A ¶ SS A w 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶S O¶ S A 7 ¶ o S ¶ S ¶ s Ss A O With conversion and indirect reduction the 15 valid forms can be obtained from just two: Barbara and Celarent. and then interchange the two premises. W. However. a minor premise. Geometrically.
when we apply indirect reduction to the major premise and the conclusion of AOO2. OOA40 }. The two ﬂips about the vertices of the base generate this sixelement group. left side. some carnivores are not dogs. The latter are {AAO4. we get AOO 30 . and {OOA4. It is less clear that this is the right setting for conversion. we simply ﬂip the EIO2 triangle. in which the major premise comes second. but that goes against the basic meaning of “conversion. rather than OAO3. Each orbit is composed half of standard ﬁgures and half of nonstandard ﬁgures. No dogs are cats. 30 . Note that the arrow on the base goes from right to left for nonstandard ﬁgures if we keep the convention that the statements on the sides of the triangles are read in order: right side. The group may be thought of as the group D3 of symmetries of an equilateral triangle.are transformed to OAO3. Bocardo. by applying indirect reduction to the major premise and the conclusion. Bocardo. Therefore. Baroco. We can only convert statements of type E and I. To get around this. In the triangle representation. rather than just in the ﬁrst. We will call these ﬁgures nonstandard. The nonstandard ﬁgures seem to provide the right setting for indirect reduction–we get a space of 512 syllogisms with a natural group action on it. say. For example. base.” which is to interchange 6 . Festino. to conversion of the conclusion. IEO20 is exempliﬁed by the argument Some carnivores are cats. We could. IIE40 }. {EEI4. and four of size two. which we denote by 10 . say that conversion leaves statements of type A or O unaﬀected. 20 . of course. There are 84 orbits of this group action of size six. then we have to deﬁne it also when the conclusion is not of type E or I. around its vertical axis of symmetry so the premises are interchanged: s ¶S ¶S E¶ S I 7 ¶ o S ¶ S ¶ s ¾ Ss O We might call this form Festino 0 . necessitates four more ﬁgures. If we want a transformation on the space that corresponds. we can enlarge the deﬁnition of a syllogism slightly. Now. Allowing the major premise to appear in the second position. Bocardo 0 . and the transformation is onetoone. AAO40 }. and 40 . EEI40 }. {IIE4.
So. not used systematically by Aristotle. and o deﬁned by: axy exy ixy oxy = A¯y = E xy x¯ ¯ = E xy = A¯y ¯¯ x = I xy = O¯y ¯¯ x = O¯y = I xy x¯ ¯ (Boole [2] also considered these as four of “the eight fundamental types of propositions. Here x denotes the complement of the class denoted by x. which comes from Barbara by reversing the right arrow. not just at those that are double predicates. we would like a sentence type that is equivalent to A¯y. and change the type of the statement. If we apply it to the predicate of Celarent we get Barbara. As with conversion. While a and o can be viewed as simply quantifying the predicate. With these additional statement types. the second ﬁgure version of Barbara is aAA2. This would require a type of statement that “quantiﬁes the predicate. i. More natural would be to interchange subject and predicate. that is.subject and predicate. We can apply obversion to a syllogism provided that some term appears only as a predicate. and the letters O and o. the obverse of the statement Ixy y is Ox¯. The obverse of the statement Axy is Ex¯.”) Note that axy = Ayx and oxy = Oyx. He considered nonstandard types a. we would like to obvert at any term in a syllogism. so adding the types a and o enables arbitrary arrow reversals (there never was a problem reversing arrows with E and I statements). such as Aaa2. e. De x y Morgan [3] called this type e. like Exy is equivalent to Ax¯. and 7 . so that the resulting statement is equivalent to the original one. Forms with nonstandard conclusion types. Each y ¯ statement is equivalent to its obverse–to say that all dogs are animals is to say that no dogs are nonanimals. For example. for example. Thus any syllogism with a standard ﬁgure can be put into any standard ﬁgure by arrow reversals on the top sides. we can deﬁne conversion of the conclusion to reverse the arrow on the base and interchange the letters A and a. do not correspond so directly to standard syllogisms. No form containing e or i corresponds to a standard syllogism just by arrow reversals and interchanging premises. if necessary. and oxy is equivalent to Oyx. in every ﬁgure except the fourth.” De Morgan [3] introduced the statement types a and o in such a way that axy is equivalent to Ayx. and vice versa. A third transformation. is obversion.
So it is acted on naturally by the group G generated by obversions. What is the structure of G as an abstract group (as opposed to a permutation group)? To ﬁx the notation. With De Morgan’s extended set of 8 statement types. requires considering objects outside the two classes in question. conversion at each side. we get a space of 84 = 4096 syllogistic forms. the second term counts those forms that contain an I or E in one premise. and indirect reductions. 3 The syllogism group If we include the four nonstandard ﬁgures and the four nonstandard statement types. This is convenient for theoretical purposes because it is closed under obversion at each vertex. The 6 · 6 · 4 = 144 forms not containing e or i and having a standard conclusion type correspond to the standard syllogisms. We denote the identity of G by 1. The undercount is 3(2 · 2 · 4) + 2(4 · 2 · 4) = 112. each in the second ﬁgure. and if the arrow on side 3 goes from left to right. they involve unbounded quantiﬁcation. 512 involve only 8 ¶ s Ss S . The conclusion goes on side 3. the number 144 undercounts the number of standard syllogisms. the statement types e and i are essentially diﬀerent. then the premise on side 1 is the major premise. Note that each of these generators of G has order two.thus do not diﬀer essentially from A and O. Of the 4096 syllogisms. Because of the phenomenon that EAA1 and EAA2 are associated with the same second ﬁgure form. we can construct 3 8 = 512 forms. and indirect reduction at each base vertex. conversions. For example. number the sides of a triangle as follows s ¶S ¶ 2 ¶ SS1 ¶ S ¶ 3 using the same numbers for the opposite vertices. the i statement “there is something that is neither a cat nor a dog”. The 2 · 2 · 4 in the ﬁrst term counts those forms that contain I or E in both premises. Unlike the other six types.
Indirect reduction (reductio ad impossibile) does not consider the internal structure of the statements p. Starting from the syllogism p ∧ q ⇒ r.standard types and 256 of those have the major premise on side 1. o ∈ O. It is part of propositional calculus rather than predicate calculus. and τ3 is not an indirect reduction but simply the interchange of premises. a. and r. and the operation τ3 takes it to q ∧ p ⇒ r. Here i = 1. the permutation is (Ae)(Io)(Ea)(Oi). the permutation is (AE)(IO)(ae)(io). The group C is a normal subgroup of order 8 in CT . These are the 256 traditional forms. O. The oi and the ci generate commuting eightelement abelian normal subgroups O and C of type (2. • Obversion: oi changes the letters on each side adjacent to vertex i. This subgroup is the kernel of the map from CT onto the group of permutations of the terms. the arrow on side 3 goes from left to right. a. 2. With the arrow toward the vertex. and o on that side. The generators of G are: • Conversion: ci reverses the arrow on side i and changes the case of the letters A. that is. For τ3 we don’t want to negate the letters. The following relations hold: o2 = c2 = τi2 = 1 i i (τ1 τ2 )3 = 1 ci cj = cj ci ci τi = τi ci c3 = τ1 c2 τ1 = τ2 c1 τ2 oi oj = oj oi oi τi = τi oi o3 = τ1 o2 τ1 = τ2 o1 τ2 ci oj = oj ci The τi generate a subgroup T isomorphic to S3 . the operation τ2 takes it to ¬r ∧q ⇒ ¬p. Each element in G can be written uniquely as a product τ oc with τ ∈ T . O. 2. The subgroup CT can be thought of 9 . With the arrow away from the vertex. 2). so G has order 6 · 8 · 8 = 384 = 27 3. the operation τ1 takes it to p∧¬r ⇒ ¬q. and o commutes with negating. In any event τ3 = τ1 τ2 τ1 = τ2 τ1 τ2 . and c ∈ C. the symmetric group on three letters. What are the relations among the generators of G? Note that changing the case of A. • Indirect reduction: τi ﬂips the triangle around vertex i and negates the letters on the adjacent sides. q. The groups OT and CT are isomorphic.
on the other hand. 2. and hOC. Thus OC. The order of CT is 48 = 24 3 (this result appears in [7]). but will provide a convenient method for showing that two syllogisms are inequivalent. we think of p ∧ q ⇒ r as a statement that is either true or false. A syllogistic form. it contains all elements that ﬁx hτ1 τ2 i under conjugation. This will not only endow the syntactic notion with meaning. τ3 i.) When we say that a syllogism is true. Thus there are 384/24 = 16 conjugates of hτ1 τ2 i. the latter subgroup mapping isomorphically onto the symmetries of the triangle. The subgroup OC. which constitute the Sylow 3subgroups of G. 2). Conjugation by c1 c2 c3 or o1 o2 o3 ﬁxes τ1 and τ1 . That is. is the kernel of the map from G onto the group of permutations of the three terms. the symmetries of the (undecorated) triangle. hOC. We will show that the syntactic notion corresponds to a semantic notion. that is. (Łukasiewicz [6] claims that Aristotle himself thought of syllogisms as implications rather than inferences. By Rα (x. while conjugation by τ1 or τ2 interchanges τ2 τ1 and τ1 τ2 . Clearly G is a semidirect product of OC by T . The same analysis applies to the subgroup OT . is a natural subgroup of G. It will be convenient to think of a syllogism as an implication rather than an inference. The case changes and negations can be ignored because the relations are right. These elements generate a 24element subgroup ﬁxing the threeelement subgroup hτ1 τ2 i under conjugation. their intersection. 2. if its form is valid. which is abelian of type (2. y by the 10 . If α is a form we denote its ternary relation by Rα . z) we mean the truth value of the syllogism that instantiates α when x is the class referred to by the subject term. τ1 i. τ2 i. 2. The group G has exactly three Sylow 2subgroups: hOC. The semantic notion comes from considering instantiations. A syllogism is valid. It’s not hard to show that this subgroup is the normalizer of hτ1 τ2 i. 4 Equivalence of syllogistic forms We have a syntactic notion of when two syllogisms are equivalent: when they can be transformed into each other by an element of G. 2.as the group of symmetries of the cube by associating the sides of the triangles with the three principal axes of symmetry of the cube. we are saying that the statement of the implication is true. y. like EIO2. gives rise to a function from ordered triples of sets to truth values–a ternary relation among sets.
That is. The forms EAI1 and EAI2 are equivalent because of the symmetry of E. In Deﬁnition 3. Rα = Rβ 2. we must pass to Deﬁnition 2. That is. 1. we must allow a permutation of the inputs into the ternary relations. 11 . Deﬁnition 2 respects conversion and indirect reduction. z. we act on the relations with a 48element group isomorphic to the symmetry group of a cube: we can think of the inputs as the (directed) major axes of the cube with complementation occurring if the directions get reversed. y). gives a fairly restrictive equivalence although it is nontrivial. z) = Rβ (x. Rα = Rβ ◦π. whereas we might expect equivalence because the symmetry of I results in the logical equivalence of the two implications Eyz ∧ Axy ⇒ Ixz and Axy ∧ Eyz ⇒ Izx. Deﬁnition 1. {0}) is false and Rα (∅. {0}) is true. and z. where π permutes the variables and may also complement some of them. where π is a permutation of the variables 3. By indirect reduction we go from α = AAA1 to β = AOO2. Rα = Rβ ◦ π. y. y. and we see that Rα (x. The third one will be our deﬁnition of equivalence. We will consider three increasingly weaker notions of equivalence of syllogistic forms α and β. y. The form α is valid if Rα (x. the two implications Eyz ∧ Axy ⇒ Ixz and Ezy ∧ Ayz ⇒ Ixz are logically equivalent.middle term. The forms α = EAI1 and β = AEI4 are not equivalent because Rα (∅. and z by the predicate term. ∅. where we also allow the inputs to be complemented. z) is true for all sets x. In Deﬁnition 2 we act on the ternary relations by permuting the inputs–a sixelement group isomorphic to the symmetry group of an equilateral triangle. which we will ignore. ∅. For these two forms to be equivalent. Deﬁnition 3 respects obversion in addition to conversion and indirect reduction.
But simply writing the major premise ﬁrst. that include nonstandard ﬁgures but only standard statement types. If we restrict ourselves to standard ﬁgures by writing the major premise ﬁrst in the transformed syllogism. and AOO2. we get AEE4. and a conclusion. EAE1. So. then the number of triples of subsets of S making Rα true is equal to the number of triples of subsets of S making Rβ true. a minor premise. then we get EAE40 . For example.Clearly any form equivalent to a valid form is also valid. and S is any set. Two syllogisms are in the same orbit of G if some element of G transforms the one into the other. 12 . but the identiﬁcation of α with τ3 α. and a conclusion. Even the classical transformations take you out of the standard space of 256 forms. and indirect reductions. rather than a ﬁrst premise. and enlarging the standard space to 512. The point is that the syllogism space was enlarged for convenience. Baroco. the group of classical transformations. a nonstandard form. as we have been doing. is so strong that they are thought of as the same syllogism. and indirect reductions without leaving the subspace of standard syllogisms? We will also want to answer the corresponding question with G replaced by CT . Barbara. not so that a standard syllogism could be transformed into more standard syllogisms than it could before. The main reason for allowing nonstandard ﬁgures. then we can transform one into the other by a sequence of conversions. Camenes. If two syllogisms are in the same orbit of G. We need to clarify this question a bit. Our ﬁrst question is 1. If two standard syllogisms are in the same orbit of G. if we convert the conclusion of Celarent. in which we allow the minor premise to come ﬁrst. to stay within the subspace of standard syllogisms. can we transform one into the other by a sequence of conversions. if α is equivalent to β. where the major and minor premises are interchanged. a second premise. 5 Orbits of the syllogism group G An orbit of G is a set of the form {gα : g ∈ G} for some syllogism α. obversions. obversions. then τ2 takes both AAA1. we really need only stay within the space of 512 forms. Indeed they are the same syllogism if we think of a syllogism as consisting of a major premise. More generally. is that the transformations generated by indirect reduction form a group on that space–each transformation has an inverse.
taking standard syllogisms to standard syllogisms.to OAO3. Bocardo. For i = 1. then there exists g so that g(β) = α. we can reduce to one nonstandard type in the same way. then τi∗ τi∗ (α) = α. and the same for c∗ (α). we can convert the nonstandard sentence so that it points away and obvert. If α has two nonstandard statement types. and indirect reductions. 2. Then we can still talk about orbits. To see that every orbit of G contains a standard syllogism. If there is exactly one nonstandard type. c3 . We will calculate the orbits of G∗ and verify that elements of diﬀerent orbits are inequivalent. if τi (α) is nonstandard. giving standard types. eAa2. These forms are transformed to a standard form by the sequence of transformations o2 . τ3 . These are the traditional obversions. This last step is computer assisted. i i deﬁned as follows. 13 EAA4. AAe2 is transformed as follows: AAe2. we may assume that the only nonstandard statement types that appear in α are i and e. If there are three nonstandard types. To show that G∗ is locally invertible. aEa2. i i then τi∗ (α) = τi (α). if necessary. we ﬁrst show that every orbit of G contains a standard syllogism. for i and j distinct elements of {1. AEA40 . extended in a harmless manner to standard syllogisms where they don’t apply. that doesn’t really matter. What is important is that the functions be locally invertible: if f (α) = β. For example. For i = 1. if oi (α) is standard. Our second question is about the converse: 2. If two syllogisms are equivalent. while if τi (α) is standard. As far as the computation of orbits is concerned. If two syllogisms are in the same orbit of G. then they are equivalent in the sense of Section 4. By applying conversions. Let G∗ be the monoid generated by these functions. are they in the same orbit of G? To answer both questions. i otherwise o∗ (α) = α. 2. By passing to τ3 (α). So we need only consider Figure 2. then o∗ (α) = oi (α). If one of the top edges points to the base. c∗ and τi∗ . AEa1. start with a syllogism α. 3. 2}. we can operate just as well with a monoid of functions that are not onetoone. i i and. . we may assume that the ﬁgure is standard. we can bring it to the conclusion with τ1 or τ2 . it suﬃces to show that the generators are. then by applying conversion we can point their arrows away from each other and obvert the subjects. then τj∗ τi∗ (α) = α. if τi (α) is standard. conversions. otherwise τi∗ (α) = τ3 τi (α). Then we consider the (not necessarily invertible) transformations o∗ . o3 . c1 . Clearly o∗ and c∗ are their own inverses.
3. with the sizes of the orbits given on the left. is in a 9orbit consisting of those syllogisms that are true for all nonempty classes (these are valid syllogisms if we assume existential import: Axy entails there exist x’s). Otherwise. Moreover. then α is true ¯ ¯ for that triple. paired by the full negation symmetry. AAA1. AAO4 is the unique standard form in its orbit. is in a 15orbit consisting of the valid syllogisms. α is a valid syllogism and α cannot also be valid ¯ because of the rules “there can be at most one negative premise” and “if one premise is negative. 1 3 7 9 9 15 15 18 21 30 AAO4 AAA4 AAI2 AAE3 AAI1 AAA1 AAO1 AAE1 AAE2 AAA2 OOA4 AOA4 IIE1 AIA2 IOA1 AOA3 IIA1 AOE3 AIA1 AIE1 It remains to verify that no two of the syllogisms listed in the table are equivalent. 7. the conclusion must be negative” (see the rules for valid antilogisms below: there must be two positive statements and one negative statement in a valid antilogism). and the ﬁrst syllogism in the orbits on the right. The monoid G∗ has 20 orbits: four each with 9 and 15 points. Here are the 20 orbits of G∗ . AAI1. Elements of G and G∗ commute with the full negation symmetry: It’s easy to see that if the form α is transformed to β by one of the generating ¯ transformations. If there is a triple of classes that makes α false. 21 and 30 points. and two each with 1.It is interesting to note that the much maligned Figure 4 is the only standard ﬁgure that appears with standard statement types in each orbit of G. one orbit being the full negation of the other. replaces each statement type by its negation and leaves the ﬁgures alone. This is a diﬀerent kind of calculation–a semantic rather than 14 . 18. Barbari. Barbara. a standard form α cannot be equivalent to its full negation α. So the orbits come in pairs. The full negation symmetry on the space of syllogisms. Indeed. then its full negation α is transformed to β by that same ¯ transformation. or standard syllogisms.
To see that the counts for AAA2 and AAE2 are always the same look at the correspondence s = s. Here are those counts for n = 3. which also happens 4n times. but it doesn’t quite do the job.a syntactic one. The syllogism AAO1 is false only if s contains m and m contains p. There is a test for inequivalence that avoids headtohead comparison of syllogisms. and look at all triples of subsets of it. This happens 4n times. The correspondence is s = m. m = s. then subtracting the 4n ways that this is done with the ﬁrst set empty. . and s intersects m and is not contained in p. A sort of relative obversion. n}. It’s not hard to see that the counts will always be 4n for AAI2 and AAO1. say {1. If two syllogisms are equivalent. Fortunately we can get by with a small value of n. Number of triples of subsets make a syllogism false AAO4 8 OOA4 AAA4 56 AOA4 AAI2 64 IIE1 AAE3 98 AIA2 AAI1 27 IOA1 AAA1 0 AOA3 AAO1 64 IIA1 AAE1 37 AOE3 AAE2 61 AIA1 AAA2 61 AIE1 that 48 96 175 115 90 30 114 54 30 91 We still need to compare AAA2 with AAE2. then they will be false on the same number of triples of subsets. and AAI2 with AAO1. is gotten by choosing 4 disjoint sets. 15 . which is 5n − 4n . m = m. AOA3 with AIA1. and p = m \ p. The second is false if p contains m. What about AIA1 and AOA3? The ﬁrst is false if p contains m. s = m \ p. there are 48 ways to hook up two syllogisms by permuting and complementing inputs in order to test for equivalence. . m = s ∪ p and p = p. but this is not the case. One might hope that a bigger universe would distinguish these. 2. However. . as we now demonstrate. The syllogism AAI2 is false only if m contains the disjoint sets s and p. and p = p. Conversely. which can be done in 5n ways. The count. . We choose a ﬁnite universe.
) It turns out that if two orbits of G contain the same number of standard syllogisms. the syllogism AAO4 is left invariant by the sixelement subgroup T . (Because Barbari is true for all nonempty classes. The only reason that it was not part of the standard list of 19 valid syllogisms. The count is 5n − 3n . was because it was thought that one should always use the stronger Barbara instead. This was ascertained by a program that computed the orbits. and s intersects p. the order of G. The syllogism AAI1. To show that none of these three pairs are equivalent. In short. and the corresponding orbits in the space of 256 standard syllogisms. 6 Orbits of subgroups of G By restricting the allowable transformations. once for each subset of the universe. so the size of its orbit is 384/6 = 64. the quotient being the number of symmetries of a syllogism in that orbit. For example. So letting s = (s \ p) ∪ (p \ s). Of course all of the sizes divide the order of G. and the number of orbits containing that number of standard syllogisms. Here are the counts for a few other syllogisms. standard syllogisms 1 3 7 9 15 18 21 30 syllogisms 64 192 64 192 192 384 192 384 number of orbits 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 256 4096 20 Note that the size of four of the orbits is 384. is false only if p is empty and m is contained in s. This happens 3n times. both conditions say p contains m but not s. a program was written to try all 48 possibilities on each of the three pairs. Barbari. They all failed. then they have the same size. The equivalence classes are the orbits of various subgroups of G. or 14 excluding Figure 4. The ﬁrst says also that m intersects s. it is sometimes considered valid. The syllogism AAE3 is false only if m is contained in s and p. In this section we study those orbits. This happens 2n times. we get diﬀerent notions of equivalence of syllogisms. 16 . the second that m intersects p − s. gives a correspondence.and s does not contain m and is not contained in p. The syllogism AAO4 is false only if s = p = m. By exclusion—inclusion the count is 6n − 2 · 5n + 4n . the corresponding size of the orbit. So we have answered the two questions in the aﬃrmative. The following table shows the number of standard syllogisms for each of the 20 orbits of G.
EII3. As for the orbits of C itself. EEI4. and m ∈ {2. and 4 ﬁxed points: AAO4. E}. In addition. the other 64 contain one syllogism from each of the other three ﬁgures. IIIn. and EEEn. 3}. which acts on the space of standard syllogisms. Y ∈ {I. EII2. IEI4. and each of these gives a 4orbit.How many orbits are there in the space of 256 standard syllogisms if we just allow conversion? Let c∗ (α) = ci (α). IEI3. EII4. One 8orbit is IEI1. and no C orbit contains more than one C ∗ orbit. or 8. The other 8orbit is gotten by interchanging E’s and I’s. To construct an element of a 2orbit. There are 114 orbits which break down as follows: size of orbit 1 2 4 8 number of orbits 40 44 28 2 Of the 1orbits (ﬁxed points) 32 are boring: those syllogisms in which all sentence types are A or O. then 23 choices for the mood (the other sides must have A or O) and 4 choices for the ﬁgure. there are 3 · 23 = 24 moods in which exactly one statement is of type A or O. C ∗ . EII1. IIE4. 2. so conversion doesn’t really ever apply. There are four 4orbits with just E’s and I’s. 4. Clearly each C ∗ orbit is contained in a C orbit. if you are trying to convert an A or an O). The indirectreduction submonoid T ∗ . These 64 orbits are what make G∗ fail to be a group. IIEn. So the sizes of the orbits can only be 1. O}. This generates a group. if ci (α) is standard. in the space of all 4096 syllogisms. IEI2. there are 3 choices for where the I or E goes. each contains 8 elements and there are 512 of them. Finally you must subtract the 8 interesting ﬁxed points. of order 8. and OOA4. has 84 orbits of 3. resulting 3 · 8 · 4 − 8 = 88 elements in 2orbits. The 8 interesting ﬁxed points are XXY m where X ∈ {A. containing one syllogism from each ﬁgure: EEIn. Each orbit looks like τ1 τ2 ¯¯ ¯ ¯ XY Z1 ←→ X Z Y 2 ¿ ZY X3 ←→ XY Z1 ∗ τ1 ∗ ∗ τ2 ∗ while the fourthﬁgure orbits look like ¯ ¯ ¯¯ XY Z4 ¿ ZX Y 4 ¿ Y Z X4 ¿ XY Z4 ∗ τ1 ∗ τ1 ∗ τ1 ∗ τ2 ∗ τ2 ∗ τ2 17 . Twenty of the 3orbits involve only fourth ﬁgure syllogisms. and c∗ (α) = α i i otherwise (that is.
and ten 12orbits. 18 . There are two 1orbits. Celarent is in an orbit of size 48 containing the remaining twelve valid standard syllogisms. 2 · 1 + 18 · 3 + 2 · 4 + 12 · 6 + 10 · 12 = 256 for a total of 2 + 18 + 2 + 12 + 10 = 44 orbits. two 4orbits. for example. Figures 1. eighteen 3orbits. Standard Orbit Orbits syllogisms size 0 8 2 0 24 18 0 48 40 1 16 2 3 24 8 3 48 10 4 8 2 6 48 12 12 24 2 12 48 8 Barbara is in an orbit of size 48 containing the three standard syllogisms. Baroco. 44 contain standard syllogisms. Barbara. in the big space.) Using both indirect reduction and conversion we get 44 orbits. The only ﬁxed points are AAO4 and OOA4. (It’s easier to see this in terms of antilogisms. have size 6 except for the eight 2orbits AAO4 AAO40 EEI4 EEI40 IIE4 IIE40 OOA4 OOA40 aao4 aao40 eei4 eei40 iie4 iie40 ooa4 ooa40 That gives (4096 − 16)/3 = 1360 orbits of size 6.) The orbits of the indirectreduction subgroup T . twelve 6orbits. it is noted that the 24 valid forms group into triples by indirect reduction. 2 and 3 each admit a unique obversion. and Bocardo. Using just obversion we get 160 orbits: 64 ﬁxed points (Figure 4) and 96 orbits of 2. Of the 104 orbits of CT in the big space.(In [4].
ten 6orbits. and two 14orbits. The 3orbits contain the rest of the Figure 4 forms. is considered the same antilogism–the antilogism is the decorated triangle itself. 2. 7 Antilogisms An antilogism is just like a syllogism except that an antilogism says ¬(p ∧ q ∧ r) rather than p ∧ q ⇒ r. twenty 3orbits involving only Figure 4 syllogisms. and 3. I. except for the four antilogisms of the form XXX4. Each standard antilogism contains exactly 3 syllogisms. we view any permutation of those statements to be the same antilogism. four 3orbits. four 5orbits. The antilogism ¬(p ∧ q ∧ r) contains the three syllogisms p ∧ q ⇒ ¬r. and O. antilogisms are just another way of looking at syllogisms. E. Because of the complete symmetry of the statements p. Antilogisms are represented by the same kind of triangles as syllogisms are. the 12 = 4 · 3 use two. There are 64 = 43 ¡¢ antilogisms in Figure 1 and 24 = 4 + 12 + 8 in Figure 4: The 4 = 4 use one 1 ¡ ¢ of the letters A. which contains the syllogisms in Figures 1. or that the antilogism ¬(p ∧ q ∧ r) contains the syllogism p ∧ q ⇒ ¬r. where we might have to interchange premises to standardize the syllogism. and r in ¬(p ∧ q ∧ r). We call the cyclic one Figure 4 because it contains the Figure4 syllogisms. indirect reduction is built into the notion of an antilogism. We say that the syllogism p ∧ q ⇒ r belongs to the antilogism ¬(p ∧ q ∧ ¬r). p ∧ r ⇒ ¬q. We have seen that there are 84 + 4 orbits of T ∗ consisting of four ﬁxed points. Thus. four 7orbits. One virtue of considering antilogisms is that one antilogism contains many syllogisms. independent of its placement. The 88 orbits correspond to the 88 distinct standard antilogisms.Using indirect reduction and obversion we get 56 orbits: four ﬁxed points (same as for indirect reduction alone). q. we call Figure 1. In terms of triangles. thirty two 6orbits and twenty 3orbits. and q ∧ r ⇒ ¬p. There are only two antilogism ﬁgures–cyclic and acyclic–depending on whether the arrows are all head to tail or not. any of the six placements of a triangle with given arrows and statement types on the sides. and the 8 = 2 4 use 1 19 . As ¬(p ∧ q ∧ r) is equivalent to p ∧ q ⇒ ¬r. and sixtyfour 3orbits containing one syllogism from each of the other three ﬁgures. Using conversion and obversion we get 42 orbits: eight ﬁxed points (Figure 4 with A’s and O’s). which contain one syllogism apiece and are not valid. The acyclic antilogism. ten 10orbits.
and EAA1. Two negative statements fail by putting the same oneelement set on the vertices of the positive statement. of those that pass the ﬁrst two tests). The following rules suﬃce to distinguish the 5 valid antilogisms (that contain the 15 valid syllogisms). If we eliminate the third rule. are all this rules out. then take the third set to be bigger than each of those two sets. If we also allow obversion. Rules for testing the validity of (standard) antilogisms are simpler than those for syllogisms. take proper nonempty sets that make the opposite side true (oneelement sets suﬃce). Alternatively. Three negative statements fail by putting three diﬀerent oneelement sets on the vertices. which contains Darapti. so x is distributed in Axy and Exy while y is distributed in Exy and Oxy. 20 . • Each term is distributed in some statement • There are two positive statements and one negative statement • There are two universal statements and one particular statements (or just not three universal statements) If a term is not distributed. which contains Bramantip.three. we get the 8 antilogisms that are valid assuming existential import. the 64 antilogisms in Figure 1 pair up to give 32 + 24 = 56 orbits. and a diﬀerent oneelement set (the complement) on the third vertex. A term is distributed in a statement if decreasing its class cannot change the statement from true to false. the following two rules suﬃce for the 5 valid antilogisms: • Each term is distributed exactly once • There are two positive statements and one negative statement 8 Symmetrized antilogism ﬁgures We have seen that there are four ways to put arrows on the sides of a triangle corresponding to the four traditional ﬁgures of a syllogism. and AAE4. which contains Barbari. Three positive statements fail with the same oneelement set at each vertex. Three universal statements fail by putting the empty set on each vertex (AAE1.
There are eight ways to do this. which may be described as: no arrows. and those without arrows represent statements of type E or I. By considering antilogisms with symmetrized ﬁgures. EII. Figure 1. EEI. The idea is that the sides with arrows represent statements of type A or O. Figure 4. So there are four classes: EEE. two arrows in.s ¶S ¶ S ¶ w S 7 ¶ 1 S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ S / ¶ w S 3 S ¶ Ss s¶ ¶ S s ¶S ¶S ¶ S 7 ¶ 2 S o ¶ S ¶ s Ss s ¶S S ¶ S / ¶ o 4 SS ¶ s¶ ¶ Ss By a symmetrized ﬁgure we mean a triangle that has arrows on some (possibly all or none) of its sides. we simply count the number of distinct ways we can assign letters to these ﬁgures. • For s0 the letters must be I and E and it only matters how many of each. two arrows along: S ¶ ¶ s0 S S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ S ¶ S 7 ¶ s0 S o ¶ S ¶ s Ss s ¶S ¶ s ¶S ¶ S ¶ ¶ s1 S S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ S ¶ S S Ss S To count the number of equivalence classes of antilogisms under indirect reduction and conversion. • For s1 we have two symmetric types around an asymmetric type. There are seven symmetrized antilogism ﬁgures. two arrows out. one arrow. and III. s ¶S ¶ S ¶ S 7 ¶ s1 S o ¶ S ¶ s Ss ¶ s 7 ¶ ¶ s2  s ¶S ¶ S ¶ w S 7 ¶ s2 S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ S ¶ w S 7 ¶ s3 S ¶ Ss ¶ s ¾ S 21 . we build both conversion and indirect reduction into the picture.
and AIE and OEE. For s1. (We list the asymmetric type ﬁrst. which can be done in six ways. and it only matters how many of each. I}. • For s00 we must pick two from {A.• For s2 we must pick two from {A. and the type it points to second. so there are eight classes. AOO. O}. s0 s1 s2 s3 s00 s10 s20 total 4 8 6 4 6 8 8 44 We can also count and classify the 88 antilogisms from this: s0 s1 2+2+4+2 4·8 s2 2·4 s3 s00 s10 s20 total 4 2·4 2·4 2·4·4 88 Six of the seven ﬁgures are paired by obversion. which takes it to the corresponding unprimed ﬁgure. • For s3. so there are eight classes. Each of the primed ﬁgures admits exactly one obversion. and conversion. For s0. and OOO. • For s10 we pick an ordered triple from {A. s2. We can count the equivalence classes of antilogisms under obversion. I}. and s3 the analysis is the same as above. O} and one from {E. So there are four classes: AAA. indirect reduction. and any obversion of the unprimed ﬁgure is either itself or the corresponding primed ﬁgure. the letters must be A and O. AAO. I}.) The obversion changes AI to OE. So there are six classes. • For s20 we pick an ordered pair from {A. which can be done in six ways. by seeing in how many distinct ways we can assign letters to the unprimed ﬁgures. there are two pairs that are equivalent under obversion: AII and OEI. O} and one from {E. s0 s1 s2 s3 total 4 6 6 4 20 22 . O} and an element of {E.
were given and shown to be equivalent. Not only is 23 . s ¶S ¶ I ¶ SS E ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ A ¶ SS A w 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S A O The ﬁrst class consists of the twelve syllogisms Camenes. The number of orbits of G of each size were computed and the structure of G as an abstract group was ascertained. Antilogisms were suggested as a more eﬃcient way to analyze equivalence of syllogisms. Cesaro. Darii. Ferison. s ¶S ¶ E ¶ SS E 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S s ¶S ¶ A ¶ SS A w 7 ¶ S ¶ Ss ¶ s S A E The ﬁrst class consists of Celaront. the latter’s symmetrized ﬁgure being s10 . Camestrop. are in the class AAEs2. and Fresison. Cesare. those true for nonempty sets but not in general. the second consists of the six syllogisms Barbari. Camenop.The valid syllogisms come from the class AEIs1. the space of syllogisms has a more complicated structure. the second consists of Barbara. The classiﬁcation of valid and pseudovalid syllogisms into antilogism classes appears in [7]. This splits into two classes in the absence of obversion: AEIs1 and AAO1. 9 Recapitulation and questions Two deﬁnitions of equivalence of syllogisms. Dimaris. Festino. and Fesapo. Bramantip. Disamis. and Bocardo. Baroco. Datisi. Celarent. The pseudovalid syllogisms. What happens if you try to do everything with existential import? In that case. and Darapti. Ferio. one syntactic and one semantic. The standard space of 256 syllogisms was extended to a space of 4096 syllogisms acted upon by a group G of transformations that come from the classical transformations used to generate all valid syllogisms from Barbara. Camestres. Felapton. This splits into two classes in the absence of obversion: AAEs2 and AAEs20 .
Soc. Dawne. Camb. on which are founded the mathematical theories of logic and probabilities. Augustus. Dover 1958. Walton & Maberly 1854. I haven’t checked whether there are noninvertible implications even without existential import.there an equivalence relation. 890898. Cambridge University Press 1980 [6] Łukasiewicz. [4] Encyclopaedia Britannica. On the structure of the syllogism. a priori. to produce equivalent syllogisms. VIII (1846) 379—408. translation and commentary by Robin Smith. MST thesis. Aristotle’s syllogistic. yet the classically valid syllogisms are intuitionistically valid. Syllogistic. Hackett Publishing. there is a partial order given by implication: For example. Categorical syllogisms. XY An implies XY In. Florida Atlantic University. and how interesting is it? Actually. Reprinted. What happens if you try to do everything in the context of intuitionistic logic? Neither indirect reduction nor obversion is guaranteed. How easy is it to describe this partial order. Trans. Jan. Indianapolis 1989. edited by Peter Heath.. 24 . Phil. The laws of thought. Aristotle and logical theory. 15th Ed. (Günther Patzig) [5] Lear. 1979. Yale University Press 1966. What are the proper deﬁnitions of syntactic and semantic equivalence? References [1] Aristotle. pp. in On the syllogism and other logical writings. Prior analytics. [2] Boole. August 2000. Jonathan. George. Oxford University Press 1957 [7] Richards. [3] De Morgan.