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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
2 October 1869(1869-10-02) Born Porbandar, Bombay Presidency, British India 30 January 1948(1948-01-30) (aged 78) New Delhi, Union of India
Cause of death Assassination (three bullets in the chest) Resting place Nationality Other names Rajghat, New Delhi, India Indian Mahatma Gandhi, Bapu
University College London, University of London Prominent figure of Indian independence
movement Propounding the philosophy of Satyagraha and Ahimsa
Hinduism Kasturba Gandhi Harilal
Manilal Ramdas Devdas Putlibai Gandhi (Mother) Karamchand Gandhi (Father) Signature
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી; Hindi: मोहनदास करमचंद गाधी, pronounced [moːɦənd̪aːs kərəmtɕənd̪ ɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( listen); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He pioneered satyagraha. This is defined as resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded upon ahimsa, or total nonviolence. This concept helped India gain independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Gandhi is often referred to as Mahatma Gandhi ([məɦaːt̪maː]; Sanskrit: महातमा mahātmā or "Great Soul", an honorific first applied to him by Rabindranath Tagore). In India he is also called Bapu (Gujarati: બાપુ , bāpu or "Father") and officially honored in India as the Father of the Nation. His birthday, 2 October, is commemorated as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence. Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948 by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu Nationalist. Gandhi first employed civil disobedience while an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, during the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he organized protests by peasants, farmers, and urban laborers concerning excessive land-tax and
discrimination. After assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women's rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance. Above all, he aimed to achieve Swaraj or the independence of India from foreign domination. Gandhi famously led his followers in the Non-cooperation movement that protested the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (240 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930. He launched the Quit India civil disobedience movement in 1942, demanding immediate independence for India. Gandhi spent a number of years in jail in both South Africa and India. As a practitioner of ahimsa, Gandhi swore to speak the truth and advocated that others do the same. He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven from yarn that he had spun by hand himself. He ate simple vegetarian food, experimented for a time with a fruitarian diet, and undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and social protest.
1 Early life and background 2 Civil rights movement in South Africa (1893–1914)
2.1 Racism and controversy 2.2 Role in Zulu War of 1906 3.1 Role in World War I 3.2 Champaran and Kheda 3.3 Non-cooperation 3.4 Salt Satyagraha (Salt March) 3.5 World War II and Quit India
3 Struggle for Indian Independence (1915–1945)
○ ○ ○ ○ ○
• • •
4 Partition of India 5 Assassination 6 Principles, practices and beliefs
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○
6.1 Truth 6.2 Nonviolence 6.3 Vegetarianism 6.4 Nai Talim, Basic Education 6.5 Brahmacharya 6.6 Simplicity 6.7 Faith 6.8 Swaraj
7 Literary works
8 Legacy and depictions in popular culture
○ ○ ○ ○ ○
8.1 Followers and international influence 8.2 Global holidays 8.3 Awards 8.4 Film and literature 8.5 Current impact within India
• • • • •
9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links
Early life and background
A young Gandhi, c. 1876 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 in Porbandar, a coastal town which was then part of the Bombay Presidency, British India. His father, Karamchand Gandhi (1822–1885), who belonged to the Hindu Modh community, served as the diwan (a high official) of Porbander state, a small princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India. His grandfather was Uttamchand Gandhi, fondly called Utta Gandhi. His mother, Putlibai, who came from the Hindu Pranami Vaishnava community, was Karamchand's fourth wife, the first three wives having apparently died in childbirth. Growing up with a devout mother and the Jain traditions of the region, the young Mohandas absorbed early the influences that would play an important role in his adult life; these included compassion for sentient beings, vegetarianism, fasting for self-purification, and mutual tolerance between individuals of different creeds.
The Indian classics, especially the stories of Shravana and Maharaja Harishchandra from the Indian epics, had a great impact on Gandhi in his childhood. The story of Harishchandra, a wellknown tale of an ancient Indian king and a truthful hero, haunted Gandhi as a boy. Gandhi in his autobiography admits that it left an indelible impression on his mind. He writes: "It haunted me and I must have acted Harishchandra to myself times without number." Gandhi's early selfidentification with Truth and Love as supreme values is traceable to his identification with these epic characters. In May 1883, the 13-year old Mohandas was married to 14-year old Kasturbai Makhanji (her first name was usually shortened to "Kasturba", and affectionately to "Ba") in an arranged child marriage, according to the custom of the region. Recalling the day of their marriage he once said that, "As we didn't know much about marriage, for us it meant only wearing new clothes, eating sweets and playing with relatives." However, as was also the custom of the region, the adolescent bride was to spend much time at her parents' house, and away from her husband. In 1885, when Gandhi was 15, the couple's first child was born, but survived only a few days; Gandhi's father, Karamchand Gandhi, had died earlier that year. Mohandas and Kasturba had four more children, all sons: Harilal, born in 1888; Manilal, born in 1892; Ramdas, born in 1897; and Devdas, born in 1900. At his middle school in Porbandar and high school in Rajkot, Gandhi remained an average student academically. He passed the matriculation exam for Samaldas College at Bhavnagar, Gujarat with some difficulty. While there, he was unhappy, in part because his family wanted him to become a barrister.
Gandhi and his wife Kasturba (1902) On 4 September 1888, less than a month shy of his 19th birthday, Gandhi travelled to London, England, to study law at University College London and to train as a barrister. His time in London, the Imperial capital, was influenced by a vow he had made to his mother in the presence of the Jain monk Becharji, upon leaving India, to observe the Hindu precepts of abstinence from meat, alcohol, and promiscuity. Although Gandhi experimented with adopting "English" customs—taking dancing lessons for example—he could not stomach the bland vegetarian food offered by his landlady and he was always hungry until he found one of London's few vegetarian restaurants. Influenced by Salt's book, he joined the Vegetarian Society, was elected to its executive committee, and started a local Bayswater chapter. Some of the vegetarians he met were members of the Theosophical Society, which had been founded in 1875 to further universal brotherhood, and which was devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu literature. They encouraged Gandhi to join them in reading the Bhagavad Gita both in translation as well as in the original. Not having shown a particular interest in religion before, he became interested in religious thought and began to read both Hindu as well as Christian scriptures. Gandhi was called to the bar on 10 June 1891 and left London for India on 12 June 1891, where he learned that his mother had died while he was in London, his family having kept the news from him. His attempts at establishing a law practice in Bombay failed and, later, after
He was thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after refusing to move from the first class to a third-class coach while holding a valid first-class ticket. then part of the British Empire. Gandhi faced the discrimination directed at Indians. he ended up returning to Rajkot to make a modest living drafting petitions for litigants. In another incident.K. he accepted a year-long contract from Dada Abdulla & Co. to a post in the Colony of Natal. Travelling farther on by stagecoach he was beaten by a driver for refusing to travel on the foot board to make room for a European passenger.. in April 1893. Civil rights movement in South Africa (1893–1914) Main article: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in South Africa Gandhi in South Africa (1895) M. .applying and being turned down for a part-time job as a high school teacher. It was in this climate that. He suffered other hardships on the journey as well. South Africa. a business he was forced to close when he ran foul of a British officer. an Indian firm. In his autobiography he refers to this incident as an unsuccessful attempt to lobby on behalf of his older brother. including being barred from several hotels. Gandhi while serving in the Ambulance Corps during the Boer War In South Africa.
 Two professors of history who specialise in South Africa. Gandhi's ideas took shape and the concept of satyagraha matured during this struggle.. flogged. Gandhi extended his original period of stay in South Africa to assist Indians in opposing a bill to deny them the right to vote. they argue. We believe also that the white race in South Africa should be the predominating race. "the young Gandhi was influenced by segregationist notions prevalent in the 1890s. and . calling on his fellow Indians to defy the new law and suffer the punishments for doing so. Though unable to halt the bill's passage. Gandhi protested repeatedly about the social classification of blacks with Indians.  These events were a turning point in his life. for striking. 2005). At a mass protest meeting held in Johannesburg on 11 September that year. The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa. Africans and Indians in Colonial Natal" on the relationship between the African and Indian communities under "White rule" and policies which enforced segregation (and. While the government was successful in repressing the Indian protesters. led to inevitable conflict between these communities). Gandhi commented: "We believe as much in the purity of race as we think they do. 1893–1914. the public outcry stemming from the harsh methods employed by the South African government in the face of peaceful Indian protesters finally forced South African General Jan Christiaan Smuts to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi. refusing to register. (New Delhi: Manohar.. In January 1897. Racism and controversy Some of Gandhi's early South African articles are controversial. the Transvaal government promulgated a new Act compelling registration of the colony's Indian population." At the same time. for the first time. He helped found the Natal Indian Congress in 1894. It was through witnessing firsthand the racism.the magistrate of a Durban court ordered Gandhi to remove his turban – which he refused to do. In 1906. Remarks such as these have led some to accuse Gandhi of racism. Of this relationship they state that. or even shot. refused to press charges against any member of the mob. burning their registration cards or engaging in other forms of non-violent resistance. however. awakening him to social injustice and influencing his subsequent social activism. he moulded the Indian community of South Africa into a unified political force. and through this organisation. "Gandhi's experiences in jail seemed to make him more sensitive to their plight. Gandhi adopted his still evolving methodology of satyagraha (devotion to the truth). when Gandhi landed in Durban he was attacked by a mob of white settlers and escaped only through the efforts of the wife of the police superintendent. and his own place in society. "Gandhi. prejudice and injustice against Indians in South Africa that Gandhi started to question his people's status within the British Empire." Writing on the subject of immigration in 1903. examined this controversy in their text. leading to a seven-year struggle in which thousands of Indians were jailed (including Gandhi). rather than resist through violent means.. It is worth noting though that the word Kaffir had a different connotation in Gandhi's time than its current day meaning.the later Gandhi mellowed. Surendra Bhana and Goolam Vahed. or non-violent protest. On 7 March 1908. Gandhi wrote in the Indian Opinion of his time in a South African prison: "Kaffirs are as a rule uncivilised— the convicts even more so." During his time in South Africa. his campaign was successful in drawing attention to the grievances of Indians in South Africa. They focus in Chapter 1. whom he described as "undoubtedly infinitely superior to the Kaffirs". very dirty and live almost like animals. they state. He. They are troublesome. The community adopted this plan. stating it was one of his principles not to seek redress for a personal wrong in a court of law.. he seemed much less categorical in his expression of prejudice against Africans.
 In contrast to the Zulu War of 1906 and the outbreak of World War I in 1914. not only in my opinion. in connection with the operations against the Natives consists of twenty three Indians".much more open to seeing points of common cause. Gandhi wrote in Indian Opinion: "The corps had been formed at the instance of the Natal Government by way of experiment. This was no war but a manhunt. this time Gandhi attempted to recruit combatants. On 21 July 1906. Gandhi wrote "To bring about such a state of things we should have the ability to defend ourselves. He spoke at the conventions of the Indian National Congress. "Even the half-castes and kaffirs. have resisted the government. but they do not take out passes. friend or foe. Gandhi returned from South Africa to live in India. that is. He argued that Indians should support the war efforts in order to legitimise their claims to full citizenship. the British declared war against the Zulus. Role in Zulu War of 1906 Main article: Bambatha Rebellion In 1906. In his words. who are less advanced than we. politics and the Indian people by Gopal Krishna Gokhale. the ability to bear arms and to use them. when plans to unveil a statue of Gandhi in Johannesburg was announced. they would make use of it and give Indians the opportunity of a thorough training for actual warfare. In response. Zulus in South Africa killed two British officers. In a June 1918 leaflet entitled "Appeal for Enlistment".. but was primarily introduced to Indian issues.If we want to learn the use of arms with the greatest possible despatch. The British. This corps was commanded by Gandhi. the Viceroy invited Gandhi to a War Conference in Delhi Perhaps to show his support for the Empire and help his case for India's independence." Struggle for Indian Independence (1915–1945) See also: Indian independence movement In 1915.. the Draft Ordinance of 1906 brought the status of Indians below the level of Natives. after the British introduced a new poll-tax. when he recruited volunteers for the Ambulance Corps. Gandhi agreed to actively recruit Indians for the war effort.” In Gandhi's opinion. Nonetheless. a respected leader of the Congress Party at the time. . however. Gandhi urged the Indian population in South Africa to join the war through his columns in Indian Opinion: “If the Government only realised what reserve force is being wasted. He therefore urged Indians to resist the Ordinance along the lines of satyagraha by taking the example of "Kaffirs". Role in World War I In April 1918." He did however stipulate in a letter to the Viceroy's private secretary that he "personally will not kill or injure anybody. during the latter part of World War I. a movement unsuccessfully tried to block it because of Gandhi's "racist" statements. but also in that of many Englishmen with whom I had occasion to talk. they accepted Gandhi's offer to let a detachment of Indians volunteer as a stretcher-bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers. Gandhi actively encouraged the British to recruit Indians. refused to commission Indians as army officers. His negative views in the Johannesburg jail were reserved for hardened African prisoners rather than Africans generally." Gandhi's war recruitment campaign brought into question his consistency on nonviolence as his friend Charlie Andrews confirms. The pass law applies to them as well." In 1927 Gandhi wrote of the event: "The Boer War had not brought home to me the horrors of war with anything like the vividness that the [Zulu] 'rebellion' did. it is our duty to enlist ourselves in the army." However.
leaving them mired in extreme poverty. the British levied a tax which they insisted on increasing. including the general state of degenerate living. The villages were kept extremely dirty and unhygienic. although in the latter it was indigo and other cash crops instead of the food crops necessary for their survival. and alcoholism was rampant. who suspended revenue collection and released all the prisoners. and cancellation of revenue hikes and its collection until the famine ended. with the guidance of the British government. and it is one of the points where I have found myself in painful disagreement. But his main impact came when he was arrested by police on the charge of creating unrest and was ordered to leave the province. signed an agreement granting the poor farmers of the region more compensation and control over farming. accounting for the atrocities and terrible episodes of suffering. organising scores of his veteran supporters and fresh volunteers from the region. Suppressed by the militias of the landlords (mostly British). he began leading the cleanup of villages. Gandhi led organised protests and strikes against the landlords who. they were given measly compensation." Gandhi's private secretary also acknowledges that "The question of the consistency between his creed of 'Ahimsa' (non-violence) and his recruiting campaign was raised not only then but has been discussed ever since. Now in the throes of a devastating famine. police stations and courts demanding his release. Building on the confidence of villagers. It was during this agitation that Gandhi was addressed by the people as Bapu (Father) and Mahatma (Great Soul). the problem was the same. In Kheda. The situation was desperate. building of schools and hospitals and encouraging the village leadership to undo and condemn many social evils such as untouchability and alcoholism. which the court reluctantly granted. Hundreds of thousands of people protested and rallied outside the jail. at the time of the Kheda and Champaran satyagrahas Gandhi's first major achievements came in 1918 with the Champaran agitation and Kheda Satyagraha." Champaran and Kheda Main article: Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha Gandhi in 1918. . He organised a detailed study and survey of the villages. Gandhi established an ashram there. In Kheda in Gujarat."Personally I have never been able to reconcile this with his own conduct in other respects. Sardar Patel represented the farmers in negotiations with the British.
transforming the party from an elite organisation to one of mass national appeal. was accepted following Gandhi's emotional speech advocating his principle that all violence was evil and could not be justified. A hierarchy of committees was set up to improve discipline. maturing soon into Swaraj or complete individual. political independence. the Congress was reorganised with a new constitution. Non-cooperation Main article: Non-cooperation movement Gandhi employed non-cooperation. especially British goods.As a result. Gandhi was invested with executive authority on behalf of the Indian National Congress. leading to increased public anger and acts of violence. with the goal of Swaraj. Gandhi expanded his non-violence platform to include the swadeshi policy — the boycott of foreign-made goods. spiritual. Gandhi's home in Gujarat In December 1921. He authored the resolution offering condolences to British civilian victims and condemning the riots which. Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee. the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of civilians by British troops (also known as the Amritsar Massacre) caused deep trauma to the nation. Gandhi's fame spread all over the nation and because of this. non-violence and peaceful resistance as his "weapons" in the struggle against the British Raj. after initial opposition in the party. he is now called "Father of the Nation" in India. Mahatma Gandhi's room at Sabarmati Ashram Sabarmati Ashram. Gandhi criticised both the actions of the British Raj and the retaliatory violence of Indians. But it was after the massacre and subsequent violence that Gandhi's mind focused upon obtaining complete self-government and control of all Indian government institutions. In Punjab. Under his leadership. Linked to this was his advocacy that khadi (homespun cloth) be worn by all Indians instead of .
 Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922. opposing this move. Salt Satyagraha (Salt March) Main article: Salt Satyagraha Gandhi at Dandi. and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. This was a strategy to inculcate discipline and dedication to weed out the unwilling and ambitious. increasing excitement and participation from all strata of Indian society. and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. Gandhi urged the people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts. cooperation among Hindus and Muslims. one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures. and expanding initiatives against untouchability. tried for sedition. 5 April 1930. ignorance and poverty. He was released in February 1924 for an appendicitis operation. the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon. and to forsake British titles and honours. at the end of the Salt March Gandhi stayed out of active politics and. Gandhi called off the campaign of mass civil disobedience. Without Gandhi's unifying personality. alcoholism. the Indian National Congress began to splinter during his years in prison. Yet. which had been strong at the height of the non-violence campaign. as such. in February 1922. and convinced that this would be the undoing of all his work. including a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924. but with limited success. Furthermore. the limelight for most of the 1920s. was breaking down. Gandhi pushed . In addition to boycotting British products. He returned to the fore in 1928. He began his sentence on 18 March 1922. Gandhi attempted to bridge these differences through many means. Gandhi even invented a small portable spinning wheel that could be folded into the size of a small typewriter. to resign from government employment. having served only 2 years.British-made textiles. He focused instead on resolving the wedge between the Swaraj Party and the Indian National Congress. "Non-cooperation" enjoyed widespread appeal and success. and to include women in the movement at a time when many thought that such activities were not respectable activities for women. which did not include any Indian as its member. The result was a boycott of the commission by Indian political parties. Uttar Pradesh. rich or poor. to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement. just as the movement reached its apex. Fearing that the movement was about to take a turn towards violence. it ended abruptly as a result of a violent clash in the town of Chauri Chaura. In the preceding year. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women. splitting into two factions.
and the government tried to negate his influence by completely isolating him from his followers. who sought a demand for immediate independence. Britain responded by imprisoning over 60.through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-cooperation with complete independence for the country as its goal. Lord Willingdon. Gandhi was invited to attend the Round Table Conference in London as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. This campaign was one of his most successful at upsetting British hold on India.000 people. The resulting public outcry successfully forced the government to adopt a more equitable arrangement via negotiations mediated by the Dalit cricketer turned political leader Palwankar Baloo. The conference was a disappointment to Gandhi and the nationalists. This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian organisation. The government. 7 April 1939 In 1932. the flag of India was unfurled in Lahore. Lord Irwin's successor. through the campaigning of the Dalit leader B. represented by Lord Edward Irwin. Ambedkar. R. Gandhi embarked on a six-day fast in September 1932. But this tactic failed. instead of two. Gujarat to make salt himself. the children of God. as prominent leader B. The British Government agreed to free all political prisoners. Gandhi had not only moderated the views of younger men like Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru. On 8 May 1933. Bombay. R. Gandhi began a 21-day fast of self-purification to help the Harijan movement. Also as a result of the pact. This new campaign was not universally embraced within the Dalit community. Gandhi then launched a new satyagraha against the tax on salt in March 1930. because it focused on the Indian princes and Indian minorities rather than on a transfer of power. On 31 December 1929. but also reduced his own call to a one year wait. The British did not respond. decided to negotiate with Gandhi. Gandhi was again arrested. This was the start of a new campaign by Gandhi to improve the lives of the untouchables. Ambedkar condemned Gandhi's use of the term Harijans as saying that Dalits were socially . began a new campaign of controlling and subduing the nationalist movement. In protest. This was highlighted by the famous Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April. the government granted untouchables separate electorates under the new constitution. in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement. Furthermore. where he marched 388 kilometres (241 miles) from Ahmedabad to Dandi. Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea. whom he named Harijans. Mahadev Desai (left) reading out a letter to Gandhi from the viceroy at Birla House. 26 January 1930 was celebrated as India's Independence Day by the Indian National Congress meeting in Lahore. The Gandhi–Irwin Pact was signed in March 1931.
This was Gandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive revolt aimed at securing the British exit from India. although born into the Vaishya caste. After long deliberations. In the summer of 1934. Their main points of contention were Bose's lack of commitment to democracy and lack of faith in non-violence.immature. Gandhi had a clash with Subhas Bose. with the Nehru presidency and the Lucknow session of the Congress. socialists. and those with pro-business convictions. All Congressmen resigned from office. religious conservatives. including communists. and that privileged caste Indians played a paternalistic role. without consultation of the people's representatives. . but other Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war. trade unionists. Gandhi favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort. which actually varied. Gandhi also wanted to avoid being a target for Raj propaganda by leading a party that had temporarily accepted political accommodation with the Raj. who had been elected president in 1938. Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom. When the Congress Party chose to contest elections and accept power under the Federation scheme. three unsuccessful attempts were made on Gandhi's life. but felt that if he resigned. and that these various voices would get a chance to make themselves heard. Ambedkar and his allies also felt Gandhi was undermining Dalit political rights. Although Gandhi wanted a total focus on the task of winning independence and not speculation about India's future. drafting a resolution calling for the British to Quit India. but left the Congress when the All-India leaders resigned en masse in protest of his abandonment of the principles introduced by Gandhi. Bose won his second term despite Gandhi's criticism. World War II and Quit India Main article: Quit India Movement Jawaharlal Nehru sitting next to Gandhi at the AICC General Session. 1942 World War II broke out in 1939 when Nazi Germany invaded Poland. He did not disagree with the party's move. his popularity with Indians would cease to stifle the party's membership. Gandhi. despite the presence of Dalit activists such as Ambedkar. Gandhi intensified his demand for independence. insisted that he was able to speak on behalf of Dalits. he did not restrain the Congress from adopting socialism as its goal. Initially. while that freedom was denied to India itself. students. Gandhi resigned from party membership. Gandhi returned to active politics again in 1936. As the war progressed.
and hundreds of thousands were arrested. thereafter. and Karo Ya Maro ("Do or Die") in the cause of ultimate freedom. while Britain fought against Nazism yet continued to contradict itself by refusing to grant India Independence. Partition of India See also: Partition of India While the Indian National Congress and Gandhi called for the British to quit India. Some felt that not supporting Britain more in its struggle against Nazi Germany was unethical. . including the Congress's leadership. the British gave clear indications that power would be transferred to Indian hands. Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee were arrested in Bombay by the British on 9 August 1942. His 50-year old secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack 6 days later and his wife Kasturba died after 18 months imprisonment on 22 February 1944. Thousands of freedom fighters were killed or injured by police gunfire. Although the Quit India movement had moderate success in its objective.000 political prisoners were released. The Mahatma is believed to have been opposed to the partition during independence and suggested an agreement which required the Congress and Muslim League to cooperate and attain independence under a provisional government. Gandhi and his supporters made it clear they would not support the war effort unless India were granted immediate independence. Quit India became the most forceful movement in the history of the struggle. He even clarified that this time the movement would not be stopped if individual acts of violence were committed. Gandhi was held for two years in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune. the question of partition could be resolved by a plebiscite in the districts with a Muslim majority. He was released before the end of the war on 6 May 1944 because of his failing health and necessary surgery. and around 100. It was here that Gandhi suffered two terrible blows in his personal life. both pro-British and anti-British. the Muslim League passed a resolution for them to divide and quit."I want world sympathy in this battle of right against might" – Dandi 5th Apr 1930 Gandhi was criticised by some Congress party members and other Indian political groups." He called on all Congressmen and Indians to maintain discipline via ahimsa. six weeks later Gandhi suffered a severe malaria attack. saying that the "ordered anarchy" around him was "worse than real anarchy. the ruthless suppression of the movement brought order to India by the end of 1943. At this point Gandhi called off the struggle. Gandhi was infuriated and visited the most riot prone areas to stop the massacres. At the end of the war. Others felt that Gandhi's refusal for India to participate in the war was insufficient and more direct opposition should be taken. the Raj did not want him to die in prison and enrage the nation. on 16 August 1946. in 1943. with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale. When Jinnah called for Direct Action.
 He made strong efforts to unite the Indian Hindus. the efforts of his followers.personally. Nathuram Godse. Gandhi's memorial (or Samādhi) at Rāj Ghāt. according to prominent Norwegian historian. they were executed on 15 November 1949. On the 14th and 15th of August. 1947 the Indian Independence Act was invoked and the following carnage witnessed a displacement of up to 12. – Stanley Wolpert. Oxford University Press Assassination See also: Assassination of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Raj Ghat. Jens Arup Seip. however. who held Gandhi responsible for weakening India by insisting upon a payment to Pakistan. (Devanagari: हह ! हहह or. was a Hindu nationalist with links to the extremist Hindu Mahasabha. Stanley Wolpert's words sum up Gandhi's role and views on the partition perfectly: Their plan to carve up British India was never approved of or accepted by Gandhi. and his own presence. Delhi is a memorial to Mahatma Gandhi that marks the spot of his cremation Gandhi's ashes at Aga Khan Palace (Pune. Muslims and Christians and struggled for the emancipation of the "untouchables" in Hindu society. who realised too late that his closest comrades and disciples were more interested in power than principle. Gandhi was shot while he was walking to a platform from which he was to address a prayer meeting. and that his own vision had long been clouded by the illusion that the struggle he led for India's freedom was a nonviolent one. Gandhi's Passion. He Rām).5 million people in the former British Indian Empire with an estimates of loss of life varying from several hundred thousand to a million. bears the epigraph "Hē Ram". there would have been much more bloodshed during the partition. India) On 30 January 1948. The assassin. New Delhi. The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. which may be translated as "Oh God". Godse and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were later tried and convicted. But for his teachings. These are widely believed to be Gandhi's last words after he was .
 Some of the Mahatma's ashes were scattered at the source of the Nile River near Jinja. nevertheless. Most were immersed at the Sangam at Allahabad on 12 February 1948 but some were secretly taken away. Gandhi summarised his beliefs first when he said "God is Truth". Satya (Truth) in Gandhi's philosophy is "God". and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it. Nonviolence Although Mahatama Gandhi was not the originator of the principle of non-violence. practices and beliefs See also: Gandhism Truth "God is truth. Another urn has ended up in a palace of the Aga Khan in Pune (where he had been imprisoned from 1942 to 1944) and another in the Self-Realization Fellowship Lake Shrine in Los Angeles. Perhaps I am wrong to say that. but for millions and millions in this country. and there is darkness everywhere. He tried to achieve this by learning from his own mistakes and conducting experiments on himself. found in a bank vault and reclaimed through the courts. and insecurities. or Satya. He called his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth. he was the first to apply it in the political field on a large scale. Bapu as we called him. . fears. as we have seen him for these many years. the light has gone out of our lives. The family is aware that these enshrined ashes could be misused for political purposes but does not want to have them removed because it would entail breaking the shrines. though the veracity of this statement has been disputed. at the Sangam at Allahabad. not only for me. Thus. In 1997. He would later change this statement to "Truth is God". is no more. Tushar Gandhi immersed the contents of one urn." – Jawaharlal Nehru's address to Gandhi Gandhi's ashes were poured into urns which were sent across India for memorial services. Jawaharlal Nehru addressed the nation through radio: "Friends and comrades. The concept of nonviolence (ahimsa) and nonresistance has a long history in Indian religious thought and has had many revivals in Hindu. Gandhi stated that the most important battle to fight was overcoming his own demons. we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him. and a memorial plaque marks the event. Our beloved leader. Uganda. The way to truth lies through ahimsa (non-violence)" – Sabarmati 13 March 1927 Gandhi dedicated his life to the wider purpose of discovering truth. the father of the nation. Principles. On 30 January 2008 the contents of another urn were immersed at Girgaum Chowpatty by the family after a Dubai-based businessman had sent it to a Mumbai museum. and that is a terrible blow.shot. we will not see him again.
the orphans.Buddhist. pure and simple... and the homeless. Gandhi explains his philosophy and way of life in his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth.Police ranks will be composed of believers in non-violence. Jain.. He was quoted as saying: "When I despair." "There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for.The nearest approach to purest anarchy would be a democracy based on nonviolence...... There have been tyrants and murderers and for a time they seem invincible..Satyagraha (truth-force) brigades can be organised in every village and every block of . engaging in activities that would bring and keep them in touch with every single person in their parish or division. they always fall — think of it. The science of non-violence alone can lead one to pure democracy. The people will instinctively render them every help and through mutual cooperation they will easily deal with the ever decreasing disturbances. I remember that all through history the way of truth and love has always won. police and armies were nonviolent... . Theirs will be the duty of bringing warring communities together.. Such an army should be ready to cope with any emergency. but in the end.. The quotations below are from the book "For Pacifists. whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty and democracy?" "An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind. 1940 In applying these principles. always. carrying peace propaganda. a sanskrit scholar afflicted by leprosy. there will be no room for communal disturbances..Violent quarrels between labor and capital and strikes will be few and far between in a non-violent state because the influence of the non-violent majority will be great as to respect the principle elements in society. and in order to still the frenzy of mobs should risk their lives in numbers sufficient for that purpose. Similarly. at Sabarmati Ashram." The science of war leads one to dictatorship. as well in times of peace as in times of disturbances." "What difference does it make to the dead.. Gandhi did not balk from taking them to their most logical extremes in envisioning a world where even government.A society organised and run on the basis of complete non-violence would be the purest anarchy I have conceded that even in a non-violent state a police force may be necessary.It is a blasphemy to say non-violence can be practiced only by individuals and never by nations which are composed of individuals.Power based on love is thousand times more effective and permanent than power derived from fear of punishment.. A non-violent army acts unlike armed men. Jewish and Christian contexts..." Gandhi nurses Parchure Shastri.
. But the Jews should have offered themselves to the butcher’s knife. . [If the non-violent society is attacked from without] there are two ways open to non-violence. They should have thrown themselves into the sea from cliffs. Rajguru and Sukhdev including a personal visit on 19 March 1931 and in a letter to the Viceroy on the day of their execution. now posing as a fakir of a type well-known in the Middle East. to be slaughtered." Gandhi also came under some political fire for his criticism of those who attempted to achieve independence through more violent means. but non-cooperate with the aggressor. especially if it were used as a cover for cowardice: "Gandhi guarded against attracting to his satyagraha movement those who feared to take up arms or felt themselves incapable of resistance... in 1940.If these gentlemen choose to occupy your homes. To yield possession. they should have nothing to do with non-violence and resume the arms they possessed before. According to a report in the Frontline magazine. pleading fervently for the commutation.. but you will refuse to owe allegiance to them. when invasion of the British Isles by Nazi Germany looked imminent... I would advise violence. Winston Churchill said that it was "nauseating" to see Gandhi. If they do not give you free passage out.The unexpected spectacle of endless rows upon rows of men and women simply dying rather than surrender to the will of an aggressor must ultimately melt him and his soldiery." However.'" "At every meeting I repeated the warning that unless they felt that in non-violence they had come into possession of a force infinitely superior to the one they had and in the use of which they were adept..buildings in the cities. to parley on equal terms with the representative of the KingEmperor". if that even happily comes to pass.. "a seditious Middle Temple lawyer. It would have aroused the world and the people of Germany.. Gandhi realised that this level of nonviolence required incredible faith and courage. woman. The second way would be non-violent resistance by the people who have been trained in the non-violent way. The level of non-violence in that nation..' he wrote. You will invite Herr Hitler and Signor Mussolini to take what they want of the countries you call your possessions. As it is they succumbed anyway in their millions. you will vacate them. striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace. 'that where there is only a choice between cowardice and violence. and child.. Gandhi offered the following advice to the British people (Non-Violence in Peace and War): "I would like you to lay down the arms you have as being useless for saving you or humanity. he did plead several times for the commutation of the death sentence of Bhagat Singh. will naturally have risen so high as to command universal respect. In accordance with these views. man. he offered a view at an even further extreme: "Hitler. It must never be said of the Khudai Khidmatgars that once so brave. 'I do believe. Their bravery consisted not in being good marksmen but in defying death and being ever ready to bare their breasts to the bullets. He therefore advised that everyone need not keep to nonviolence. .prefer death to submission. which he believed everyone did not possess.." In a post-war interview in 1946.. they had become or been made cowards under Badshah Khan's influence." Gandhi said...A nation or group which has made non-violence its final policy cannot be subjected to slavery even by the atom bomb. It is the greatest crime of our time.. you will allow yourselves. "killed five million Jews.
Buber asserted that the comparison between British treatment of Indian subjects and Nazi treatment of Jews was inappropriate. The two critics suggest that in presenting non-violence to the Jews as a remedy against the wrong done to them. But I do not believe in any war." written in 1938. In the first. I have suggested nothing new... In the November 1938 article on the Nazi persecution of the Jews quoted above. How can there be alliance between a nation which claims to stand for justice and democracy and one which is the declared enemy of both?" Vegetarianism As a young child. He offered non-violence as a method of combating the difficulties Jews faced in Germany. even for such a crime as is being committed against the Jews. The idea of . a war against Germany. even the massacre I have imagined could be turned into a day of thanksgiving and joy that Jehovah had wrought deliverance of the race even at the hands of the tyrant. "Zionism and Anti-Semitism. would be completely justified.what I have pleaded for is renunciation of violence of the heart and consequent active exercise of the force generated by the great renunciation. moreover. Gandhi had. death has no terror. The tyrants of old never went so mad as Hitler seems to have gone.. to prevent the wanton persecution of a whole race. on occasion. he offered non-violence as a solution: The German persecution of the Jews seems to have no parallel in history. And he is doing it with religious zeal. Martin Buber wrote a sharply critical open letter to Gandhi on 24 February 1939. If there ever could be a justifiable war in the name of and for humanity. stating. surely there can be no alliance with Germany. And suffering voluntarily undergone will bring them an inner strength and joy. and challenge him to shoot me or cast me in the dungeon. Gandhi commented upon the 1930s persecution of the Jews in Germany within the context of Satyagraha. This was due partially to his inherent curiosity as well as his rather persuasive peer and friend Sheikh Mehtab. For to the Godfearing. The crime of an obviously mad but intrepid youth is being visited upon his whole race with unbelievable ferocity. If one Jew or all the Jews were to accept the prescription here offered. For he is propounding a new religion of exclusive and militant nationalism in the name of which any inhumanity becomes an act of humanity to be rewarded here and hereafter. he noted that when Indians were the victims of persecution.. Gandhi was highly criticised for these statements and responded in the article "Questions on the Jews" with "Friends have sent me two newspaper cuttings criticising my appeal to the Jews. But if there can be no war against Germany. I would claim Germany as my home even as the tallest Gentile German might.the calculated violence of Hitler may even result in a general massacre of the Jews by way of his first answer to the declaration of such hostilities. Gandhi experimented with meat-eating. A discussion of the pros and cons of such a war is therefore outside my horizon or province.He continued this argument in a number of articles reprinted in Homer Jack's The Gandhi Reader: A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings. supported the use of force. But if the Jewish mind could be prepared for voluntary suffering. Gandhi's statements regarding Jews facing the impending Holocaust have attracted criticism from a number of commentators. Gandhi commented upon the 1930s persecution of the Jews in Germany within the context of Satyagraha. And for doing this I should not wait for the fellow Jews to join me in civil resistance. he or they cannot be worse off than now. I would refuse to be expelled or to submit to discriminating treatment. but would have confidence that in the end the rest were bound to follow my example. If I were a Jew and were born in Germany and earned my livelihood there.
some of which were published in the London Vegetarian Society's publication. As Gandhi grew into adulthood. he became a strict vegetarian. Basic Education Main article: Nai Talim Nai Talim is a spiritual principle which states that knowledge and work are not separate. Also. Before leaving for his studies in London. lemons and olive oil composed our usual diet. because of a vow to his late mother. Gandhi made a promise to his mother. the young Mohandas met and often corresponded with the vegetarian campaigner. Putlibai and his uncle. Nai Talim. specifically. stating in his autobiography. vegetables. Gandhi promoted an educational curriculum with the same name based on this pedagogical principle. The Gandhi family was no exception. "I decided to live on a pure fruit diet. without total control of the palate. Gandhi noted in his autobiography that vegetarianism was the beginning of his deep commitment to Brahmacharya. a process that is by definition 'life-long'. education is 'the moral development of the person'. it embodied a series of negative outcomes: the disdain for manual work. and that too composed of the cheapest fruit possible . Raw groundnuts. late in life he broke his discipline and started taking goat's milk on the advice of his doctor. and he wrote." However. During this period. This lapse of discipline bothered him to his dying day. and the increasing problems of industrialization and urbanization. bananas. For Gandhi.vegetarianism is deeply ingrained in Hindu and Jain traditions in India. most Hindus are vegetarian and so are almost all Jains. He refused to eat until his death or his demands were met. In that system. the concept has several layers of meaning. and fruits. disgust for cow blowing. generally more expensive than grains. Gandhi also experimented with fruitarianism. Gandhi spent much time advocating vegetarianism during and after his time in London. He wrote the book The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism and several articles on the subject. and still is. the young Gandhi became inspired by many great minds and was befriended by the chairman of the London Vegetarian Society. and. he saw that Indian children would be alienated and 'career-based thinking' would become dominant. Becharji Swami that he would abstain from eating meat. its social character and its form as a holistic process. taking alcohol." He never took dairy products obtained from cows because of his view initially that milk is not the natural diet of man. his success in Bramacharya would likely falter.. Josiah Oldfield. It developed out of Gandhi's experience with the English educational system and with colonialism in general. using fasting as a form of political protest. many Indians of the time struggled with low income. It can be translated with the phrase 'Basic Education for all'. and.. To Gandhi. "The memory of this action even now rankles my breast and fills me with remorse. Brahmacharya . in his native land of Gujarat. The three pillars of Gandhi's pedagogy were its focus on the life-long character of education. He abstained from eating for long periods. Dr. and engaging in promiscuity. it would also serve an economic purpose as meat was. In addition. The Vegetarian. He held fast to his promise and gained more than a diet: he gained a basis for his life-long philosophies. Having also read and admired the work of Henry Stephens Salt. dates. and I am constantly thinking how to give up goat's milk. thus vegetarianism was seen not only as a spiritual practice but also a practical one. the development of a new elite class. a vegetarian diet would not only satisfy the requirements of the body. However.
26 September 1931. Later in his life he started experimenting with brahmacharya in order to test his self-control. For Gandhi. rather than lust. He came to refer to this event as "double shame. Jaisukhlal Gandhi. one night. Gandhi acknowledged "that this experiment is very dangerous indeed".Gandhi with textile workers at Darwen. the sixteen-year-old wife of his grandnephew Kanu Gandhi. His letter to Birla in April. he attended to his father at all times during his illness. Gandhi conducted his experiments with a number of women such as Abha. This decision was deeply influenced by the philosophy of Brahmacharya — spiritual and practical purity — largely associated with celibacy and asceticism. word and deed. Lancashire. Gandhi felt tremendous guilt and never could forgive himself. In his autobiography he tells of his battle against lustful urges and fits of jealousy with his childhood bride." The incident had significant influence in Gandhi becoming celibate at the age of 36. it became public knowledge that Gandhi had been sharing his bed for a number of years with young women. Afterwards he started to lie in the same bed with his women disciples and later took to sleeping naked alongside them. 1945 referring to 'women or girls who have been naked with me' indicates that several women were part of his experiments. Towards the end of his life. Brahmacharya meant "control of the senses in thought. As part of these experiments. Kasturba. too was part of his experiments. while still married. but thought "that it was capable of yielding great results".". he initially slept with his women associates in the same room but at a distance. However. Being very devoted to his parents. His nineteen-year-old grandniece. He explained that he did this for bodily warmth at night and termed his actions as "nature cure". He wrote five editorials in Harijan discussing the practice of brahmacharya. He retired to his bedroom where carnal desires overcame him and he made love to his wife. He felt it his personal obligation to remain celibate so that he could learn to love. Gandhi's uncle came to relieve Gandhi for a while. Shortly afterward a servant came to report that Gandhi's father had just died. According to Gandhi active-celibacy meant perfect selfcontrol in the presence of the opposite sex. that Manu had started to . Gandhi had earlier written to her father. Gandhi saw Brahmacharya as a means of becoming close with God and as a primary foundation for self-realisation. Manu Gandhi. When Gandhi was 16 his father became very ill.
His stenographer. He subsequently wore a dhoti for the rest of his life to express the simplicity of his life. a revolutionary turned disciple of Gandhi. or with Sushila or Abha. Moreover Gandhi tried to conquer the feeling of sex by consciously endeavouring to convert himself into a mother of those who were under his case. When he returned to India he renounced the western lifestyle he led in South Africa. "you are at liberty to leave me today. Gandhian simplicity was a sign and expression of swadeshi principles. Consequently. Gandhi insisted that he never felt aroused while he slept beside her. This is the culmination of my striving for last thirty-six years. resigned when he saw Gandhi sleeping naked with Manu. P. parted company with him in April. Gandhi felt satisfied with his experiments and wrote to Manu that "I have successfully practiced the eleven vows taken by me. it would deal an economic blow to the British establishment in India. whether men or women". Simplicity Gandhi having tea with Lord Mountbatten Gandhi earnestly believed that a person involved in public service should lead a simple life. 1945 that "sleeping together came with my taking up of bramhacharya or even before that". In this yajna I got a glimpse of the ideal truth and purity for which I have been striving"." Nirmal Kumar Bose. he said he had experimented with his wife "but that was not enough". . advocating the use of homespun cloth (khadi). While Indian workers were often idle due to unemployment. leading anthropologist and close associate of Gandhi. He had told a correspondent in March. Gandhi had to take criticism for his experiments by many of his followers and opponents. "I am sorry" Gandhi said to Parasuram. Gandhi dressed to be accepted by the poorest person in India. Bose said. his "spiritual wife". which he associated with wealth and success. where some sort of altercation had taken place between Gandhi and Sushila Nayar in his bedroom at midnight that caused Gandhi to slap his forehead.share his bed so that he may "correct her sleeping posture". R. He and his followers adopted the practice of weaving their own clothes from thread they themselves spun on a charkha. The Swadeshi movement held that if Indians made their own clothes. This maternal emphasis has also been pointed out by Dattatreya Balkrushna Kalelkar. they had often bought their clothing from industrial manufacturers owned by British interests. He first displayed this principle when he gave up wearing western-style clothing. 1947 post Gandhi's tour of Noakhali. and encouraged others to do so. Parasuram. where he had enjoyed a successful legal practice. "there was no immorality on part of Gandhi. He later said that he had come close to having sexual relations with her. Gandhi called Sarladevi. the charkha was later incorporated into the flag of the Indian National Congress. a married woman with children and a devout follower. Gandhi saw himself as a mother to these women and would refer to Abha and Manu as "my walking sticks".
On such days he communicated with others by writing on paper. New Delhi) Gandhi wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita in Gujarati. Gandhi refused to read newspapers. he believed all religions to be equal. He believed that abstaining from speaking brought him inner peace and made him a better listener.The practice of giving up unnecessary expenditure. it could but be a rotten part or an excrescence. Gandhi Smriti (The house Gandhi lodged in the last 4 months of his life has now become a monument. including his own. After reading John Ruskin's Unto This Last. On one occasion he returned the gifts bestowed to him from the Natals for his diligent service to the community. nonviolence and the Golden Rule). For three and a half years. when disappointments stare me in the face. As a common Hindu. malpractices. and when I see not one ray of light on the horizon. who provided an additional introduction and commentary. so were Muslim .. Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence. fills my whole being. He was an avid theologian and read extensively about all major religions.When doubts haunt me. neither was I then convinced of Hinduism being such. and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow. I turn to the Bhagavad Gita. This influence was drawn from the Hindu principles of mauna (Sanskrit:मौनं — silence) and shanti (Sanskrit:शाित — peace). He had the following to say about Hinduism: Hinduism as I know it entirely satisfies my soul. Some of his comments on various religions are: Thus if I could not accept Christianity either as a perfect. It was published with a Foreword by Gandhi in 1946. I owe it to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. and find a verse to comfort me. Faith Gandhi was born a Hindu and practised Hinduism all his life. embracing a simple lifestyle and washing his own clothes. My life has been full of tragedies and if they have not left any visible and indelible effect on me. I could not understand the raison d'être of a multitude of sects and castes. or the greatest religion. claiming that the tumultuous state of world affairs caused him more confusion than his own inner unrest. why not also the Bible and the Koran? As Christian friends were endeavouring to convert me. he decided to change his lifestyle and create a commune called Phoenix Settlement. Gandhi believed that at the core of every religion was truth and love (compassion. Gandhi called "reducing himself to zero". What was the meaning of saying that the Vedas were the inspired Word of God? If they were inspired. He also questioned what he saw as hypocrisy. and he was a tireless advocate for social reform in religion. If untouchability could be a part of Hinduism. and rejected all efforts to convert him to a different faith. and dogma in all religions.. Hindu defects were pressingly visible to me. The Gujarati manuscript was translated into English by Mahadev Desai. from the age of 37.
maintaining that an earthquake can only be caused by natural forces. Gandhi believed that society should be the exact opposite. he replied. Your Christians are so unlike your Christ. for instance. Later in his life. when he was asked whether he was a Hindu. Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore engaged in protracted debates more than once. with each layer of authority from the individual to the central government have increasing levels of authority over the layer below. Abdullah Seth had kept on inducing me to study Islam. however repugnant the practice of untouchability may be. a Muslim. we cease to be religious. not only for Muslims but for all of mankind. There is no such thing as religion over-riding morality. —Gandhi's autobiography As soon as we lose the moral basis. as he put it in 1926. Tagore vehemently opposed Gandhi's stance. a Buddhist and a Jew. On 15 January 1934. I like your Christ. and of course he had always something to say regarding its beauty. Gandhi took a keen interest in theosophy. referring to them as Harijans. I am also a Christian. and his vision of India meant India without an underlying government. Man. The sayings of Muhammad are a treasure of wisdom. He once said that "the ideally nonviolent state would be an ordered anarchy." In spite of their deep reverence to each other. cruel or incontinent and claim to have God on his side. 1940 Gandhi was a self-described philosophical anarchist. These debates exemplify the philosophical differences between the two most famous Indians at the time. down to the individual. not moral reasons. people of Krishna). God has no religion. where nothing is done without the consent of anyone. Swaraj Main article: Swaraj Gandhi with Rabindranath Tagore. an earthquake hit Bihar and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Gandhi maintained this was because of the sin committed by upper caste Hindus by not letting untouchables in their temples (Gandhi was committed to the cause of improving the fate of untouchables." While political systems are largely hierarchical. I do not like your Christians. cannot be untruthful. His idea was that true self-rule in a country means .friends. "Yes I am. He empathised with theosophy's message of "universal brotherhood and consequent toleration".
etc. which would come to embody the ethic of nonviolence. This would be achieved over time with nonviolent conflict mediation." A free India for him meant the existence of thousands of self-sufficient small communities (an idea possibly from Tolstoy) who rule themselves without hindering others. he wrote letters almost every day to individuals and newspapers. he responded saying. Navajivan was also published in Hindi. Satyagraha in South Africa about his struggle there. and Navajivan. Indian Opinion while in South Africa and. when Gandhi received a letter asking for his participation in writing a world charter for human rights. on his return to India. In addition. is taken from the Sanskrit words maha meaning Great and atma meaning Soul. Literary works Young India. Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule. In 2000. Legacy and depictions in popular culture See also: List of artistic depictions of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi The word Mahatma. Gandhi also wrote several books including his autobiography. Later. though he also revised the Hindi and English translations of his books. Rabindranath Tagore is said to have accorded or popularised the title for Gandhi. He wanted to ultimately dissolve the Congress Party after independence and establish a system of direct democracy in India. This last essay can be considered his programme on economics. Gandhi usually wrote in Gujarati. It did not mean merely transferring a British established administrative structure into Indian hands which he said was just making Hindustan into Englistan. Young India. Gandhi's complete works were published by the Indian government under the name The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi in the 1960s. a Gujarati monthly. people are self-governed by mutual responsibilities. a journal published by Gandhi Gandhi was a prolific writer. social reforms. For decades he edited several newspapers including Harijan in Gujarati. On returning from South Africa. diet and health. The writings comprise about 50. a political pamphlet. and was often pained by it.000 pages published in about a hundred volumes. a revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy. The Indian government later withdrew the revised edition. having no faith in the British styled parliamentary system. ultimately to the individual. it is far more important to have a charter for human duties. Gandhi nevertheless explains that he never valued the title. religion. Followers and international influence . and a paraphrase in Gujarati of John Ruskin's Unto This Last.that every person rules his or herself and that there is no state which enforces laws upon the people. in Hindi and in the English language. as Gandhian followers argue that the government incorporated the changes for political purposes. Rather than a system where rights are enforced by a higher authority. In his autobiography. He also wrote extensively on vegetarianism. An Autobiography of My Experiments with Truth ((Gujarātī "हहहहहह हहहहहहह हहहह हहहहहहह")). as power is divested from layers of hierarchical authorities. "in my experience. while often mistaken for Gandhi's given name in the West. in English.
He continued and . Antiapartheid activist and former President of South Africa. In addition. Aung San Suu Kyi. Vice-President and environmentalist Al Gore spoke of Gandhi's influence on him. former U. Nelson Mandela. 2010 Obama at the Wakefield High School speech in Sept 2009. as President of the United States. 1955 In his early years. It was when a question posed on him as 'who was the one person. Jr. Madeleine Slade (known as "Mirabehn") was the daughter of a British admiral who spent much of her adult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi." – Martin Luther King Jr. President of the United States Barack Obama in an address to a Joint Session of the Parliament of India said that: "I am mindful that I might not be standing before you today. This legacy connects him to Nelson Mandela. Romain Rolland was the first to discuss Gandhi in his 1924 book Mahatma Gandhi." – Barack Obama in an address to a Joint Session of the Parliament of India. he later returned to Europe to spread Gandhi's philosophy and founded the Community of the Ark in 1948 (modelled after Gandhi's ashrams). drew from the writings of Gandhi in the development of their own theories about non-violence. said that his biggest inspiration came from Mahatma Gandhi. and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a later writing about him. and Benigno Aquino. At the Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival in 2007. In Europe. had it not been for Gandhi and the message he shared with America and the world. Bhana and Vahed commented on these events as "Gandhi inspired succeeding generations of South African activists seeking to end White rule.Mahatma Gandhi District in Houston. the British musician John Lennon referred to Gandhi when discussing his views on non-violence. "Christ gave us the goals and Mahatma Gandhi the tactics. Texas Gandhi influenced important leaders and political movements. the former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela was a follower of the non-violent resistance philosophy of Gandhi.. including Martin Luther King and James Lawson. Others include Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan.S.. that he would choose to dine with?' and his quick reply was 'Gandhi!'. Leaders of the civil rights movement in the United States. In 1931." Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas. and Brazilian anarchist and feminist Maria Lacerda de Moura wrote about Gandhi in her work on pacifism. dead or live. notable European physicist Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi. Lanza del Vasto went to India in 1936 intending to live with Gandhi.in a sense Mandela completed what Gandhi started. (the Philippine opposition leader during the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos and father of current Philippine president Benigno Aquino III). Steve Biko. was inspired by Gandhi.
. and Pyarelal and Sushila Nayar with their Mahatma Gandhi in 10 volumes. The district officially received its named on 16 January 2010 when the City of Houston held a naming ceremony. Gandhi. the Nobel Committee publicly declared its regret for the omission. founded in Spain in 1964.  though he made the short list only twice. the committee chose not to award the peace prize stating that "there was no suitable living candidate" and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the prize posthumously to Gandhi was discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi. My Father explores the relationship between Gandhi and his son Harilal. it can be observed on 30 March or thereabouts. Gandhi is also a central theme in the 2006 Bollywood film Lage Raho Munna Bhai. The Making of the Mahatma. King with his message of nonviolence. literature. In countries with a Southern Hemisphere school calendar. and admitted to deeply divided nationalistic opinion denying the award. Life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in eight volumes. Time magazine named Gandhi as one of the top 25 political icons of all time. on the death anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. and Nelson Mandela as Children of Gandhi and his spiritual heirs to non-violence. Gandhi was also the runner-up to Albert Einstein as "Person of the Century" at the end of 1999." The Mahatma Gandhi District in Houston. documents Gandhi's 21 years in South Africa. When the 14th Dalai Lama was awarded the Prize in 1989. in 1937 and 1947. Time Magazine named The 14th Dalai Lama. Lech Wałęsa. an ethnic Indian enclave. Benigno Aquino. The 1996 film. including the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee. Martin Luther King. Texas. Tendulkar with his Mahatma. is named after Gandhi. In 2011. The Government of India awards the annual Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers. Nelson Mandela.  Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace Prize. in schools of many countries is observed the School Day of Non-violence and Peace (DENIP). Global holidays On 15 June 2007. United States. Decades later. and in the theatre. He ended up doing so much and changed the world just by the power of his ethics. the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi. which was awarded the Academy Award for Best Picture." Film and literature Mahatma Gandhi has been portrayed in film. Awards Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in 1930. is a prominent non-Indian recipient. Ben Kingsley portrayed Gandhi in the 1982 film Gandhi.said that – "He's somebody I find a lot of inspiration in. although he was nominated five times between 1937 and 1948. Several biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhi's life. That year. There is also another . Aung San Suu Kyi. G. world leaders and citizens. The 2007 film. Gandhi was nominated in 1948 but was assassinated before nominations closed. Among them are: D." On 30 January every year. Desmond Tutu. it was announced that the "United Nations General Assembly" has "unanimously adopted" a resolution declaring 2 October as "the International Day of NonViolence. He inspired Dr. Jr. Cesar Chavez. the leader of South Africa's struggle to eradicate racial discrimination and segregation.
^ Gandhi means "grocer" in Gujarati (L. India.. Gala. Navneet). and 6 hours in length Current impact within India "Gandhi remains India’s patriarch. and credited with shaping India’s political identity as a tolerant. Sabyasachi (1997). Popular Combined Dictionary. p. Gandhi Jayanti. 2. if it ever was one. ^ Bhattacharya. New Delhi: National Book Trust. See also Anarchism portal Ethics portal Hinduism portal Human rights portal India portal Liberalism portal Philosophy portal Politics portal Social and political philosophy portal • • • • • • Frugal engineering Gandhian engineering Gandhi Memorial International Foundation Gandhi (film) Gandhian economics Gandhian socialism Raj Ghat and associated memorials Gandhi's cremation site Notes 1. His vision of a village-dominated economy was shunted aside during his lifetime as rural romanticism. India observes 30 January the day of his assassination. EnglishEnglish-Gujarati & Gujarati-Gujarati-English. 1. The Mahatma and the Poet.documentary. . November 2010  Gandhi's birthday. as Martyr's Day. to commemorate those who gave up their lives in service of the Indian nation. in which is 14 chapters long. or "perfumer" in Hindi (Bhargava's Standard Illustrated Dictionary Hindi-English). the founding father whose face is printed on the currency. but modern India is hardly a Gandhian nation. titled Mahatma: Life of Gandhi. Louis (1954). There are two temples in India dedicated to Gandhi." — The New York Times. 1869–1948. secular democracy. One is located at Sambalpur and the other one at Nidaghatta village near Kadur in Chikmagalur district. 3. 2 October. Gandhi:His life and message for the world. Gandhi is still revered here. But he can sometimes seem to hover over modern India like a parent whose expectations are rarely met. and his call for a national ethos of personal austerity and nonviolence has proved antithetical to the goals of an aspiring economic and military power . ^ Fischer. Mentor. R. is a national holiday in India..
^ "Kaffirs". Surendra Bhana and Goolam Vahed. International Vegetarian Union (IVU). p. 313.^ Gandhi 1940. 93 15. ^ Gandhi 1940. Retrieved 201009-01.info. 16.^ The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa. 2005: p. Mahadev H. The Guardian. 19.4.^ Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi Vol 5 Document#393 from Gandhi: Behind the Mask of Divinity p106 23. 1893–1914.45 22.google. 627–629. "Vegetarianism: The Road to Satyagraha". p. Appeal for enlistment.gandhism. http://www. 26. 17 October 2003. 22.169 ISBN 1890151866 7. Encyclopædia Britannica. 13.^ The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. http://www.^ The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Surendra Bhana and Goolam Vahed. (1983). ^ Pitirim Aleksandrovich Sorokin. Vol.^ Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. 20. http://books. Louis (1962). pp. ^ Lloyd I.^ a b "Day to Day with Gandhi by Mahadev Desai". 2. 99 14. Gandhi: Prisoner of Hope. Wikilivres.org/history/gandhi/road. D.^ "Sergeant Major Gandhi". Gandhi's Autobiography 28. Gandhism.^ The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. p. 5.44 21. Mineola. ISBN 0-486-24593-4. Mahatma volume 1. 255. Nadiad. p. p.^ Chronology of Mahatma Gandhi 27. Delhi: Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. ^ Gandhi 1940. University of Chicago Press 1983 ISBN 0226731367 8. 5. Rudolph Gandhi.^ 67. p. 410 25.ivu.Y: Dover.html. the traditional roots of charisma.^ Gandhi 1940. Autobiography: the story of my experiments with truth.info/wiki/Day_to_Day_with_Gandhi/Volume_1/Preface.^ Desai. p. 3. Retrieved 3 March 2009. p. Templeton Foundation Press 2002. ISBN 0300051255. 12.^ The Story of My Experiments with Truth/Part V/Recruiting Campaign.^ a b Fischer. 8. 24. http://www. (1951). Judith M (1989). 29. Arun. The ways and power of love. 1911. 9 10. G. 199. pp. pp.php. 2005: p. 5–7 9. 1893–1914. 18.^ The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa.wikilivres. Essential Gandhi. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 270. ^ Sannuti.net.^ a b Rory Carroll. 22 June 1918 . p.net/sergeantmajorgandhi.^ a b c d e f Brown. 20–22 11. N. 17. 15. ^ a b c d e f g h Tendulkar. 6.^ Gandhi 1940. New York: Random House. Government of India.com/? id=OXoRs7Kxs_YC&pg=PR1. "Gandhi branded racist as Johannesburg honours freedom fighter".
google.F. 246. 40. Patel: A Life.html. The Gandhi Reader: A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings By Gandhi (Mahatma). Retrieved on 15 March 2007.133 Chapter VII The Teaching of Ahimsa 32.^ R.org/nobel_prizes/peace/articles/gandhi/. Bijoy Sankar (2 October 2006). 30 January 1997 "For reasons no one knows. p. Retrieved 2011-01-29. 318.^ Nehru's address on Gandhi's death. the Missing Laureate". Gandhi.^ Metcalf. 34. Oxford University Press. p. . Barbara. Letter to J. http://books.^ R. "Why Mahatma Gandhi didn't get a Nobel Prize".^ Wolpert.html. Patel: A Life. 51. 16 January 2008 54. http://ibnlive. Øyvind (1 December 1999).^ 8. 230–32. Gandhi. Gandhi.^ "Gandhi Invents Spinning Wheel". 309. ISBN 0-8021-3161-1. Books. 37. p. pp. Patel: A Life.^ R.emory. 1998). 48. 172.^ R. pp.^ R. 52. Patel: A Life. New York. Maffey. 105. p. Gandhi. 47.^ Keen. Homer Alexander (1956). CNN IBN-Live. Gandhi. a portion of the ashes was placed in a safe deposit box at a bank in Cuttack. Thomas R (2006). pp. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.^ R.edu/Bahri/Part. Patel: A Life. ISBN 0521682258. 53. 41. Emory University. 35. USA: Indiana University Press. Metcalf. 131. Patel: A Life. (1930) Mahatma Gandhi's Ideas (Macmillan) P. L. Patel: A Life. Gandhi. 283–86. 472.org.^ Gandhi's Ideas Including Selections from His Writings Andrews. Humanscape 8.com/news/why-mahatma-gandhi-didnt-get-a-nobel-prize/22985-3single. p. http://www.^ Saikia. 42. NY. 30 April 1918 31. 36. p. Patel: A Life. 1 (January 2001): pp.^ R. 44. Patel: A Life. Patel: A Life. 39. Gandhi's Passion – The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. no.^ Jack. Nobelprize. A Concise History of Modern India (Cambridge Concise Histories). 89. Gandhi. Gandhi. 82.30. 221–222. http://www. ISBN 0-19-513060-X. Patel: A Life. 43. Patel: A Life. p.^ R.^ Vinay Lal. p.^ a b Tønnesson.com. Popular Science.google. Shirin (Spring.html. Nadiad. Gandhi. not in a museum" The Guardian. December 1931.english. Gandhi.com/books/first/w/wolpertgandhi. C.^ "GANDHI'S ASHES SCATTERED" The Cincinnati Post. 277–81.^ a b c d e "Gandhi's ashes to rest at sea. 49. 33.^ R.^ R. ‘Hey Ram’: The Politics of Gandhi’s Last Words.com/books? id=ESgDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA60&dq=Popular+Mechanics+1931+curtiss&hl=en&ei=inUETaD eIKeJnAf06JnlDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CDUQ6AEwBTgU#v= onepage&q&f=true.^ R. 50. Gandhi. "The Partition of India".in. Gandhi.nytimes. 34–38. 38. Stanley.^ R. pp. p. http://nobelprize. 46. 45. "Mahatma Gandhi.
National Review. 76. 26 November 1938. 28 April 2003. Gandhi. pp. The Gandhi Reader.^ David Lewis Schaefer.^ Asirvatham. Harijan. Vaidya. Navajivan Publishing House. Los Angeles Times: pp. Routledge. 1997. 348. see also Gordon.^ Gokhale's Charity. 68.K.org/history/gandhi/. B 2. A Source-Book on Modern Hinduism.^ Bharatan Kumarappa.^ Basic Education (Nai Talim) 78. Mahatma (1972). Religion. Haim. 28.ivu.^ Louis Fischer (1950). http://books.K. S. David (27 September 2001). Non-violence in peace and war.. Oxford 1995. 73.^ Kevin Myers: Armistice Day poppycock threatens our free speech. What Did Gandhi Do?. 75.^ Gandhi. Harper. http://books. Garland Publishing. economy. "A Rejection of Spiritual Imperialism: Reflections on Buber's Letter to Gandhi. 319–20. 463–464.^ Gandhi. Political Theory.^ Jack. The Gandhi Reader.co.^ Bondurant. PA: Jewish Publications Society. 67. My Experiments with Truth. 74.google.800 km) southeast of New Delhi. "The Gandhi Nobody Knows".^ Mohandas K.^ Jack. Homer.^ Hertzberg. Editor.upenn. Retrieved 21 March 2006. "For Pacifists.com/? id=pHcGAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA348&q=%22cliffs%22. Gandhi. Glynn (1996). pp. http://onlinebooks. Richard Grenier. Eddy. Retrieved 21 March 2006. 1942–. Retrieved on 14 February 2009." Journal of Ecumenical Studies.100 miles (1. 22 June 1999. 66. M. Gandhi (1869–1948)". Commentary Magazine.^ Jack. The Zionist Idea.1. Gandhi. ISBN 0852831927. 57. "A Little Serenity in a City of Madness". 28 October 2009 64. 72. Retrieved 2 October 2009.K. 62.edu/webbin/book/lookupid?key=olbp17620. 139. ISBN 0-8240-0375-6.] 63. and society among the Jains. Tushar Gandhi went to court to gain custody of the ashes after newspapers reported in 1995 that they were at the bank. Homer. Online Books Page. The Gandhi Reader.^ Jain Society: Some Discrepancies Between Principles And Practice.^ "International Vegetarian Union — Mohandas K. 59.^ Dinabandhu Dehury: Mahatma Gandhi's Contribution to Education ." by M. 61.google. Independent. 166–169 ISBN 0198280319 71. ISBN 8121903467. 56. A Non-Violent Look at Conflict & Violence Published in Harijan on 26 November 1938 70. Mahatma (1959). Ahmedabad. Gandhi.chand. My Experiments with Truth. The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism. p.^ Bondurant.^ Frontline – Of Means and Ends by Paresh R. 317–318.ie. pp. 69. p. 65. Homer. M.library. 322. Arthur. pp. India. 58.^ Laidlaw. p.^ The Rowlatt Bills and my Dilemma. 1949." 55.^ Ferrell. James: Riches and Renunciation.uk/books?id=BGxgNTBmFNEC&pg=PA202&dq=Nai+Talim&num=100 77. p. http://www. The life of Mahatma Gandhi. March 1983. 60.^ Richards.
98.^ From Discussion with BG Kher and others. 1998) ISBN 1-883938-473. 177. 98. 81.Tauris. 1951. Gandhi: A Political and Spiritual Life. Har-Anand Publications. and he told me he considered himself 'a philosophical anarchist. 95.^ "What about Gandhi and theosophy?". 91. Routledge. p. 160. (Navajivan Publishing House: Ahmedabad: First Edition 1946). Allied Publishers.org. ISBN 0761993835.^ Caplan.^ Snow. Indiatogether. I.^ Jesudasan. p. 96. Lloyd I Rudolph. 80. editor. A Gandhian theology of liberation. Pat.^ a b c Tidrick. ISBN 1845111664. has been published as: Anasaktiyoga: The Gospel of Selfless Action. The Message of Gandhi. p.com/time/time100/poc/magazine/mohandas_gandhi12b.org/information/questions_and_answers/faq9/faq9. 278. Stanley (2001).^ Kumar. http://www. The Cultural construction of sexuality. translator. p. Oxford University Press.html.time.^ The Story of My Experiments with Truth — An Autobiography.^ Rajmohan Gandhi 2007.^ Articles on and by Gandhi. The Book on Trial: Fundamentalism and Censorship in India. Edgar. Orient Longman. Time. Kathryn (2007). ISBN 1845111664. ISBN 8124105251.indiatogether. Kathryn (2007). Gandhiserve. 85. B. 56. Patricia Caplan (1987). Gandhi. Retrieved 201009-01. Retrieved 12 March 2009. SEP 27 March 1948.^ Birkett. p.^ "Time magazine people of the century". Susanne Hoeber Rudolph.^ A shorter edition. Mahadev. San Francisco. p.gandhiserve.htm. edited by Dewan Ram Parkash.html. p.^ The Story of My Experiments with Truth — An Autobiography. as pure as mother's milk" 90. 183. pp. "Gandhi's relationships with women were. ISBN 0002160056 82. 1956. 122 . Sankar (1991).B. 226–227.^ The Story of My Experiments with Truth — An Autobiography.K. Gujarat Sahitya Prakash: Ananda India. Gandhi: The Traditional Roots of Charisma. Gandhi hated the state and wished to eliminate it. 94.^ "Overview of debates between Gandhi and Tagore". 1948-01-30. 87. Dea. or. Gandhi's Wisdom Box (1942).^ Tidrick. The Gospel of Selfless Action. Retrieved 12 March 2009.^ Ghose.^ a b Parekh. 67 also in Collected works of Mahatma Gandhi Vol. 596 88. The Gita According To Gandhi. omitting the bulk of Desai's additional commentary. 86.^ Desai. Retrieved on 7 June 2008. 79 (PDF). ISBN 8170232058. Sage. 210. Bhikhu C. Mahadev Desai. 176. 93. 1987. http://www. Girja (1997). Mahatma Gandhi. 89. Colonialism. (Dry Bones Press. Gandhi: A Political and Spiritual Life. Tradition and Reform: An Analysis of Gandhi's Political Discourse. The author is listed as M. 302–304.org/2003/may/rvw-gndhtgore. (1999). p. 356. pp 236–237 99. from beginning to end.org. p. Other editions: 1948. 15 August 1940. I. Tauris.79. "Like Marx. pp. ISBN 0415040132 83. Gandhi's Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi.^ Wolpert. Ignatius. ISBN 019515634X. p.'" 97. http://www. Jim Rankin. 92. 84.
com/? id=OXoRs7Kxs_YC&pg=PR1. 479 104. p. 111. http://www. 102. Krishna and Andrew Robinson. Findarticles. 2.com/2004/20040222/spectrum/book1. K. Rabindranath Tagore: An Anthology. "COMMEMORATING MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. 149 117.gandhiserve. ISBN 81-7229-076-4.com. "King moved.^ Desai. Gandhiserve. Gandhi 103. Retrieved 2010-09-01. Buddhadeva. http://books.^ Dutta.org/streams/einstein. from Gujarati) (PDF).^ a b Nelson Mandela.org. 101." 2005: p. p.^ Surendra Bhana and Goolam Vahed.edu/index.: Gandhi's influence on King". "A pacifist uncovered". 1893–1914. 109. Srinivas. Retrieved 2011-01-29. 115. 189.html. 120. 13. Chapter "Gandhi's Legacy to South Africa. The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa. 113. 1969.DTL. p.^ By Sara Sidner CNN (2009-02-17). Whitehouse. Time Inc. 119. http://wikilivres.google. D'Souza (20 January 2003).com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/02/17/king.stanford.Y: Dover.100. 3 January 2000. Cnn. 118. Al Gore wins hearts at Cannes.^ Bhattacharyya._Gandhi. October–December 2002 105.com. viii. 108. 110.^ Easwaran. as father was. 114. Retrieved on 23 June 2007. 18 October 1931. trans. Retrieved 12 March 2009. http://www. Long Beach Publications: Long Beach. 2008.whitehouse.tribuneindia. Gandhi the Man. http://sfgate. ISBN 0-486-24593-4. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House.php/kingpapers/article/kings_trip_to_india/.^ Lennon Lives Forever.^ Murthy.com. Eknath. http://www. M.com/cgi-bin/article. San Francisco Chronicle.N. on trip to Gandhi's memorial".cgi? file=/chronicle/archive/2003/01/20/ED163673.^ Abdul Ghaffar Khan (February 2002). The Sacred Warrior: The liberator of South Africa looks at the seminal work of the liberator of India. 1998.^ "Obama's address to a Joint Session of the Parliament of India".^ Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi (CWMG) Controversy (gandhiserve) 107. Narayanan.stanford. Nilgiri Press. Mlk-kpp01. Unto this Last: A paraphrase. Retrieved on 20 May 2007. Mahadev H. 33. N. Retrieved 12 March 2009. Calcutta Book House: Calcutta. (1983).cnn. Tribuneindia.info/wiki/Unto_This_Last_%E2%80%94_M. (in English. 2010-11-08._K. Retrieved 12 March 2009. Rolling Stone.gov. http://mlkkpp01. http://www. Mineola.^ Placido P.^ Life Magazine: Remembering Martin Luther King Jr. Autobiography: the story of my experiments with truth.^ "King’s Trip to India". Taken from exchange4media.html.htm. 22 February 2004. Mahatma Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy Letters. 112.gov/the-press-office/2010/11/08/remarks-president-joint-session-indianparliament-new-delhi-india. pp.^ "Einstein on Gandhi".^ Of Gandhigiri and Green Lion. 40 Years Later. Life Positive Plus. Time Magazine.anniversaryvisit/index. . http://findarticles. Retrieved 2010-09-01. p.^ "An alternative Gandhi".^ Peerless Communicator by V.com.edu.^ a b Chapter VI Hind Swaraj by M. Retrieved 12 March 2009.K. Evolution of the political philosophy of Gandhi.^ Gandhi. Pg 12 116. 1987.com/p/articles/mi_m1295/is_2_66/ai_83246175/print. 106.
ISBN 0-87220-330-1 Easwaran.28804. Vintage: New York.^ School Day of Non-violence and Peace 125.hindustantimes. ISBN 0-915132-96-6 Fischer. 129. 16 January 2010. Bangaloremirror. Gandhi is god".com (Hindustan Times). 123. Louis. 9780520255708. ISBN 1-57075547-7 Chadha. hindustantimes. http://www. ISBN 0520255704. Bondurant. 1988 ISBN 0-691-02281-X Chernus. Surendra and Goolam Vahed.time. "Mahatma Gandhi.html. The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa.org/nobel_prizes/peace/articles/gandhi/index. http://www.com. and the empire.^ DENIP.org. Retrieved on 21 April 2007. 130. Princeton UP. 1950.^ "Top 25 Political Icons". 2008.htm l.) Further reading • • • • • • • • .bangaloremirror. the Missing Laureate".^ AFSC's Past Nobel Nominations. Jenalia. Dennis (ed). Conquest of Violence: The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict. http://www. 2005. Gandhi the Man. 1893–1914. The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 126. Mahatma Gandhi: Selected Political Writings. New York.^ The Children Of Gandhi. 2002.121. Øyvind (1 December 1999). 2010 131. Bhana. University of California Press.^ Chaudhury. The New York Times. 128. "2 October is global non-violence day". nobelprize. 1996. Whose Ideal Eludes India by Jim Yardley. R (2007).com/storypage/storypage.^ Moreno. Ira. American Nonviolence: The History of an Idea. Joan V.2046285_2045996_2045906. References • Gandhi. chapter 7. The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life. 127. and Ideas.com/article/10/201010022010100204445248420e2db29/HereGandhi-is-god. (reprint edition) ISBN 1-4000-3050-1 Fischer. .^ Obama Invokes Gandhi. Time Magazine Online. School Day of Non-violence and Peace 124. November 6. Harper & Row.com/time/time100/leaders/profile/gandhi. Yogesh. Retrieved 15 June 2007. Retrieved on 28 January 2010. 2010-10-02. New Delhi: Manohar. Retrieved 3 March 2009. Retrieved 2011-01-29. Work. Gandhi: A Life.^ "Here. ISBN 0-471-35062-1 Dalton.html. http://nobelprize. 122.^ "The Time 100".aspx?id=54580f5e-15a0-4aaf-baa38f403b5688fa&&Headline=October+2+is+Int'l+Non-Violence+Day. Time Magazine Online. Louis. "Signs of identity.^ a b c Tønnesson. Gandhi: the man.00.html. Eknath. ISBB 006-091038-0 (1983 pbk. Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company.com/time/specials/packages/article/0. Nilova (15 June 2007)." (Archive) Houston Chronicle. http://www. his people. Time.time.
B. 2004. Peter. ISBN 0-7148-9279-3 Sharp. Gandhi. Gianni. 1994.) Grove Press. Gandhi Behind the Mask of Divinity. M. Commentary. Richard. G. pp. New Delhi: Publications Division. (also available at wikisource). ISBN 0-8070-5909-9.. March 1983 Gordon. Hamburg 1996. Mahatma. Mann. Publishers. James D.) International Studies in Political Socialization and Education.K. 1956. Gandhi on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks • • • • Mahatma Gandhi's autobiography Works by Mahatma Gandhi at Project Gutenberg Gandhi's biography from Stanford's King Encyclopedia Gandhi Smriti — Government of India website . Dr. In: Claußen. A Rejection of Spiritual Imperialism: Reflections on Buber's Letter to Gandhi. New Delhi: Promilla & Co. The Gandhi Reader: A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings. Singh. Rajmohan. 2nd edition. An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments With Truth. Homer Jack (ed. Hunt. Gandhi. New York. M. M. Boston: Extending Horizon Books. Gandhi in London. 404. 22 June 1999. Patel: A Life.K. Sovereign Star Publishing. Haim. 1978. B. Col. Gandhi: A Photo biography. ISBN 0981499201 Sofri. 2008. (Ed. Bd. 8. G. The Pedagogical and Political Concepts of Mahatma Gandhi and Paulo Freire. Navajivan Publishing House. Gandhi and India: A Century in Focus. with Essays on Ethics and Politics. ISBN 3-926952-97-0 Rühe. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. xii. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Govt. 1979. B. Gandhi. Gandhi as a Political Strategist. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House. Bernhard.• • • Gandhi. ISBN 978-1573929981 Singh. 1990 ISBN 81-7229-1388 Grenier. Prometheus Books. Satyagraha in South Africa Gandhi. (1995) ISBN 1-900624-12-5 • • • • • • • • • • • External links Find more about Mohandas K. Tim Gandhi Under Cross Examination. (1940). The Gandhi Nobody Knows. Journal of Ecumenical Studies. of India. Gene. Col. and Watson.K.
the Missing Laureate from the Nobel Prize official website The Biography Channel: Mahatma Gandhi — Pilgrim Of Peace at Google Videos (Adobe Flash video) All Men are Brothers. compiled by Krishna Kripalani (given away by the copyright holder.• • • • • • • • • Mahatma Gandhi News Research and Media service Mani Bhavan Gandhi Sangrahalaya Gandhi Museum & Library Gandhi Book Centre Works by Mahatma Gandhi Works by or about Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in libraries (WorldCat catalog) When Gandhi was an honoured guest in Sri Lanka Mahatma Gandhi. book of selected quotations and excerpts from Gandhi's writings. UNESCO) [show]v · d · eMohandas Karamchand Gandhi F a m Kasturba · Harilal · Manilal · Ramdas · Devdas · Samaldas · Arun · Rajmohan · Tushar · i Gopalkrishna l y I n f l u e n c e s Ahimsa · Ashram · Bhagavad Gita · Henry David Thoreau · Civil disobedience · Fasting · Hinduism · Islam · Jainism · John Ruskin · Leo Tolstoy · The Kingdom of God Is Within You · The Masque of Anarchy · Muhammad · Pacifism · Sermon on the Mount · Shrimad Rajchandra · Unto This Last · Vegetarianism L Civil rights movement in South Africa · Bardoli Satyagraha · Champaran and Kheda i f Satyagraha · Non-cooperation · Chauri Chaura · Purna Swaraj · Salt Satyagraha · Vaikom e Satyagraha · Poona Pact · Quit India · Assassination P Gandhism · Economics · Sarvodaya · Satyagraha · The Story of My Experiments with h Truth · Swadeshi · Swaraj i l o s o p .
Jr. F. · James Lawson · Nelson Mandela · Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan · Steve Biko · Aung San Suu Kyi · Benigno Aquino. C. National Historic Site · Atlanta · i a Pietermaritzburg · Moscow · San Francisco · Honolulu · Rajghat · National Gandhi l Museum · Gandhi Smriti s a t [show]v · d · eIndian National Congress . Andrews · Narhari Parikh · c i Ravi Shankar Vyas · Mohanlal Pandya · Mahadev Desai · Abbas Tyabji · Khan Abdul a Ghaffar Khan · Dada Dharmadhikari · J. Jr. Kumarappa t e s L e g Gujarat Vidyapith · Kashi Vidyapeeth · Jamia Millia Islamia · Gandhi Peace Prize · Artistic a depictions · Gandhi Jayanti · Gandhigiri · Seven Blunders of the World c y I n f l u e n c e d Martin Luther King. · Tenzin Gyatso · Maria Lacerda de Moura · Albert Einstein · Lanza del Vasto · Madeleine Slade · John Lennon · Al Gore · Barack Obama M e m o r Union Square · New York · Martin Luther King.h y A s s o Vinoba Bhave · Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel · Mirabehn · C. Jr.
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W. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Johnson (1967) · The Apollo 8 Astronauts: William Anders / Frank Borman / Jim Lovell (1968) · The Middle Americans (1969) · Willy Brandt (1970) · Richard Nixon (1971) · Henry Kissinger / Richard Nixon (1972) · John Sirica (1973) · King Faisal (1974) · American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly / Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King / Carol Sutton / Susie Sharp / Addie Wyatt (1975) [show] 1976–2000 Jimmy Carter (1976) · Anwar Sadat (1977) · Deng Xiaoping (1978) · Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) · Ronald Reagan (1980) · Lech Wałęsa (1981) · The Computer (1982) · Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983) · Peter Ueberroth (1984) · Deng Xiaoping (1985) · Corazon Aquino (1986) · Mikhail Gorbachev (1987) · The Endangered Earth (1988) · Mikhail Gorbachev (1989) · George H.W. Truman (1948) · Winston Churchill (1949) · The American Fighting-Man (1950) [show] 1951–1975 Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) · Elizabeth II (1952) · Konrad Adenauer (1953) · John Foster Dulles (1954) · Harlow Curtice (1955) · Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) · Nikita Khrushchev (1957) · Charles de Gaulle (1958) · Dwight D. Bush (2004) · The Good Samaritans: Bono / Bill Gates / Melinda Gates (2005) · You (2006) · Vladimir Putin (2007) · Barack Obama (2008) · Ben Bernanke (2009) · Mark Zuckerberg (2010) Book:Time Persons of the Year [show]v · d · eAsian of the Century The Big Five . Eisenhower (1959) · U. (1963) · Lyndon B. Kennedy (1961) · Pope John XXIII (1962) · Martin Luther King.S. Johnson (1964) · William Westmoreland (1965) · The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) · Lyndon B.George Marshall (1947) · Harry S. Bush (2000) [show] 2001–present Rudolph Giuliani (2001) · The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins (2002) · The American Soldier (2003) · George W. Bezos (1999) · George W. Bush (1990) · Ted Turner (1991) · Bill Clinton (1992) · The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat / F. Jr. de Klerk / Nelson Mandela / Yitzhak Rabin (1993) · Pope John Paul II (1994) · Newt Gingrich (1995) · David Ho (1996) · Andrew Grove (1997) · Bill Clinton / Kenneth Starr (1998) · Jeffrey P. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg / Willard Libby / Linus Pauling / Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè / William Shockley / Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960) · John F.
20th century · Asian people · Asian Century P o l i t i c s a n d G o v e r n m e n t : B Akio Morita (Japan) u s i n e s s a n d E c o n o m i c Deng Xiaoping (China) .
) c i e n c e a n d T e c .S. Kao (China/U. L i t e r a t u r Akira Kurosawa (Japan) e a n d C u l t u r e : S Charles K.s : A r t s .
h n o l o g y : M o r a l a n d S p i r i t Mohandas K. Gandhi (India) u a l L e a d e r s h i p : AsianWeek · CNN · TIME Asia [show]v · d · eIndian independence movement .
H i Colonisation · East India Company · British India · French India · Portuguese India · s Plassey · Buxar · Anglo-Mysore Wars · Anglo-Maratha Wars (First · Second · Third) · t o Polygar War · Vellore Mutiny · First Anglo-Sikh War · Second Anglo-Sikh War · r Rebellion of 1857 · British Raj · more y P h i l o s o p h i e s Indian nationalism · Swaraj · Hindu nationalism · Gandhism · Satyagraha · Indian Muslim a n nationalism · Swadeshi · Socialism · Khilafat Movement d i d e o l o g i e s E v e n t s Partition of Bengal · Revolutionaries · Delhi-Lahore Conspiracy · The Indian Sociologist · The Sedetious conspiracy · Champaran and Kheda · Rowlatt Committee · Rowlatt Bills · Jallianwala Bagh Massacre · Non-Cooperation · Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre · Flag Satyagraha · Bardoli · 1928 Protests · Nehru Report · Purna Swaraj · Salt Satyagraha · Round table conferences · Act of 1935 · Legion Freies Indien · Cripps' mission · Quit a India · Indian National Army · Tiger Legion · Bombay Mutiny · Coup d'État de Yanaon · n Provisional Government of India d .
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Ali Jinnah · Sardar Patel · Vakkom Majeed · Subhash Chandra Bose · Jawaharlal Nehru · Mohandas a c Karamchand Gandhi · Allama Mashriqi · Akkamma Cherian · Swadeshabhimani t Ramakrishna Pillai · Kotwal Dhan Singh Gurjar · more i v i s t s B r i t i s h Robert Clive · James Outram · Dalhousie · Irwin · Linlithgow · Wavell · Stafford Cripps · l Mountbatten · more e a d e r s I Simla Conference · Cabinet Mission · Indian Independence Act · Partition of India · n Political integration · Constitution · Republic of India d e .a n i n d e p e n d e n c e Pandey · Veer Kunwar Singh · Rae Ahmed Nawaz Khan Kharal · Rani of Jhansi · Bahadur Shah Zafar · Swami Dayanand Saraswati · Bal Gangadhar Tilak · Gopal Krishna Gokhale · Dadabhai Naoroji · Bhikaiji Cama · Shyamji Krishna Varma · Annie Besant · Har Dayal · Subramanya Bharathi · Lala Lajpat Rai · Bipin Chandra Pal · Rash Behari Bose · Chittaranjan Das · Bidhan Chandra Roy · Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan · Maulana Azad · Ashfaqullah Khan · Ram Prasad Bismil · Chandrasekhar Azad · Rajaji · Bhagat Singh · Sarojini Naidu · Purushottam Das Tandon · Alluri Sitaramaraju · M.
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