Firas A.

– Extended Essay

Abstract
This essay focuses on an investigation of the main socio-economic characteristics of the south Moluccan district in Maastricht, the Netherlands. In order to arrive at a balanced conclusion about the socio-economic characteristics of the 1500 Moluccans living in the south Moluccan district in Maastricht, many different factors, including the population demographics, income, employment, education and quality of life were investigated. For this purpose questionnaires were created and several interviews and self constructed surveys were conducted. These, along with the secondary data collected from the administration office and government, were evaluated throughout this essay in order to provide further valuable insights into the socioeconomic characteristics of the families living in the district. In addition the visual environment was also investigated to give a more thorough picture of the socio-economic characteristics of the district.

After the analysis and interpretation of the primary and secondary data, the investigation arrived at several interesting conclusions: the district has proven to be suboptimal for large families. This finding explained the low number of people below 18 years living in the district (as large families had to move outside the district to avoid space problems). In addition, statistical evidence in the essay suggests a complex negative relationship between age and education/income. Further research revealed that the reason for the exceptionally low number of intercultural marriages within the district is a result of parents trying to keep their culture alive by choosing a partner from the same origin, pointing towards social segregation. Clearly, the investigation is of high value for anyone who is keen to obtaining a deeper understanding of one of the most important minorities existing in modern Dutch society.

Firas A. – Extended Essay

An investigation of the main socio-economic characteristics of the south Moluccan district in Maastricht, the Netherlands

Firas A. – Extended Essay

Table of Contents

Firas A. – Extended Essay

List of Illustration
Cover – Pictures of the south Moluccan district in Maastricht, taken by Firas A. Figure 1 – Moluccans’ location of origin and current location Figure 2 – The location of the Moluccan Islands within Indonesia Figure 3 – The location of the south Moluccan district within the Netherlands Figure 4 – The location of the south Moluccan district within Maastricht Figure 5 – Building used as a shelter for Moluccans (Eijsden 1951-1961) Figure 6 – Annotated map showing the south Moluccan district Figure 7 – Sample representing the age structure of the south Moluccan district Figure 8 – Photograph of Moluccan church in the district and chart showing religions Figure 9 – Showing trends in the education levels among the Moluccan population Figure 10 – Showing the negative relationship between education and age Figure 11 – Negative relationship between level of education and income Figure 12 – Showing relationship between gender and level of education Figure 13 – Employment figures from the south Moluccan district Figure 14 – Showing figures for annual income of people living in the district Figure 15 – Showing marital status data constructed for the Moluccan district Figure 16 – The majority of the population dislikes intercultural marriages Figure 17 – Showing how many people live in one household Figure 18 – Three children playing in front of their house in the district Figure 19 – Nearby noise, pollution and traffic generated from a main motorway Figure 20 – A draw back: cars park on the street (no off-street paring available) Figure 21 – There are some grassed spaces and a plenty of well kept trees Figure 22 – Information about how inhabitants of the district rated their housing quality 1 5 5 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 20 20 21

Firas A. – Extended Essay 1. Introduction Today, approximately 40,000 Moluccans live in the Netherlands1, most of them in one of the 60 different Moluccan districts existing within the country2. The main purpose of this essay is to investigate the main socio-economic characteristics3 of one of the 60 Moluccan districts: the south Moluccan district in Maastricht. In order to be able to draw a balanced conclusion about the socio-economic characteristics of the 1500 Moluccans living in the south Moluccan district in Maastricht4, many different factors, including the population demographics, employment, income, education and quality of life were investigated. Thus, the population composition of this area was analysed and evaluated. The network of maps on page 5 (figure 1 – 4) gives detailed information about the Moluccans’ location of origin and current location. Point A in figure 1 represents the Moluccan point of origin: the Moluccan Islands. These islands, also known as the Moluccas, Maluku Islands or simply Maluku, are an archipelago in Indonesia, and part of the larger Malay Archipelago. They are located on the Australian Plate, lying east of Sulawesi (Celebes), west of New Guinea, and north of Timor.5 Figure 2 below depicts the location of the Moluccan Islands within Indonesia, shown in green on the map.

Point B in figure 1 below represents the current whereabouts of the Moluccans under investigation in this essay: the municipality of Maastricht, capital of the province of Limburg. The city is situated on both sides of the Meuse River in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands between Belgium and Germany.6 Figure 3 below depicts the location of the south Moluccan district within the Netherlands, whereas figure 4 on page 5 indicates where exactly the south Moluccan district is located within Maastricht, the Netherlands.

1 2

Source: https://www.nidi.knaw.nl:10011/en/output/2002/mvb-50-06-beets.pdf Source: (Leaflet) Inspraakorgaan Welzijn Molukkers, Utrecht 3 Socio-economic characteristics such as age, education, marital status, employment, income and housing quality 4 Source: Moetira Maloekoe Heer-Maastricht (District administration office) 5 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maluku_Islands 6 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maastricht

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Firas A. – Extended Essay

New Guinea, located just east of the Moluccan Islands Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes), located west of the Islands The Netherlands Province Limburg, located in the south-east of the country. Its capital is Maastricht. The red spot represents the Moluccan Islands and is shown in green in figure 2

7

7

Network of maps constructed with Google Earth and Photoshop, using resources from Wikipedia

5

Firas A. – Extended Essay
Figure 4

Figure 4 – Red arrow showing the location of the south Moluccan district within Maastricht 8

After the Dutch East Indies were decolonized, the Moluccan native soldiers of the Dutch colonial army, the Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger (KNIL), found themselves in an awkward situation. Since they were a force that helped the Dutch control the Indies and even fought for the Dutch and against the new independent Indonesia, the Moluccan KNIL soldiers were considered as traitors by the majority of the Indonesian population. In 1951 when violent conflicts seemed to escalate, the Dutch government decided to transfer the last 12,500 Moluccan KNIL soldiers with their families to the Netherlands.

The Dutch government promised these ex-soldiers and their families that their stay in the Netherlands would be only temporary (3-6 months) and that they would soon be able to return to a safe home on their independent Moluccan Islands. After the arrival of the south Moluccans in the Netherlands, they were placed in former concentration camps like Westerbork and camp Vught.
8

Map constructed using resources from Google Earth and Photoshop as editing tool

6

Firas A. – Extended Essay The people living in the south Moluccan district in Maastricht today were particularly placed in Eijsden (south-eastern Netherlands, figure 5 below). During their stay in Eijsden they were completely isolated from Dutch society, not just geographically (due to the remote nature of the building) but also socially.
Figure 5

The building used as a shelter for Moluccans (1951-1961, southeastern Netherlands) 9

In 1960 the construction of the south Moluccan district in Maastricht (figure 6, page 8) was finally completed and in 1961 the first south Moluccan families who had arrived in 1951 moved from their old “temporary” home in Eijsden to their new houses in Maastricht. Figure 6 displays a map of the south Moluccan district in Maastricht. The map shows the Moluccan church, the administration office and the Moluccan nursery school “Taman Kanak” (offers Moluccan children entertainment and basic education). Furthermore, the households from which the questionnaire was retrieved back successfully are marked green. Moreover, the yellow shading indicates the houses where the interviews took place. The buildings which are marked in red represent official buildings in the district. Details regarding the annotation of the map are included in the key of the map.

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Source: Moetira Maloekoe Heer-Maastricht (District administration office)

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Firas A. – Extended Essay
Placeholder for figure 6

(Map of district)

8

Firas A. – Extended Essay 2. Research Methodology As there was only very little secondary data available on the socio-economic characteristics of the people living in the south Moluccan district, the construction of a questionnaire, consisting of 12 key questions, was a convenient way to obtain valuable insights into the socio-economic characteristics of the south Moluccan district in Maastricht. The next step was to seek permission for the research activities from the district administrator. After a short period of time, broad support for this research was expressed and pilot exercises were conducted to test questionnaires and audiovisual equipment. The final version of the questionnaire was distributed in Dutch and Indonesian to accommodate possible language problems, particularly among the older residents. The process of distributing the questionnaires took one week, as they were only handed out personally. This way of distributing and collecting the questionnaires initially seemed time consuming, but it has proven to be highly productive. During the process of handing out and collecting questionnaires, opportunities for informative conversations could be optimally used, as the majority of the people was very kind and openminded. Each household that could be reached received one questionnaire in the requested language and was given one week to fill it in. Getting in touch with the administrative head, Mr. Lewerissa, and the minister of the church of the Moluccan district was another way to use the time in between efficiently to obtain further insights. After more than five extended meetings with Mr. Lewerissa, concerns about getting enough background information were eliminated. One week later 30 out of 40 questionnaires were retrieved successfully, reflecting earlier expectations about a low response rate. However, due to the relatively small Moluccan population, 30 questionnaires were found to be sufficient for conducting valid statistical analysis. The 30 questioned households will serve as a sample throughout this essay, representing the population of the south Moluccan district. The obtained data served as a basis for the creation of a variety of graphs and statistical tables. They will be, along with the secondary data collected from the administration office and government, evaluated throughout this essay in order to provide further valuable insights into the socio- economic characteristics of the 116 families10 living in the south Moluccan district in Maastricht. A questionnaire, filled in by a Moluccan person, is included and can be found in the appendix (page 26) of this essay. While the questionnaire was distributed, one aim was to cover both genders equally, as this would ensure a balanced analysis and would give the opportunity to make comparisons between both genders concerning their socio-economic characteristics.

10

Source: Moetira Maloekoe Heer-Maastricht (District administration office)

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Firas A. – Extended Essay 3. Presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data The first part of the questionnaire focuses on the age structure of the people living in the south Moluccan district in Maastricht. After analyzing the questionnaires, it became evident that the age group 35-65 years accounts with 73.30% for the largest part of the population. Looking for an explanation for this anomaly, the reason was found in the past: in 1961, when the Moluccan families moved from their temporary home in Eijsden to their new homes in the south Moluccan district in Maastricht, parents felt more (economically) secure which resulted in a significant increase in the birthrates among the population. In addition, the post World War II baby boom resulted in generally high birthrates in the Netherlands, which further contributed to the increase in birth rates within the district. The population pyramid of Moluccans living in the Netherlands provides necessary evidence and can be found in the appendix (page 28).
Figure 7

Age

80,00% 70,00% 60,00% 50,00% Percentage of 40,00% Population 30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00% Percentage of Population Below 18 3,30% 18-35 6,70% 35-65 73,30% Above 65 16,70%

Age Group

Figure 7 – Sample representing the age structure of the south Moluccan district

Since the south Moluccans arrived in 1951 in the Netherlands, the percentage of people above 65 years started to decrease at an increasing rate. The age group 65+ now accounts for only 16.70% of the overall population. The high mortality rate associated with the age group 65+ can be explained by considering the fact that most of the people within this age group are approaching the age of 80+.

10

Firas A. – Extended Essay Further examination of the houses within the south Moluccan district has shown that the houses, having only four bedrooms, are not optimal for sustaining larger families. Therefore, families with many children had to move outside the south Moluccan district. This might explain the low percentage of people below 18 and between 18-35 years within the Moluccan district. Today 178 Moluccan families11 live outside the south Moluccan district, but still within Maastricht.

The next part of the socio-economic investigation focuses on finding out more about the religious characteristics of the south Moluccan population in Maastricht. The survey revealed that almost all respondents were of Protestant faith. Further secondary research has shown that there is a connection between the past activities of the Dutch colony in Indonesia and religion dominating in the south Moluccan district today. The Dutch colony actively contributed to the spreading of the Protestant faith among the native soldiers of the Dutch colonial army (KNIL). All the Moluccans entering the KNIL accepted the Protestant faith and passed it on to their children. This is one reason why today the Protestant belief clearly dominates among the population of the south Moluccan district in Maastricht.12

Figure 8

Religion

Protestant 3% Atheist

97%

Figure 8 –Photograph of Moluccan church in the district and chart showing religions
11 12

Source: Interview with Mr. Lewerissa (district administrator) Source: https://www.nidi.knaw.nl:10011/en/output/2002/mvb-50-06-beets.pdf/mvb-50-06-beets.pdf

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Firas A. – Extended Essay Point four in the questionnaire primarily deals with the educational aspects of the district. As evident in figure 9, the majority of the population has “basic education”13.

Analyzing the results shown in figure 9 below with respect to age resulted in an interesting discovery: a negative relationship exists between educational level and age. In fact, people who reported to have “no (completed) education” belong without exception to the age group 65+. Their descendants who represent the second generation show a slightly higher level of education, as the majority of them has obtained “basic education” (as defined above). The trend continues: most of the people who belong to the third generation have “middle education”14 and therefore show a higher educational level than their fathers and grandfathers. Finally, the fourth and youngest generation within the south Moluccan district shows the highest level of education, as the majority of them has a “high level”15 of education. Reasons for the existence of a negative relationship between age and level of education will be investigated in the following paragraphs.
Figure 9

Education

Higher Education

4

Educational Level

Middle Education

6

Basic Education

15

No education 0 2

5

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

Number of People

Figure 9 – Showing trends in the education levels among the south Moluccan population

13

Basic education defined as lower/preparatory vocational education or junior general secondary education (in the Netherlands known as VBO/LBO or MAVO) 14 Middle education defined as secondary vocational education, senior general secondary education (MBO, HAVO) 15 Higher education defined as senior or university preparatory education (VWO)

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Firas A. – Extended Essay One reason for the negative correlation between age and level of education (shown in the graph below) could be the role that parents play in the education of their children.
Figure 10

Figure 10 – Showing the negative relationship between education and age

The second generation of south Moluccans living in the south Moluccan district in Maastricht had parents who just spoke a few words of Dutch. The lack of the parent’s education affected their children negatively, resulting in them having only “basic education”. As the education level of the first generation was exceptionally low, they were not able to support their children (second generation) in the educational area, resulting in the above mentioned outcome. Nor were they able to afford private tuition or higher education for their children, since there is also a negative relationship between level of education and income. A low level of education in the first generation leads to a low level of income among first generation. This in turn allowed the children of the second generation to have an only slightly higher level of education. The slightly higher level of education resulted in a slightly higher level of income which in turn brought about an even higher level of the children’s level of education in the third generation. Over the generations the educational and hence economic conditions improved. Cleary, throughout the past decades, language barriers and other educational obstacles have largely diminished, with young Moluccans in the south Moluccan district being able to fully integrate themselves into Dutch society. Figure 11 represents a theoretical model explaining the relationship between education and income.
Figure11

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Firas A. – Extended Essay The next graph deals with the relationship between gender and education, and was created combining two different sets of data from the questionnaire. It becomes evident that there is a fairly balanced relationship between gender and education. However, it is worth pointing out that generation by generation the degree of inequality in education between males and females decreases.

It is realistic to assume that the level of integration plays a role in this case. The more integrated the less inequality. The fourth generation (the green part of the column) can be considered to be fully integrated into Dutch society and therefore shows perfect equality between males and females in the level of education. Interviews with youngsters from the fourth generation showed that some of them feel themselves “Dutch to certain extent”.
Figure 12

Gender/Education Relation

Percentage of Population

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

6,70% 10%

6,70% 9% Higher Education

26,70%

24,30%

Middle Education Basic Education No education

6,70% Male Gender

10% Female

Figure 12 – Showing relationship between gender and level of education

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Firas A. – Extended Essay Figure 13 below shows that there is a relatively high percentage of unemployment in the south Moluccan district in Maastricht. 33 percent of unemployed Moluccans are primarily 35-65 years old. During talks with people from this age group, it became obvious that most of them still face problems finding a job due to their low level of education. Only very few people reported that finding a job is challenging due to ethnic differences such as skin color.

However, as the level of education has proven to be higher among younger Moluccans, the percentage of unemployed Moluccans might decrease considerably in the near future. Thus Moluccan youngsters, having a higher level of education than their parents, might face fewer problems finding a job.
Figure 13

Employment Figures

17%

Employed Unemployed 50% 33% Retired

Figure 13 – Employment figures from the south Moluccan district

The majority of the employed 50 percent are blue-collar workers (e.g. working in the building construction sector or as car mechanic). This is normal, considering their low level of education. Blue-collar jobs are generally declining in the area whereas more highly skilled people are demanded by the labor market. Their low level of education and high age makes many of them inflexible and therefore eliminates retraining as a possibility.

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Firas A. – Extended Essay A further important socio-economic aspect is income. Figure 14 below was constructed using analyzed data from the questionnaire. With 43 percent of the population earning less than 10.000 € annually, the majority has a comparatively low level of income. This is attributable to the widespread low level of education among the people representing the current workforce. With 37 percent of the population earning 10.000 – 30.000 € annually, the lower middle income group within the south Moluccan district in Maastricht seems to be considerably small. Only 20 percent of the people earn 30.000-60.000 € annually.

Figure 14

Annual Income in €

0; 0% 6; 20% 0; 0% 13; 43% Less than 10,000 10,000 to 30,000 30,000 to 60,000 75,000 to 100,000 11; 37% More than 100,000

Figure 14 – Showing figures for annual income of people living in the district

People earning more than 60.000 € annually were not found, and are therefore very rare or do not exist within the south Moluccan district in Maastricht. The reason for this might not just be related to the general low level of education (and therefore income), but also to the fact that families with higher incomes probably moved out of the district, as they are able to afford better housing.

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Firas A. – Extended Essay Following a specific plan in order to cover as many socio-economic characteristics as possible, the marital status was the next social characteristic to investigate. As research has shown, 50 percent of the population living in the south Moluccan district is married. A possible reason for this strong tendency towards marriage was found while comparing marital status figures created for the south Moluccan district in Maastricht with the data available for Indonesia. Marriage is generally favored and encouraged in Indonesia. The same mindset was observed in the south Moluccan district in Maastricht. During interviews with people living in the south Moluccan district in Maastricht, it became evident that indeed most of the people have a very positive attitude towards marriage. Furthermore, in Indonesia, parents strongly favor the marriage of their children, as it is considered to be a very important part of their social lives. The same could be observed among parents living in the south Moluccan district in Maastricht. Thus, it is safe to assume that the marriage pattern in the south Moluccan district today has its roots in the original culture and tradition of the south Moluccans. The tradition obviously has been maintained throughout the years of the stay of the Moluccans in the Netherlands.
Figure 15

Marital Status

50,00% 45,00% 40,00% 35,00% 30,00% Percentage of 25,00% Population 20,00% 15,00% 10,00% 5,00% 0,00% Single Divorced Widowed Married Partnership Other Martial Status
3,30% 0% 50% 16,70% 13,30% 16,70%

Figure 15 – Showing marital status data constructed for the south Moluccan district Maastricht

Interestingly, most of the 16.70 percent of divorced men and women were not married to a Moluccan person, but to someone from a different ethnical background. Thus, intercultural marriages seem to be less successful, as cultural or religious differences tend to result in fundamental problems. However, it is not the intention to generalize this observation. 17

Firas A. – Extended Essay Figure 16 below indicates that the Moluccans generally prefer to be partnered with a person from the same origin. With 21 out of 23 couples, being married to another Moluccan person, the phenomenon seems clear. Before starting this particular investigation, different expectations were drawn. More intercultural marriages were expected, as a result of high integration and the long passage of time since migration.

After several interviews with married Moluccans from the south Moluccan district, asking for reasons for their avoidance to marry a person with a different cultural background, it became clear that many Moluccans see the marriage with someone of the same origin as the only way to preserve and pass along their own culture.

Figure 16

Partnered with a Mollucan person?
25 20 15 Number of People 10 5 0

Not Married 6

Yes, Other Moluccan Indonesian 21 0

Limburg 2

Other Dutch 0

Other Nationality 1

People chosen this

Figure 16 – Showing that the majority of the population dislikes intercultural marriages

However, it is very likely that the number of intercultural marriages is significantly higher among Moluccan living outside this district. Outside the Moluccan district, the degree of integration might be higher and the living in the same environment as other Dutch might result in more intercultural marriages. It is remarkable that, the two people who reported their partner to be from the Province of Limburg, also reported that they have been living less than 5 years in the south Moluccan district in Maastricht. Thus, intercultural marriages are more likely to occur outside the Moluccan district, and are not necessarily rare. 18

Firas A. – Extended Essay The next aim was to find out how many people live in one household, and whether there is overcrowding or if there are any associated space problems. This is another way to measure their standard of living and gain more information about their socio-economic characteristics.

In figure 17 below, it is evident that only 17 percent can possibly be suffering from an overcrowded household. After examining the inside of several houses as part of the environmental assessment report, it became evident that the houses are not able to sustain larger families. This left large families with no other option than moving outside the south Moluccan district, in order to avoid overcrowding and space problems. In turn, this is likely to have led to the current low percentage of households with more than four people within the district.
Figure 17

Number of people in household

4+ People 17%

1 Person 13%

3-4 People 37%

2 People 33%

Figure 17 – Showing how many people live in one household

As shown in figure 17 above, in 13 percent of the households a person (usually over 65 years) lives alone. Two people live in 33 percent of the households, followed 3-4 people living in 37 percent of the households. Until this point, there is a positive relationship between number of people in household and percentage. The percentage of households almost decreases by 50 percent as the number of people in household changes from 3-4 to 4+ people. This again, might be due to the above mentioned reason, where large families move outside the district to avoid overcrowding in their own household.

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Firas A. – Extended Essay The picture (figure 18 below) shows three Moluccan children playing with bow and arrow on the sidewalk. The houses in the background are typical examples of houses in the Moluccan district. They have a tiny front garden and a small garden. Both are mostly poorly fenced and overgrown. Many children were seen playing on the street, in front of their houses. However, as there is only residential traffic, it does not depict a potential threat to the safety of the children.
Figure 18 Figure 19 Numerou s trucks pass by, causing noise and pollution Congestion occurs at least two times a day Figure 18 – Three children playing in front of their house. Figure 19 – Nearby noise, pollution and traffic.

Tiny, overgrown, front garden

No playground for children

On the other hand the nearby main motorway (fig. 19) does represent a potential threat to the safety of the children. In some areas of the district, the fence protecting children from the motorway is broken and has not been repaired. The motorway causes some noise, but normal speech within the district is still possible. However, signs of pollution are evident: walls and buildings show some staining. It probably would have been worse without the high number of mature trees in the area. The trees seem to be well kept and there are plentiful grassed spaces (fig. 21).The absence of off-street parking can be considered to be another draw back (fig. 20)
Figure 20 Houses are built right next to each other No offstreet parking Figure 21 Trees seem to be well kept District contains plentiful grassed spaces

Fig. 20 - A draw back: cars park on the street.

Fig. 21 – Plentiful grassed spaces, well kept trees

Fence to motorway is damaged at some places

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Firas A. – Extended Essay Figure 22 below displays how inhabitants of the south Moluccan district in Maastricht rated their housing quality.

The majority of the people rated their housing quality with 6/10 and 7/10. This indicates that there is room for improvement of the housing quality within the district. However, the 6 people who rated their housing quality remarkably high with 9/10 and 10/10, were primarily people who also reported to live alone, or only in couples. On the other hand, people who rated their housing quality remarkably low were people with 4+ people in the household.

Figure 22

How would you rate the housing quality?

12 10 8 Number of People 6 4 2 0 People chosen this rating

1 0

2 1

3 0

4 1

5 1

6 12

7 8

8 0

9 3

10 3

Rating System: 1 (Very Poor) to 10 (Excellent)

Figure 22 – Giving information about how inhabitants of the district rated their housing quality

Thus, it is safe to assume that households with 4+ people are less satisfied with the housing quality than households with 1-2 people. This can be explained by considering the negative relationship between the number of people in a household and available space for each person. As more people live in one household, less space is available for each individual person (sometimes even leading to less privacy). This results in less overall satisfaction in the housing quality, and explains the results shown in figure 18 above.

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Firas A. – Extended Essay 4. Conclusion The essay has revealed the major socio-economic characteristics of the south Moluccan district in Maastricht. It became evident that the district is suboptimal for large families, which explained the low number of people below 18. However, after further investigating the demographics of the district, it became evident that the age group 35-65 years accounts for an exceptionally high percentage (73.30%) of the overall population. Reasons for this anomaly were found by considering the past of the Moluccans in the Netherlands and the effects of the post world war II baby boom. Furthermore, the low level of income among early generations can be explained by their low educational level – whereas a negative relationship between age and level of education/income was discovered (the older the person the lower the level of education and thus income). Moreover, the low rate of intercultural marriages has proven to be the result of an attempt (by parents) to preserve and pass along Moluccan culture, unconsciously pointing towards traits of social segregation. Furthermore, investigating the relationship between gender and education has revealed that the fourth generation (which is the youngest generation) arrived at a state of full integration and therefore shows perfect equality between males and females in the level of education.

Finally, the survey revealed that the majority of the inhabitants of the district are of Protestant faith. Further research has revealed a close connection between the activities of the Dutch colony and religion dominating in the south Moluccan district today. Clearly, the statistical analysis would have been more accurate and valid if more people would have been willing to fill in the questionnaire. In some cases it was hard do convince people from the noncommercial nature of the project. Furthermore, due to a limited Dutch vocabulary some interviews did not develop properly and some questions remained unanswered.

It would be interesting to investigate the exact reason for the people living in the district. After such a long time, one would expect the number of inhabitants of the district to decline. Maybe this is about to happen in the near future, as it has been proven how integrated and educated the fourth generation became. Their high educational level might bring about a higher income, which in turn could be used to afford a more luxurious living outside the district. The existence of the Moluccan district might become less important and indifference towards old traditional customs might arise. Clearly, further research, with more economic resources, needs to be conducted in order to get a more accurate picture of the development of the south Moluccan district in the present and future. 22

Firas A. – Extended Essay 5. Bibliography/References

Books/Leaflets:  Inspraakorgaan Welzijn Molukkers, Utrecht (15/05/1980) „Wie zijn ze eigenlijk?“  Moetiara Maloekoe, Heer-Maastricht (2001 Edition) „Stichting Moetiara Maloekoe“

Internet:  Ben Allen & Aart Loubert, the Hague Legal Capital (Retrieved on 06/09/2006) “History and Identity: Moluccans in the Netherlands” URL: http://www.safecom.org.au/dutch-moluccans.htm  Gijs Beets, Evelien Walhout and Santo Koesoebjono (Retrieved on 04/09/2006) “Demografische ontwikkeling van de Molukse bevolkingsgroep in Nederland” URL: https://www.nidi.knaw.nl:10011/en/output/2002/mvb-50-06-beets.pdf/mvb-50-06beets.pdf  From Wikipedia®, the free encyclopaedia under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (Retrieved on 05/09/2006) “Main article on the South Moluccas Republic” URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Moluccas  From Wikipedia®, the free encyclopedia under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (Retrieved on 06/09/2006) “Main article on Maastricht” URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maastricht

Interview/Information:  Information based on interviews conducted with Connies Lewerissa, Administrator of the south Moluccan district in Maastricht, (22-28/06/2006)  Information based on interviews conducted with arbitrary selected people (of different age groups) living in the south Moluccan district, (15-30/08/2006).

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Firas A. – Extended Essay

6. Appendix

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Firas A. – Extended Essay

Flow chart for figure 11

Flow chart created to clarify the idea of how education can affect income

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Firas A. – Extended Essay
Placeholder for the questionnaire

26

Firas A. – Extended Essay

Population pyramid from 2002

16

Population pyramid (2002) of the Moluccans living in the Netherlands, clearly indicating the baby boom

16

Source: https://www.nidi.knaw.nl:10011/en/output/2002/mvb-50-06-beets.pdf/mvb-50-06-beets.pdf

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Firas A. – Extended Essay

17

17

Source: http://www.ferdinandus.com/images/Permanent/maluku.jpg

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