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Spring 2007 LITST 730 Early Christian Liturgies Instructor: Jill Burnett Comings Student Name: Nam Joong Kim
May 16, 2007
A STUDY OF THE DIDACHE
THE DIDACHE AND THE ROLE OF THE EUCHARIST1
The aim of this final paper is to examine the Didache (i.e. the Teaching), an early Christian manual on morals and Church practice and its features.2 Especially, through my individual standpoint, I will deal with the role and peculiarity of the Eucharist (Did. 9-10; 14) in the Didache. By so doing, I will ascertain that although the Didache was a non-canonical book, it has been a reliable guide to help understand the conduct code of the early Christian community. There are many reports that the Didache was found or translated in various regions and languages.3 But, in this final paper, I will focus on the only complete manuscript found in 1873. I will do my best to express and understand its contents with my own language while reading the Didache.
This research is the starting point of my liturgical study because through the Early Christian Liturgies class (Prof. Comings, Jill), I heard and read information on the Didache for the first time. 2 “The Didache had a great influence on early Church and is still highly regarded due to its information concerning the Liturgy of the early Church. It gives rules for the celebration of the Eucharist and Baptism, presents two Eucharistic Prayers, and depicts the organization of the Church.” Jovian P. Lang, Dictionary of the Liturgy (New York: Catholic Book Pub, 1989), 162. 3 Kurt. Niederwimmer, The Didache: A Commentary, trans. Linda M. Maloney; ed., Harold W. Attridge (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998), 19-53.
1. Who Found The Didache and When Was It Found? In 1873, Philotheos Bryennios,4who later became Patriarch of Nicomedia (1877), found a small 11th century Greek manuscript of 120 leaves of vellum dated 1056 in Metropolitan of Serrae in Macedonia (1875, now Serres).5 It contained copies of the Epistle of Barnabas (39a-51b), the First and Second Epistles of Clement of Rome (51b-76a), twelve letters of Ignatius (82a-120a), and a document purporting to set out the Teaching of The Twelve Apostles (76a-80b), which has become generally known as the Didache, from the first word of its Greek title.6 The subtitle of the Didache begins with “the Teaching of the Lord, through the Twelve Apostles, to the Nations/Gentiles.”7
2. Where Did He Find The Manuscript? How Did He Deal With It?
Philotheos Bryennios found the manuscript in the library of the Patriarch of Jerusalem in the Constantinople monastery. He was working there when he found it. In 1883, ten years after the discovery of the only complete manuscript, he published it with the Prolegomena, namely an introduction, and notes written in modern Greek.8
He was born in Constantinople in 1883, studied theology in East and West, and became a teacher in the theological schools of the Byzantine Church. see. Kurt. Niederwimmer, 19. 5 Concerning the real value of the text of the codex in comparison with other versions, see Boudewijn Dehandschutter, The Text of the Didache: Some Comments of the Edition of Klaus Wengst (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1984) and Clayton N. Jefford, The Didache in Context: Essays on Its Text, History, and Transmission (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1995), 37-46. 6 Henry Bettenson, The early Christian fathers: A Selection from the Writings of the Fathers from St. Clement of Rome to St. Athanasius (London: Oxford University Press, 1963), 7. Roswell D. Hitchcock and Francis Brown, Teaching of the Twelve Apostles Recently Discovered and Published by Philotheos Bryennios, Metropolitan of Nicomedia (New York: Scribner, 1884), 3-6. Paul Bradshaw, The Search for the Origins of Christian Worship (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 75. Wayne A. Meeks, The Moral World of the First Christians (Philadelphia: The Westminster, 1986), 148. 7 In my viewpoint, as the subtitle of the Didache indicates, the instruction/object of the Didache seems to aim at the Gentiles: ‘the Gentiles’ are (1) generally the people to whom the Gospel is to be preached, and (2) particularly the heathen in preparation for baptism or catechumens of Gentile descent. 8 Kurt. Niederwimmer, 19.
Seemingly. 7-38. and discipline in the mysterious transition period between AD 70 and 150 of which we have been almost ignorant for centuries.11 The analysis of the Didache has also shown that it used earlier sources. The Didache fills a gap between the Apostolic age and the Christian Church of the second century (the post Apostolic age). notes by Arthur John Maclean. the Didache antedates many of the New Testament writings. written before the period of the Christian canon. This book was translated into English by Charles Bigg with a new introd. Eusebius uses the plural. worship. that is. before itinerant prophets had been displaced by a settled permanent ministry.9 Second. writing. And Clement of Alexandria cites it as ‘Graphe’. when episcopacy was not yet the universal form of church government. when the Didache was found. The doctrine of the twelve apostles (London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.10 Finally. when the bishop was synonymous with presbyter. a liturgical directive on baptism and the Eucharist.” 10 Henry Bettenson. ‘Didachai’. 11 Roswell D. and sheds new light upon the question of doctrine. for it seemed likely to turn upside-down the received ideas of the early history of ministry.3 3. “The Didache is the only piece of direct contemporary evidence that one has for the conditions of Church life during the obscure period which lies between the New Testament and the more fully developed organization of the second century. although the Didache was a non-canonical book. and when liturgy and theology were still in an early stage. some of which are shared in one form or Charles Bigg and Arthur John Maclean. and a local church organization/order. it caused no small stir. Hitchcock and Francis Brown. 31. 9 . The Importance of the Didache: Its Significance in Church History First. it turned out to be a document reckoned as that of Scriptural authority and equal to the New Testament canon by many early Fathers. It presents the first early church manual of the moral instruction for baptismal catechesis and foreign converters. the book was of a very early date. and rev. 1922). Athanasius also calls it ‘Didache’. 7-8. when the agape was still conjoined with the Eucharist. Third.
it is impossible to know concretely the names of their true authors. 77. As Bradshaw notes. the chronology of the Didache is also obscure. Meeks. “we can just infer this information from the internal evidence of the documents themselves. 149. it is generally attributed by many 12 13 14 Wayne A. But. Ibid. and their real origin because they do not inform us. place. Paul Bradshaw. Paul F. Bradshaw states that “a family tree can be established for the whole collection of church orders with an apparent high degree of certitude.4 another with Barnabas.”14 In this respect. 77. The Search for the origins of Christian Worship. and perhaps with some other early writings.”13 However. When/Where Was It Written? As can be seen above.12 4. .. with a third-century Latin document called Apostolic Constitutions 7.
Cf. According to the report. rather than in the flat valley of the Nile. Cf.18 Concretely speaking. Broadly speaking. A Theological and Historical Introduction to the Apostolic Fathers (New York: Macmillan.15 The Didache is a manuscript collection dated by the scribe. 5. 225. The Didascalia Apostolorum and the Apostolic Constitutions are in part derived from and influenced by the Didache. the Didache reflects on the conditions of the early church in western Syria.”16 however. the corn sown on the mountains. Internal evidence favors Syria rather than Egypt as the land of origin.5 scholars to the end of the first or beginning of the second centuries. And. liturgical (7-10).”17 But. In German. who calls himself “Leon the notary and sinner”. Maxwell Staniforth. it is composed of four sections such as: catechistic-ethic (chapters 1-6). “the anonymous scribe completed the manuscript on Tuesday. the apparent absence of slavery and capitalism. fasting. 17 Kurt. 19. 1961). 15 . In Greek. Maxwell Staniforth (Harmondsworth: Penguin. it means ‘thunder’. the first. and so forth. Early Christian Writings: the Apostolic Fathers. 70-71. “the first part (chapters 1-6) is usually known as Henry Bettenson.” 16 The origin of the name Leon is rooted in Jewish tradition. Niederwimmer. one of the great centers of Christianity. is uncertain. trans. John Lawson. Therefore. “The phrase about the grain from which the sacramental bread was produced being “scattered upon the mountains” (Chap. known as The Two Ways. namely the Didachist. the availability of baths for baptism. discipline in congregation (11-15) and eschatological (16). The name “Leon. the Eucharist. setting forth the various virtues and vices which respectively compose the Way of Life and the Way of Death. one knows nothing about the original author. the chapters and verses are divided differently according to scholarly perspectives. “the contents of the Didache fall into two separate and distinct divisions. 18 According to Maxwell Stantforth. it means ‘lion’. consists of an exposition of Christian morality. 9) would be a more natural usage in a hilly country such as Syria or Palestine. which has no chapter/verse divisions. Structure and the Object of Christian Education in the Didache Bryennios has divided the Didache judiciously into 16 chapters. 11 June 1056. while the second is compendium of rules dealing with such aspects of Church life as baptism. the implied abundance of rivers. 1968). 9. itinerant missionaries.” Cf. as Bradshaw classifies. local ministers.
19 Then. the celebration of the Eucharist ‘on the Day of the Lord’ (14). As Wayne A. as it may seem good to you. It concludes with an admonition to eschatological vigilance (16. the Last Day).2a) Remember. and the appointment of bishops and deacons (15). 153. do what you are able (6.2) But before the baptism let the baptizer fast. follows brief instructions about baptism (7). but you shall order the baptized to fast one or two days before (7. the treatment of ‘apostles and prophets’ (11-13). as a Christian.5) if you are not made perfect in the last time (16.6 the ‘Two Ways’ because it presents moral teaching in the form of the way of life (1-4) and the way of death (5). baptize into other water. forms of prayer for use at either an agape (a common meal with a liturgical setting) or the Eucharist (9-10).”20 Perfection (four times) If someone strikes your right cheek. and you shall be perfect (1. see to it that. 77. 1944).4) But permit the prophets to make Thanksgiving as much as they desire (10. to deliver it from all evil and to make it perfect in Thy love (10. 20 Paul Bradshaw. 149.7) But if he has no trade. “all of this may seem a little bewildering. the practice of twice-weekly fasting (on Wednesdays and Fridays) and thrice-daily prayer (8). 19 . turn to him the other also. and whoever else can. and the baptized.22 Some scholars insists that this part of the Didache was drawn by the Christian teachers from Jewish materal used in the instruction of converters to Judaism. and if you cannot do so in cold water. take the first-fruit. Meeks. Lewis J.4) and of money (silver) and clothing and every possession. there are two different types/paradigms in the Didache. according to your understanding.2b) But if you have no living water. 21 Wayne A.4) For if you are able to bear the entire yoke of the Lord. as a guide to be set before new Christians. The Rise of Christian Education (New York: The Macmillan Company.7) As can be seen above. do so in warm (7.”21 He notes about this phenomenon in the Didache as follows: We must remember that these are not guidelines for an individual’s meditation. The Search for the origins of Christian Worship. Sherrill. Thy Church. Lord. you will be perfect (6. he shall not live with you idle (12. and give according to the commandment (13. Meeks claims.2) Flexibility (six times) but if you are not able to do this. but an ethic to be taught and administered within a community.
and (4) perhaps some instruction in the Hebrew Scriptures translated into Greek. Sherrill. and consisted of (1) moral instruction such as The Ways. 24 Lewis J. or in any one place throughout the period. 152. Didache and Judaism: Jewish Roots of an Ancient Christian-Jewish Work (New York: T & T Clark International.23 A second pattern was for Gentiles.7 In this sense. and they in turn would tend to be taken over into the Christian meeting for the Word. 2004). I do not think that these were uniform at one time throughout the early Christian church. which may have been replaced by one of the three Synoptic Gospels when these became available. (2) the Christian Gospel.. and perhaps (3) the sayings of Jesus. One general pattern of catechumenal instruction in early Christian communities was for Jewish persons. Ibid. It consisted chiefly of (1) study of the Hebrew Scripture for its Messianic element. this kind of instruction came first for Gentiles. There is reason to believe that moral instruction such as that of the Two Ways was not given to converts from Judaism because they had already received far more thorough teaching in the synagogue than the Christians undertook to give catechumens. at least in this period. 23 22 . it is possible to guess that there were two general patterns of instruction for catechumens within communities of the Didachist’s day. Marcello Del Verme.24 However. (2) the Christian Gospel of the Passion and resurrection. to judge by the Didache. (3) the sayings of Jesus. it replaced the last three. and eventually into the first part of one general meeting for both teaching and the Eucharist. 189-190. It is possible that when such a manual as the Didache came to hand. namely the Passion and the resurrection. 153.
As Christianity expanded.8 6. 36-37. 26 Ibid.J. Brill. probably in some Greek-speaking part of western Syria.25 This short.27 The church for which the text was edited was a rural Christian community. 6. Draper. The Didache in Modern Research (Leiden: E. the Didachist seems to be an editor in the period of transition. Purpose of Writing Both Bryennios and Adolf von Harnack represent the initial consensus that the nature of the Didache is a catachesis of the Jewish Christian Church. Therefore. this early community was on the initial stage of institutionalization. the initial author. 7. was before the formation/determination of the New Testament canon (approximately 4th century). it lacks a dogmatic faith and any trace of extensive schisms (particularly Marcion and Montanism). when the Didache was used. it is silent as to the doctrinal terms which were prevalent from the second century due to the theological conflicts with heresies. addressed to pagans newly converted to Christianity.26 7.. This transitional context in which the text was compiled required a proper modification of the ethical doctrine and reassurance of the Apostolic tradition. 1996). The Didache in Modern Research: an Overview. from an earlier structure of the churches to the later one. That is to say. Context of Writing Considering that it describes a local church organization which deals with the itinerant apostles and prophets and with resident prophets and teachers. the practical admonition on how to discern the true (itinerant) apostles Jonathan A. Particularly. but practical. 27 Charles Bigg and Arthur John Maclean. 25 . One must remember the fact that the period. manual was requested by a gentile Christian rural community which was to direct their lifestyle.
Associated with these evils. as noted. in my perspective. is directly related to the question of church authority. 36-37. 28 Ibid. is warned not to murder. commit adultery. is practical advice designed to protect the reader from being led to these sins: do not be angry. liturgy and church offices are the main subjects of the Didache as a church manual or brief directory of Apostolic teaching. 14) was at the center of the Didache. for anger leads to murder. worship and discipline. in the text of Didache 2-5. a practical problem necessarily raised by the dispersed local churches. the Didache begins with an image of virtue and vice lists. There are three reasons. for lust leads to fornication. The reader.9 and prophets from false ones. I think that the realistic instruction of the liturgical section (chapters 7-10. however.. First. and so forth.28 8. However. do not be lustful. . The Role of the Eucharist in the Didache Catechesis. as can be seen above. steal.
3.1-6).30 On the other hand. associated with traditional Jewish wisdom.10 and so on (Did. in living water.org/didache. 83. baptize this way: Having first said all these things. and wisdom idiom. and good. Here. and of the Son. Jefford articulates.gotquestions. And concerning baptism. Jefford. in chapter 7 (Did. According to the Didache. The structure for such instructions is the “Two Ways” image 29 that appears throughout late Jewish and early Christian Literature. As Clayton N. patient. In fact. in “The Didache deals with the roads to life and death. 9. seems to provide a most intriguing combination of Torah language.” Cf. baptize into the name of the Father.1). The teachings continue to follow the Ten Commandments. to produce a text that is unique in early Christian literature. quiet. This is the path of Life. 29 . on the one hand. the Didachist seems to regard this moral instruction’s ultimate concern and purpose as Christian education for baptismal catechesis. According to the Didache. love your neighbor as yourself and a form of what we now know as the Golden Rule. Instead. oriented around the ancient Deuteronomistic principle of life’s two ways including the Decalogue. and of the Holy Spirit. a writing that clearly was designed to instill an ethical consciousness in the lives of new Christian believers. innocent. Keep the Commandments of God. the phrase “Having first said all these things” is the total content of chapters 1-6. The manual of chapters 1-6 also may seem an indispensable education leading to participate in the Eucharist in the end because the people who did not receive baptism could not participate in the Eucharist (Did. the watchful Christian should be humble. 2006). 3. 7.5). The Apostolic Fathers and the New Testament (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers. The Didachist. As a result. since these are the correct moral choices of ethical Christians (Did. not knowing the reward of righteousness. one can guess that the true purpose of moral instruction (chapters 1 to 6) was closely related to participation in the sacraments (baptism and the Eucharist). What is found on the path to death in the Didache is listed in Revelation 22:15. http://www. Continuing chapters deal with God being all powerful and we should seek Him day and night and shall not doubt whether His Word is true. the path of life teaches to love only one God. the road to death is evil and those who persecute the good.html 30 Clayton N. confess your sins and come into prayer with a clear conscience. Likewise.7-10). merciful. the Didachist indicates what the true purpose of the moral instruction concerning the ‘Two Ways’ is as follows: Concerning Baptism.
you shall take and give to the prophets. And they are regarded as high priests (13. the text (a liturgical prayer) of Didache 10 imply that the major functions of the bishop and deacons (local leaders) were the teaching (may be about the Two Ways. the liturgical sections (Did. the Didachist placed the Sacrament at the center of the Didache. of the products of wine-press and threshing-floor.13. 14 seem to pull the section of church orders (Did. for they are your high priests. therefore. 13. the text of Didache 10 represents that prophets. 15) towards the liturgical section. 13) 2. 1-6). For instance. 11-13.7)” Briefly speaking. “for they (bishops and deacons) also render to you the service of prophets and teachers. 7-10. 7. 31 held the Eucharist. That is to say. regarded as high priests (ch.11 my perspective. In case of settlement they are regarded as ‘worthy of food’ and receive the firstlings. I think that there is no room for doubt that the Sacrament was at the center of the life of early Christian communities and for this reason.3 Every first-fruit. They speak in a spirit (11:7-8. Did. they may not work. 9-10). I guess the portion (Did.1b)” In this sense. They order a meal in a spirit (11:9) and can hold the Eucharist as they will (10:7) 3.3). of oxen and of sheep. 32 Prophets: 1. (10. divine service or service of bishops and deacons especially means the administration of the Eucharist. In my opinion. 11-13. the texts of Didache 7-10. In other words. 1-6). Therefore. Second.3) 31 . Did. They enact a worldly mystery of the church (11:11) 5. “But permit the prophets to make Thanksgiving as much as they desire. 1-6) and liturgical functions (baptism and the Eucharist. (15. the prophets in the Didache were those who have supernatural power and functioned as the teachers and managers of the worship. 14) seem to absorb the moral instruction (Did. They should be tried by the community and after that can settle if they want (13:1) 6. 15) of church offices is also closely co-related to the sacraments of the early Christian community in western Syria with the moral teaching for catechesis (Did. They teaches the truth (11:10) 4.32 The text of Didache 15 also indicates that bishops and deacons were to be appointed who will preside over divine service in the place of the apostles and prophets.
In addition. In this regard. 1968). It is generally reported that eschatology was the centered faith/dogma of early Christian communities. Maranatha.’ Compare. Louis Bouyer. the prayer’s content of Didache 9 reflects on eschatological expectation/hope. and this world pass away! Hosanna to the God (Son) of David! If anyone is holy. let him come. and was gathered together and became one. and the instruction about the Two Ways is eschatological ethic (the latter). the eucharistic/liturgical prayer33 of Didache 10 ends with ‘Maranatha. Eucharist: Theology and Spirituality of the Eucharistic Prayer. I think that the portion of the Eucharist was located at the most important core of moral instruction. if anyone is not.12 Third.4) May grace come. the Eucharist placed the core liturgical accomplishment in the primitive Christian gathering including worship and its general meetings. let him repent.6). Bradshaw. Especially. 115.’ In other words. In a certain sense. Eucharistic Origins. church organization.’ but Louis Bouyer used the term ‘a liturgical prayer. Charles Underhill Quinn (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press. Likewise. 33 . 16) are continually repeated by the Eucharist/agape and its prayer in early Syrian Christian communities. the theological background of the Didache is eschatology. 32. Paul F. and eschatological faith. for these three reasons. so let your Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into your kingdom. this eschatological faith in the text of Didache 16 is naturally connected with the content of a liturgical prayer conducted in the midst of the Eucharist or agape as follows: Even as this broken bread was scattered over the hills. trans. As can be seen above. the content of Didache 16 is a teaching about eschatological faith. Lord Jesus. Bradshaw used the term ‘an eucharistic prayer. If one regards the text of Didache 16 as a faith and theory of eschatology (the former).’ namely ‘Come. Therefore. Paul F. for yours is glory and power through Jesus Christ for all ages! (9. one may say that the eucharistic/liturgical prayer is its sustained performance (as an eschatological act). I think that the former and latter are both sides of a coin. one can observe that eschatology and its faith of the Didache (Did. Amen (10.
trans.’ but other traditions in the New Testament regard it as ‘the Lord’s Supper.13 9.’ That is to say. Joachim Jeremias. According to Joachim Jeremias. The Eucharistic Words of Jesus. there is no feature of the Lord’s Supper in the Eucharist of the Didache. 2004).1 Differences between the Eucharist of the Synoptic Gospels. Strictly speaking. 112. 1955). First Corinthians and the Didache As can be seen above. Eucharistic Origins (London: SPCK. one can understand a unique Cf.35 In this regard. an analysis of variations shows the influence of the liturgical usage at work. 24-42. Paul F. Arnold Ehrhardt (Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 35 34 . Bradshaw. one cannot speak concretely whether the communities of the Didache were acquainted with other ritual actions or not. the Eucharist order of the Didache is dissimilar to those of the Synoptic Gospels and First Corinthians. 34 Another difference is the point that the Didache characterizes the Eucharist as ‘thanksgiving.
take the first-fruit and give according to the commandment. for yours is glory and power through Jesus Christ for all ages!  But let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist. so that they may thank you. 13. But after you are filled. our Father. but to us You have bestowed a spiritual food and drink that lead to eternal life. for the holy vine of David your servant. which you have revealed to us through Jesus your servant.14 liturgical manual widely used in western Syrian local/rural churches between the late 1st and early 2nd century through the Didache. . Glory be yours through all ages!  All-powerful Master. which you have revealed to us through Jesus your servant. 9-10. through Jesus your servant. Lord. Chapter10. give thanks this way:  We thank you.5 If you make a batch of dough. holy Father.  Before all things we thank you because you are almighty.  Prayer after Communion. our Father. so let your Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into your kingdom. Glory be yours through all ages!  And concerning the broken bread: We thank you. Glory be yours through all ages!  Even as this broken bread was scattered over the hills. into your kingdom 36 Henry Bettenson. 9. and gather it from the four winds. and for the knowledge and faith and immortality.  The Eucharist. You have given food and drink to the children of men for their enjoyment. and was gathered together and became one. for the life and knowledge which you have revealed to us through Jesus your servant. you created all things for your name's sake. to deliver it from all evil and to make it perfect in your love. your Church. Glory be yours through all ages!  Remember. concerning the cup: We thank you. Now concerning the Eucharist. 9. unless they have been baptized into the name of the Lord. take the first-fruit and give it to the prophets.6 So also when you open a jar of wine or of oil.2 The Feature of the Eucharist (Did. give thanks this way. for concerning this also the Lord has said. "Give not that which is holy to the dogs"(Matthew 7:6). this sanctified Church. the verses below support the suggestion that the background of the Didache was rural areas that depended mostly on itinerant ministers. Especially.  First. 14) in the Didache and Conclusion Chapter 9. for your holy name which You have made to dwell in our hearts.4 Even as this broken bread was scattered over the hills 13.36 9.
Amen. if anyone is not.. But every Lord's day (Sunday) gather yourselves together. 24-25.net/downloads/DIDACHE. and this world pass away! Hosanna to the God (Son) of David! If anyone is holy. 32. Paul F. until they are reconciled.arroyofamily. for I am a great King. Chapter14. separated entirely from agape. http://www. 40 Louis Bouyer.  But let no one who is at odds with his fellow come together with you. that your sacrifice may not be profaned. 9-10) are of Jewish origin is obvious once we connect them with the traditional Jewish meal prayers.37 There have been many controversies among scholars about the portion of the Eucharist (Did.PDF 38 Cf. mingling agape with the Eucharist. Bradshaw. and break bread. let him come. Eucharistic Origins. Representatively. 14) in the Didache. that your sacrifice may be pure. Louis Bouyer notes that “the fact that liturgical prayers (Did. Chapter 14 is clearly the Eucharist.  But permit the prophets to make Thanksgiving as much as they desire. it is generally reported that there are differences between chapters 9-10 and chapter 14. 9-10. berakoth. many scholars have agreed with that the origin of chapters 9-10 is rooted in “the forms of Jewish table prayers in the first century.  Christian Assembly on the Lord's Day.”39 For instance. and give thanksgiving after having confessed your transgressions. says the Lord. 116-117. most scholars regard chapters 9-10 as agape or the Eucharist related to it—that is. As Bradshaw articulates. Cuming. 2-3. Bradshaw. Willy Dordorf and Others.  For this is that which was spoken by the Lord: "In every place and time offer to me a pure sacrifice. 39 Ibid. 37 .D. 24-42. according to Ronald C. for power and glory are yours through all ages!  May grace come. Maranatha.”40 Likewise. and my name is wonderful among the nations" (Malachi 1:11-14). let him repent. Eucharistic Origins. and chapter 14 as the Eucharist.15 which you have prepared for it. Jasper and Geoffrey J.38 However.” Cf. “chapter 9 may be an agape and chapter 10 is a eucharist. Paul F.
3. “But let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist.”41 Interestingly. Matthew J. chapter 14 describes the Eucharistic liturgy which was celebrated on Sunday by the bishop and deacons in the presence of the entire community. C. Jasper and G. The cup is blessed before the bread.” If their insistence acquires reasoning power. 1987). for concerning this also the Lord has said. they must make clear a relationship between a common meal and forbidden clause. both P. First.” which suggests that the meal is eaten between the two chapters. The words translated “after you are filled” recur in the Liturgy of St. 2. but the liturgical sense is possible. There is no reference to the Last Supper. Mark after the communion. The compiler of the Apostolic Constitutions clearly thought that they were Eucharistic prayers. 3. 10 begins “After you are filled. Ch. chapters 9-10 deal with communal meals for which a small group of the faithful gathered in a private home. or the redemptive power of the Passion. The rubric at the end of ch. 1978). 20-21.9 mean thanksgiving in general sense. trans. Second. R. 42 Willy Dordorf and Others. J. as Professor Jill Burnett Comings points out.42 However. 4-10. There is an emphasis on food and drink in ch. 41 . D. or the Resurrection. C Connell (New York: Pueblo Publishing Company.9 seems more appropriate to a eucharist. 9-10): 1. Goguel insist on a difference between chapters 9 and 10. The Prayer of the Eucharist: Early and Reformed (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press. as referring to different subjects. 9-10): 1. two scholars’ assertion that chapters 9-10 represent a common meal for a small group gathered in a private home during the week seem to have no persuasiveness due to the last sentence of Chapter 9.16 “In the respect of an agape (chs.5. and chapter 14.” “In the respect of a eucharist (chs. The Eucharist of the Early Christians. Cuming. co-existing in chapters 9-10. unless they have been baptized into the name of the Lord. perhaps during the week. Drews and M. ‘Give not that which is holy to the dogs’ (Matthew 7:6). 10 which suggests a meal rather than a service. 4. 2. The first words of ch.
through this research.’ In the book Do This. Sacrament as God’s Self Giving (Nashville: Abingdon Press.”43 Why is this early root so important for me? As a Korean pastor. 44 James F. 43 . so that for many Protestant the Eucharist is a funeral meal. Therefore. as Kenneth Stevenson notes. it means that they don’t take part in the Eucharist in the strict sense of the word. 61. Style and Meaning of the Eucharist (Norwich: Canterbury Press. I have had a chance to enhance my comprehension about the Didache. I think the Korean church tends to focus the Eucharist on merely the dimension of repentance. If they don’t meditate on the Eucharist as Jesus’ suffering. First. Here. Second. even though there have been various opinions on chapters 9-10 and chapter 14 among scholars. the Didache shows “a kinship with Jewish meal-prayers in the way that they first give thanks for food and drink and move on to supplication. White states in connection with that: “Even thanksgiving has too often been clouded over by a penitential approach. I would like to refer to five aspects. However. Kenneth Stevenson. being crucified when they take a piece of bread and drink a glass of wine or grape juice. I realized that early Christian communities pursued holistic worship. Do This: the Shape. one of the early Christian liturgies. does the meaning of the Eucharist imply or emphasize only a penitential approach? James F. while studying chapters 9-10 of the Didache. 1993). I learned the significance of the Eucharist as ‘thanksgiving. White. the congregations must put on a grave face for every sacrament and the Eucharist must be performed solemnly. 131.”44 I am convinced that if the Eucharist is applied to the meaning of ‘thanksgiving’ in Korean worship. the congregation will worship with heartfelt thanks/rejoicing and the worship will be recovered with the original form of early Christian worship which the Didache represented.17 Likewise. integrating Christian education with the sacraments. asking for the blessing of God on the meal. 2002).
the early Christian community had the assurance of forgiveness. on Christmas and Easter Sunday. I. and the Didache. the fact that there was a time for a public and communal confession of sins reminded me of another significance of the Eucharist. and then commemorated the Lord while breaking bread together through the sharing of thanksgiving and experience of God’s grace. could not participate in the Eucharist until they reconciled with one another allowed me to meditate more deeply on the true meaning of the Eucharist—that is. Truly. the Eucharist was the core of early Christian communities’ life and worship. I would like to share the Eucharist with my congregation in the midst of agape. I realize how important it is that I keep the balance between preaching God’s works and the Eucharist in . did not know the importance of the Eucharist. It is because Korean church ministers and leaders have a poor historical insight on the Eucharist tradition. To illustrate. This original form (four orders) of worship and the Eucharist of early Christian community led me to realize the unchanged elements of worship. through the material of chapter 14. it seems that the preaching-oriented worship in Korean Protestants remains unchanged. as I have already mentioned above. Through this research. That is to say. Given an opportunity. Especially. Sunday being the new day for specifically Christian worship (2) a confession of sins (3) the breaking of bread (4) thanksgiving. when taking part in the Eucharist. the strong ethic that the people. myself. that is. I learned that the modern Christian faith community also can experience the Eucharist during a common meal. I understood that after this process of confession. Fourth. I understood that there were four regulations in the Eucharist of early Christian communities: (1) gathering on every Lord’s Day.18 Third. I have never experienced this. especially. Fifth. reconciliation and forgiveness. through the agape tradition. whom quarreled for various reasons before worship. In my viewpoint. I am also accustomed to receiving the Eucharist only two times in a year.
and church office of the early Christian communities was for me very exciting and dramatic work. . In this sense. In conclusion.19 worship. except for the New Testament writings. even though the Didache presents a very short manual about the Eucharist. Jill Comings and my peers for helping me to realize inclusively about early Christian liturgies. the Eucharist. this source assumes great sacramental significance in that it is the first document reported about the liturgical section. In finishing my final paper. researching the first source about baptism. Keeping the balance between liturgy of the Word and liturgy of the Eucharist is still pending in my ministry. I would like to thank Prof.
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles Recently Discovered and Published by Philotheos Bryennios. Maloney. London: Oxford University Press. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press. Cuming. 1986. 1884. Niederwimmer. and Francis Brown. SECOND RESOURCE Bigg. London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 1987. and G. ed. Paul F. Attridge. Eucharistic Origins. Philadelphia: The Westminster. Wayne A. ______________. The Didache in Modern Research. Meeks. Leiden: E. 2004. J. New York: Scribner. Bradshaw. Brill. C. Hitchcock. London: SPCK. The Search for the Origins of Christian Worship. The Didache: A Commentary. 1963. Roswell D. Athanasius. Metropolitan of Nicomedia. Translated by Linda M. New York: Oxford University Press. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. The Didache in Modern Research: An Overview. Draper.J. 1998. Kurt. R. Jonathan A. Clement of Rome to St. 1922. Harold W. The Early Christian fathers: A Selection from the Writings of the Fathers from St. 1996. Charles. The Prayer of the Eucharist: Early and Reformed. and Arthur John Maclean. The Moral World of the First Christians. The Doctrine of the Twelve Apostles. .1992.20 Bibliography FIRST RESOURCE Bettenson. Jasper. Henry. D.
Early Christian Writings: the Apostolic Fathers. 1984. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press. Kenneth. New York: T & T Clark International. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. The Apostolic Fathers and the New Testament. Translated by Matthew J. A Theological and Historical Introduction to the Apostolic Fathers. 2006. Arnold Ehrhardt. Didache and Judaism: Jewish Roots of an Ancient Christian-Jewish Work. Boudewijn. The Didache in Context: Essays on Its Text. Norwich: Canterbury Press. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. 1944. Clayton N. trans. Willy. and Others.21 Bouyer. 1968. Dordorf. Del Verme. Leiden: E. 1989. Lang. Jeremias. _______________. 1995. 2002. Brill. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1978. Stevenson. Lewis J. Joachim. Lawson. The Eucharist of the Early Christians. History. . Staniforth. and Transmission. John. Eucharist: Theology and Spirituality of the Eucharistic Prayer. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers. Do This: the Shape. 1955. New York: Pueblo Publishing Company. Marcello. New York: Catholic Book Pub. New York: Macmillan. Style and Meaning of the Eucharist. Translated by Maxwell Staniforth. Dehandschutter. The Text of the Didache: Some Comments of the Edition of Klaus Wengst. Dictionary of the Liturgy. 1968. Jefford. Translated by Charles Underhill Quinn. 2004. The Eucharistic Words of Jesus. Sherrill. C Connell. 1961.J. Louis. Maxwell. Jovian P. Harmondsworth: Penguin. The Rise of Christian Education.
PDF . Electronic Resource: http://www. Nashville: Abingdon Press. James F.22 White. 1993.net/downloads/DIDACHE.arroyofamily. Sacrament as God’s Self Giving.
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