Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine
Osier Had Heart
Dr. William Spaulding tackled the legacy of famed physician William Osier for the Hannah Lecture in the History of Medicine at the Annual Scientific Assembly of The College of Family Physicians of Canada on May 8,1991. A research fellow in McMaster University Medical School's medical history programme, Dr. Spaulding finds Osier's approach to medicine—recognizing the importance of scientific advances while maintaining compassion for the human condition—relevant to today's doctors, who often come under criticism from the public for a perceived lack of kindness and compassion. A transcript of Dr. Spauld ing's lecture is reprinted in the July 1992 issue of Canadian Family Physician.
He had the privilege of attending Ancient Medicine in its Socio-Cultural Context, a conference held at the University of Leiden, The Netherlands from April 13 to 15 this year, and found that discussing material evidence with over 100 social historians and archaeologists helped put a new angle on the text-dominated discussion of ancient Greek medicine. "It is a new approach to bring together these many fields in one place to discuss ancient medicine," says Professor Potter. "The archaeological evidence ranged from gravestones to ancient laws. We were able to learn more about the social status of physicians in antiquity by looking at this evidence." Professor Potter helped organize a report on ancient medical history for the conference. He was the only historian from Canada, with five from the United States and the rest coming from Europe. "We didn't have one computer analyst," he jokes. "It was exciting to see work in progress. The whole experience brought me ahead a few years."
continued on bock page...
Programme Profiles ...I
Ancient Medicine Gets Material Edge
According to Hannah Professor Paul Potter of the University of Western Ontario, ancient Greek medicine is about more than just dusty texts.
Oral History Index Completed
An extensive oral history index of University of Toronto doctors spanning 1911 to the 1950s is now complete. It will provide a valuable resource for medical historians. Queen's University PhD student Martina Hardwick has been laboriously indexing the 48 volumes of transcripts of interviews conducted by Valerie Schatzker from 1977 to 1991. The entire project has been funded by the Hannah Institute, and the volumes are currently housed in the National Archives of Canada in Ottawa, the University of Toronto Archives, with one set remaining at the Institute. Major university libraries and archives will receive the Index, to aid researchers who wish to dig deeper into U of T's medical movers and shakers. Compiling an oral history is a painstaking process — it took a secretary approximately a month to transcribe each interview. Ms. Hardwick has been indexing the volumes since May and expects the Index to be available by September 1. "In determining what to cross reference," she says, " I used my judgement, but I also looked for key points in medical history like World War II, the Depression, references to diseases and surgical techniques, hospitals, Insulin and important ideas — to name a few. Some people are in awe of doctors and can't think of them as people. But the doctors break down the wall when they talk about their youth. Also, when listening to the tapes, observing the dynamics between the doctors and the interviewer can offer insight into their personality." "Oral history projects can capture the flavour of a place or period," says Ms. Hardwick. "Historians of military medicine will find the volumes especially helpful since many of the doctors practised battlefield medicine in World War II. For those who like to follow the evolution in the teaching of medicine, there are many details on how the Faculty of Medicine functioned. It is exciting to compare the oral transcripts to written histories to see the differences." For information or a copy of the Index, contact the Hannah Institute.
I S T O R Y
M E D I C I N E
With the increased awareness and interest in the history of medicine and the recessionary economic climate, competition for Hannah funding has become more intense. Gone are the days when the Institute had to appeal for applicants. Grant applications have increased steadily — from 13 in 1988 to 34 for 1992. In total,
these applicants requested $478,029 in funding (up from $131,770 in 1988) from an allocated budget of only $152,775. The figures below are provided to better explain the demands on the Hannah budget. Catch the next issue of the Newsletter for a tete-a-tete with Executive Director Jim Connor on the funding situation.
9 / it Grant'sj f W 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 L l^e Funding 1 988 _ Il /9 2 S J l d l l L \* nmmittf
Money Available from Budget Grants Fellowships Scholarships Studentships $125,000 100,000 25,000 25,000
$130,000 105,000 43,876 33,000
$145,500 115,600 44,700 34,650
$152,775 121,380 46,939 36,383
$130,000 105,000 31,500 31,500
Number of Applications Received Grants 13 [131,770]* Fellowships 5 Scholarships 2 4 Studentships
22 [222,050] 2 (2)" 7 20
27 [307,709] 4(1) 8 9
23 [395,000] 3(2) 14 12
34 [478,029] 7(1) 9 9
Number of Applications Funded Grants Fellowships Scholarships Studentships
9 4 1 4
14 4 4 12
17 4 3 7
14 4 3 9
17 3 4 8
Amount of Money Funded Grants Fellowships Scholarships Studentships
'Figures in brackets  indicate total dollar value requested. "Figures in brackets () indicate renewals.
$78,888 97,900 9,100 10,000
$137,822 1 1 1 ,600 45,560 37,800
$124,179 63,500 39,076 18,900
$129,382 107,365 44,045 34,185
$158,388 85,578 66,360 29,104
The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons History of Medicine Symposium will be taking place September 11 at the Congress Centre/Westin Hotel, Ottawa. Titled Sex, Drugs and ???: Historical Perspectives on Lifestyle and Medicine, the conference promises to be stimulating. The talks will cover medieval gynaecology and therapeutic intercourse; an historical view of the sun and skin cancer; the care and treatment of the Victorian addict; and the lifestyles, diet and health of 20th-century Newfoundlanders. Noteworthy names who will be presenting papers are Professor John M. Riddle of North Carolina State University; Dr. Robert Jackson and Professor Cheryl Krasnick Warsh of the University of Ottawa; and Dr. John Crellin of Memorial University. For a change of pace, there will also be an exhibition put together by the Hannah Institute entitled Condoms and Culture: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Commentary. This could change the way people think about this less-than-glamorous but utilitarian device.
Grants-in-aid are designed to provide resources to qualified researchers who propose to study a significant issue related to Canadian history of medicine. History of medicine is interpreted broadly to include all of the related human health sciences.
Scholarships for MA and PhD students
These scholarships are for highlyqualified individuals who are registered in a full-time programme in the history of medicine leading to an MA or PhD degree. The scholarships are only tenable at Canadian universities with appropriate faculty and facilities to support graduate study in the history of medicine. Important Notice: Scholarship applicants can no longer hold more than four Hannah scholarships in a lifetime.
Scholars wishing funding for publications assistance should apply by either October 1, 1992 or April 1st, 1993. The John B. Neilson Award recognizes ongoing contributions to the history of medicine by a Canadian physician whose primary responsibilities have been in some other area of the profession.
These are available competitively to highly-qualified individuals who have obtained either a PhD in the history of medicine or related field or an MD degree, and who are embarking on a period of fulltime post-doctoral study in the history of medicine. Initial awards are for two years only.
Value $14,865. $28,810 for MA or PhD students with an MD degree.
Studentships for undergraduates
Three-month undergraduate studentships are available to students to carry out research in the history of medicine under the supervision of a faculty member. Medical and history students are given preference.
The above details are provided for information only and do not outline all the criteria for awards. If you are interested in any of the above funding or awards, please send requests to the Executive Director, Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine, 14 Prince Arthur Avenue, Suite 101, Toronto, Ontario M5R 1A9, telephone 416-924-3368.
I S T O R Y
M E D I C I N E
Hannah Scholarship in Action
Articles Connor, J.T.H. "Eclecticism, Related Medical Sects, and their Decline in Victorian Ontario," Bulletin of the History of Medicine 65:503-527, 1991 Connor, Jennifer J. and J.T.H. Connor. "Artifacts and Archives, Medical and Related Museums, Historic Sites, and Exhibits in Ontario: An Annotated Guide and Review" Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 8: 101119, 1991 Connor, Jennifer J. and J.T.H. Connor. "Thomsonian Medical Literature and Reformist Discourse in Upper Canada," Canadian Literature 131:140-155, 1991 Duffin, Jacalyn and P. Rene. "Anti-moine; Anti-biotique: The Public Fortunes of the Secret Properties of Antimony Potassium Tartrate (Tartar Emetic)," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 46:440-456, 1991 Duffin, Jacalyn and D. Lillicrap. "Characterization of the Original Christmas Disease Mutation (Cysteine 206 to Serine), from Clinical Recognition to Molecular Modeling," Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 67: 63-65, 1991 Duffin, Jacalyn. "The Death of Sara Lovell and the Constrained Feminism of Emily Stowe," Canadian Medical Association Journal 146:881-888, 1992 Duffin, Jacalyn. "Keeping Up: Medical Technology in a Nineteenth-Century Rural Practice," Annals of Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada 24:381384,1991 Duffin, Jacalyn. "Puerile Respiration: Laennec's Stethoscope and the Physiology of Breathing," Transactions and Studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia Ser. 5, 13: 125-145, 1991
continued on back page...
Roland, C.G. "Allied POWs, Japanese Captors, and the Geneva Convention," War and Society 9(2):83-101, 1991 Roland, C.G. "Early History of Smallpox in North America," Annals of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada 25:121123, 1992 Roland, C.G. and Harry Shannon. "Patterns of Disease Among World War 2 Prisoners of the Japanese: Hunger, Weight Loss, and Deficiency Diseases," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 46:65-85, 1991 Shorter, Edward. "Changes in Family Life and Challenges in Primary Care," Canadian Family Physician 37:2387-2392,1991 Shorter, Edward. "Historical Changes in the Subjective Experience of Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Anxiety," American Journal of Alzheimer's Care and Research 6:35-39, 1991 Stuart, M. "An Analysis of the Concept of Family," in J. Fawcett and A. Whall (eds.) Family Theory Development in Nursing 31-42, 1991 Stuart, M. "Half a loaf is better than no bread: Public Health Nurses and Physicians, 192025," Nursing Research 41:21-27, 1992 Stuart, M. "Making the Choices: Writing about Marguerite Carr-Harris," in Theras lies (ed.) All Sides of the Subject:Women and Biography. Teachers College Press, 59-67, 1992 Stuart, M. "Moments in Nursing History: Nurse Marjorie Heeley and the Mother's Club," Nursing Research 41:190, 1992
Conference Notes continued
Canadian Scholars Weather Riots to Attend AAHM Conference
While many of us were glued to TV screens during the L.A. Riots, Canadian professors joined Executive Director Jim Connor in Seattle from April 30 to May 3 for the annual meeting of the American Association for the History of Medicine. Professor Jackie Duffin of Queen's University presented a paper defending the Canadian health care system by rebutting four US critics, while Dr. Connor addressed a workshop on medical instruments and artifacts in the history of medicine. Professor Michael Bliss of the University of Toronto delivered a paper titled Charles Best and the Banting and Best Myth. Also, Dr. Pamela Sanders-Goebel, then a Hannah Post-Doctoral Fellow at the University of Calgary, presented a paper titled Death or Glory: The Ethics and Attitudes of Canadian Field Surgeons in World War II. Professor Duftln addressed the Sigerist Circle, made up of historians interested in social policy. The Circle was founded in memory of Dr. Henry Sigerist, who pioneered research into socialized medicine but was hounded out of the United States. "I challenged US critics like President George Bush and Democratic Party leadership hopeful Paul Tsongas who have misinformed the American public about Canada's health system," says Professor Duffin. "While I was talking about the failures of US social policy, outside the hotel riots were taking place — an irony not lost on the historians at the conference." The Sigerist Circle publishes a newsletter and meets once a year at the AAHM conference. Readers interested in the Circle can contact Professor Pauline Mazumdar at the University of Toronto.
The Newsletter is produced three times a year by: Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine 14 Prince Arthur Avenue Suite#IOI Toronto, Ontario M5R IA9 Telephone Fax Editor-in-Chief J.T.H. Connor Editor, Writer, Design Concept David South The Newsletter welcomes information from readers about Hannah-supported activities, publications, or other related medical history events. 416-924.3368 416-323-3338
MOVING? WANT TO RECEIVE THE NEWSLETTER?
Shorter, Edward. Das ArztPatient-Verhaltnis in der Geschichte und Heute. Picus Verlag, Vienna, 1991 Shorter, Edward. From Paralysis to Fatigue: A History of Psychosomatic Illness in the Modern Era. The Free Press, New York, 1992
Please send your new or present address to the Hannah Institute.
Street: City: Province: Postal Code:.
Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine 14 Prince Arthur Ave, Suite #101 Toronto, Ontario M5R IA9