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Business
Succession
in
Europe

Business
Transfer
Programme



Your
Way
to
Success
Business
Transfer
Programme
Your
Way
to
Success
This
project
has
been
funded
with
support
from
the
European

Commission.
This
publication
reflects
the
views
only
of
the
author,

and
the
Commission
cannot
be
held
responsible
for
any
use
which

may
be
made
of
the
information
contained
therein.
8ki_d[iiIkYY[ii_ed_d;khef[
8ki_d[iiJhWdi\[hFhe]hWcc[#OekhMWojeIkYY[ii

Andrea
Lang
bit
management
Beratung
GmbH,
Graz

Thomas
Schmalzer
FH
JOANNEUM
Gesellscha2
mbH,
Graz

Rupert
Beinhauer
FH
JOANNEUM
Gesellscha2
mbH,
Graz

Jacobo
Ramirez
Copenhagen
Business
School
(CBS),
Copenhagen
8ki_d[iiIkYY[ii_ed_d;khef[
8ki_d[iiJhWdi\[hFhe]hWcc[#OekhMWojeIkYY[ii

8ki_d[iiIkYY[ii_ed_d;khef[
8ki_d[iiJhWdi\[hFhe]hWcc[#OekhMWojeIkYY[ii
:Y^idgh
Andrea
Lang
Thomas
Schmalzer
Rupert
Beinhauer
Jacobo
Ramirez

6ji]dgh/
Andrea
Lang,
bit
management
Beratung
GmbH
Thomas
Wychodil,
bit
management
Beratung
GmbH
Thomas
Schmalzer,
FH
JOANNEUM
Gesellscha2
mbH
Rupert
Beinhauer,
FH
JOANNEUM
Gesellscha2
mbH
BernadeCe
Frech,
FH
JOANNEUM
Gesellscha2
mbH
Rene
Wenzel,
FH
JOANNEUM
Gesellscha2
mbH
Antje
Utecht,
Berufsfortbildungswerk
des
DGB
(Competence
Center
EUROPE)
Toni
Brunello,
StudioCentroVeneto
Lara
Scantamburlo,
StudioCentroVeneto
Paolo
Zaramella,
StudioCentroVeneto
Mihai
Svasta,
SVASTA
Consult,
Aura
Badea,
SVASTA
Consult
Kamile
Canbay,
CRM
ConsulHng
Gulsah
Oguz
Yigitbasi,
CRM
ConsulHng
Jacobo
Ramirez,
Copenhagen
Business
School
(CBS)
Verner
Worm,
Copenhagen
Business
School
(CBS)
Raúl
de
Arriba
Bueno.
ESIC
MarkeHng
and
Business
School

*Graphic
design,
Type
sePng:
ChrisHan
Kendlbacher
October
2008,
Graz,
Austria
*Publisher,
1st
EdiHon,
168
pages
*Published:
FH
JOANNEUM
GmbH,
Graz,
Austria
*Printed:
MAIL
BOXES
ETC.,
Reitschulgasse
27,
A‐8010
Graz

ISBN

3
‐
902103‐17‐5
>c]VaihkZgoZ^X]c^h >c]VaihkZgoZ^X]c^h

Acknowledgments
 8 
 Group
Trainings
 70

The
BTP
ConsorHum
 10 
 Individual
Succession
Plan
 72

IntroducHon
 17 
 E–content
 72

Business
Transfer
in
Europe
 20 Pilot
Trainings
 73

Country
Reports
 31 
 Pilot
Training
–
Austria
 73


 The
SituaHon
in
Austria
 31 
 Pilot
Training
–
Italy
 81


 The
SituaHon
in
Germany
 36 The
Survey
 87


 The
SituaHon
in
Italy
(Veneto
Region)
 42
 Feedback
and
AdaptaHon
of
the
Curriculum
 94

The
SituaHon
in
Spain
(Valencia
Region)
 47 The
Screening
Tool
 99


 The
SituaHon
in
Denmark
 51 Syllabi
of
the
BTP
Modules
 105


 The
SituaHon
in
Romania
 55 
 Finance
 106


 The
SituaHon
in
Turkey
 60 
 Legal
Aspects
 110

Round‐up
of
the
SituaHon
 63 
 Business
Analysis
 114

The
BTP
Project
 64 
 MarkeHng
 118


 Project
DescripHon
 64 
 So2
Skills
 121


 General
ObjecHves
 64 
 Human
Resource
Management
 127


 Target
Groups
 67 Concluding
Remarks
and
Outlook
 132

BTP
DidacHcal
Concept
 68 Annexes
 135


 Overview
 69 
 Annex
I
StaHsHcal
Data
 135


 OrientaHon
Phase
 70 
 Annex
II
Training
Programmes
for
Business
Transfer
and
Start‐up
Enterprises.
 151

6 7
6X`cdlaZY\bZcih 6X`cdlaZY\bZcih

7Yademb[Z]c[dji for
the
generous
funding
granted
to
the
consorHum
for
the
execuHon
of
the
BTP
project.

Special
thanks
go
to
Mr.
Bernd
Castellaz,
who
followed
through
the
project
and
supported

A2er
months
of
hard
work,
we
are
proud
to
present
this
book
about
Business
Transfer.
Our
 the
team
on
behalf
of
the
EC.
Acknowledgements
also
go
to
the
project
team
and
the
trainers

special
thanks
go
to
the
enHre
project
team
members.
The
key
acHviHes
within
this
project
 of
the
BTP
pilot
training:
were
the
research
on
business
transfer
in
Europe,
development
and
test
of
a
curriculum
and

the
corresponding
contents.
The
goal
has
been
to
provide
support
for
Business
Transfer.
Our

Egd_ZXiiZVb IgV^cZgh
team
aimed
at
creaHng
a
strong
internaHonal
community
in
this
field
through
networking

Thomas
Wychodil
(bit
management)
and
internaHonal
meeHngs.
This
book
compiles
all
results
developed
throughout
the
project

Andrea
Lang
(bit
management) <gVo
period
 and
 offers
 the
 final
 version
 of
 the
 Business
 Transfer
 curriculum.
 The
 collaboraHve

Manuela
Ortner‐Arch
(bit
management) Joachim
Janezic
effort
 was
 made
 possible
 only
 by
 the
 excepHonal
 and
 thorough
 teamwork
 of
 all
 partner

Gerhard
Apfelthaler
(FH
JOANNEUM) Wolfgang
Egi
insHtuHons
 and
 members
 of
 the
 project
 team
 as
 well
 as
 external
 trainers
 and
 experts
 in

Rupert
Beinhauer
(FH
JOANNEUM) Gregor
Reautschnig
the
 field
 of
 business
 transfer.
 Funded
 by
 the
 European
 Commission
 within
 the
 Leonardo

Thomas
Schmalzer
(FH
JOANNEUM) Michaela
Jentl
da
 Vinci
 Programme
 of
 the
 European
 Union,
 the
 project
 aimed
 at
 developing
 innovaHve

BernadeCe
Frech
(FH
JOANNEUM) Manuela
Mätzener
learning
 concepts
 for
 the
 integrated
 European
 market
 of
 25
 member
 states,
 all
 of
 which

Rene
Wenzel
(FH
JOANNEUM) Petra
Pulst
face
 changes
 in
 the
 ownership
 of
 a
 huge
 fracHon
 of
 businesses
 within
 the
 next
 10
 years.

Werner
Lämmerer
(WKO/UBIT) Heinz
Michalitsch
Acknowledgements
go
to
all
people
who
contributed
to
the
success
of
the
project
as
well

Heinz
Michalitsch
(WKO/UBIT) Birgit
Mayer
as
to
all
authors
who
worked
together
to
compile
this
edited
volume.
Above
all,
the
partner

Antje
Utecht
(bfw)
insHtuHons
involved
in
the
project
are
thanked
for
their
insHtuHonal
and
financial
support

To‐Nga
Truong
(bfw) K^XZcoV
given
to
the
Leonardo
da
Vinci
project:
Toni
Brunello
(StudioCentroVeneto) Ferruccio
Dal
Lin
Paolo
Zaramella
(StudioCentroVeneto) Alin
Ivan
° bit
management
Beratung
GmbH
 ° StudioCentroVeneto Lara
Scantamburlo
(StudioCentroVeneto) Marco
EvangelisH
° FH
JOANNEUM
 ° Svasta
Business
ConsulHng Mihai
Svasta
(Svasta) Luisa
Barausse
° Wirtscha2skammer
 ° CRM
ConsulHng Aura
Badea
(Svasta) Elena
Padovan
Steiermark,
Fachgruppe
für
 ° CBS
Copenhagen
Business
School Kamile
Canbay
(CRM) Marco
Zanon
Unternehmensberatung
und
 ° ESIC
Business
&
MarkeHng
School Gülsah
Oguz
Yiğitbaşı
(CRM) Roberto
MunareCo
InformaHonstechnologie
 Jacobo
Ramirez
(CBS) Giampiero
Ganeo
° Berufsfortbildungswerk
(bfw)
des
DGB
 Verner
Worm
(CBS)
(Competence
Center
EUROPE) Raúl
de
Arriba
(ESIC)

The
 editors
 also
 wish
 to
 express
 their
 sincere
 graHtude
 to
 all
 people
 who
 made
 this

publicaHon
possible
and
provided
input
at
various
levels.
The
editorial
team
wishes
to
thank
 The
project
would
never
have
been
concluded
successfully
without
the
Hreless
work
of
Mag.

the
European
Commission
represented
by
the
Leonardo
da
Vinci
NaHonal
Agency
in
Austria
 Andrea
Lang,
who
managed
the
project
and
its
financial
aspects.


8 9
I]Z7IE8chdgi^jb I]Z7IE8chdgi^jb

J^[8JF9ediehj_kc Every
 year
 we
 accompany
 over
 500
 enterprises,
 non‐profit
 organizaHons,
 and
 training

parHcipants
 as
 well
 as
 about
 6000
 start‐ups
 at
 our
 locaHons
 in
 Austria.
 We
 offer
 flexible

Nine
internaHonal
insHtuHons
from
seven
European
countries
have
formed
an
internaHonal
 soluHons
oriented
to
the
needs
of
the
customers
and
observe
the
highest
standards
of
quality.

project
consorHum
with
the
purpose
of
working
together
on
the
topic
of
business
succession
 Our
highly
competent
and
commiCed
employees
think
and
act
on
their
own
responsibility

for
a
period
of
two
years.
The
project
called
“Business
Transfer
Programme
(BTP)”
was
co‐ with
the
needs
of
business
in
mind.
Our
innovaHve
products
make
the
lasHng
acquisiHon
of

funded
 by
 the
 European
 Commission
 under
 the
 Leonardo
 da
 Vinci
 programme.
 Within
 knowledge
and
training
an
enjoyable
and
enriching
experience.
the
 framework
 of
 this
 project,
 Austrian,
 German,
 Italian,
 Romanian,
 Turkish,
 Danish,
 and

Spanish
partners
contributed
to
the
development
of
training
and
a
screening
tool
to
facilitate

business
succession
and
transfer
in
Europe.
ExperHse
and
experience
from
the
fields
of
higher
 

educaHon,
e‐learning,
vocaHonal
training,
and
management
consultancy
were
integrated
in

the
internaHonal
development
process.
The
mix
between
consulHng
companies,
universiHes,

business
 schools,
 e‐learning
 experts,
 and
 end
 users
 combined
 pracHcal
 experience
 with
 a

scienHfic
approach.

Each
project
consorHum
member
contributed
significantly
to
the
success
 ;=?D6CC:JB
of
the
project
and
the
products
developed
therein.
 Jc^kZgh^ind[6eea^ZYHX^ZcXZh
The
 BTP
 consorHum
 consists
 of
 the
 insHtuHons
 led
 by
 bit
 management
 Beratung
 GmbH,
 <gVo!6jhig^V
Graz,
Austria,
which
present
themselves
below:
The
 FH
 JOANNEUM
 is
 one
 of
 Austria‘s
 leading
 UniversiHes
 of
 Applied
 Sciences.
 In
 order


 to
 maintain
 and
 consolidate
 this
 status,
 both
 our
 teaching
 and
 our
 applied
 research
 and

development
 is
 modelled
 on
 the
 best
 colleges
 and
 universiHes
 in
 Europe.
 Our
 R&D

acHviHes
 help
 to
 accumulate
 a
 knowledge
 base
 for
 the
 university
 and
 society
 in
 general,

which
improves
not
only
our
own
compeHHve
abiliHes,
but
also
those
of
Styria
as
a
whole.

AddiHonally,
the
know‐how
we
acquire
from
R&D
projects
helps
to
ensure
the
high
tuiHon

W^ibVcV\ZbZci7ZgVijc\<bW= quality
in
our
degree
programmes.
As
a
university
we
support
internaHonal
cooperaHon
in

<gVo!6jhig^V teaching,
research,
and
ongoing
educaHon.


bit
 management
 Beratung
 GmbH
 is
 part
 of
 the
 bit
 group,
 the
 largest
 private
 training
 The
FH
JOANNEUM
is
an
acknowledged,
innovaHve
partner
for
businesses
and
insHtuHons
in

provider
in
Austria,
and
offers
trainings
and
consultancy
in
various
areas,
such
as
personality,
 the
fields
of
teaching
and
of
research
and
development.
In
addiHon
the
FH
JOANNEUM
offers

leadership,
team,
sale,
project
management,
logisHcs,
and
business
economies.
We
advise
 regular
ongoing
educaHon
events
in
which
the
university‘s
know‐how
is
made
available
to
all

and
support
enterprises,
public
organizaHons
and
individuals
to
extend
their
know‐how
and
 who
wish
to
parHcipate.
their
key
qualificaHons
for
a
strengthened
market
situaHon.
We
accompany
our
customers

individually
 from
 the
 analysis
 of
 needs
 over
 puPng
 the
 resulHng
 plan
 into
 acHon
 in
 their

company
 to
 final
 evaluaHon.
 With
 individual
 coaching
 and
 special
 trainings
 in
 the
 area
 of
 

finances,
 law,
 taxes,
 and
 so2
 skills,
 we
 accompany
 people
 from
 the
 business
 idea
 to
 the

foundaHon.

10 11
I]Z7IE8chdgi^jb I]Z7IE8chdgi^jb

and
 enterprises.
 The
 major
 business
 fields
 are
 vocaHonal
 training,
 organisaHon
 and
 staff

development
advice
in
connecHon
with
training
schemes,
combined
employment
measures

and
training
schemes,
and
iniHal
vocaHonal
training.


L^gihX]V[ih`VbbZgHiZ^ZgbVg`!;VX]\gjeeZ[“gJciZgcZ]bZchWZgVijc\ Our
 schemes
 are
 aimed
 at
 the
 following
 target
 groups:
 employees
 intending
 to
 undergo

jcY>c[dgbVi^dchiZX]cdad\^Z further
 educaHon,
 employees
 threatened
 by
 unemployment,
 the
 unemployed
 and
 men/
<gVo!6jhig^V women
returning
to
work,
young
people,
soldiers,
prisoners
as
well
as
enterprises,
public

administraHons
and
other
insHtuHons,
and
works
councils.
Furthermore
the
Federal
Labour

The
Wirtscha2skammer
Steiermark
is
part
of
the
Economic
Chamber
in
Styria
and
the
interest
 Office,
enterprises,
administraHons,
works
councillors,
staff
councils,
European
Commission,

representaHon
for
self
employed
management
consultants
and
informaHon
technologists.
 ministries
and
private
people
are
among
our
clients.
We
 offer
 consultaHon
 in
 various
 areas,
 such
 as
 law,
 represent
 the
 associaHon
 interests
 in

naHonal
and
internaHonal
associaHons,
offer
public
relaHons,
and
support
further
educaHon
 We
 are
 involved
 in
 many
 European
 projects
 in
 all
 its
 business
 fields.
 This
 enables
 us
 to

for
these
groups.
Among
other
things
in
the
context
of
this
professional
associaHon,
we
have
 conHnuously
test
and
develop
new
approaches
to
vocaHonal
training
and
to
integrate
them

installed
a
number
of
expert
groups
for
special
topics
which
includes
one
expert
group
for
 in
our
training
scope.
business
succession.
To
 coordinate
 all
 European
 acHviHes
 of
 the
 bfw‐group,
 the
 Competence
 Center
 EUROPE

(CCE)
has
been
created
in
2004
to
make
sure
that
the
outcomes
of
the
innovaHve
EU‐funded


 projects
are
implemented
in
an
appropriate
way
into
all
business
fields
of
bfw.


7Zgj[h[dgiW^aYjc\hlZg`W[lYZh9<78dbeZiZcXZ8ZciZg:JGDE:
=Z^YZaWZg\!<ZgbVcn

The
 Berufsfortbildungswerk
 des
 DGB
 is
 one
 of
 Germany‘s
 major
 vocaHonal
 training
 HijY^d8ZcigdKZcZid
insHtuHons
 and
 comprises
 36
 branches
 naHon‐wide
 represented
 in
 all
 the
 federal
 states,
 K^XZcoV!>iVan
300
vocaHonal
training
centres,
approximately
and70,000
parHcipants
per
year.
Since
bfw‘s

foundaHon
in
1953,
2.5
million
parHcipants
have
enrolled.
A
staff
of
around
2,000
employees,
 StudioCENTRO
Veneto
is
a
private
consulHng
company
and
has
started
its
acHviHes
in
Vicenza

including
 vocaHonal
 trainers,
 teachers,
 social
 teachers,
 structural
 and
 qualifying
 advisers,
 in
 1968.
 It
 is
 specialised
 in
 research,
 training
 and
 consulHng,
 parHcularly
 focusing
 on
 the

and
administrators,
work
for
us
and
our
subsidiaries. transfer
of
businesses
from
one
generaHon
to
the
next
or
to
a
third
party.
The
main
“Business

Transfer”
 acHviHes
 are
 the
 increase
 of
 awareness,
 surveys,
 trainers
 training,
 junior/senior

We
and
our
vocaHonal
training
centres
are
firmly
established
in
the
regions.
Regional
labour
 training,
system
acHons,
and
private
consulHng.
In
1997
a
special
handbook
on
this
subject

markets
as
well
as
present
and
future
requirements
of
the
enterprises
are
being
conHnuously
 was
 wriCen
 and
 translated
 into
 five
 languages.
 This
 tool
 is
 known
 as
 kit.brunello
 (hCp://
analysed,
thus
providing
the
basis
for
training
schemes
tailor‐made
for
both
target
groups
 www.kit.brunello.net)/
and
has
also
been
officially
acknowledged
as
a
best
pracHce
by
the


12 13
I]Z7IE8chdgi^jb I]Z7IE8chdgi^jb

European
Union.
The
SCV
has
a
lot
of
experience
in
the
field
of
business
transfer,
SMEs
and

internaHonal
projects
and
works
at
European,
naHonal,
regional
and
local
levels
in
system
 

acHons
that
join
public
and
private
bodies.


 8GB8dchjai^c\!
>ob^i$@dXVZa^!Ijg`Zn

CRM
ConsulHng
offers
training,
applied
consultancy
services
for
private
companies,
public

and
local
insHtuHons,
makes
market
researches
and
deals
with
EU
projects
and
tenders.
Our

HkVhiV7jh^cZhh8dchjai^c\! business
lines
are

training,
strategic
planning,
restructuring,
quality
management
systems

7jX]VgZhi!GdbVc^V both
in
public
and
privat
sectors,
and
market
development
consultancy
in
private
sector
for

the
benefit
of
both
SMEs
and
big
sales‐networking
companies.

SVASTA
Consult
is
an
independent
Romanian
Management
ConsulHng
company,
established
in

1993.
Our
headquarter
is
in
Bucharest
and
we
have
3
branches
in
Transylvania:
Bistrita,
Oradea
 Our
training
programs
cover
more
than
24
subjects
including
vocaHonal
training
and
human

si
Baia‐Mare.
At
present
16
consultants
and
6
support
staff
are
working
for
SVASTA.
 resurces
 development
 trainings.
 We
 work
 together
 with
 full
 Hme
 consultants,
 part
 Hme

trainers
and
dispose
of
a
consultant
pool.
We
 are
 a
 cerHfied
 member
 of
 Romanian
 AssociaHon
 of
 Management
 Consultants
 AMCOR,

affiliated
at
the
European
FederaHon
of
Management
Consultants
AssociaHon
–
FEACO. We
 promote
 a
 strong
 survey
 reporHng
 acHviHes
 and
 cooperate
 closely
 with
 the
 business

community
at
the
local,
regional
and
naHonal
level
for
the
informaHon
exchanges
between

SVASTA
has
3
business
lines:
public
sector
consulHng,
private
sector
consulHng
and
training.
 the
sectoral
insHtuHons.
In
 the
 public
 sector,
 SVASTA
 has
 good
 competence
 and
 references
 in
 the
 field
 of
 public

administraHon
 reform,
 public
 procurement,
 training
 for
 public
 administraHon,
 structural

instruments
 and
 project
 cycle
 management,
 regional
 development
 and
 SMEs,
 environment
 

protecHon.

In
the
private
sector,
SVASTA
has
implemented
organisaHonal
development
and
M&A
projects

for
medium
size
Romanian
companies.
In
addiHon,
SVASTA
has
assisted
change
management

projects
for
mulHnaHonal
companies,
in
partnership
with
leading
internaHonal
consultants
and
 8deZc]V\Zc7jh^cZhhHX]dda87H
has
performed
a
wide
variety
of
studies
for
German
or
Scandinavian
clients
that
approached
 8deZc]V\Zc!9ZcbVg`
Romanian
market.
Copenhagen
Business
School
(CBS)
is
Denmark‘s
most
internaHonally
oriented
insHtuHon
of

In
the
training
sector,
SVASTA
is
offering
training
for
public
authoriHes
and
for
private
market.
 higher
educaHon
as
well
as
the
one
university
in
Denmark
offering
the
most
comprehensive

In
 the
 last
 5
 years,
 SVASTA
 had
 more
 than
 2300
 trainees
 from
 the
 public
 authoriHes
 and
 range
of
university
level
degrees
in
business
economics
and
modern
languages.
We
regard

more
than
400
from
the
private
business.
The
public
sector
training
products
are
designed
by
 ourselves
as
a
European
university
and
strive
to
be
among
the
top
business
schools
in
Europe.

SVASTA,
while
in
the
private
sector
SVASTA
is
using
an
Austrian
training
licence
for
its
training
 Our
research
and
teaching
is
structured
in
line
with
internaHonal
standards,
and
we
measure

products. our
level
of
quality
in
comparison
with
the
top
foreign
universiHes.


14 15
I]Z7IE8chdgi^jb >cigdYjXi^dc

The
 co‐operaHon
 with
 Danish
 and
 foreign
 business
 communiHes
 is
 a
 cornerstone
 in
 our
 ?djheZkYj_ed
strategy.
 We
 develop
 study
 programmes
 that
 meet
 the
 needs
 of
 business
 execuHves
 and
 6cYgZVAVc\!I]dbVhLnX]dY^a
employees
 for
 lifelong
 learning.
 We
 also
 parHcipate
 in
 applicaHon‐oriented
 research
 W^ibVcV\ZbZci7ZgVijc\<bW=
collaboraHons
in
connecHon
with
our
internaHonally‐oriented
basic
research.
This
includes

joint
 research
 projects,
 the
 CBS
 Partnership
 Program
 and
 the
 increasing
 number
 of
 new
 Micro,
small
and
medium
companies
are
the
backbone
of
the
EU
economy
and
are
the
most

business
 research
 centres
 that
 perform
 research
 in
 collaboraHon
 with
 enterprises
 and
 important
 providers
 of
 jobs
 in
 a
 globally
 changing
 landscape
 characterised
 by
 conHnuous

organisaHons. structural
 changes
 and
 increasing
 compeHHon.
 StaHsHcally
 there
 are
 23
 million
 small
 and

medium‐sized
enterprises
in
the
European
Union
represenHng
99.8
%
of
all
EU
enterprises
and

We
promote
a
strong
internaHonal
plaxorm
in
the
form
of
internaHonal
publicaHon,
leadership
 employing
more
than
74
million
people.
These
enterprises
are
the
main
source
of
employment,

of
 academic
 networks,
 editorial
 acHviHes,
 conference
 hosHng,
 and
 PhD
 collaboraHon
 and
 innovaHon,
entrepreneurship,
and
growth,
and,
due
to
their
important
social
and
economic

cooperate
closely
with
the
business
community
at
the
local,
regional,
and
naHonal
levels
for
 role,
SMEs
benefit
from
specific
treatment
within
the
European
Union,
such
as
naHonal
state‐
the
‘translaHon’
of
CBS’
research
into
pracHce. aid
 schemes
 and
 community
 programmes.
 The
 “Lisbon
 Growth
 and
 Employment
 Strategy

(2005)”
had
its
main
focus
on
the
needs
of
SMEs
and
emphasised
the
“Transfer
of
Businesses
–


 ConHnuity
through
a
new
beginning”
and
invited
the
member
states
to
implement
this
strategy

in
their
own
countries,
for
example
improvement
of
framework
condiHons
for
business
transfer

to
 ensure
 more
 transfer‐friendly
 tax
 systems,
 provide
 convenient
 financial
 condiHons,
 raise

awareness
of
a
Hmely
preparaHon,
and
provide
a
basis
for
business
transfer
markets.
Since

2005
the
role
of
the
SMEs
for
growth
and
innovaHon
has
been
highlighted
even
further
within

:H>8 the
European
Union
through
new
papers,
publicaHons,
and
guidelines,
and
both
the
member

KVaZco^V!HeV^c states
and
the
EU
are
sHll
working
on
the
creaHon
of
an
SME‐friendlier
business
environment.

ESIC
was
founded
in
1965
and
is
the
leading
private
markeHng
school
in
Spain.
 Almost
 1/3
 of
 the
 above
 menHoned
 SMEs,
 approximately
 690,000
 with
 about
 28
 million

Through
our
wide
range
of
areas
and
acHviHes,
we
saHsfy
the
current
needs
of
companies
 employees
(European
Commission,
2008)
will
be
faced
with
the
succession/transfer
process

and
their
compeHHve
environment
by
means
of
providing
the
necessary
training
to
enable
 within
 the
 next
 10
 years.
 On
 the
 European
 level,
 exisHng
 training‐offers
 and
 consultancy‐
business
 professionals
 to
 analyse
 situaHons,
 undertake
 decision‐taking
 tasks,
 and
 to
 act
 services
primarily
address
business
start‐ups,
although
there
are
clear
differences
between

responsibly
at
all
corporate
levels.
 a
 business
 start‐up
 and
 a
 business
 take‐over,
 both
 in
 the
 scope
 of
 training
 and
 in
 the

In
 our
 internaHonal
 dimension,
 we
 hold
 academic
 agreements
 with
 the
 most
 presHgious
 process‐oriented
 and
 supporHve
 coaching.
 Handing/taking‐over
 a
 company
 requires

companies
 and
 universiHes
 all
 over
 the
 world.
 The
 educaHonal
 and
 training
 programmes
 specific
knowledge,
e.g.
law
of
succession,
company
law,
contractual
obligaHons,
financial

offered
in
its
different
business
disciplines
are
typical
of
the
most
presHgious
internaHonal
 recapitalisaHon
 and
 modernisaHon
 measures,
 or
 analyses
 of
 the
 company,
 handling
 the

business
schools.
 changing
role
from
an
employee
to
business
owner,
and
is
much
more
complex
compared

Programmes
and
course
work
are
based
on
a
broad
economic
and
business
foundaHon
with
 with
the
founding
of
a
new
company.
Furthermore,
from
the
economic
point
of
view,
in
many

specialisaHon
 in
 markeHng
 and
 management.
 Furthermore,
 one
 of
 our
 main
 objecHves
 is
 cases
it
is
much
more
profitable
to
start
with
an
exisHng
company
because
the
survivability

to
 saHsfy
 company
 needs
 for
 qualified
 personnel
 by
 means
 of
 offering
 a
 comprehensive
 of
an
exisHng
business
is
higher
compared
with
a
newly
founded
company
(a2er
5
years,
96%

candidate
search,
pre‐selecHon
and
recruitment
service
to
fill
the
posiHon
adequately.
 of
exisHng
companies
versus
75%
of
start‐ups
are
sHll
on
the
market).


16 17
>cigdYjXi^dc >cigdYjXi^dc

The
 lack
 of
 succession/transfer
 regulaHon
 measures,
 such
 as
 in‐Hme
 planning,
 adequate
 HdjgXZh/
preparaHon
 phase,
 and
 tailor‐made
 trainings
 for
 successors/transferors,
 have
 led
 to

thousands
of
enterprises
and
with
it
hundreds
of
thousands
of
jobs
disappearing
from
the

European
 Commission,
 Enterprise
 Directorate‐General,
 Unit
 E.1.
 Entrepreneurship.

market
each
year.
The
awareness
for
the
necessity
of
long‐term
and
strategic
planning
of
the

Retrieved
 02/09/2008
 from
 hCp://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/entrepreneurship/support_
business
succession
as
well
as
measures
for
the
assurance
and
simplificaHon
of
the
business

measures/transfer_business/trans_com.htm

succession
sHll
need
to
be
intensified
at
the
European
level.
Taking
into
account
all
these

facts
provided
the
iniHal
moHvaHon
for
the
project
“Business
Transfer
Programme
(BTP)”.
This
 project
 made
 a
 contribuHon
 in
 raising
 awareness
 on
 the
 importance
 of
 maintaining

PuPng
Small
Business
First.
Europe
is
good
for
SMEs,
SMEs
are
good
for
Europe.
2008

these
enterprises
in
the
partner
countries
from
the
business
and
economic
point
of
view
and

ediHon.
 Retrieved
 22/08/2008
 from
 hCp://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/entrepreneurship/
of
keeping
an
eye
on
the
conHnuous
alteraHon
of
generaHons
in
Europe.
The
main
goals
of

docs/sme_pack_eng_2008.pdf
.

the
project
were
the
development
of
consistent
support
measures
for
exisHng
SMEs
close

to
 the
 transfer
 process,
 facilitaHng
 an
 upcoming
 transfer
 process
 through
 increasing
 their

own
business
transfer
related
knowledge,
and
intensifying
their
preparaHon
phase
through

Märkte
 für
 Unternehmensübertragungen.
 Förderung
 transparenter
 Marktplätze
 für

a
technical
instrument/tool.
Unternehmensübertragungen
in
Europa.
Bericht
der
Sachverständigengruppe.
Retrieved

02/09/2008
 from
 hCp://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/entrepreneurship/support_measures/
This
 publicaHon
 describes
 in
 detail
 the
 raHonale,
 format,
 and
 content
 of
 the
 “Business

transfer_business/docs/transfer_markets_de.pdf

Transfer
 Programme”.
 A
 tailor‐made
 training
 programme
 in
 combinaHon
 with
 a
 specific


Screening
 Tool
 for
 business
 successors
 and
 transferors
 has
 been
 designed
 and
 tested
 and

is
 available
 on
 the
 European
 market.
 A
 moHvated
 and
 experienced
 team
 of
 training
 and

consulHng
companies
and
researchers
from
seven
European
countries,
namely
Austria,
Italy,

Germany,
Romania,
Turkey,
Denmark,
and
Spain,
have
been
working
together
on
this
project,

which
was
generously
funded
by
the
Leonardo
da
Vinci
programme
of
the
European
Union.

The
results
of
the
project
are
very
promising
and
contribute
to
the
improvement
of
the
skills

of
business
successors
and
transferors
to
handle
the
difficulHes
involved
in
the
transfer
of

ownership
and
also
provide
an
addiHonal
tool
for
successors/transferors
and
management

consultants
to
carry
out
a
first
enterprise
check.
In
this
respect
the
project
contributes
to
the

survival
of
small
and
medium
sized
businesses,
which
are
important
to
strengthen
the
SME

dominated
European
economy.

18 19
7 j h ^ c Z h h  Ig V c h [ Z g  ^ c   : j gd e Z 7 j h ^ c Z h h  Ig V c h [ Z g  ^ c   : j gd e Z

8ki_d[iiJhWdi\[h_d;khef[ employees,
tax
relief
on
early
reHrement
and
tax
relief
on
money
reinvested
in
another

I]dbVhHX]bVaoZg!GZcZLZcoZa!7ZgcVYZiiZ;gZX] SME
–
are
implemented
in
only
seven
or
eight
member
countries
(ibid.).
;=?D6CC:JB<ZhZaahX]V[ibW=
Business
transferors
as
well
as
transferees
are
o2en
not
well‐prepared.
In
this
respect
the

expert
group
detected
following
weak
points:
Business
 transfer
 is
 of
 major
 concern
 in
 the
 European
 Union
 today.
 One
 third
 of
 all

businesses
 are
 to
 be
 transferred
 within
 the
 next
 ten
 years.
 This
 accounts
 for
 690,000
 ° Especially
 owners
 of
 micro‐
 and
 small
 enterprises
 require
 assistance
 and
 guidelines

companies.
Out
of
this
quanHty,
a
fracHon
of
43%
employs
one
or
more
persons.
All
in
all
 when
 searching
 for
 business
 transferees.
 More
 awareness
 and
 training
 is
 needed
 to

nearly
3
million
jobs
are
affected,
in
the
European
Union.
The
fracHon
of
future
business
 demonstrate
that
the
transfer
of
business
is
a
good
alternaHve
to
maintain
the
operaHon

transfers
varies
from
member
state
to
member
state.
For
instance,
in
Finland
and
Italy,
40%
 of
the
viable
company.
This
can
be
done
by
finding
and
promoHng
success
stories
in
the

of
all
businesses
are
affected.
In
Austria
about
28%
of
all
businesses
will
be
transferred
in
 field
of
business
transfer
(Eonmex,
2005).
the
next
decade
(European
Commission,
2003).

° One
major
problem
of
small
companies
is
that
it
is
hard
for
them
to
find
successors
due

The
fracHon
of
business
transfers
to
third
parHes,
i.e.
former
employees
and
people
outside
 to
a
difficult
economic
background
of
the
company,
e.g.
a
lack
of
equity
in
their
balance

the
business,
is
increasing.
For
business
owners
who
do
not
have
a
transferee
within
the
 sheets,
tax
problems,
and
troubles
with
social
security
contribuHons.
This
o2en
causes

family
 or
 within
 the
 company
 it
 becomes
 more
 and
 more
 difficult
 to
 find
 an
 adequate
 the
problems
also
with
defining
an
appropriate
value
of
such
company
(ibid.).
successor.
 Two
 thirds
 of
 all
 adverHsements
 regarding
 business
 transfer
 are
 placed
 by

transferors
and
only
one
third
is
placed
by
transferees.
Hence,
business
transfer
is
of
major

concern
in
the
European
Union,
but
measures
are
o2en
limited
to
a
regional
level. GZXdbbZcYVi^dchEgdedhZYWni]Z:meZgi<gdje

Trends
 in
 business
 transfer
 suggest
 that
 entrepreneurs
 will
 more
 o2en
 transfer
 their
 Since
business
transfer
especially
to
third
parHes
will
be
of
high
importance
in
the
future,
the

enterprise
 before
 reHrement
 due
 to
 private
 reasons.
 As
 a
 consequence
 an
 increasing
 expert
group
made
the
following
recommendaHons,
which
concern
the
provision
of
support

number
of
entrepreneurs
will
stay
in
the
business
for
a
shorter
period
than
in
the
past,
 measures.
They
propose:
where
they
worked
in
the
same
enterprise
for
their
enHre
lifeHme.
° the
creaHon
of
a
European
business
transfer
centre,
a
virtual
European
plaxorm,
where

Due
to
these
changes
in
the
structure
of
business
transfer,
the
European
Union
proposed
 informaHon
collecHng
is
coordinated,
best
pracHces
are
shared
across
Europe
and
cross

21
recommendaHons
for
the
member
states
to
implement.
The
measures
affect
the
fields
 border
cooperaHon
is
sHmulated.
On
a
naHonal
level,
similar
insHtuHons
should
also
be

of
law
and
taxaHon.
In
the
year
2002,
an
expert
group
found
out
that
only
about
half
of
the
 established
if
they
do
not
exist
already;
(European
Commission,
2003)
measures
were
transposed
in
the
European
Union.
The
implementaHons
of
the
measures

vary
from
two
in
Greece
to
16
in
the
Netherlands.
They
also
found
out
that,
in
two
of
five
 ° the
establishment
of
an
European
sellers’
and
buyers’
marketplace
in
connecHon
with

key
 areas
 in
 supporHng
 efforts
 for
 business
 transfers,
 advancements
 made
 by
 member
 the
 business
 transfer
 centre,
 the
 up‐linking
 of
 exisHng
 naHonal
 databases
 and
 the

states
 were
 relaHvely
 good.
 13
 member
 states
 have
 established
 special
 regulaHons
 on
 facilitaHon
of
countries
without
such
databases
to
set
them
up;
(ibid.)
inheritance
and
gi2
taxes.
Ten
countries
have
included
rules
to
support
transfers
to
third

parHes.
 The
 other
 three
 key
 areas
 –
 specific
 measures
 to
 alleviate
 transfers
 to
 former


20 21
7 j h ^ c Z h h  Ig V c h [ Z g  ^ c   : j gd e Z 7 j h ^ c Z h h  Ig V c h [ Z g  ^ c   : j gd e Z

° the
 execuHon
 of
 regular
 conferences
 and
 other
 events
 on
 specific
 transfer
 issues
 at
 ?:G:B>:/ Joint
 European
 Resources
 for
 Micro
 to
 Medium
 Enterprises
 provides
 the

European
level
to
exchange
best
pracHce
and
the
usage
of
results
of
these
events
as
 framework
for
a
series
of
coherent
financial
acHons
to
improve
the
financial
environment
for

input
for
seminars
and
meeHngs
at
naHonal,
regional,
and
local
levels;
(ibid.) small
SMEs
at
naHonal,
regional,
and
local
levels.
It
provides
member
states
and
regions
with

a
custom‐made
set
of
financial
tools,
formulated
to
be
opHmally
applied
in
each
sePng.
° the
development
of
alternaHve
or
addiHonal
custom‐made
educaHon
and
management

tools
 for
 present
 and
 potenHal
 owner
 managed
 and
 small
 family‐owned
 businesses;
 CVi^dcVa>c^i^Vi^kZh/
Some
member
states
introduced
measures
on
the
financial
background

(ibid) of
business
transfers.
Belgium
and
Luxembourg
have
implemented
interest
reduced
loans

for
business
transferees.
Luxembourg
addiHonally
offers
interest‐free
loans
for
start‐ups
and

° the
implementaHon
of
publicly
iniHated
support
programmes
and
research
on
business
 take‐overs.
Loans
for
business
transfer
are
provided
in
Finland
and
Belgium.
Loan
guarantees

transfers;
(ibid) which
decrease
the
risk
premium
are
available
in
Austria,
France,
and
Denmark.
Ireland
has

introduced
tax
relieves
for
investments
including
investments
in
business
transfer.
Subsidies

° higher
aCenHon
to
business
transfers
in
relaHon
to
other
issues.
Transfers
should
get
as
 are
 granted
 by
 the
 Austrian
 Gründerservice.
 Several
 member
 countries
 have
 established

much
aCenHon
as
start‐ups
in
the
European
Union.
(ibid) consultancy
services
and
databases
to
esHmate
the
value
of
the
business.

HZaZXiZY>c^i^Vi^kZhdc7jh^cZhhIgVch[Zg^c:jgdeZ >c^i^Vi^kZhid>begdkZi]ZIgVcheVgZcXnd[BVg`Zih[dgWjh^cZhhIgVch[Zgh

There
are
several
European
IniHaHves
to
support
business
transfer
in
the
European
Union.
 Founding
new
businesses
is
the
common
way
to
become
an
entrepreneur
in
Europe.
54%

Some
of
them
focus
on
the
improvement
of
the
financial
environment,
while
others
aim
at
 of
all
Europeans
would
rather
establish
a
new
business,
while
only
29%
prefer
to
take
over

improvements
in
the
transparency
of
markets
for
business
transfer. an
 exisHng
 business.
 There
 are
 some
 reasons
 for
 that
 fact.
 Preferences
 of
 transferors
 are

difficult
to
match
with
those
of
transferees.
Furthermore
an
informaHon
asymmetry
exists

between
buyers
and
sellers.
This
holds
true
especially
for
smaller
businesses.
Therefore
it

>c^i^Vi^kZhid>begdkZi]Z;^cVcX^Va:ck^gdcbZci is
 difficult
 to
 establish
 trust
 in
 the
 market
 for
 business
 transfer.
 Measures
 to
 improve
 the

transparency
 of
 markets
 for
 business
 transfer,
 such
 as
 seminars
 for
 business
 transfers

Several
 iniHaHves
 to
 improve
 the
 financial
 environment
 have
 recently
 been
 found
 in
 the
 and
 examinaHons
 of
 good
 pracHce
 examples,
 can
 help
 to
 overcome
 those
 problems.
 The

European
Union.
The
European
Commission
itself
has
established
two
programmes
to
foster
 BEST
 project
 for
 the
 transfer
 of
 businesses
 monitors
 the
 implementaHons
 of
 the
 EC
 1994

the
financial
background
for
business
transferees: recommendaHon
and
idenHfies
new
legal,
tax,
and
support
measures.
The
EC
Expert
group

suggested
 the
 foundaHon
 of
 market
 places
 for
 business
 transfer.
 Some
 countries,
 such
 as

8>E/
 The
 CompeHHveness
 and
 InnovaHon
 Framework
 Programme
 encourages
 the
 Belgium,
Germany,
France,
Italy,
Luxembourg,
Austria,
the
Netherlands,
and
Finland,
have

compeHHveness
 of
 SMEs
 by
 supporHng
 innovaHon
 acHviHes,
 providing
 beCer
 access
 to
 founded
market
places.
In
some
cases
these
market
places
are
run
by
public
and
semi‐public

financing
 resources,
 and
 delivering
 business
 support
 services
 in
 the
 regions.
 Within
 the
 insHtuHons,
while
in
other
countries
they
are
operated
privately.

project
aCenHon
is
paid
to
business
transfers
as
well
as
to
start‐ups.
(European
Commission,

2008)

22 23
7 j h ^ c Z h h  Ig V c h [ Z g  ^ c   : j gd e Z 7 j h ^ c Z h h  Ig V c h [ Z g  ^ c   : j gd e Z

IVWaZ&/:jgdeZVcBVg`ZiEaVXZh Table
1
presents
exisHng
market
places
for
business
transfers
and
important
facts,
such
as

who
can
use
it
and
whether
there
is
a
fee
or
duraHon
of
adverHsement.
Analyses
of
exisHng

market
places
for
business
conducted
by
the
EC
expert
group
depict
the
following
results:

Database Who
can
 Who
can
adver,se? Fees? Dura,on
of

consult? adver,sements

Overnamemarkt Everybody Everybody.
Ad.
 Fees
were
introduced
 Standard
6
months,
 I]Z:8:meZgi<gdjedcBVg`ZiEaVXZh[dg7jh^cZhhIgVch[Zgh


not
placed
by
 in
May
2007 prolongaHon
(+
3

intermediaries
 months)
possible.
are
checked
by

On
 an
 insHtuHonal
 level,
 market
 places
 are
 one
 way
 to
 face
 the
 high
 number
 of
 future

adminstrator business
transfers.
Some
member
countries
of
the
European
Union
have
recently
established

SOWACCESS Everybody Ads
are
places
by
 Flat
fee
per
year. Unlimited
but
 such
market
places,
while
in
other
countries
entrepreneurs
are
le2
to
their
own
devices
in

intermediaries
 In
addiHon:
success
fee
 reviewed
every
 this
respect.
The
expert
group
idenHfied
the
following
structures
of
business
transfer
market

or
directly
(a2er
 for
direct
buyers/sellers
 two
months places
in
the
European
Union:

a
interview
with
 if
matching
was
made

SOWACCESS) through
database
Nexxt‐Change Everybody Ads
are
placed
by
 Basic
service
is
free.
 Depends
on
 ° O2en
there
is
more
than
one
market
place
operator
in
one
country.
Some
of
them
are

intermediaries Fees
might
be
charged
 agreement
with
 public
or
semi‐public
insHtuHons,
while
some
others
are
private,
such
as
commercial

for
addiHonal
services
 intermediary operators,
banks,
and
consultancy
groups.
Some
countries
implemented
coordinaHon

by
intermediaries at
 naHonal
 level,
 but
 in
 general
 market
 places
 are
 not
 consolidated.
 In
 many
 cases,

Passer
le
relais Everybody CCI
staff
if
buyer/ No
fees;
costs
are
 One
year,
but
 however,
they
are
operated
regionally.
(Eonmex,
2005)
seller
agrees. covered
by
compulsory
 seller/buyer
can
ask

Network
partners membership
fee
 for
prolongaHon
of
chambers ° Market
places
are
o2en
too
small
to
fulfil
their
objecHves.
Specifically
the
buyers’
side
is

Borsa
delle
Imprese Everybody As
transferees:
 No
fee
for
matching.
 2
years underdeveloped.
In
many
cases
a
relaHvely
high
number
of
transferors
are
confronted

everybody,
 Fees
are
charged
for
 with
a
relaHvely
small
amount
of
transferees.
A
“CriHcal
mass”
of
buyers
and
sellers
on

transferors’
ads
have
 advice
and
coaching.
the
marketplace
is
needed,
but
it
is
difficult
to
ensure.
(Eonmex,
2005)
to
be
checked
by

network
partners
Bourse
d’
 Everybody Ads
are
placed
by
host No Unlimited ° There
is
room
for
improvement
on
the
informaHon
provided
on
the
marketplaces.
The

enterprises informaHon
 that
 can
 be
 gathered
 is
 someHmes
 limited
 (sector,
 turnover,
 someHmes

Ondernemingsbeurs Everybody Only
intermediaries Ads
49
€,
contact
12.50
€ 6
months
+
 profit,
 and
 price),
 wrong,
 and
 in
 some
 sense
 irrelevant.
 Due
 to
 the
 fact
 that
 many

prolongaHon sellers
have
no
idea
about
the
realisHc
value
of
their
company
and
the
price
is
usually

Nachfolgeboerse Everybody Everybody.
 No Unlimited negoHated
in
a
later
phase
of
the
transfer
process,
this
informaHon
is
not
relevant
in

AdverHsers
have
to

reveal
idenHty
to
host.
general.
Furthermore
in
many
cases
the
price
is
not
a
real
obstacle
for
a
buyer
once

YriCajat Everybody Members
of
 60
Euro
+
VAT 6
months
the
company
saHsfies
other
needs
of
a
buyer,
e.g.
established
 producHon,
networks,

FederaHon
of
 relaHons
with
clients,
good
reputaHon.
(Eonmex,
2005)
Finnish
Enterprises

Source:
European
Commission
(2006)

24 25
7 j h ^ c Z h h  Ig V c h [ Z g  ^ c   : j gd e Z 7 j h ^ c Z h h  Ig V c h [ Z g  ^ c   : j gd e Z

° Another
 objecHve
 of
 transfer
 market
 places
 besides
 matching
 sellers
 and
 buyers
 is
 =eeZFhWYj_Y[;nWcfb[ied8ki_d[iiJhWdi\[h_d;khef[
to
 provide
 informaHon,
 such
 as
 contact
 details
 and
 offerings,
 about
 intermediary

insHtuHons
that
are
mediaHng
the
negoHaHons
and
about
other
steps
to
be
taken
for
 Good
pracHce
examples
in
the
fields
of
informaHon
and
training
and
advice
can
be
found
in

the
transfer
of
business.
In
a
small
fracHon
of
countries,
addiHonal
services
linked
to
 several
countries.
The
following
secHon
offers
a
short
summary
of
insHtuHons
and
iniHaHves

business
transfer
are
offered
on
request.
(Eonmex,
2005) that
are
role
models
for
future
iniHaHves.

° In
member
countries
like
Austria,
Germany,
and
Luxembourg
where
marketplaces
are

run
 by
 public
 or
 semi‐public
 business
 organisaHons,
 for
 example
 by
 the
 chamber
 of
 >c[dgbVi^dc[dg7jh^cZhhIgVch[Zgh
commerce.
While
there
is
no
fee
for
matching
buyers
and
sellers,
an
annual
contribuHon

to
 that
 organisaHon
 has
 to
 be
 paid
 by
 all
 members.
 In
 some
 countries,
 i.e.
 the
 The
objecHves
of
good
pracHce
in
the
field
of
informaHon
for
business
transfer
are
not
only
to

Netherlands,
where
business
transfer
is
not
run
by
public
and
semi‐public
insHtuHons,
 provide
knowledge,
but
also
to
raise
awareness
of
the
topic
and
the
importance
of
business

a
 payment
 is
 requested
 from
 both
 sellers
 and
 buyers
 to
 guarantee
 the
 sustainability
 transfer.
It
should
also
offer
step‐by‐step
guides
and
overviews
for
buyers
and
sellers.
This

of
the
market
place.
The
fees
are
in
general
quite
low
and
are
different
for
acHve
and
 can
be
done
through
one‐stop‐shop
soluHons,
informaHon
portals,
mentoring
concepts,
and

passive
searching.
AcHve
searchers
pay
for
placing
their
profile
into
the
database,
and
 systemaHc
informaHon
acHviHes.
the
passive
searchers
pay
for
a
contact.
50
Euros
are
charged
for
profile,
10
Euros
for

searching
in
the
Netherlands,
and
between
20
and
40
Euros
in
Finland
to
search
the
 Good
 pracHce
 examples
 of
 one‐stop‐shop
 soluHons
 can
 be
 found
 in
 Austria
 (Follow
 me:

database.
 These
 market
 places
 are
 focussed
 on
 the
 process
 of
 matching
 rather
 than
 www.wko.at/stmk/followme/)
and
Germany
(IHK:
www.erfurt.ihk.de).
Here
potenHal
sellers

business
succession.
(Eonmex,
2005) and
 buyers
 can
 meet
 experts,
 like
 lawyers,
 tax
 advisors,
 and
 consultants,
 gather
 relevant

basic
informaHon,
get
consulHng,
and
receive
mediaHon
moderaHon
at
negoHaHon
in
one

° The
marketplace
operators,
who
are
regarded
as
neutral
partners
by
users,
are
more
 locaHon
and
on
one
web
site
respecHvely.

likely
to
be
seen
as
reliable
service
providers.
Business
organisaHons
with
a
relaHvely

charitable
interest
and
those
with
well‐established
contacts
within
the
naHonal
business
 Good
 pracHce
 examples
 for
 informaHon
 portals
 can
 be
 found
 in
 Germany
 (next
 IniHaHve:

community
are
normally
good
candidates
to
provide
these
services.
(Eonmex,
2005) www.nexxt.org)
 and
 in
 Switzerland
 (KMUnext:
 www.kmunext.ch).
 These
 internet
 portals

provide
transferors
and
transferees
with
links
to
all
major
insHtuHons
involved
in
business

° In
some
countries
it
is
difficult
to
establish
an
adequate
Hme
horizon
as
to
when
the
 transfer,
 extensive
 selecHon
 of
 informaHon
 material,
 like
 brochures
 and
 checklists,
 and
 a

company
should
be
eliminated
from
the
market
place
if
there
is
no
interest
from
buyers.
 database
for
sellers
and
buyers,
and
announce
seminars
and
acHviHes
related
to
business

In
contrast
to
this,
there
is
a
Hme
limit
in
Germany
to
update
the
profile
of
the
company
 transfer.
which
otherwise
might
be
withdrawn.
(Eonmex,
2005)
Germany
 (alt
 hil2
 jung:
 www.althi2jung.de)
 and
 Ireland
 (County
 Carlow,
 Succession

° DiscreHon
of
informaHon
on
businesses
that
are
potenHally
transferred
is
required,
due
 Planning:
 www.carlowchamber.com/whatwedo.aspx?id=295)
 have
 introduced
 mentoring

to
the
fact
that
in
many
cases
possible
transferors
can
be
easily
idenHfied
by
compeHtors,
 concepts
that
connect
experienced
entrepreneurs
or
consultants
with
newcomers
and
offer

especially
in
small
countries,
but
also
in
big
countries
once
the
matching
is
taking
place
 consultancy
services.
Such
mentoring
programmes
are
either
free
of
charge
or
included
in

on
local
or
regional
level.
(Eonmex,
2005) the
consultancy
strategy.

26 27
7 j h ^ c Z h h  Ig V c h [ Z g  ^ c   : j gd e Z 7 j h ^ c Z h h  Ig V c h [ Z g  ^ c   : j gd e Z

SystemaHc
InformaHon
AcHviHes
should
try
to
systemaHcally
contact
young
entrepreneurs,
 HdjgXZh/
raise
 awareness
 about
 opportuniHes
 and
 chances
 of
 business
 transfers,
 and
 offer
 special

training
acHviHes.
A
good
example
for
such
an
iniHaHve
is
Formaper
(Italy;
www.formaper. Bundesarbeitsgemeinscha2
 Wirtscha2s‐Senioren.
 Alt
 hil2
 jung.
 Retrieved
 21.08.2008,

com/). from
hCp://www.althil2jung.de/.


IgV^c^c\VcY6Yk^XZ[dg7jh^cZhhIgVch[Zgh
Bundesministerium
 für
 Wirtscha2
 und
 Technik
 (2008).
 Unternehmensnachfolge
 auf

The
field
of
training
includes
seminars,
workshops,
and
courses
where
a
knowledge
base
is
 nexxt.org.
Online:
hCp://www.nexxt.org/.
Retrieved
19/08/2008
built
and
required
skills
for
successors.
EducaHonal
programmes
are
o2en
included
in
MBA

programmes
of
insHtuHons
of
higher
educaHon
in
Europe.
UniversiHes,
business
schools,
like

Business
 Link:
 Business
 support,
 informaHon
 and
 advice.
 Retrieved
 04.08.2008,
 from

the
EOI
Business
school
in
Spain
and
chambers
of
commerce,
e.g.
Plato
in
Ireland,
o2en
offer

http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/home?domain=www.businesslink.gov.
specific
courses
for
business
successors.

uk&target=hCp://www.businesslink.gov.uk/.


The
self
analysis
tool
allows
self
evaluaHon
and
is
custom‐tailored
for
family
business
transfer.

This
tool
gives
potenHal
entrepreneurs
the
possibility
to
uncover
strong
and
weak
points
of
 County
Carlow
Chamber
(2008):
Succession
Planning.
Retrieved
14.08.2008,
from
hCp://
the
business
and
shows
how
well
prepared
transferors
and
transferees
are.
Good
pracHce
 www.carlowchamber.com/whatwedo.aspx?id=29.

examples
can
be
found
on
www.businesslink.gov.uk
and
www.kit.brunello.net.
Eonmex
(2005):
Report:
Fostering
Uniform
Transparent
Market
Places
for
the
Transfer
of

Consultancy
 services
 are
 offered
 by
 consultancy
 agencies,
 chambers
 of
 commerce,
 and

Business.
 Retrieved
 02.09.2008,
 from
 hCp://www.eommex.gr/Hfloi/metabibasi_MME/
centres
of
employment
or
economic
development.
Normally
one
has
to
pay
a
fee
for
the

market_places.doc
consultaHon
of
such
an
agency.
Consultancy
services
aim
at
developing
a
succession
plan.

A
good
example
of
such
a
contact
address
can
be
found
on
the
web
page
of
the
Ministry
of

Trade
and
Industry
in
Finland
(www.te‐keskus.fi).Discussion
forums
can
also
be
quite
helpful
 European
 Commission
 (2008):
 The
 CompeHHveness
 and
 InnovaHon
 Programme
 (CIP).

to
 receive
 good
 advice.
 A
 good
 pracHce
 example
 is
 the
 website
 of
 the
 Austrian
 Chamber
 Retrieved
10.09.2008,
from
hCp://ec.europa.eu/cip/index_en.htm
of
Commerce
(www.wko.at),
where
one
can
find
not
only
discussion
forums,
but
also
links

and
contacts
to
experts,
online
meeHngs
with
experts,
and,
last
but
not
least,
peer
group

European
Commission
(2006).
Report
of
the
Expert
Group,
Markets
for
Business
Transfers,

discussions
and
informaHon
exchange.
Fostering
 transparent
 marketplaces
 for
 the
 transfer
 of
 businesses
 in
 Europe.
 Brussels:

European
Commission
Enterprise
and
Industry
Directorate
General

European
Commission
(2003).
Helping
the
transfer
of
businesses
—
A
‘good
pracHce
guide’

of
measures
for
supporHng
the
transfer
of
businesses
to
new
ownership.
Luxembourg:

Office
for
Official
PublicaHons
of
the
European
CommuniHes

28 29
7 j h ^ c Z h h  Ig V c h [ Z g  ^ c   : j gd e Z 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c6jhig^V

9ekdjhoH[fehji
European
Investment
Fund
(2008):
JEREMIE
–
Regional
Funding.
Retrieved
15.08.2008,

I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c6jhig^V
from
hCp://www.eif.org/jeremie/.

GjeZgi7Z^c]VjZg!GZcZLZcoZa
;=?D6CC:JB<ZhZaahX]V[ibW=
Formaper
 (2007):
 Formaper:
 Azienda
 Speciale
 della
 Camera
 di
 Commercio
 di
 Milano.

Retrieved
11.08.2008,
from
hCp://www.formaper.com/.

<ZcZgVa9ZhXg^ei^dc

Industrie‐
und
Handelskammer
Erfurt
(2008):
IHK
Starthilfe.
Retrieved
10.08.2008,
from

The
 Federal
 Republic
 of
 Austria
 is
 located
 in
 the
 „Heart
 of
 Europe“,
 in
 the
 north
 of
 Italy

hCp://www.erfurt.ihk.de/www/ihk/starthilfe/unternehmensnachfolg/index.htm.

and
 Slovenia
 and
 in
 the
 south
 of
 Germany.
 Its
 capital
 is
 Vienna.
 The
 populaHon
 numbers

approximately
8.2
million
inhabitants
on
an
area
of
83,871
km².
kmuNEXT:
KMU
Next.
Retrieved
19.08.2008,
from
hCp://www.kmunext.ch/.


:Xdcdb^X:ck^gdcbZci
StudioCentro
Veneto:
Di
Padre
in…
Meglio.
Retrieved
12.08.2008,
from
hCp://www.kit.
brunello.net/.

Austria
has
benefited
greatly
from
joining
the
EU
in
1995
and
more
recently
from
the
EU

enlargement
in
2004,
which
brought
Austria‘s
eastern
neighbours
into
the
Union.
In
2007

Te
 keskus:
 Työvoima‐
 ja
 elinkeinokeskus.
 Retrieved
 10.09.2008,
 from
 hCp://www.te‐ the
 GDP
 was
 at
 271
 billion
 Euro,
 which
 amounts
 to
 31959
 in
 PPP
 per
 capita.
 The
 strong

keskus.fi/public/Default.aspx.
 export
 performance
 pushed
 the
 GDP
 growth
 to
 3.1%
 per
 cent
 in
 2007.
 1.7%
 of
 the
 GDP

is
gained
by
the
agricultural
sector,
30.3%
are
produced
by
the
industrial
sector,
while
the

service
sector
is
responsible
for
68%
of
the
GDP.
In
2007,
Austria‘s
unemployment
rate
was
at

WKO
 (2008a):
 Follow
 Me:
 Betriebsnachfolge
 in
 der
 Steiermark.
 Retrieved
 07.08.2008,
 4.3%
according
to
EU
standards,
which
is
sHll
comparaHvely
low
compared
to
other
member

from
hCp://ww.wko.at/stmk/followme/.
 countries
of
the
European
Union
(CIA,
2008).


WKO
(2008b):
WKO
–
Das
Portal
 der
Wirtscha2skammern.
Retrieved
20.08.2008,
from
 Before
joining
the
European
Union,
the
Austrian
economic
performance
heavily
depended



hCp://portal.wko.at/wk/startseite.wk. on
the
economic
development
of
Germany.
A2er
the
EU
access
in
1995,
the
dependency


 has
 been
 reduced,
 and
 other
 trade
 partners
 have
 been
 found.
 As
 a
 small
 open
 economy,

Austria
has
a
relaHvely
high
export
orientaHon.
Germany
is
sHll
the
most
important
trade

partner
of
Austria
(30%)
followed
by
Italy
(9%),
the
USA
(6%)
and
Switzerland
(5%).
Austria

has
also
entered
the
market
in
many
Eastern
European
countries,
such
as
Slovenia,
Romania,

Bulgaria,
the
Slovak
Republic,
Hungary,
and
the
Czech
Republic.
The
primary
export
goods

are
machinery
and
equipment,
motor
vehicles
and
parts,
and
paper
boards
(CIA,
2008).

30 31
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c6jhig^V 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c6jhig^V

:cigZegZcZjg^Va6Xi^k^in Within
 the
 Business
 Transfer
 Programme
 bit
 offers
 a
 seminar
 on
 business
 transfer.
 Target

groups
are
successors
inside
the
family,
former
staff
members,
and
successors
from
outside.

In
the
year
2007,
there
were
303,395
companies,
as
official
data
from
the
Austrian
Chamber
 Within
the
seminar
the
following
aspects
are
taught:
of
Commerce
(WKO,
2008)
shows.
In
2007
more
than
99%
of
all
companies
are
SMEs.
50.3%

do
not
employ
any
personnel.
30.7%
of
the
companies
have
fewer
than
4
employees,
and
a
 ° Regulatory
framework
condiHons
of
business
transfer
further
18.1%
employed
fewer
than
100
workers
(ibid).
30.1%
of
all
companies
were
small
 ° Financing
for
business
successors
trades,
which
is
the
largest
sector,
followed
by
commerce
with
25,1%
and
tourism
(18,5%).
 ° Business
analysis
for
business
successors
The
industrial
sector
is
ranked
at
the
boCom
(2.1%),
but
with
19,8%
of
all
employees
the
 ° MarkeHng
for
business
successors
industrial
 sector
 is
 ranked
 third
 just
 behind
 small
 trades
 (25.9%)
 and
 commerce
 (21.2%).
 ° Social
competence
for
business
successors
These
 data
 do
 not
 contain
 all
 companies
 because
 some
 entrepreneurs
 need
 not
 register
 ° Human
resource
management
for
business
successors
at
 the
 Austrian
 Chamber
 of
 Commerce.
 Data
 from
 the
 Global
 Entrepreneurship
 Monitor1

suggest
 that
 8.39%
 of
 the
 populaHon
 between
 the
 ages
 of
 18
 and
 64
 are
 engaged
 in
 Further
informaHon
on
this
business
transfer
seminar
can
be
found
on
the
web
pages
hCp://
entrepreneurial
acHvity
(Apfelthaler
et
al.,
2008),
which
amounts
to
about
445,000
people.
 www.bitonline.cc
and
hCp://btp.…‐joanneum.at/.


In
2007,
6575
businesses
were
transferred.
About
two
thirds
of
these
business
transfers
took

place
between
family
members.
The
transfer
intensity
was
at
1.79%
in
2007.
Most
business

transfers
were
done
in
tourism
with
34%
of
all
transfers
followed
by
small
trades
(23%)
and
 ;daadlbZ
commerce
(20%)
(WKO,
2008).
The
 Chamber
 of
 Commerce
 of
 Styria
 in
 cooperaHon
 with
 the
 administraHons
 of
 Graz
 and

Styria
 started
 an
 iniHaHve
 for
 business
 succession.
 This
 project
 is
 called
 Follow
 me.
 The

7jh^cZhhIgVch[Zg>c^i^Vi^kZh^c6jhig^V project
includes
following
aspects:

As
many
businesses
that
were
transferred
collapse
a2er
succession,
guidance
for
transferors
 ° AcHve
Succession
management
as
well
as
successors
can
help
to
overcome
this
period.
Important
iniHaHves
and
insHtuHons
 ° Development
of
a
regional
network

that
promote
and
support
business
transfers
in
Austria
are
the
following: ° Public
relaHons
° InformaHon
 meeHngs
 for
 business
 transferor
 and
 business
 successors
 where
 legal,

W^i\gdje/ financial
and
fiscal
aspects
are
dealt.
bit
is
an
insHtuHon
for
adult
educaHon
located
in
Graz.
Amongst
others
in‐service
training,
it
 ° Coaching
for
business
successors
offers
teaching
for
unemployed,
training
for
managers,
and
e‐learning
projects.
Recently
bit

focussed
on
services
for
start‐up
and
business
transfers.
 The
Follow‐me
project
focuses
on
business
transfers
that
do
not
take
place
within
the
family

as
the
number
of
family
transfers
has
decreased.
More
informaHon
can
be
found
on
the
web

page
hCp://portal.wko.at/wk/startseite_dst.wk?DstID=8314,
where
also
a
transfer
exchange

1
is
linked.

The
Global
Entrepreneurship
Monitor
is
an
internaHonal,
representaHve
survey
of
the
populaHon
between
the

ages
 of
 18
 and
 64.
 At
 least
 2000
 people
 were
 interviewed
 in
 every
 parHcipaHng
 country.
 In
 the
 year
 2007,
 42

countries
took
part.

32 33
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c6jhig^V 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c6jhig^V

;jgi]Zg>c^i^Vi^kZh[dg7jh^cZhhIgVch[Zg/ ° business
transfer
is
fully
or
partly
free
of
charge
and
° the
transferor
is
older
than
55
years
or
disabled
and
The
 Federal
 Ministry
 of
 Economics
 and
 Labour
 offers
 a
 brochure
 for
 business
 transfer
 in
 ° at
least
one
fourth
of
the
company
is
transferred.
tourism,
as
most
businesses
are
transferred
in
tourism.
This
guide
offers
informaHon
on
the

tourism
sector
and

gives
legal
as
well
as
financial
advice
and
special
hints
for
this
branch.
The
 It
 is
 now
 possible
 that
 shares
 in
 private
 limited
 companies
 and
 public
 limited
 companies

guide
can
be
found
on
hCp://www.bmwa.gv.at/NR/rdonlyres/AF33D283‐DE4C‐4D4F‐A612‐ can
 be
 transcribed
 to
 the
 spouse
 and/or
 to
 the
 own
 children
 for
 free.
 So
 it
 is
 possible
 to

C6D233E891D8/0/BetriebsnachfolgeimTourismus.pdf.
 opHmize
the
family
income
by
a
reducHon
of
the
income
tax
progression,
if
the
income
is

distributed
to
several
family
members.
If
gi2s
before
the
August
2008
were
provided
with

The
Chamber
of
Commerce
of
Austria
presents
contact
addresses
for
consultants
specialized
 special
requirements
(i.e.
right
of
lifehold
or
right
of
abode),
then
these
contracts
can
now

in
business
transfers.
InformaHon
on
these
consultants
can
be
found
on
hCp://portal.wko. be
adapted
in
order
to
be
freed
from
gi2
tax.
In
order
to
be
released
from
gi2
taxaHon
the

at/wk/startseite_dst.wk?AngID=1&DstID=7271. donator
has
to
renounce
the
granted
right.

The
internet
portal
diegründer.at
provides
broad
informaHon
on
business
transfers
including
 Gratuitous
transfers
trigger
partly
beCer
and
partly
worse
legal
consequences,
especially
in

recommendaHons
on
legal,
financial,
organizaHonal
and
pracHcal
aspects.
InformaHon
can
 the
field
of
tax
shelters.
That
way
the
gratuitous
legal
successor
has
to
take
the
tax
burden

be
gathered
on
hCp://www.diegruender.at/betriebsnachfolge/allgemein1.php. of
 undistributed
 profits.
 There
 are
 also
 substanHal
 differences
 regarding
 special
 business

assets.
For
further
informaHon
on
this
topic
ask
your
tax
consultant.

The
 Hernstein
 Ins,tute
 offers
 seminars
 for
 business
 transfers
 at
 irregular
 intervals.
 These

seminars
 focus
 on
 administraHve
 and
 legal
 facets
 for
 business
 successors.
 The
 web
 page
 HdjgXZh/
hCp://www.hernstein.at/Seminare/Ueberblick_‐_Auswahl/
provides
all
relevant
informaHon

on
these
trainings. Apfelthaler,
G.,
Schmalzer,
T.,
Schneider;
U.,
&
Wenzel,
R.
(2008).
Global
Entrepreneurship

Monitor
 Bericht
 2007
 zur
 Lage
 des
 Unernehmertums
 in
 Österreich.
 Graz:
 FH

The
KMU
Forschung
Austria
supplies
background
informaHon
and
data
on
business
succession
 JOANNEUM.
and
other
relevant
data.
The
homepage
hCp://www.kmuforschung.ac.at/
primarily
provides

data
on
SME‐related
topics.
CIA
(2008).
The
World
Factbook
–
Austria.
Retrieved
02.08.2008
from
hCps://www.cia.
gov/library/publicaHons/the‐world‐factbook/geos/au.html.

AZ\Vah^ijVi^dc^c6jhig^V
WKO
(2008).
Kammermitglieder
nach
Rechtsformen.
Retrieved
01.08.2008
from
hCp://
Since
the
first
of
August
2008
business
transfer
is
freed
from
the
inheritance
tax
and
gi2
tax.
 wko.at/staHsHk/jahrbuch/mg‐rf.pdf.

If
the
total
value
of
the
transferred
business
exceeds
EUR
50.000
(between
relaHves
in
one

year)
and
EUR
15.000
(between
all
other
persons
within
5
years)
respecHvely,
one
simply

has
to
announce
it
to
the
fiscal
authoriHes.
If
land
is
included
within
a
gratuitous
business

transfer,
the
transferee
has
to
pay
taxes
on
acquisiHon
of
real
estate.
The
transferee
is
freed

from
this
form
of
taxaHon,
if

34 35
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c<ZgbVcn 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c<ZgbVcn

J^[I_jkWj_ed_d=[hcWdo In
 half
 of
 the
 family‐owned
 enterprises
 involved
 in
 a
 business
 transfer,
 the
 successor
 is

6ci_ZJiZX]i meanwhile
being
sought
outside
the
owner‘s
family.
The
reasons
for
the
growing
interest

7Zgj[h[dgiW^aYjc\hlZg`W[lYZh9<7 in
finding
the
soluHon
outside
the
family
are
the
lack
of
apHtude
on
the
part
of
the
children

8dbeZiZcXZ8ZciZg:JGDE: and
 their
 lacking
 interest.
 Yet,
 business
 transfer
 within
 the
 family
 sHll
 ranks
 number
 one

with
a
percentage
of
43.8%.
The
number
of
business
transfers
to
managers
working
for
the

enterprise
is
on
the
whole
decreasing
–
about
10.2%.
The
number
of
transfers
to
external

<ZcZgVa9ZhXg^ei^dc managers
has
slightly
increased
and
shows
a
percentage
of
16.5%.
An
increasing
significance

must
be
aCached
to
this
alternaHve
with
growing
enterprise
size.
Approximately
21%
of
the

Germany
is
located
in
Central
Europe,
bordering
the
BalHc
Sea
and
the
North
Sea,
between
 family‐owned
enterprises
are
expected
to
be
sold
to
other
companies.
The
percentage
of

the
Netherlands
and
Poland,
in
the
south
of
Denmark,
in
the
north
of
Austria.
Its
capital
is
 shut
downs
is
predicted
to
be
8.3%.
Berlin.
The
populaHon
numbers
approximately
82.4
million
inhabitants
on
an
area
of
349.223

km²
. According
to
an
online
survey
of
the
Chamber
of
Industry
and
Commerce
(IHK),
20%
of
all

enterprises
are
planning
a
transfer
of
the
business
ownership
to
the
next
generaHon
within
the

:Xdcdb^X:ck^gdcbZci family
but
with
a
simultaneous
management
transfer
to
an
external
manager.
The
larger
the

company
is,
the
more
the
assignment
of
an
external
manager
to
the
company
management

In
the
coming
years,
a
generaHon
change
is
pending
for
several
enterprises
in
the
sectors
of
 is
 considered.
 While
 for
 every
 tenth
 enterprise
 with
 a
 maximum
 of
 20
 employees,
 the

industry,
cra2,
trade,
services,
and
liberal
professions.
More
than
10%
of
the
heads
of
family‐ engagement
of
an
external
manager
represents
an
opHon,
this
alternaHve
is
considered
by

owned
enterprises
are
over
65
years
old.
The
issue
on
business
transfer
is
not
relevant
for
 at
least
every
fi2h
enterprise
with
more
than
20
employees.
the
vast
majority
of
the
large
scale
enterprises,
since,
in
this
size
group,
it
is
o2en
a
maCer
of

joint‐stock
companies
listed
on
the
stock
exchange.
DWhiVXaZhVcY8]VaaZc\Zh
According
 to
 calculaHons
 of
 the
 InsHtut
 für
 MiCelstandsforschung
 (IfM)
 (the
 insHtute
 of
 There
are
two
quesHons
that
the
enterprises
ask
themselves
before
a
business
transfer:
How

research
 on
 medium‐sized
 enterprises)
 in
 Bonn,
 approximately
 354,000
 enterprises
 in
 can
 I
 structure
 the
 transfer
 process
 and
 how
 can
 I
 find
 the
 appropriate
 successor?
 When

Germany
have
been
dealing
with
the
regulaHons
on
business
transfer
in
the
period
between
 the
next
generaHon
in
a
family‐owned
enterprise
does
not
want
to
conHnue
the
company

2005
unHl
2009
‐
312,000
of
them
in
the
old
and
around
42,000
in
the
new
federal
states.
 or
does
not
possess
the
corresponding
entrepreneurial
and
management
qualificaHons,
the

These
enterprises
employ
approximately
3.4
million
people. search
for
the
suitable
successor
will
take
place
outside
the
family.
The
IHK
–
in
its
role
of

one
of
the
most
important
counselling
providers
for
small
and
medium‐sized
enterprises
on

In
the
case
of
about
71,000
small
and
medium‐sized
enterprises,
the
issue
of
the
business
 maCers
concerning
business
transfer
–
has
found
the
following
difficulHes
when
regulaHng

transfer
remains
unsolved,
calculated
for
a
period
of
a
year.
It
is
assumed
that
an
average
of
 the
transfer:
The
frequent
obstacle
is
a
non‐Hmely
prepared
transfer
(50%).
According
to
the

5,900
enterprises
will
shut
down
because
a
successor
cannot
be
found.
This
can
be
translated
 IHK,
a
successful
transfer
takes
at
least
three
years.
In
39%
of
the
cases,
the
purchasing
price

into
an
annual
loss
of
about
33,500
jobs.
All
these
figures
make
obvious
that
the
issue
on
 is
too
high,
36%
of
the
managers
cannot
give
up
their
posiHons,
34%
do
not
have
a
suitable

business
 transfer
 is
 not
 only
 relevant
 to
 individual
 enterprises,
 but
 can
 also
 have
 serious
 successor,
 30%
 cling
 strongly
 to
 their
 enterprises
 because
 they
 only
 have
 an
 insufficient

implicaHons
for
the
naHonal
economy. pension
plan,
and
19%
of
the
managers
fear
a
very
high
inheritance
tax
burden
for
the
next

generaHon.

36 37
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c<ZgbVcn 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c<ZgbVcn

Yet,
the
transfer
of
an
enterprise
as
a
special
way
to
self‐employment
is
considered
by
only
 The
business
transfer
process
hides
altogether
considerable
risks
that
could
be
increased,

14%
of
the
male
business
founders
in
Germany.
In
the
case
of
women,
the
percentage
is
even
 when
the
process
is
not
iniHated
on
Hme.
Financial
insHtuHons
take
this
into
account
when

lower.
PotenHal
company
transferees
see
themselves
confronted
with
the
following
obstacles:
 assessing
an
enterprise.
For
that
reason,
the
regulaHon
of
the
business
transfer
is
considered

More
than
half
of
the
candidates
(55%)
have
financial
difficulHes,
38%
have
underesHmated
 as
a
qualitaHve
factor
in
the
raHng
process
of
the
banks,
which
has
a
direct
effect
on
the

the
demands,
33%
do
not
find
a
suitable
company,
and
22%
fear
a
very
high
inheritance
tax
 credit
condiHons
and
disposiHon
of
the
bank.
burden.
A
further
22%
do
not
have
an
adequate
qualificaHon.
The
new
manager
must
have

commercial
and
entrepreneurial
experience
as
well
as
a
profound
knowledge
of
the
trade
 7jh^cZhhIgVch[Zg>c^i^Vi^kZh^c<ZgbVcn
when
dealing
with
longstanding
structures
of
customers,
suppliers,
and
employees. Important
consultants
on
issues
concerning
transfer,
takeover,
transfer
forms,
laws,
financing,

taxes,
 and
 communicaHon
 are
 trade
 associaHons,
 chambers,
 tax
 consultants,
 notaries,

Considering
these
difficulHes,
the
IHK
talks
about
a
deep‐seated
matching
problem
that
has
 lawyers,
enterprise
consultants
or
credit
consultants
of
banks.
A
comprehensive
supply
of

to
be
faced
with
counselling
and
mediaHon
offers. counselling
and
service
offers,
which
are
present
in
the
different
regions
or
in
the
internet,

are
guaranteed
by
insHtuHonal
providers
that
cover
a
large
circle
of
potenHal
individuals:
° The
 chambers
 of
 industry
 and
 commerce
 (IHK)
 support
 enterprises
 on
 the
 quesHons

Ide^XhVcY6heZXih related
to
business
transfer
with
private
counselling
sessions
and
events.
When
transferring
an
enterprise,
both
contracHng
parHes
–
the
vendor
and
the
purchaser
 ° Nexxt‐change,
 the
 common
 iniHaHve
 of
 the
 Federal
 Ministry
 of
 Economics
 and

–
have
their
individual
view
of
the
enterprise.
The
inter‐personal
issue
plays
a
very
significant
 Technology,
the
Kreditanstalt
für
Wiederau‡au
(KfW)
(reconstrucHon
loan
corporaHon)

role
together
with
the
economic,
financial,
and
legal
aspects.
How
can
the
“right”
company
 as
well
as
representaHves
of
associaHons,
insHtuHons,
and
organisaHons
of
the
economic

successor
or
the
“right”
enterprise
be
found?
How
can
the
know‐how
of
the
company
holder
 sector,
credit
system,
and
liberal
professions.
The
Internet
site
of
„nexxt“
is
the
meeHng

be
transferred
to
the
successor? point
for
all
entrepreneurs
who
want
to
transfer
or
takeover
an
enterprise.

According
to
staHsHcal
projecHons
of
the
IfM
in
Bonn,
between
4,000
and
5,000
enterprises
 A
 good
 agreement
 between
 all
 involved
 parHes
 plays
 a
 significant
 role
 for
 a
 successful

per
 year
 prepare
 or
 accomplish
 their
 business
 transfer
 with
 the
 support
 of
 professional
 business
transfer
together
with
the
hard
facts.
DifficulHes,
such
as
the
fact
when
managers

consultants.
The
IHK
recorded
almost
100
enquiries
on
business
transfer
per
working
day
 can
hardly
give
up
their
life‘s
work
or
when
there
are
fricHons
between
the
„new
ones“
and

for
 the
 year
 2006.
 These
 enquiries
 range
 from
 the
 elaboraHon
 of
 a
 transfer
 concept,
 the
 the
old‐established
employees,
occur
frequently.
Finally,
a
business
transfer
within
a
family

determinaHon
of
the
sale
or
purchasing
price,
and
the
demonstraHon
of
the
development
 can
give
rise
to
conflicts
between
the
family
members,
such
as
on
the
issue
of
inheritance

potenHal
of
the
transferred
enterprise
to
the
elaboraHon
of
a
funding
concept. parHHon.
An
early
use
of
professional
process
support
has
proved
to
be
more
than
effecHve

in
order
to
avoid
or
solve
conflicts.
Examples
of
counselling
or
supporHve
bodies
are:
For
the
leaving
entrepreneur,
the
business
transfer
means
a
very
deep
turning‐point.
Not
 ° Coaching‐Consultants:
They
have
psychological
and
entrepreneurial
knowledge
as
well

only
the
emoHonal
side
has
to
be
overcome,
but
also
the
contractual
relaHonships
(social,
 as
pracHcal
experience.
marriage,
 lease,
 borrowed
 capital
 agreements,
 among
 others)
 must
 be
 regularised
 again.
 ° Mentors
 on
 economics:
 KfW
 MiCelstandsbank
 and
 DIHK
 convey
 mentors
 of
 the

It
also
means
changes
for
the
other
parHes
that
are
indirectly
involved
in
the
management
 economic
 sector,
 who
 support
 enterprises,
 among
 others,
 in
 the
 case
 of
 problems

transfer
of
a
medium‐sized
enterprise,
since
a
new
management
brings
frequently
with
it
a
 related
to
business
transfers.
new
entrepreneurial
and
management
culture.
AddiHonally,
this
has
a
direct
effect
on
the
 Mediators:
Their
objecHve
is
to
find
a
soluHon
that
is
convenient
for
all
parts
involved
in
a

employees,
customer
relaHonships,
and
the
cooperaHon
with
important
business
partners. conflict

38 39
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c<ZgbVcn 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c<ZgbVcn

HdjgXZh/ ° GründerweCbewerb
MulHmedia:
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from
hCp://www.
gruenderweCbewerb.de/
German
Chambers
of
Industry
and
Commerce
(dt.
Deutscher
Industrie‐
und

Handelskammertag).
Retrieved
10.09.2008
from
www.dihk.de/english/. Förderdatenbank.
Förderprogramme
und
Finanzhilfen
des
Bundes,
der
Länder
und
der

EU:
Retrieved
10.09.2008
from
hCp://www.foerderdatenbank.de/
InsHtute
of
Research
on
Medium‐Sized
Enterprises
Bonn.
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from

www.ifm‐bonn.org/. Förderung
von
InformaHons‐
und
Schulungsveranstaltungen
sowie
Workshops:
Retrieved

10.09.2008
from
KfW
Bankengruppe.
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from
www.kfw.de/EN_Home/index.jsp. hCp://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/wirtscha2sfoerderung/informaHons_und_
Nexxt
–
IniHaHve
Unternehmensnachfolge.
Retrieved
11.09.2008
from
www.nexxt.org/. schulungsveranstaltungen/index.html

Bundesministerium
für
Arbeit
und
Soziales
‐
Gründercoaching
bei
Gründung
aus
 Gründungszuschuss:
Retrieved
11.09.2008
from
Arbeitslosigkeit.
Retrieved
10.09.2008
from hCp://www.arbeitsagentur.de/nn_26400/NavigaHon/zentral/Buerger/Hilfen/
www.esf.de/portal/generator/734/programm__gruendercoaching.html Existenzgruendung/Existenzgruendung‐Nav.html

Bundesministerium
für
Bildung
und
Forschung
‐
Power
für
Gründerinnen.

Retrieved
 High‐Tech
Gründerfonds:
Retrieved
13.09.2008
from
hCp://www.high‐tech‐
13.09.2008
from
hCp://www.esf.de/portal/generator/814/programm__power__fuer__ gruenderfonds.de/htgf/
gruenderinnen.html
KfW
MiCelstandsbank:
Bundesministerium
für
Wirtscha2
und
Technologie: ° ERP‐Beteiligungsprogramm:
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from
hCp://www.kfw‐
° EXIST
–
Gründungskultur:
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from
www.esf.de/portal/ miCelstandsbank.de/DE_Home/Beteiligungsfinanzierung/Later_Stage/ERP‐
generator/752/programm__exist__gruendungskultur.html Beteiligungsprogramm/index.jsp
° ESIST
–
GründersHpendium:
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from

www.esf.de/portal/ ° ERP‐Regionalförderungsprogramm:
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from
hCp://www.kfw‐
generator/758/programm__exist__gruendersHpendium.html miCelstandsbank.de/DE_Home/Kredite/Die_Foerderprogramme_im_Einzelnen/ERP‐
° hCp://www.exist.de/exist‐gruendersHpendium/index.php Regionalfoerderprogramm/index.jsp
° InformaHons‐
und
Schulungsveranstaltung:
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from

www.esf. ° ERP‐Starxonds:
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from
hCp://www.kfw‐miCelstandsbank.de/
de/portal/generator/778/programm__schulungsveranstaltung__bafa.html DE_Home/Beteiligungsfinanzierung/Early_Stage/ERP‐Starxonds/index.jsp
° Unternehmensberatung
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from
www.esf.de/portal/ ° Unternehmerkredit:
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from
hCp://www.kfw‐miCelstandsbank.
generator/784/programm__unternehmensberatung__bafa.html de/DE_Home/Kredite/Die_Foerderprogramme_im_Einzelnen/KfW‐
° Gründercoaching
in
Deutschland
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from
www.esf.de/portal/ Unternehmerkredit/index.jsp
generator/766/programm__gruendercoaching__deutschland.html ° ERP‐Kapital
für
Gründung
(Unternehmerkapital):
Retrieved
12.09.2008
from
hCp://
° hCp://www.kfw‐miCelstandsbank.de/DE_Home/Beratungsangebot/ www.kfw‐miCelstandsbank.de/DE_Home/Kredite/Die_Foerderprogramme_im_
Beratungsfoerderung/Gruendercoaching_Deutschland/index.jsp Einzelnen/Unternehmerkapital/ERP‐Kapital_fuer_Gruendung/index.jsp

40 41
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c>iVan 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c>iVan

J^[I_jkWj_ed_d?jWboL[d[jeH[]_ed ° About
82%
of
them
were
dealing
with
a
generaHonal
changeover
(transmission
among

AVjgVHXVciVbWjgad!EVdadOVgVbZaaV family
members);
HijY^d8ZcigdKZcZid ° One
out
of
three
potenHal
conHnuators
was
a
woman;
° Finally,
just
a
few
business
owners
and
leaders
(about
8%)
were
actually
planning
the

succession.
<ZcZgVa9ZhXg^ei^dc
Considering
this
informaHon,
regional
leaders
decided
to
deal
with
the
problem
which
was

Italy
is
located
in
Southern
Europe,
a
peninsula
extending
into
the
central
Mediterranean
 affecHng
so
many
businesses.
It
was
the
first
Hme
the
issue
was
going
to
be
managed
from

Sea,
 in
 the
 northeast
 of
 Tunisia
 and
 in
 the
 south
 of
 Switzerland
 and
 Austria.
 Its
 capital
 is
 an
insHtuHonal
point
of
view.
The
Regional
Government
promoted
a
round
table
open
to
the

Rome.
The
populaHon
numbers
approximately
58.2
million
inhabitants
on
an
area
of
294,020
 chambers
of
commerce
as
well
as
to
the
social
parHes,
like
associaHons
and
trade
unions,

km². with
the
main
objecHve
of
designing
a
bill
to
include
business
transfer
in
the
insHtuHonal

agenda.
 The
 objecHve
 was
 to
 facilitate
 business
 transfer
 governance
 in
 the
 region
 and
 to

:Xdcdb^X:ck^gdcbZci support
business
conHnuity.
The
basic
challenge
was
to
transform
what
was
considered
a

hidden
potenHal
threat
into
a
conscious
innovaHon
opportunity.
Keeping
in
mind
the
overall

In
1994,
the
European
Union
issued
an
alarming
signal
concerning
business
transfer.
In
the
 aim,
 the
 bill
 was
 developed,
 discussed
 and
 formally
 proposed
 (see
 the
 picture
 below
 to

next
10
years,
one
out
of
three
companies,
which
means
millions
of
mSMEs
in
all
the
EU
 beCer
understand
its
structure).
member
states,
would
face
that
thorny
moment.
AddiHonally
business
succession
to
third

parHes
would
become
more
and
more
frequent.
This
should
hold
true
especially
for
Northern
 I]Z^ccdkVi^kZgZ\^dcVaW^aahigjXijgZ
European
countries.


>#GZ\^dcVaEZgbVcZciDhZgkVidgn >>#BZVhjgZh[dgbHB:h
The
 Italian
 situaHon
 was
 as
 much
 noteworthy.
 It
 was
 esHmated
 that
 about
 1.5
 million

enterprises
were
going
to
have
to
deal
with
business
transfer
and
its
implicaHons
in
the
next

10
years:
This
meant
that
it
would
affect
an
average
of
600,000
workplaces
every
year. mSME
° Annual
Survey
facing
the
BT
In
spite
of
these
worrying
statements,
the
Veneto
regional
insHtuHons
first
started
realizing
 ° Good
pracHces,
tools
that
 succession
 is
 a
 major
 issue
 for
 mSMEs
 and
 family
 businesses
 in
 the
 year
 2001.

PoliHcians
 responsible
 for
 mSMEs
 development
 noHced
 that
 there
 was
 no
 insHtuHonal
 ° Bank
of
cases Financial
ais
support.
Therefore,
they
decided
to
go
deeper
into
the
maCer.
In
2002,
they
appointed
a
 (loans,
consultancy)
private
company
to
do
research
on
the
issue
of
business
transfer.
The
survey,
called
Rilancio
 ° Register
for
experts
(Relaunch),
was
the
first
one
in
Italy
using
the
European
parameters
recommended
in
the

° Strategic
good
pracHce
BEST
Report
(May
2002).
Its
main
results
were
remarkable:
 “New”
companies
° About
118,000
companies
–
27%
of
the
444.000
micro,
small
and
medium
enterprises
 ° BT
guidelines (i.e.
branch)
exisHng
at
that
Hme
in
the
regional
territory
–
could
be
at
risk
for
transfer
reasons
in

the
next
ten
years;

42 43
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c>iVan 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c>iVan

The
bill
was
divided
into
two
basic
parts: 7jh^cZhhIgVch[Zg>c^i^Vi^kZh^cKZcZid

I.
 Awareness
 raising
 and
 maintenance
 of
 permanent
 support:
 the
 means
 supposed
 to
 Awareness
of
Business
transfer
is
sHll
very
poor
in
the
Veneto
(and
Italian)
territory.
Since

achieve
 these
 objecHves
 could
 be
 the
 creaHon
 of
 a
 Regional
 Dynamic
 Observatory
 and
 there
is
no
acHvity
on
the
naHonal
level,
it
has
been
necessary
‐
and
sHll
is
‐
to
act
regionally

should
include: in
order
to
wake
up
business
owners.
Some
iniHal
efforts
were
aimed
at
directly
involving

° Annual
surveys:
research
can
raise
awareness
about
what
happens
and
an
analysis
can
 entrepreneurs
but
without
much
success.
Senior
entrepreneurs
in
parHcular
were
reluctant

make

the
reason
clearer
why
this
happens; to
be
involved
in
acHons
specifically
focused
on
business
transfer,
because
they
felt
forced

° Database
 of
 good
 pracHces
 and
 tools:
 the
 EU
 suggested
 good
 pracHces,
 strategically
 to
 start
 thinking
 about
 their
 own
 reHrement.
 So,
 in
 order
 to
 get
 in
 touch
 with
 them,
 an

recommended
good
pracHces
for
transfer
including
a
special
emphasis
on
the
business
 indirect
approach
was
needed.
Several
coordinated
events
and
meeHng
opportuniHes
were

development
phase,
 promoted
and
organised
‐
o2en
by
the
private
SCV
actor
‐
in
strict
co‐operaHon
with
several

Database
of
cases:
contains
samples
of
effecHve
soluHons
and
virtuous
paths
outlined
 insHtuHonal
 or
 quasi‐insHtuHonal
 operators,
 such
 as
 Chambers
 of
 Commerce
 and
 Trade

on
the
basis
of
previous
experiences,
etc.; AssociaHons.
In
Italy,
Chambers
of
Commerce
and
Trade
AssociaHons
consHtute
a
reliable

° Basic
experts
assessment:
rules
and
list
of
assessed
experts; base
for
the
naHonal
mSMEs’
ground.
They
have
great
impact
by
offering
a
wide
range
of

° Provisional
and
suggested
acHons:
what
to
do,
to
prevent
it
from
happening
and
what
 services
for
mSMEs,
through
which
the
business
transfer
sensiHsaHon
could
be
achieved.
It

to
do
when
it
happens/has
happened. was
in
the
context
of
this
solid
relaHonship
between
companies
and
bodies
through
which

some
innovaHve
pilot
projects
were
promoted.
It
was
expected
that
iniHaHves
run
by
the

II.
PromoHon
of
concrete
measures
for
mSMEs:
sHll
too
non‐specific
and
not
focused
on
the
 Chamber
of
Commerce
and/or
trade
associaHons
would
be
able
to
reach
as
many
mSMEs
as

whole
Italian
territory: possible.
Several
actors
from
both
the
private
and
the
public
sector,
i.e.
the
Regional
Cra2s

° Current
and
future
actors
analysis; AssociaHons,
the
Regional
Industry
AssociaHon,
the
APCO
Regional
and
NaHonal
Consultants

° Business
analysis; AssociaHon,
 the
 AIF
 Veneto
 Region
 Trainers
 AssociaHon,
 have
 been
 and
 sHll
 are
 currently

° Suggested
„virtuous“
transfer
plan; involved
in
awareness
raising.

° Ordinary
transfer
plan;
° Special
incenHve
condiHons;
 An
example
of
pilot
acHon
led
in
the
Veneto
Region
by
SCV
during
the
last
years
is
the
so‐called

° Special
financial
support
(tax
rules,
loans,
consultancy)
and
suggested
laws
to
follow. “PrecauHonary
 SensiHzaHon”
 designed
 to
 sensiHze
 micro
 companies
 to
 business
 transfer

issues.
Its
main
acHon
is
a
set
of
group
meeHngs
with
owners
of
micro
and
small
companies.

The
 innovaHve
 bill
 was
 discussed
 by
 the
 Regional
 Council
 and
 unanimously
 approved
 in
 Such
 meeHngs
 preferably
 aCended
 by
 a
 maximum
 of
 15‐20
 people
 were
 arranged
 in
 co‐
2005.
Yet,
since
new
regional
elecHons
took
place
shortly
a2erwards
and
the
newly
elected
 operaHon
with
business
associaHons
or
similar
insHtuHons,
for
the
reasons
menHoned
above.

poliHcians
did
not
consider
the
bill
as
a
priority,
the
pracHcal
applicaHon
phase
unfortunately
 Each
meeHng‘s
purpose
was
to
make
the
parHcipants
aware
of
to
the
transfer
management

never
started
unHl
2008.
What
remained
was
a
weak
situaHon
regarding
the
public
support
 problems
in
order
to
encourage
them
to

take
care
of
their
respecHve
business
transfer
issues

for
 business
 transfer.
 Unfortunately,
 it
 sHll
 is.
 Things
 have
 sHll
 not
 changed.
 On
 the
 one
 in
Hme.
The
main
tool
to
achieve
this
goal
was
a
quesHonnaire
for
entrepreneurs,
adapted

hand,
 there
 is
 a
 huge
 fracHon
 of
 businesses
 having
 problems
 in
 dealing
 with
 the
 delicate
 from
kit.brunello,
European
Good
PracHce
since
1998,
aiming
at
quickly
showing
the
business

transfer
processes;
on
the
other
hand,
there
is
a
rising
problem
due
to
the
lack
of
potenHal
 transfer
situaHon
of
the
company.
This
tool
is
also
included
in
the
kit.bryunello.system083
as

successors.
It
is
esHmated
that
in
Italy
about
700.000
cra2smen
successors
are
missing
in
 one
of
the
tools
provided
to
support
business
transfer
governance.
different
sectors
such
as
bakery,
tailor,
hydraulic,
and
wood2.
3


The
new
kit.brunello.system08
is
a
wide
gamut
of
tools
aimed
at
helping
to
deal
with
all
the
phases
concerning
the

2


Unioncamere,
January
2008. business
transfer
issue
(from
the
basic
sensiHsaHon
to
the
actual
transfer
management,
from
the
local
surveys
to
the
whole

territory
monitoring
through
focused
staHsHcs).
For
further
informaHon
please
contact
info@studiocentroveneto.com.

44 45
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c>iVan 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^cHeV^c

A2er
the
meeHngs,
the
“PrecauHonary
SensiHzaHon”
approach
included
four
more
steps:
 J^[I_jkWj_ed_dIfW_dLWb[dY_WH[]_ed
1. processing
and
analysing
the
quesHonnaires; GVaYZ6gg^WV7jZcd#
2. a
brief
report
for
each
quesHonnaire
(or
company); :H>8BVg`Zi^c\VcY7jh^cZhhHX]dda
3. personal
(face‐to‐face)
meeHngs
between
company
representaHves


who
aCended
the
meeHng
and
consultants; 8djcignDkZgk^Zl
4. an
overall
report
for
the
business
associaHon
or
insHtuHon
supporter.
It
is
not
always
easy
to
convince
entrepreneurs
to
parHcipate
in
such
acHviHes.
Trying
to
reach
 Spain
is
located
in
South‐western
Europe,
bordering
the
Bay
of
Biscay,
Mediterranean
Sea,

them
in
various
ways,
such
as
leCers,
phone
calls,
arHcles
in
local
journals,
communicaHon
in
 North
 AtlanHc
 Ocean,
 and
 Pyrenees
 Mountains,
 in
 the
 south‐west
 of
 France.
 Its
 capital

insHtuHon
periodic
journals,
and
tesHmonials,
is
essenHal.
It
is
also
important
to
remember
 is
 Madrid.
 The
 populaHon
 numbers
 approximately
 40.5
 million
 inhabitants
 on
 an
 area
 of

that
entrepreneurs
are
generally
very
busy.
We
suggest
planning
these
meeHngs
a2er
work
 499,542km².
Hme
preferably
also
before
dinner. The
Valencia
Region
is
one
of
17
autonomous
regions
in
Spain
and,
like
the
other
regions,

has
a
wide
self‐government
power.
It
is
located
in
the
south‐east
of
Spain
and
its
area
is
of

This
sort
of
public‐private
acHons
plays
a
key
role
in
VeneHa
and
Italy.
It
actually
provides
 23,255
 km2.
 It
 consists
 of
 three
 provinces,
 namely
 Alicante,
 Castellón,
 and
 Valencia.
 The

interested
 parHes
 with
 an
 insHtuHonal,
 quasi‐insHtuHonal,
 professional,
 organisaHonal,
 total
populaHon
of
the
Valencia
Region
is
4,326,708.
The
registered
immigrant
populaHon

pracHcal,
 and
 theoreHcal
 actors’
 network
 which
 could
 guarantee
 a
 potenHal
 service
 flow.
 represents
around
10%
of
the
total.

Even
 when
 working
 well,
 it
 should
 be
 seen
 just
 as
 a
 second
 soluHon
 a2er
 a
 fundamental

insHtuHonal
answer.
A
step
forward
in
this
direcHon
was
done
in
January
2008
during
a
trans‐ :Xdcdb^X:ck^gdcbZci
naHonal
EU
project
(REINO4)
meeHng
that
took
place
in
Venice.
During
that
meeHng

several

insHtuHonal
delegates
‐
all
the
main
regional
business
associaHons
and
the
regional
Chambers
 The
level
of
economic
development
of
the
Valencia
Region,
measured
in
terms
of
income
per

of
Commerce
OrganisaHon
‐
signed
a
request
addressed
to
the
regional
poliHcal
authority
in
 capita,
is
at
the
Spanish
average.
The
GDP
per
capita
amounts
to
15,200
Euros.
In
reference

which
they
were
asking
to
take
care
of
the
handover
transfer
processes
management.
The
 to
the
European
Union,
the
Valencia
Region
has
experienced
a
process
of
real
convergence

recent
 approval
 (June
 2008)
 of
 the
 Small
 Business
 Act
 by
 the
 EU
 Commission
 is
 another
 in
the
last
years
that
has
taken
it
to
have
a
GDP
per
capita
of
86.7%
of
the
EU‐15
in
1999
and

good
 omen
 as
 it
 includes
 business
 transfer
 in
 the
 list
 of
 challenges
 needing
 support.
 This
 to
reach
89.5%
in
2003.
insHtuHonal
document
represents
a
further
step
in
the
direcHon
of
acHng
pragmaHcally
to
 The
 distribuHon
 according
 to
 economic
 sectors
 in
 the
 region
 is:
 services
 61.71%,
 industry

convert
the
transfer
process
from
a
threat
to
an
opportunity.
There
is
room
for
hope
that
the
 24.22%,
building
9.57%
and
agriculture
4.50%.
The
agrarian
setback
and
the
terHary
sector

next
public
measures
promoted
and
acHvated
could
confirm
these
expectaHons. progress
processes
are
typical
characterisHcs
of
developed
economies.
The
 Valencia
 economy
 is
 characterized
 by
 the
 diversity
 of
 its
 acHviHes.
 The
 industries
 of

HdjgXZ/ footwear,
toy,
furniture,
and
ceramics
have
a
very
important
economic
weight,
as
do
the
iron

and
steel
industry,
the
automobile
industry,
chemistry,
petrochemical,
and
fruit
and
vegetable

Bornello,
M.
&
Brunello,
T.
(2003).

Passaggi
ObbligaH.
Milano:
Franco
Angeli
Editore. plantaHon
that
concentrate
on
various
points
of
the
geography
of
the
region.
The
small
and

medium
companies
consHtute
the
spine
of
the
economic
development,
as
shown
in
the
last

available
staHsHcal
data
of
the
survey
of
the
Central
Directory
of
Companies
(DIRCE),
carried

out
by
the
NaHonal
InsHtute
of
StaHsHc
(INE).
4


hCp://www.reinoproject.eu.

46 47
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^cHeV^c 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^cHeV^c

:cigZegZcZjg^Va9ViV 7jh^cZhhIgVch[Zg>c^i^Vi^kZh^cKVaZcX^V

The
companies
registered
in
the
DIRCE
of
the
Valencia
Region
in
2006
amount
to
348,692
and
 The
difficulHes
for
the
development
of
the
business
transfer
are
of
three
types.
Firstly,
the

represent
around
10%
of
the
Spanish
companies.
According
to
the
staHsHcal
data
of
DIRCE
for
 informaHon
on
the
existence
of
SME
for
sale
is
scarce
and
fragmented.
Secondly,
only
few

the
year
2006,
out
of
348,692
companies
of
the
Valencia
Region,
348,221
are
SMEs
with
0
to
 mechanisms
of
financial
or
fiscal
support
exist
on
the
part
of
the
public
administraHon
that

199
employees,
to
be
precise,
99.86%
of
all
the
companies
of
the
territory.
93.52%
of
them,
 facilitates
the
processes
of
transfer.
Finally,
there
are
also
gaps
in
the
area
of
the
training
to

326,115,
 are
 micro‐companies,
 and
 approximately
 half
 of
 the
 companies
 are
 enterprises
 qualify
the
agents
involved
in
the
business
transfer
process.
without
employees,
corroboraHng
this
way
the
clear
domain
of
the
self‐employment
that
 The
public
authoriHes
concentrate
their
aCenHon
on
the
business
start‐up
processes
more

can
be
observed
in
the
legal
structure
of
Valencia
enterprises.
The
number
of
big
companies
 than
on
the
transfer
of
businesses.
There
is
no
specific
public
department
to
aCend
to
these

is
not
very
outstanding
and
is
with
around
0.1%
below
the
naHonal
average.
The
enterprises
 phenomena
 on
 a
 naHonal
 level
 or
 in
 the
 Valencia
 Region.
 The
 assistance
 for
 the
 transfer

of
the
Valencia
Region
are
mainly
registered
under
the
legal
status
of
physical
person
(slightly
 process
is
part
of
the
general
programmes
of
support
for
the
SME
that
the
General
DirecHon

more
than
the
half)
and
as
limited
company
(approximately
a
third
of
the
total). of
 Policy
 for
 SME
 of
 the
 Ministry
 of
 Industry
 develops.
 Among
 others
 acHviHes
 these

programmes
provide
informaHon
to
the
SME,
supervise
the
start‐up
of
businesses,
devise

Around
48%
of
the
Valencia
enterprises
are
engaged
in
the
service
sector,
28%
in
commerce,
 some
staHsHcs
and
databases.

13%
in
construcHon,
and
9%
in
the
industrial
sector.
The
structure
of
the
Valencian
economy
 On
the
other
hand,
there
are
some
interesHng
iniHaHves
from
some
business
organisaHons,

differs
 from
 that
 of
 Spain
 to
 some
 extent.
 The
 industrial
 and
 the
 commercial
 sectors
 are
 universiHes,
and
business
schools
that
are
proposing
different
programmes
and
services
of

somewhat
 over‐represented.
 A
 more
 detailed
 analysis
 shows
 that
 the
 greater
 part
 of
 the
 training
to
the
companies.
Besides,
other
private
iniHaHves
for

assistance
to
the
business

service
 sector
 consists
 of
 restaurants,
 hotel
 businesses,
 and
 real
 estate
 agencies.
 The
 transfer
in
Spain
come
from
accountants,
consultants,
banks,
financial
advisors,
and
other

commerce,
the
second
most
representaHve
sector
of
the
Valencia
economy,
is
mainly
the
 specialists
that
offer
assistance
at
the
local
level.
retail
sector,
with
a
strong
presence
of
the
establishments
specialized
in
food,
beverages,
and
 While
 there
 are
 no
 specific
 training
 programmes
 for
 business
 succession
 in
 the
 Valencia

tobacco.
Finally,
the
industrial
sector
is
basically
manufacturing,
with
a
predominance
of
the
 Region,
there
are
many
programmes
concentrated
on
start‐up
enterprises.
In
Spain,
more

producHon
of
footwear,
furniture,
and
metallic
elements
for
construcHon.
 precisely

in
Barcelona,
there
is
a
new
master‘s
degree
on
family
business
transfer.
This
is
the

only
programme
on
business
transfer
that
exists
in
Spain.
It
is
offered
by
IDEC
(InsHtuto
de

7jh^cZhhIgVch[Zg9ViV Educación
ConHnua)
and
Pompeu
Fabra
University
of
Barcelona.
It
is
a
post‐graduate
master‘s

degree
in
Management
and
Transfer
of
Family
Business
with
a
duraHon
of
750
hours.
There
is
no
exact
official
data
on
the
transfer
of
businesses
in
Spain,
but,
according
to
some

esHmaHons,
more
than
40%
of
the
SME
belong
to
businessmen
older
than
60
years
and
a
great
 AddiHonally,
there
are
some
web
sites
related
to
business
transfer,
like
www.buyacom.com

part
of
these
does
not
have
successors
inside
their
families.
According
to
some
calculaHons
 or
 www.bizalia.com.
 However,
 the
 databases
 are
 new,
 and
 the
 informaHon
 they
 offer
 is

of
the
chambers
of
commerce,
approximately
650,000
companies
will
be
transferred
in
the
 fragmented.
For
example,
the
database
of
buyacom
have
offers
for
only
169
companies
to
be

next
ten
years. sold,
and
the
bizalia
database
shows
5700
companies
to
be
sold
or
to
buy
(on
15th
August,

2008).
Some
chambers
of
commerce
have
also
developed
some
projects
on
this
subject.
For

example,
the
Chamber
of
Commerce
of
Valencia
has
a
database
of
companies
including
a
list

of
companies
to
be
transferred
and
is
also
developing
a
project
to
advise
the
transfer
process.

Moreover,
the
chambers
of
commerce
have
produced
a
report
about
business
transfer
of


48 49
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^cHeV^c 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c9ZcbVg`

companies
in
France,
Italy,
and
Spain
on
the

European
web
site

www.eurotransbiz.com. J^[I_jkWj_ed_d:[dcWha
For
a
detailed
overview
of
training
programmes
concerned
with
entrepreneurship
or
business
 KZgcZgLdgb
transfer
see
Annex
II
(page
xxx).
 8deZc]V\Zc7jh^cZhhHX]dda

HdjgXZh/
8djcignDkZgk^Zl
Alvarez,
 J.
 M.
 &
 Carrasco,
 A.
 (2004).
 Fusiones
 y
 adquisiciones
 de
 empresas.
 Madrid:

Aranzadi. Denmark
is
located
in
Northern
Europe,
bordering
the
BalHc
Sea
and
the
North
Sea,
on
a

peninsula
north
of
Germany
(Jutland).
It
also
includes
two
major
islands,
namely
Sjaelland

CES‐CV
(2004).
Memoria
socioeconómica
de
la
Comunidad
Valenciana.
Valencia:
Consejo
 and
Fyn.
Its
capital
is
Copenhagen.
Denmark
is
a
small
country
with
a
total
area
of
43.094

Económico
y
Social
de
la
Comunidad
Valenciana km²
and
has
a
populaHon
of
5.5
million.
The
GDP
per
capita
is
comparaHvely
high
with
US$

37,000
(2007),
which
is
number
six
in
the
world.
Denmark
has
the
lowest
Gini‐index
in
the

Fernández,
 J.
 P.
 
 (1999).
 Problemas
 de
 la
 transmisión
 de
 la
 empresa
 familiar.
 València:
 world
with
24.7.
From
2006
to
2008,
surveys
ranked
Denmark
as
„the
happiest
place
in
the

Tirant
lo
Blanch. world,“
based
on
standards
of
health,
welfare,
and
educaHon.
In
the
2008
survey,
the
Global

Peace
Index
ranks
Denmark
as
the
second
most
peaceful
country
in
the
world.
In
2008,
the

INE
 (2006).
 Directorio
 Central
 de
 Empresas
 2006.
 Madrid:
 InsHtuto
 Nacional
 de
 capital
Copenhagen,
was
ranked
as
the
most
liveable
city
in
the
world
by
Monocle
magazine.

EstadísHca. The
 naHonal
 language
 Danish
 is
 similar
 to
 Swedish
 and
 Norwegian,
 with
 which
 it
 shares

strong
 cultural
 and
 historical
 Hes.
 82.0%
 of
 the
 inhabitants
 of
 Denmark
 and
 90.3%
 of
 the

IVE
 (2006).
 La
 Comunidad
 Valenciana
 en
 cifras
 2006.
 Valencia:
 InsHtuto
 Valenciano
 de
 ethnic
Danes
are
members
of
the
Lutheran
state
church.
EstadísHca
:Xdcdb^X:ck^gdcbZci
Santandreu,
E.
(2004).
Consideraciones
prácHcas
en
la
venta
y
adquisición
de
empresas.

Harvard‐Deusto
Finanzas
y
Contabilidad,
2004,
62,
pp.
48‐63 Originally
 a
 seafaring
 naHon
 relying
 on
 fishing,
 farming
 and
 trade,
 Denmark
 experienced

steady
 industrializaHon
 in
 the
 19th
 and
 20th
 centuries.
 Denmark
 had
 the
 world‘s
 third

Negocius.
Retrieved
22.08.2008
from
www.buyacom.com. highest
GDP
per
capita
in
1970.
Between
1970
and
1990,
the
level
of
taxaHon
and
regulaHon

increased
 dramaHcally
 as
 Denmark
 adopted
 the
 Nordic
 model
 welfare
 state.
 A2er
 falling

sharply
behind
in
prosperity,
unemployment,
and
other
indicators,
Denmark
took
steps
in

Bizalia:
 compra
 venta
 empresas,
 compraventa,
 venta
 de
 negocias,
 venta
 de
 empresas,

economic
liberalizaHon
in
the
1980s
and
1990s,
including
the
abolishment
of
almost
all
job

negocio.
Retrieved
22.08.2008
from
www.bizalia.com.
market
regulaHons.
Denmark‘s
market
economy
features
a
very
efficient
agriculture,
an
up‐to‐date
small‐scale

www.eurotransbiz.com.
 Retrieved
 22.08.2008
 from
 hCp://www.robtex.com/dns/
and
corporate
industry,
extensive
government
welfare
measures,
above
average
European

eurotransbiz.com.html.

living
standards,
a
stable
currency,
and
high
dependence
on
foreign
trade.
Denmark
is
a
net

exporter
 of
 food
 and
 energy
 and
 has
 had,
 for
 a
 number
 of
 years,
 a
 balance
 of
 payments

surplus.

50 51
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c9ZcbVg` 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c9ZcbVg`

According
 to
 the
 World
 Bank,
 Denmark
 has
 the
 most
 flexible
 labour
 market
 in
 Europe.
 It
 In
 order
 to
 overcome
 the
 smallness
 of
 many
 Danish
 enterprises,
 Denmark
 is
 historically

is
 easy
 to
 hire,
 fire,
 and
 find
 a
 job.
 According
 to
 rankings
 by
 the
 OECD,
 Denmark
 has
 the
 known
 for
 its
 cooperaHve
 movement
 concerning
 farming,
 food
 industry
 and
 dairy,
 which

least
financial
regulaHon
in
the
EU‐15
countries
and
also
one
of
the
least
regulated
product
 means
 producer
 or
 consumer
 controlled
 corporaHons
 which
 by
 this
 means
 have
 become

markets
of
most
European
countries,
and
15‐20%
above
that
of
the
United
States.
Denmark
 larger.
The
producers
or
consumers
influence
the
corporaHon
on
a
one
man
one
vote
basic.

ranked
third
in
the
Global
CompeHHveess
Report
2008‐2009 During
 recent
 years
 of
 globalisaHon,
 the
 cooperaHve
 system
 has
 undergone
 tremendous


 changes
because,
for
example,
individual
farmers
were
not
interested
in
invesHng
in
foreign

:cigZegZcZjg^Va9ViV markets
where
labour
power
was
cheaper.
The
dilemma
was
solved
by
the
cooperaHves
by

sePng
up
subsidiaries
that
are
run
as
larger
companies
and
are
not
directly
controlled
by
the

According
 to
 the
 Danish
 Ministry
 of
 Economic
 and
 Business
 Affairs,
 both
 agriculture
 and
 individual
farmers,
but
by
a
board
of
directors.


industry
are
highly
effecHve.
Agriculture
and
fisheries
employ
only
3.7
%
,
and
industry
and

construcHon
23
%
of
the
populaHon.
The
remaining
73
%
are
employed
in
the
service
sector,
 7jh^cZhhIgVch[Zg>c^i^Vi^kZh^c9ZcbVg`
35
%
in
public
and
personal
services
and
38
%
in
private
business,
including
financial
acHviHes

and
tradiHonal
shipping
trade.
 According
to
a
statement
of
the
Central
Business
Register
and
the
Danish
Ministry
of
TaxaHon,

20
%
of
the
employees
in
Denmark
are
employed
in
micro‐enterprises.
In
Denmark
these
 32,000
entrepreneurs
start
up
each
year.
Therefore,
the
interest
to
start
one‘s
own
company

companies
 are
 also
 called
 sole
 trader
 and
 they
 have
 several
 employees,
 where
 only
 one
 is
 apparently
 increasing.
 However,
 most
 of
 the
 people
 who
 establish
 their
 own
 company

person
is
responsible
for
the
company
also
when
it
comes
to
liabiliHes.
Most
of
the
micro‐ start
from
scratch
and
very
few
entrepreneurs
take
over
an
already
exisHng
company
(REINO,

enterprises
are
agriculture
and
fishing
with
1‐2
employees
and
cra2
workers,
but
also
barber
 2006).
shops,
 repair
 shops,
 small
 car
 dealers,
 kiosks,
 and
 small
 shops
 selling
 groceries
 are
 well

represented.
In
parHcular,
many
immigrants
work
in
or
have
micro‐enterprises.
It
has
been
 On
 a
 naHonal
 level,
 only
 43
 %
 of
 the
 personally
 owned
 companies
 which
 started
 in
 2000

difficult
for
them
to
find
a
job
in
a
larger
company,
someHmes
just
because
their
names
were
 survived
the
first
five
years.
Of
the
companies
established
in
1995,
only
27
%
survived
the

not
familiar
to
the
Danes
and
someHmes
because
they
did
not
speak
Danish.
This
means
 first
ten
years
(REINO,
2006).
Surveys
show
that
the
survival
rates
of
companies
taken
over

that
in
Denmark
many
micro‐enterprises
have
been
transferred
to
non‐ethnic
Danes
living
in
 by
an
entrepreneur
are
higher
than
for
the
entrepreneurs
who
have
started
from
scratch.

Denmark
and
have
o2en
already
been
naturalised,
which
means
that
they
are
Danish
ciHzens,
 One
of
the
explanaHons
to
why
entrepreneurs
o2en
do
not
consider
taking
over
an
already

but
sHll
with
a
limited
understanding
of
the
Danish
business
environment.
The
majority
of
 exisHng
company
is
o2en
that
their
educaHonal
background
does
not
fit
with
the
background

these
people
works
long
hours.
If
one
counted
their
hourly
income,
it
would
be
low,
but,
 needed.
Moreover,
it
is
a
common
understanding
that
they
cannot
li2
the
financial
burden.

because
they
are
working
many
hours,
some
of
these
sole
owners
have
high
incomes.
This
 Others
do
not
consider
the
possibility
at
all.
is
the
case
for
many
pizzerias
and
other
take
away
food
stalls.
Other
micro‐enterprises
are

not
so
fortunate,
but
they
are
very
entrepreneurial.
In
case

a
company
goes
bankrupt,
it
will
 The
 1`st
 of
 January
 2007
 Denmark
 divided
 the
 country
 into
 five
 Regions,
 which
 integrate

o2en
be
reopened
in
the
name
of
the
spouse,
which
is
a
way
to
get
out
of
the
debt
trap.
The
 98
country
councils.
These
have
business
offices
and
can
offer
guidance
to
entrepreneurs

biggest
challenge
for
micro‐enterprises
is
how
to
deal
with
the
tax
authoriHes.
For
example,
 and
companies
to
different
extents.
In
April
2006
the
government
took
iniHaHve
to
establish

if
a
farmer
culHvates
vegetables,
he
might
not
earn
enough
to
survive
according
to
Danish
tax
 regional
 Business
 Link
 centres
 (Startvækst)
 as
 part
 of
 their
 globalisaHon
 strategy.
 Their

authoriHes,
which
will
give
him
an
arHficial
income
and
tax
him
accordingly.
This
means
that
 purpose
is
to
unify
governmental
and
local
offers
for
entrepreneurs
and
smaller
companies

the
farmer
is
paying
tax
on
an
income
that
he
does
not
have.

 with
 growth
 ambiHons.
 Business
 Link
 is
 an
 insHtuHon
 for
 entrepreneurs
 and
 growth

businesses,
 operated
 by
 the
 Danish
 Enterprise
 and
 ConstrucHon
 Authority
 in
 cooperaHon


52 53
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^c9ZcbVg` 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^cGdbVc^V

with
a
number
of
public
and
private
partners.
The
local
authoriHes
within
the
region
own
 J^[I_jkWj_ed_dHecWd_W
Business
Link
are
the
central
entrance
to
specialised
business
service
in
the
region. 6jgV7VYZV!HkVhiVB^]V^
Business
Link’s
job
is
to
provide
service
to
the
growth
entrepreneurs
and
the
growth
oriented
 HK6HI68dchjaiHga
companies
in
cooperaHon
with
the
local
business
offices.
Business
transfers
are
one
of
the

areas
 the
 Business
 Link
 centres
 are
 specialised
 in.
 The
 business
 offices
 typically
 carry
 out
 8djcignDkZgk^Zl
the
 first
 problem
 clarificaHon,
 for
 instance,
 for
 a
 company
 owner
 who
 seeks
 addiHonal

informaHon
 and
 guidance
 about
 a
 business
 transfer.
 When
 the
 business
 offices
 find
 it
 Romania
is
located
in
South‐East
Central
Europe,
in
the
north
of
the
Balkan
Peninsula,
on

appropriate,
the
assignment
is
passed
on
to
the
Business
Link
centre
which
then
will
ensure
 the
Lower
Danube
(1075
km),
within
and
outside
the
Carpathian
arch
and
has
access
to
the

an
 opHmal
 process
 for
 the
 company.
 This
 service
 has
 no
 cost
 for
 the
 company.
 If
 specific
 Black
Sea.
Romania
is
a
medium‐sized
country
in
Europe
with
a
surface
of
238,391
km2
out

financial
and/or
legal
counselling
is
needed,
the
Business
Link
centre
will
refer
the
client
to
 of
which
87%
(207,372
km2)
is
rural
and
13%
urban
(31,018
km2),
comparable
to
the
United

private
specialists
who
then
will
solve
the
specific
problems
at
normal
market
condiHons. Kingdom.
Romania
has
21.5
million
inhabitants.
Its
capital
city
is
Bucharest.

HdjgXZh/ :Xdcdb^X:ck^gdcbZci

Denmark
(official
webpage).
Retrieved
01.10.2008
from
hCp://www.denmark.dk/. During
 the
 past
 years,
 the
 Romanian
 government
 has
 implemented
 macroeconomic

policies
 aimed
 at
 supporHng
 the
 economic
 growth.
 The
 EU
 conferred
 funcHoning
 market

Living
InsHtute.
Retrieved
01.10.2008
from
hCp://www.denmark.dk/. economy
status
on
Romania
in
October
2004,
due
to
the
significant
progress
made
in
the

implementaHon
of
economic
reforms.
Ministry
 of
 Economic
 and
 Business
 Affairs
 Denmark.
 Retrieved
 01.10.2008
 from
 hCp://
www.oem.dk/.
 In
 2000,
 the
 real
 GDP
 rate
 was
 only
 1.8
 %.
 During
 the
 period
 2001
 –
 2004,
 the
 average

increase
rate
was
at
6.1
%.
In
2004
a
significant
economic
growth
of
8.3
%.
was
registered

REINO
 (Renewal
 and
 InnovaHon
 to
 Business
 Transfer
 of
 Micro
 Companies).
 2006.
 In
Q2
in2008.
The
real
GDP
rate
was
9.3
%.
The
GDP/inhabitant
indicator
also
recorded
a

(VS/2006/0347).
 Retrieved
 01.10.2008
 from
 hCp://www.reinoproject.eu/Reino. posiHve
development.




aspx?cat=201.

A2er
 1990,
 the
 economic
 structure
 changed
 significantly
 with
 a
 shi2
 from
 industry
 and

Startvækst.
Retrieved
01.10.2008
from
hCp://www.startvaekst.dk.
 agriculture
to
services.
In
a
first
phase,
the
restructuring
of
industry
led
to
a
reducHon
in

its
contribuHon
to
a
GDP
growth
from
about
40%
in
1990
to
almost
27%
at
the
end
of
the

SkaCeministeriet.
Retrieved
01.10.2008
from
hCp://www.skm.dk/.
 90’s.
A2er
2000,
the
structural
decline
was
halted,
and
the
contribuHon
industry
makes
to

GDP
growth
remained
at
a
constant
level.
These
changes
meant
substanHal
reducHons
in

StaHsHcs
Denmark.
Retrieved
01.10.2008
from
hCp://www.dst.dk/.
 employment,
parHcularly
in
tradiHonal
heavy
industries,
such
as
steel,
chemicals
and
machine

producHon.
The
increase
in
the
Romanian
service
sector
is
comparable
with
other
modern

The
Global
CompeHHveness
Report
2008‐2009.
Retrieved
30.11.2008
from
hCp://www. economies,
and
the
figures
show
that
the
service
sector
has
increased
its
contribuHon
to

weforum.org/en/iniHaHves/gcp/Global%20CompeHHveness%20Report/index.htm GDP
growth,
from
26.5%
in
1990
to
48.3%
in
2005
(see
table
below).


54 55
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^cGdbVc^V 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^cGdbVc^V

HigjXijgZd[<9EWnHZXidgh The
share
of
outward
processing
trade
(OPT)
export
of
goods
is
high.
The
structure
of
exports

has
considerably
changed
in
recent
years,
with
OPT
from
the
light
industry
being
progressively

^c 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004* 2005** replaced
with
machinery
and
equipment.
The
 majority
 of
 exports
 are
 in
 low
 and
 medium
 technology
 products.
 Some
 progress
 has

Gross
Added
Value,
of
which:
been
 made
 in
 the
 move
 to
 higher
 value
 added
 products
 and
 services
 (communicaHons,

Manufacturing 17.3 27.7 28.1 25.0 25.1 24.4
automoHve–
 5.1%
 of
 total
 in
 2005,
 electric
 machinery
 and
 apparatus
 –
 5.1%).
 Romania

Agriculture 11.1 13.3 11.4 11.6 12.8 8.9 imports
 the
 biggest
 part
 of
 the
 used
 high
 and
 medium
 technology
 products.
 Romanian

ConstrucHon 4.9 5.3 5.8 5.8 6.0 6.5 exports
remain
cost
compeHHve
rather
than
innovaHve
and
technologically
advanced.
Services 46.3 44.5 45.3 46.4 45.2 48.3
Other
Components 10.4 9.2 9.4 11.2 10.9 11.9 :cigZegZcZjg^Va9ViV
Gross
DomesHc
Product 100 100 100 100 100 100
Romania
does
not
have
a
tradiHon
of
entrepreneurship,
with
an
average
number
of
19
SMEs

*Semi‐definite
Data.
**Provisional
Data.
per
1,000
inhabitants,
which
is
three

Hmes
lower
than
in
the

EU‐15
(52
SMEs
per
1,000

Source:
Na9onal
Commission
for
Prognosis,
based
on
data
from
the
Na9onal
Ins9tute
of
Sta9s9cs
inhabitants).

The
number
of
unemployed
people,
defined
according
to
ILO
criteria,
followed
an
oscillatory

CjbWZgd[VXi^kZhbVaaVcYbZY^jbZciZgeg^hZh^c^cYjhign!XdchigjXi^dc!igVYZVc
trend,
 reaching
 641,000
 persons
 in
 2007,
 as
 compared
 to
 704,000
 persons
 in
 2005,
 with

di]ZghZgk^XZh!WnVXi^k^ind[cVi^dcVaZXdcdbn
youth
(15
‐
24
years)
accounHng
for
30.7%.
The
men‘s
share
prevails
(62.2%
in
2007).
About
 2005 2006 Sem.I
2007
1)
two
thirds
of
unemployed
people
reside
in
municipaliHes
and
towns
(65.8%
in
2007). Total 431135 459972 4988922
The
breakdown
of
employment
by
acHviHes
of
naHonal
economy
shows
that
during
recent
 Mining
and
quarrying 642 707 493
years,
the
services
sector
showed
an
upward
trend,
with
employment
rising
from
37.5%
in
 Manufacturing 56765 57835 44778
2005
to
39.1%
in
2007.
By
contrast,
the
agricultural
sector
recorded
a
decline,
the
share
of
 Electric
an
thermal
energy,
gas
and
water 379 412 389
employed
people
decreasing
from
32.2%
in
2005
to
29.5%
in
2007.
Within
non‐agricultural
 ConstrucHon 30204 35954 32365
branches
 in
 2007,
 29.9%
 of
 employed
 persons
 worked
 in
 manufacturing,
 17.5%
 in
 trade,
 Wholesale
 and
 retail,
 repair
 and
 maintencance
 of
 200246 205787 266902
10.3%
 in
 construcHon,
 and
 7.4%
 in
 transport,
 storage,
 and
 communicaHons.
 The
 posiHve
 motor‐vehicles
 and
 motorcycles
 and
 of
 individual

economic
trends
are
represented
by
the
steady
increase
in
employment
within
the
private
 and
household
appliances
sector,
from
76.6%
in
2005
to
79.3%
in
2007. Hotels
and
restaurants 19204 20554 16389
Transport,
storage
and
communicaHons 28810 31969 27493
Romania’s
foreign
trade
increased
significantly
as
the
economy
structure
was
modernised.
 Real
 estate
 transacHons,
 renHngs
 and
 service
 74200 83828 94241
acHviHes
mainly
rendered
to
enterprises
During
2000‐2005,
exports
and
imports
increased
with
a
growth
rate
of
18.6%
and
21.9%

Other
 aciHviHes
 of
 collecHve,
 social,
 and
 personal
 20685 22926 15872
respecHvely.
Two
thirds
of
foreign
trade
is
with
the
EU
member
states
(35.3
billion
EUR).
70%
 services
of
the
EU
trade
was
done
with
four
countries,
namely
Italy,
Germany,
France,
and
the
UK. 
Source:
Sta9s9cal
Abstract
–
Romania
in
Figures,
Na9onal
Ins9tute
of
Sta9s9cs

56 57
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^cGdbVc^V 8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^cGdbVc^V

SMEs
 as
 employers
 account
 for
 only
 a
 marginally
 lower
 proporHon
 of
 employees
 in
 Within
the
Leonardo
Business
Transfer
Programme,
mulHple
lobby
acHviHes
and
awareness

employment
than
the
European
average,
with
56.6%
in
Romania
in
2004
and
69.7%
in
the
 acHons
were
conducted
by
SVASTA
Consult
within
the
networking
meeHngs
and
conferences

EU
in
2002.
However,
the
trend
of
employment
rate
in
SMEs
was
posiHve
during
the
periods
 of
 Romanian
 AssociaHon
 of
 Management
 Consultancies
 (AMCOR),
 within
 the
 former

in
2002‐2004
with
16.7%.
An
analysis
by
sectors
shows
that
the
producHvity
of
SMEs
acHve
 NaHonal
Agency
for
Small
and
Medium
Sized
Enterprises
and
CooperaHves
–
Department

in
the
service
area
in
2004
was
EUR
36,863/employee,
EUR
17,303/employee
in
the
industry,
 of
 Technical
 Assistance,
 actual
 Ministry
 for
 Small
 and
 Medium
 –
 Sized
 Companies,
 Trade,

EUR
18,964/employee
in
construcHons
and
EUR
18,445/employee
in
the
agriculture. Tourism
&
Liberal
Professions
(MSMEsCTTLP).
Fortunately,
our
efforts
were
kindly
supported

by
Ms.
Ileana
Modreanu,
a
top
decision
maker
within
the
above
menHoned
insHtuHon.
In
2004,
the
exports
of
the
SME
sector
amounted
to
EUR
6,754.8
million
in
value,
while
the

imports
 reached
 EUR
 13,203.7
 million.
 Most
 SMEs
 made
 small
 investments.
 Thus,
 46.1%
 So
far
the
results
are
as
follows:
of
the
SMEs
declared
to
have
made
small
investments
in
2004,
while
14.3%
of
them
made
 1. Order
no.
722/30
May
2008
of
Ministry
for
SMEs
(MSMEsCTTLP)
referring
to
Support

bigger
investments.
The
analysis
by
sectors
of
acHvity
highlights
the
parHcular
situaHon
of
 Program
 of
 Business
 Transfer
 in
 Romania
 –
 budget
 for
 2008
 –
 50,000
 EUR;
 all
 the

the
hotels
and
restaurants
sector
in
terms
of
investments.
The
share
of
small
investments
 administraHve
 costs
 related
 to
 business
 transfer
 are
 zero,
 being
 covered
 from
 this

made
by
hotels
and
restaurants
is
almost
twice
the
overall
average,
i.e.
73.3%.
In
fact,
this
 program.
is
the
sector
with
the
largest
number
of
SMEs
which
made
big
investments
(25.3%).
In
the
 2. Portal
 for
 business
 entrepreneurs
 –
 www.esimplu.ro,
 containing
 a
 benchmarking
 for

transportaHon
 and
 telecommunicaHons
 sector,
 the
 volume
 of
 small
 investments
 accounts
 measuring
and
evaluaHon
of
the
SMEs
performances.

for
more
than
40%. Structural
Funds
support
for
Business
Transfer
allocated
by
Sectorial
OperaHonal
Program

for
 Economic
 CompeHHveness
 to
 Priority
 Axe
 1
 –
 elaboraHon
 of
 business
 evaluaHon
 and

7jh^cZhhIgVch[Zg>c^i^Vi^kZh^cGdbVc^V diagnosis
studies
for
business
transfer
–
grants
of
10,000
EUR,
70
%
co‐financing.

At
present
there
are
no
organized
marketplaces
for
the
transfer
of
businesses
in
Romania.
 HdjgXZh/

Many
 of
 the
 owner‐managers
 of
 the
 companies
 have
 reached
 the
 age
 where
 they
 are
 StaHsHcal
 Abstract
 –
 Romania
 in
 Figures,
 NaHonal
 InsHtute
 of
 StaHsHcs.
 Retrieved

thinking
about
transferring
their
business.
More
than
11%
of
the
SMEs
are
owned
by
people
 22.08.2008
from
www.insse.ro.
older
than
55,
but
the
owner
reaching
reHrement
age
is
not
the
only
reason
for
the
transfer

of
enterprises.
An
important
issue
of
business
transfers
is
to
preserve
tradiHonal
acHviHes,
 Ministry
 for
 Small
 and
 Medium–Sized
 Companies,
 Trade,
 Tourism
 &
 Liberal
 Professions

especially
within
cra2s
and
co‐operaHves. (MSMEsCTTLP).
Retrieved
22.08.2008
from
www.mimmc.ro.

Organising
 support
 for
 the
 transfer
 of
 business
 in
 Romania
 is
 sHll
 in
 an
 early
stage.
 Some
 Portal
for
business
entrepreneurs.
Retrieved
22.08.2008
from
www.esimplu.ro.
provisions
 were
 established
 by
 law
 no.
 346/2004
 on
 sHmulaHng
 the
 sePng‐up
 and

development
of
SMEs,
which
took
into
account
the
European
Commission’s
recommendaHon
 Romania
NaHonal
Development
Plan
2007
–
2013
of
1994
on
the
transfer
of
business
as
a
real
alternaHve
to
start‐up.
The
ulHmate
aim
of
the

programme
is
to
promote
economic
development
through
the
transfer
of
businesses
with

European
 Commission
 (2006).
 Markets
 for
 business
 transfer:
 Fostering
 Transparent

growth
potenHal
and
to
apply
the
tradiHonal
pracHces
and
ideas
from
the
founding
owners

marketplaces
for
the
transfer
of
businesses
in
Europe.
Brussels:
European
Commission.
to
a
new
generaHon
of
entrepreneurs.

58 59
8 d j c i g n  G Z e d g i h  "  I ] Z  H ^ i j V i ^ d c  ^ c  Ij g ` Z n 8 d j c i g n  G Z e d g i h  "  I ] Z  H ^ i j V i ^ d c  ^ c  Ij g ` Z n

J^[I_jkWj_ed_dJkha[o Succession
planning
is
important
for
any
business
to
survive
for
generaHons.
A
comprehensive

<jahV]D\joN^\^iWVh^ business
succession
plan
lays
the
foundaHon
for
a
smoother
transiHon
from
one
company

8GB8dchjai^c\ president
 to
 the
 next.
 In
 Turkey,
 business
 transfer
 is
 more
 common
 among
 the
 family

members
 when
 the
 SMEs
 are
 micro
 companies
 and
 management
 buy
 in,
 which
 refers
 to

<ZcZgVa9ZhXg^ei^dc external
persons
interested
in
taking
over
a
company,
is
more
common
when
the
company

is
bigger.
Management
buy
outs,
employees
within
the
company
interested
in
taking
over

Turkey
 is
 situated
 in
 south‐eastern
 Europe
 and
 south‐western
 Asia
 (the
 porHon
 of
 Turkey
 the
company,
are
not
commonly
seen.
Management
buy
ins
are
seen
as
risky
because
there

west
of
the
Bosporus
is
geographically
part
of
Europe),
bordering
the
Black
Sea,
between
 is
no
insHtuHon
controlling
the
debts
of
the
SMEs,
so
a
new
owner
might
have
the
risk
of

Bulgaria
and
Georgia,
and
bordering
the
Aegean
Sea
and
the
Mediterranean
Sea,
between
 facing

the
debts
of
the
SME
a2er
the
SME
was
transferred
to
the
new
owner.
Furthermore,

Greece
 and
 Syria.
 Its
 capital
 is
 Ankara.
 PopulaHon
 numbers
 approximately
 71.9
 million
 in
Turkey,
there
are
many
SMEs
which
are
closed
down
when
another
job
is
taken.

inhabitants
on
an
area
of
770,760
km².
Training
and
consultancy
services
for
transfer
of
business
is
taken
as
an
issue
in
the
context

:Xdcdb^X:ck^gdcbZciVcY:cigZegZcZjg^Va9ViV of
trainings
of
insHtuHonalisaHon
of
family
firms
and
management
in
family
firms
due
to
the

fact
that
transfer
of
business
is
more
commonly
seen
in
family
firms.
Owing
to
their
number
and
the
large
share
of
the
workforce
they
employ,
small
and
medium‐ Business
Transfer
IniHaHves
in
Turkey
sized
enterprises
(SMEs)
play
an
important
role
in
the
Turkish
economy.
SMEs
represent
99%

of
the
total
companies
and
keep
75%
of
employment,
and
46%
of
business
turnover
in
Turkey.
 In
Turkey
there
is
no
database
which
brings
together
owners
of
the
SMEs
who
would
like

EsHmates
vary,
but
it
is
certain
that
SMEs
account
for
an
enormous
amount
of
the
Turkish
 to
transfer
their
business
and
people
who
would
like
to
take
over.
The
owners
of
the
micro

economy,
keeping
between
95%
and
99%
of
Turkish
businesses,
according
to
analysts. SMEs

who
would
like
to
transfer
their
business
make
announcements
in
local
and/or
naHonal

There
are
around
four
million
businesses,
called
micro‐SMEs,
which
have
between
one
and
 newspapers
or
put
announcements
in
their
shop
windows
showing
that
the
shop
is
for
sale

ten
 employees
 registered
 with
 the
 Tradesmen‘s
 and
 ArHsans‘
 ConfederaHon.
 In
 addiHon,
 to
business
successors.
official
documents
say
that
in
Turkey
the
number
of
unregistered
of
informal
businesses
lies

anywhere
between
500,000
to
eight
million.
At
the
start
of
the
decade,
the
NaHonal
Report
 At
 present
 no
 reliable
 data
 on
 the
 transfer
 of
 business
 is
 available
 in
 Turkey.
 It
 would
 be

on
Sustainable
 Development
esHmated
there
were
over
six
million
 people
working
in
the
 important
 to
 collect
 informaHon
 about
 the
 reasons
 for
 the
 transfer
 of
 business,
 such
 as

country‘s
unregistered
SME
sector. changing
markets;
new
products
or
distribuHon
channels;
incidents
such
as
death,
illness,

divorce
 and
 personnel
 decisions,
 change
 of
 profession,
 and
 reHrement,
 and
 to
 perform
 a

The
 Turkish
 SME‘s
 average
 profile
 is
 different
 from
 SMEs
 in
 the
 EU,
 and
 their
 average
 detailed
analysis
in
this
area
in
order
to
shape
a
development
strategy
for
SMEs.
workforce
and
turnover
are
much
smaller
than
among
other
OECD
countries.
They
are
well

behind
in
terms
of
know‐how,
skill
levels,
capital
investment
to
support
their
acHviHes
i.e.
 In
 2004,
 KOSGEB
 (Small
 and
 Medium
 Industry
 Development
 OrganizaHon)
 conducted
 a

training,
and
access
and
ability
to
take
advantage
of
modern
technologies,
especially
in
the
 survey
on
the
situaHon
of
Turkish
SMEs,
which
included
some
business
transfer
indicators.

informaHon
and
communicaHons
fields.
As
in
most
other
countries,
they
find
it
difficult
to
 The
informaHon
obtained
from
approximately
43,000
SMEs,
which
account
for
one
fi2h
of
all

obtain
financing.
For
many
years
the
government
authoriHes
have
carried
out
a
wide
variety
 Turkish
SMEs,
confirmed
that
15,000
SMEs
had
been
transferred;
most
of
which
were
family

of
programmes
to
support
these
enterprises. businesses.
In
Turkey
reHrement
is
not
the
main
reason
for
business
transfer.
Other
reasons


60 61
8djcignGZedgih"I]ZH^ijVi^dc^cGdbVc^V GdjcY"jed[i]ZH^ijVi^dc

are
equally
important
and
should
be
addressed
in
order
to
prevent
unnecessary
business
 HekdZ#kfe\j^[I_jkWj_ed
closures
in
the
SME
sector.
Considering
 the
 situaHon
 in
 different
 European
 countries,
 some
 of
 which
 have
 been

In
Turkey
there
are
no
organized
marketplaces
at
present,
but
there
are
some
iniHaHves
to
 presented
above,
and
the
pan‐European
iniHaHves,
we
can
conclude
that,
while
the
problem

set
 up
 databases
 of
 buyers
 and
 sellers
 and
 to
 create
 a
 NaHonal
 Business
 Transfer
 Centre.
 of
 unsuccessful
 business
 succession
 and
 the
 connected
 high
 cost
 has
 been
 noHced
 on
 an

The
 NaHonal
 StaHsHcal
 InsHtute
 has
 completed
 the
 creaHon
 of
 Business
 Record
 Systems
 European
 level,
 there
 is
 sHll
 only
 a
 small
 degree
 of
 awareness
 and
 correspondingly
 much

of
 Turkey
 in
 accordance
 with
 EU
 norms.
 In
 2006,
 a
 new
 common
 project
 with
 the
 EU
 on
 too
liCle
effort
on
naHonal
and
regional
levels.
At
first
union‐wide
iniHaHves
were
launched.

business
demography
was
launched
and
business
transfer
indicators
will
become
a
part
of
 However,
none
of
these
iniHaHves
seemed
to
have
profound
impact
on
regional
level.
Mostly

the
record
system.
In
addiHon,
some
business
transfer
indicators
have
been
introduced
into
 naHonal
and
regional
authoriHes
do
not
assign
high
levels
of
priority
to
solve
problems
of

the
KOSGEB’s
SME
database.
It
is
planned
to
iniHate
a
naHonal
host
database
for
buyers
and
 business
 succession
 or
 to
 support
 the
 process
 with
 easily
 available
 experts
 and
 trainings.

sellers
at
KOSGEB. Yet,
the
amount
of
money
that
could
be
saved
and
the
number
of
jobs
that
could
be
rescued

is
enormous.
Although
exisHng
iniHaHves
are
manifold
and
show
very
different
degrees
of

In
2005,
KOSGEB
prepared
a
project
proposal
for
submission
to
the
EU
Financial
CooperaHon
 success,
they
rarely
offer
complete
knowledge
and
support
needed
from
one
source.
The

Fund
 to
 create
 the
 NaHonal
 Business
 Transfer
 Centre
 for
 providing
 and
 coordinaHng
 development
of
a
new
European
training
and
consulHng
programme
including
the
necessary

informaHon,
 creaHng
 a
 contact
 mediaHon
 system
 for
 buyers‐sellers,
 collecHng
 data
 on
 tools
 for
 screening
 and
 planning
 and
 the
 corresponding
 project
 applicaHon
 was
 a
 logical

transfer
of
businesses,
and
also
sHmulaHng
cooperaHon
with
the
EU
by
linking
up
exisHng
 step
into
the
direcHon
of
solving
the
problem.
Even
though
the
project
proved
to
be
very

EU
databases.
This
proposal
was
discussed
in
the
2006
annual
programme
and
evaluated
in
 successful
as
the
trainees
provided
excellent
feedback
and
a
number
of
trainings
will
most

the
2007
programme.
Studies
about
KOSGEB
Business
Transfer
Centre
have
been
conHnuing
 probably
conHnue
to
use
the
developed
material
a2er
the
end
of
the
project,
there
is
sHll
a

in
Turkey. dire
need
for
more
awareness
raising
acHviHes
on
all
levels.
Mostly
successors
are
not
aware

of
the
problems
and
dangers
connected
to
transferring
a
business,
which
sHll
o2en
leads
to

GZ[ZgZcXZh/ disaster.


Turkey
(official
webpage).
Retrieved
1.08.2008,
from
hCp://www.kosgeb.gov.tr/.

62 63
I]Z7IEEgd_ZXi I]Z7IEEgd_ZXi

J^[8JFFhe`[Yj partners.

6cYgZVAVc\ The
reasons
for
the
trial
run
in
the
countries
menHoned
above
were
the
different
condiHons

W^ibVcV\ZbZci7ZgVijc\<bW= with
regard
to
the
topic
of
business
succession/transfer
in
the
partner
countries
(learning
from

best
pracHces
in
countries
where
this
topic
is
already
more
emphasised),
the
organisaHonal

Egd_ZXi9ZhXg^ei^dc prerequisites
to
carry
out
a
test
run
and
to
guarantee
two
successful
trainings
with
enough

parHcipants.

At
the
European
level,
many
small
and
medium
sized
companies
will
have
to
face
a
transfer

of
ownership
within
the
next
decade.
As
measures
to
facilitate
the
business
transfer
and
the
 The
training
was
designed
on
a
modular
basis
and
combined
different
teaching
and
studying

consciousness
for
long‐term
planning
are
sHll
lacking,
the
development
of
improvements
in
 methods,
 such
 as
 face‐to‐face,
 use
 of
 an
 e‐learning
 plaxorm,
 peer
 group
 learning,
 and

the
framework
condiHons
for
SMEs,
amongst
others
business
transfers,
would
be
helpful.
 self
study
by
delivering
a
transfer
plan
and
describing
the
imminent
transfer
process.
The

Examples
 of
 such
 measures
 would
 be
 steps
 to
 raise
 awareness,
 to
 increase
 transparency
 curriculum
itself,
as
will
be
shown
in
the
later
secHons,
originally
consisted
of
six
modules:
and
 improve
 entrepreneurial
 educaHon,
 to
 ensure
 that
 training
 insHtuHons
 deliver
 an
 ° legal
aspects
of
the
take‐over
process
adequate
 supply
 of
 skills
 adapted
 to
 the
 needs
 of
 SMEs,
 and
 to
 provide
 lifeHme
 training
 ° financing
and
recapitalisaHon
programmes.
The
iniHal
moHvaHon
for
the
project
“Business
Transfer
Programme
(BTP)”
was
 ° analysis
and
valuaHon
of
the
business
(due
diligence)
the
development
and
implementaHon
of
further
measures
to
facilitate
business
succession
 ° markeHng
and
 transfer
 in
 Europe
 and
 to
 raise
 awareness
 about
 this
 topic
 especially
 in
 the
 involved
 ° social
skills
project
partner
countries.
 ° human
resource
management

<ZcZgVaDW_ZXi^kZh '#9ZkZadebZcid[HXgZZc^c\Idda
The
development
of
the
curriculum
was
accompanied
by
the
design
of
a
specific
on‐line
tool

&#9ZkZadebZcid[VIV^adg"bVYZIgV^c^c\Egd\gVbbZ tailored
to
facilitate
the
take‐over
process.
The
structure
of
the
Screening
Tool
is
oriented

The
primary
goal
of
this
project
was
the
development
of
a
tailor‐made
training
for
successors
 to
 the
 main
 training
 modules
 and
 is
 based
 on
 standardised
 quesHonnaires
 on
 the
 legal,

and
 transferors
 in
 combinaHon
 with
 a
 technical
 aid,
 the
 Screening
 Tool.
 The
 course
 was
 economic
(finance,
analysis,
markeHng,
human
resources,
locaHon),
and
technical
situaHon

designed
 as
 an
 integral
 concept
 for
 business
 succession
 and
 includes
 technical
 details
 of
the
transferred
company.

connected
 with
 handing
 over
 a
 business
 as
 well
 as
 aspects
 of
 enterprise
 leadership.
 The
 The
 tool
 enables
 a
 first
 evaluaHon
 of
 the
 take‐over
 business
 from
 the
 economic
 point
 of

training
is
not
oriented
toward
new
founders/start‐ups
because
a
transfer
process
requires
 view
 and
 contributes
 to
 increasing
 the
 necessary
 entrepreneurial
 transfer‐informaHon.
 It

a
variety
of
long‐term
and
strategic
planning
as
well
as
arrangements
which
must
be
made
 is
 a
 highly
 innovaHve
 technical
 instrument
 for
 successors,
 transferors,
 and
 management

early
to
guarantee
its
success
and
is
not
comparable
with
the
foundaHon
of
an
enterprise.
 consultants
that
supports
the
business
transfer
process.

On
the
basis
of
an
extensive
literature
research
and
a
broad
survey
of
successors/transferors
 (#9ZkZadebZcid[VHjhiV^cVWaZ>beaZbZciVi^dc8dcXZei
in
all
seven
partner
countries,
a
dra2
curriculum
was
developed.
A2er
a
trial
run
had
been
 Apart
from
the
design
of
the
curriculum
and
Screening
Tool,
a
specific
concept
was
developed

carried
 out
 in
 two
 countries,
 namely
 trans‐naHonally
 in
 Austria/Germany
 and
 in
 Italy,
 the
 that
allows
as
many
training
insHtuHons
as
possible
to
use
and
implement
the
curriculum

curriculum
 
 was
 adapted
 according
 to
 the
 feedback
 from
 parHcipants,
 training
 staff,
 the
 which
ensures
that
the
target
groups
benefit
from
the
curriculum
and
Screening
Tool.
In
order

summarised
evaluaHon
results,
and
the
constant
exchange
of
experience
among
the
project
 to
 achieve
 this
 goal,
 the
 training
 programme
 was
 standardised
 in
 as
 many
 characterisHcs


64 65
I]Z7IEEgd_ZXi I]Z7IEEgd_ZXi

as
 possible,
 whereas
 for
 special
 modules,
 e.g.
 law/legal
 aspects
 and
 finance
 (different
 IVg\Zi<gdjeh
funding
 systems
 in
 the
 countries),
 local
 adaptaHons
 were
 allowed.
 These
 standardisaHon

efforts
 included
 the
 uniform
 curriculum
 and
 course
 contents,
 technical
 requirements
 (e‐ As
a
business
succession/transfer
means
a
deep
cut
into
exisHng
business
structures,
this

learning
 plaxorm
 and
 Screening
 tool),
 and
 a
 uniform
 Hme
 schedule
 for
 the
 face‐to‐face
 process
 needs
 to
 be
 well
 prepared
 and
 planned.
 The
 main
 target
 group
 are
 “business

training.
 A2er
 fine‐tuning
 the
 curriculum
 (feedback
 and
 adaptaHon
 phase),
 the
 training
 successors”
divided
into
the
following
three
main
sub‐groups:
programme
and
screening
can
now
be
offered
by
vocaHonal
training
providers
and
the
laCer
 ° Family
 members,
 because
 more
 and
 more
 businesses
 are
 being
 transferred
 to
 non‐
by
management
consultants
who
obtain
permission
through
the
BTP
consorHum.
In
order
to
 family

persons
offer
the
curriculum,
the
capacity
and
resources
to
deliver
the
content
at
the
quality
defined
 ° Management
buy
out:
employees
who
take
over
a
company

by
the
project
consorHum
must
be
available.
The
exisHng
e‐learning
plaxorm
is
constantly
 ° Management
buy
in:
external
persons
who
want
to
take
over
an
exisHng
business

being
 updated,
 and
 both,
 the
 learning
 plaxorm
 and
 Screening
 Tool,
 can
 be
 used
 by
 new

parHcipants.
 This
 provides
 a
 good
 opportunity
 to
 build
 a
 community
 of
 parHcipants
 from
 It
 has
 to
 be
 noted
 that,
 since
 the
 project
 applicaHon
 phase,
 the
 project
 consorHum
 has

different
countries
by
facilitaHng
the
sharing
of
their
experHse.
 focussed
 solely
 on
 business
 successors
 and
 transferors
 because
 exisHng
 trainings
 and

consultaHon
are
targeted
at
founders
and
not
on
successors.
The
main
emphasis
regarding

)#8Zgi^ÒXVi^dc8dcXZei the
content
of
exisHng
trainings
is
on
general
business
economic
bases,
such
as
markeHng,

Apart
 from
 delivering
 valuable
 content
 and
 knowledge,
 the
 project
 consorHum
 tried
 to
 accounHng,
 costs/turnover
 calculaHon,
 and
 social
 factors
 as
 well
 as
 sales
 strategies
 and

provide
 maximum
 value
 to
 the
 parHcipants
 in
 the
 training
 programme.
 Based
 on
 the
 acquisiHon.
This
basic
knowledge
is
considered
to
be
the
basis
for
the
business
successors/
experience
of
the
consorHum,
internaHonal
recogniHon
gives
a
high
value
to
the
programme
 transferors
and
for
the
business
transfer
training
combined
with
the
screening
tool.

itself.
The
consorHum
agreed
on
a
European
diploma/cerHficate
based
on
a
certain
amount

of
 compulsory
 aCendance
 during
 the
 presence
 block,
 a
 certain
 amount
 of
 e‐learning
 and
 

self‐study
hours
and
Hme
for
the
final
transfer
plan,
and
the
final
evaluaHon
of
the
transfer
 

plan
by
the
external
succession/transfer
expert.

Through
the
trial
run
in
two
partner
countries,
namely
trans‐naHonally
in
Austria/Germany

and
 in
 Italy,
 the
 curriculum
 was
 tested
 for
 pracHcal
 implementaHon.
 Furthermore,
 the

training
was
adapted
and
further
developed
during
and
a2er
the
test
runs
in
order
to
have
a

European‐wide,
standardised
diploma‐course
that
can
be
offered
in
the
training
programme

of
 the
 project
 partners.
 Due
 to
 cooperaHon
 with
 training
 insHtuHons
 and
 chambers
 of

commerce
during
and
a2er
the
end
of
the
project,
the
sustainability
of
the
project
results
is

assured.

66 67
7IE9^YVXi^XVa8dcXZei 7IE9^YVXi^XVa8dcXZei

8JF:_ZWYj_YWb9edY[fj The
developed
curriculum
and
Screening
Tool
can
be
applied
in
different
European
countries.

GjeZgi7Z^c]VjZg!I]dbVhHX]bVaoZg Since
the
content
and
the
expected
outcomes
are
well
defined,
it
can
be
offered
by
training

;=?D6CC:JB<ZhZaahX]V[ibW= insHtutes
that
have
the
resources
and
knowledge
to
meet
the
BTP
requirements.
In
the
context

of
the
pilot
project,
the
curriculum
was
twice
carried
out
as
a
test
run.
It
was
shown
that
the

training
programme
was
highly
successfully,
which
can
be
seen
through
the
highly
posiHve

The
 innovaHve
 training
 concept
 of
 the
 Business
 Transfer
 Programme
 is
 a
 broad,
 modern,
 feedback
of
the
course
parHcipants.
However,
it
had
to
be
adapted
and
further
improved

blended
learning
concept.
Methods,
like
self‐directed
learning,
face‐to‐face
training,
and
e‐ on
the
basis
of
the
gathered
feedback.
Finally,
a
highly
innovaHve
training
programme
can

learning,
individual
coaching,
and
learning
from
experience
are
combined.
The
development
 be
offered
throughout
Europe
either
in
combinaHon
with
the
Screening
Tool
or
separately,

of
 the
 BTP
 curriculum
 was
 based
 on
 a
 standardised
 applicaHon
 in
 different
 European
 which
guarantees
the
sustainability
of
the
achieved
project
results.
countries.

DkZgk^Zl
This
 training
 programme
 is
 designed
 as
 an
 integrated
 soluHon
 combining
 the
 process
 of

consulHng,
 training,
 and
 experience
 exchange
 in
 a
 single,
 integrated
 approach
 that
 takes
 Chart
 1
 gives
 a
 comprehensive
 overview
 of
 the
 suggested
 learning
 path
 within
 the
 BTP

into
 account
 the
 fact
 that
 successors
 can
 usually
 provide
 only
 limited
 resources
 in
 terms
 training
 programme.
The
presence
blocks
contained
in
the
training
 are
complemented
by

of
presence
Hme
for
training.
For
this
reason
as
well
as
for
methodological
purposes,
the
 e‐learning
elements,
self
study
phases,
and
problem
based
work
in
which
strong
interacHon

programme
 employs
 a
 blended
 learning
 approach
 incorporaHng
 presence
 learning
 with
 between
 parHcipants
 and
 trainers/consultants
 is
 fostered
 to
 develop
 independent
 skills

selected
features
of
e‐learning
under
the
umbrella
of
a
specifically
designed
learning
path.
 in
 working
 individually
 on
 the
 respecHve
 succession
 plan.
 Throughout
 the
 whole
 period,

This
learning
path
was
set
up
by
experts
of
the
consorHum
working
together
to
deliver
state
 evaluaHon
and
monitoring
tools
check
for
progress
of
the
parHcipants.
All
these
elements

of
the
art
content
using
contemporary
best
pracHce
techniques
in
vocaHonal
educaHon.
 consHtute
a
blended
learning
approach
which
is
based
on
equal
raHos
of
group
meeHngs,

individual
counselling.
and
self
paced
training.

The
blended
learning
concept
enables
learning
in
large
groups,
small
teams,
or
individually
 The
 suggested
 learning
 path
 can
 easily
 be
 modified
 by
 removing
 or
 adding
 elements
 and

in
a
self‐directed
way.
The
mode,
Hme,
and
place
can
be
chosen
by
parHcipants
themselves,
 modules,
though
that
method
is
recommended
for
experienced
professionals
only.
and
they
are
empowered
to
follow
their
individual
learning
approach.
To
reach
this
level
of

self‐organised
learning,
parHcipants
are
familiarised
with
these
different
learning
methods
at
 The
BTP
consists
of
two
main
paths:
the
beginning
of
the
training
through
an
introductory
session.
1. Individual
path,
which
includes
the
individual
succession
plan,
consulHng
sessions
and

In
total
BTP
was
developed
in
a
modular
fashion.
Each
of
the
BTP
modules
can
be
included
 self
paced
training
using
the
e‐learning
elements.
in
individual
training
paths,
but
there
is
no
need
to
include
all
of
them
or
to
use
them
in
 2. Group
path,
which
includes
group
trainings
in
face
to
face
sessions.
always
the
same
fashion.
The
material
is
designed
to
allow
for
easy
adaptaHon
for
different

programmes
which
are
already
in
use.
In
addiHon
to
material
for
face
to
face
lectures
and
 The
BTP
Training
Modules
provide
elements
for
each
of
these
paths.
The
combinaHon
of
the

individual
consulHng
sessions,
e‐learning
elements,
problem
based
exercises,
and
self
study
 individual
succession
plan,
consulHng
and
group
trainings
will
form
the
complete
learning

material
form
an
integral
part
of
the
training.
 path
for
each
parHcipant.


68 69
7IE9^YVXi^XVa8dcXZei 7IE9^YVXi^XVa8dcXZei

Dg^ZciVi^dcE]VhZ AZVgc^c\EVi]DkZgk^Zl[“g7IE
8]Vgi&
Even
before
the
beginning
of
the
actual
training
potenHal
parHcipants
receive
an
introducHon

" $
  
%
 ##" 
to
BTP
via
different
informaHon
channels)
it
is
essenHal
for
moHvaHonal
purposes
that
they

understand
why
they
should
partake
in
BTP
and
support
the
aims
of
the
programme.
The
 $$
"     
""
programme
 starts
 with
 an
 introducHon
 or
 orientaHon
 session
 providing
 parHcipants
 with

Pre Training Phase Training Units
all
 necessary
 informaHon
 about
 the
 BTP
 materials,
 the
 methodology
 employed,
 the
 goals

and
 content
 of
 the
 training,
 the
 Hmeline,
 expected
 results,
 administraHve
 issues
 as
 well

 
as
 introducing
 the
 trainer/consultant.
 This
 phase
 uses
 the
 same
 approach
 as
 the
 whole
 
 $

     "!" "
""
 $  #
"
"  
"" "   "
"   
programme
by
integraHng
online
materials
as
well
as
presence
parts.
  

:"AZVgc^c\$HZa["hijYn$HjeZgk^h^dc
In
part
parallel
to
the
informaHon
phase,
parHcipants
are
provided
with
introductory
content
 E-Learning - Self Study
via
 the
 webpage.
 For
 parHcipants
 who
 cannot
 use
 this
 media
 due
 to
 a
 lack
 of
 computer

knowledge
or
lack
of
equipment,
computer
access
is
available
at
the
training
facility,
though

this
 did
 not
 prove
 necessary.
 This
 marks
 the
 beginning
 of
 the
 e‐learning,
 self‐study,
 and

communicaHon
 and
 supervision
 phases
 of
 the
 training.
 These
 phases
 are
 summarized
 in

The
 trainings
 following
 the
 informaHon
 block
 are
 focused
 on
 face
 to
 face
 experience

one
online
block
lasHng
throughout
the
training
programme.
Each
module
has
a
defined
set

exchange
and
knowledge
transfer.
AddiHonal
elements
used
were
content
delivery
through

of
preliminary
materials,
supporHve
material,
and
links
to
external
sources
contribuHng
to

lectures,
 small
 group
 work,
 independent
 work
 on
 assignments,
 coaching
 and
 supervision

building
basic
knowledge
and
experHse
in
each
module
necessary
for
the
opHmal
use
of
Hme

through
trainers,
quesHon
and
answer
sessions,
group
discussions
as
well
as
work
on
case

during
the
subsequent
group
trainings.
All
BTP
material
was
available
via
the
online
plaxorm,

studies.
Depending
on
the
Hme
available,
on
the
methods
already
in
use
and
on
the
wishes

reading
materials
and
supporHve
material
were
either
available
for
download
and
ready
for

of
trainers
and
parHcipants,
each
of
the
modules
can
be
included
singularly
or
the
whole

print
out
(if
not
copyrighted)
or
as
reference.
Material
presented
in
face
to
face
sessions
was

programme
can
be
used
to
provide
the
training.
BTP
tries
to
cover
all
(or
at
least
most
of)

also
available
as
PowerPoint
on
the
plaxorm
to
provide
the
chance
to
catch
up
on
a
topic

the
topics
possibly
relevant
for
the
parHcipants,
but
experienced
trainers
and
consultants

if
a
session
was
missed.
CommunicaHon
with
the
trainers
was
possible
face
to
face
at
the

will
o2en
need
to
include
addiHonal
elements
for
best
results.
With
its
modular
structure,

meeHngs
but
also
per
email
and
forums.

BTP
encourages
this.
Group
trainings
form
an
integral
part
of
the
learning
path
by
providing

opportuniHes
and
learning
experiences
almost
impossible
to
deliver
in
the
same
quality
in

<gdjeIgV^c^c\h
online
 courses.
 The
 strong
 commitment
 of
 this
 training
 programme
 for
 presence
 training

is
 mirrored
 in
 the
 amount
 of
 Hme
 suggested
 for
 group
 trainings.
 This
 phase
 opHmally
 is

In
 addiHon
 to
 online
 collaboraHon
 and
 e‐content
 delivery,
 the
 BTP
 training
 programme

supplemented
 by
 the
 material
 provided
 but
 leaves
 enough
 Hme
 for
 parHcipants
 to
 work

fostered
direct
face
to
face
group
work.
In
total
the
presence
blocks
covers
60
group
training

on
 selected
 topics
 themselves.
 Details
 on
 contents
 for
 each
 module
 are
 presented
 in
 the

units.

follwing
secHons.

70 71
7IE9^YVXi^XVa8dcXZei E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  6 j h i g ^ V

>cY^k^YjVaHjXXZhh^dcEaVc E^adiIgV^c^c\Ä6jhig^V
6cYgZVAVc\
A
part
of
the
BTP
training
programme
is
dedicated
to
independently
creaHng
and
individually
 W^ibVcV\ZbZci7ZgVijc\<bW=
working
 on
 a
 specific
 succession
 plan
 which
 is
 set
 up
 together
 with
 the
 consultant
 using

the
screening
tool
described
above.
The
schedule
of
the
whole
programme
leaves
enough
 The
 primary
 goal
 of
 the
 BTP
 project
 was
 the
 development
 of
 a
 tailor‐made
 training
 for

Hme
to
allow
for
assignments
and
pracHcal
work
on
the
succession
plan.
It
will
be
used
to
 successors
and
transferors
combined
with
a
technical
aid,
the
online
Screening
Tool.
Two
trial

specifically
meet
the
needs
communicated
through
the
parHcipants
in
the
course
of
their
 runs
were
carried
out,
one
in
Graz/Austria
and
one
in
Vicenza/Italy
to
test
the
curriculum

individual
consulHng
sessions.
 trans‐naHonally
and
to
get
the
necessary
informaHon
for
the
final
set‐up
of
the
training
on

In
its
main
purpose,
the
acHon
plan
serves
the
need
to
define
personal
aims
and
a
stepwise
 European
level.

approach
for
reaching
them.
This
ensures
a
structured
way
for
progress
for
the
parHcipants

and
allows
for
an
easy
check
up
of
success
and,
therefore,
raises
quality
considerably.
The
 As
a
business
succession
means
a
deep
cut
into
the
whole
structure
of
the
business,
legal

acHon
plan
is
conHnuously
updated
and
refined,
each
acHvity
set
will
be
checked
for
success
 quesHons
 (succession,
 labour,
 and
 corporaHon
 law),
 liability,
 tax‐based,
 and
 personal

in
due
Hme.
This
is
a
very
important
element
of
BTP.
This
individual
plan
is
the
backbone
of
 quesHons
 are
 raised.
 According
 to
 research
 acHviHes
 of
 the
 project
 consorHum,
 business

the
training
and
serves
as
the
main
moHvaHonal
tool
for
the
parHcipant.
In
this
respect
the
 successions/transfers
very
o2en
take
place
much
too
hasHly,
and
the
consequences
have
not

group
meeHngs
serve
as
ideal
forum
to
discuss
ideas
and
suggesHons
with
trainers
and
other
 been
reflected
sufficiently.
Furthermore
it
has
to
be
menHoned
that
a
business
take‐over
is

parHcipants.
 more
complex
compared
to
a
business
foundaHon
because
of
an
already
exisHng
business

structure
 with
 employees,
 extant
 technical
 infrastructure,
 necessary
 modernisaHon
 and

:ÄXdciZci recapitalisaHon
 measures,
 and
 a
 variety
 of
 exisHng
 legal
 relaHonships.
 Therefore
 different

quesHons
are
relevant
for
the
transfer
process
compared
with
business
start‐ups,
and
the

The
 key
 reason
 for
 integraHng
 e‐content
 elements
 in
 the
 curriculum
 is
 a
 methodological
 developed
training
has
to
be
delimited
from
already
exisHng
trainings
for
start‐ups.
one.
 In
 order
 to
 opHmise
 the
 learning
 process
 and
 successfully
 conclude
 the
 BTP
 training

programme,
 self
 study
 and
 self
 moHvaHon
 is
 as
 important
 as
 the
 parHcipaHon
 in
 group
 The
trial
training
contributed
to
an
ideal
preparaHon
of
the
business
succession
process
and

meeHngs
or
consulHng
sessions.
Equally
valuable
as
the
presence
meeHngs,
also
e‐learning
 helped
to
balance
the
exisHng
lack
of
knowledge
concerning
business
succession/transfer.

elements,
 available
 throughout
 the
 training
 programme,
 are
 essenHal
 for
 providing
 a
 It
 combined
 business
 economic
 know‐how
 (legal
 aspects,
 taxaHon)
 so‐called
 “hard
 facts”

conHnuous
 source
 of
 material
 which
 enables
 the
 parHcipants
 to
 work
 on
 their
 individual
 with
social
aspects
like
communicaHon
and
negoHaHon
skills
so‐called
“so2
facts”
because

succession
plan
or
to
simply
deepen
their
knowledge
on
newly
learned
contents.
It
is
also
 both,
hard
facts
and
so2
facts,
are
the
basis
for
a
solid
enterprise
leadership.
The
training
was

the
only
way
to
provide
parts
of
the
possibiliHes
to
those
who
cannot
parHcipate
in
group
 adjusted
to
the
concrete
situaHon
of
business
successors
and
specialised
knowledge
for
the

meeHngs. upcoming
business
hand‐over
take‐over
was
imparted.

In
addiHon
the
necessity
of
e–content
elements
stems
from
the
constraints
in
terms
of
Hme

and
mobility
as
training
programmes
are
not
limitless
in
their
available
resources.
For
these
 The
training
was
based
on
the
following
modules,
which
were
the
same
in
Graz
and
Vicenza

two
reasons,
one
methodological
and
the
other
pracHcal,
BTP
employs
a
blended
learning
 but
were
adapted
to
regional
or
naHonal
condiHons
or
framework
condiHons:
approach
in
which
the
main
element
is
face
to
face
training,
which
can
easily
be
supplemented
 ° Finance
by
addiHonal
online
material
depending
on
the
parHcipants‘
needs
and
wishes.
F_bejJhW_d_d]i

72 73
E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  6 j h i g ^ V E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  6 j h i g ^ V

° Legal
aspects
 for
parHcipants,
trainers,
project
members,
secondly
an
area
for
FAQ’s,
and,
thirdly,
a

° Business
analysis restricted
download
area
for
the
training
material.
° MarkeHng
° So2
skills ° Working
independently
in
peer
groups
between
the
modules
° Human
resource
management The
course
parHcipants
were
invited
to
organise
themselves
in
peer
groups
between
the

modules
to
exercise
and
apply
the
theoreHcal
knowledge
to
support
team
work
as
well

The
 pilot
 training
 was
 carried
 out
 at
 both
 locaHons
 as
 a
 comprehensive
 modern
 blended
 as
the
social
competence
of
the
parHcipants
through
further
group
work.
learning
concept
and
integrated
the
following
methods:
° Support
through
an
external
succession/transfer
expert
° Face
to
face
training During
the
whole
training,
the
parHcipants
were
accompanied
by
a
succession
expert

As
agreed
with
the
partner
in
Vicenza,
five
presence
blocks
were
planned
and
carried
out
 through
personal
meeHngs
and
e‐coaching.
The
expert
held
the
introductory
session,

to
impart
the
main
contents
of
the
basic
modules.
Within
the
presence
days,
predefined
 the
interims,
and
closing
feedback
and
supported
the
parHcipants
in
the
establishment

work
 tasks
 and
 pracHce
 examples
 were
 solved
 together.
 Learning
 material
 as
 scripts,
 of
their
transfer
plan
and
in
the
use
of
the
Screening
Tool.

check‐lists,
case
studies,
and
transfer
plan
supported
the
presence
blocks.

 
 
 Summing
up
the
combinaHon
of
the
different
learning
and
didacHcal
methods
during
the

° E‐learning course
period
offered
the
business
successors
a
new
and
innovaHve
training
as
preparaHon

AddiHonally
to
the
presence
blocks,
e‐learning
was
used
as
a
supplementary
studying/ for
the
succession
process.
teaching
method
and
allowed
the
course
parHcipants
to
work
on
the
training
contents

on
their
own
independently
of
the
locaHon.
Already
imparted
knowledge
in
the
presence

blocks
could
be
repeated
and
pracHced.
 Details
of
the
Pilot
Training
in
Graz
The
training
was
divided
into
five
presence
blocks
for
which
the
dates
were
already
fixed
in

° Project
oriented
work
in
simulaHons
under
the
use
of
the
Screening
Tool the
partner
meeHng
in
Vicenza
in
October
2007
and
lasted
from
February
unHl
June
2008.
The

AddiHonally
 to
 the
 training,
 an
 online
 tool
 was
 developed
 that
 allowed
 the
 course
 trainings
in
Graz
and
Vicenza
were
carried
out
one
a2er
the
other
to
exchange
experiences

parHcipants
to
simulate
their
own
follow‐up
situaHon
several
Hmes.
ParHcipants
worked
 between
the
different
countries
during
the
two
trial
runs.
out
possible
concepts
for
their
business
succession,
from
a
best
case
to
a
worst
case
 The
training
was
free
of
charge
for
the
course
parHcipants
because
the
project
was
funded
by

scenario
based
on
their
own
experiences,
the
imparted
knowledge
by
the
lecturer,
self
 the
European
Commission.
In
order
to
find
enough
parHcipants
in
our
target
group
and
target

study,
and
experience
exchange/discussion
with
other
course
parHcipants.
 sectors,
the
promoHon
of
the
training
was
very
extensive
The
first
block
had
to
be
shi2ed

from
the
beginning
of
February
unHl
the
end
of
February
because
of
too
few
parHcipants.

° Learning
plaxorm A2er
 various
 press
 releases
 in
 local
 newspapers,
 personal
 contact
 to
 colleagues
 from
 the

In
 the
 partner
 meeHng
 in
 Vicenza,
 the
 implementaHon
 of
 a
 learning
 plaxorm
 on
 the
 start‐up
programme,
arHcles
in
the
employers‘
newspaper
of
the
Chamber
of
Commerce,

BTP
 websiten
 was
 agreed
 on.
 The
 installed
 plaxorm
 complemented
 the
 presence
 announcing
of
the
training
on
the
bit‐website
and
websites
of
insHtuHons
close
to
start‐ups

blocks
 and
 supported
 further
 networking
 of
 the
 parHcipants.
 Two
 learning
 plaxorms
 and
successors/transferors
(among
others
Follow
me,
GründerInnenzentrum,
IFUB…),
and

were
set
up:
one
for
Graz
and
one
for
Vicenza
because
the
trainings
were
held
in
the
 the
support
of
the
training
staff,
finally
20
people
applied
for
the
pilot
training
in
Graz.

naHonal
languages.
Each
plaxorm
was
divided
into
three
parts:
first,
a
discussion
forum


74 75
E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  6 j h i g ^ V E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  6 j h i g ^ V

Introductory
Session Module
Legal
Aspects
The
training
started
with
the
introducHon
session
on
29
of
February
2008
and
was
opened
 Joachim
Janezic,
a
self‐employed
lawyer,
instructed
this
module.
He
had

various
publicaHons

by
the
project
contractor
bit
management
(Thomas
Wychodil,
Andrea
Lang,
and
Manuela
 includingone
 on
 the
 topic
 of
 business
 succession.
 As
 a
 member
 and
 founder
 member
 in

Ortner‐Arch)
and
the
project
partners
FH
Joanneum
(Thomas
Schmalzer)
and
UBIT/Chamber
 various
naHonal
and
internaHonal
lawyers’
offices
and
his
experiences
with
his
own
company,

of
Commerce
(DI
Heinz
Michalitsch).
The
project
background
and
objecHves
were
introduced
 he
could
give
very
useful
advice
to
the
course
parHcipants
related
to
pracHce
and
small
and

as
well
as
the
upcoming
training
and
the
Screening
Tool.

A2erwards
the
external
expert,
 medium
sized
companies.

Birgit
Mayer
conHnued
to
introduce
the
external
accompanying
process
for
the
whole
pilot

training
 especially
 the
 personal
 and
 e‐coaching,
 the
 addiHonal
 support
 for
 the
 business
 Module
Analysis
transfer
plan,
and
the
Screening
Tool.
 Gregor
Reautschnig
is
a
tax
consultant
and
an
instructor
at
university
and
imparted
pracHcal

oriented
knowledge
on
the
topic
of
company
evaluaHon
and
due
diligence
and
enabled
the

The
 following
 chart
 shows
 the
 Hme
 schedule
 and
 the
 division
 of
 modules/topics,
 for
 the
 parHcipants;
 addiHonal
 to
 the
 Screening
 Tool
 and
 the
 benchmark
 data
 base;
 to
 carry
 out

training
in
Graz
and
Vicenza: a
 company’s
 quick
 check
 with
 five
 management
 raHos.
 This
 is
 the
 training’s
 core
 module

because
 the
 evaluaHon
 process
 delivers
 necessary
 informaHon,
 to
 find
 out
 if
 an
 exisHng

Module Presence
 E‐Learning Self‐Study Establishment
 total company
is
worth
taking
over.
Units transfer‐plan
/

Self
studies Module
Marke,ng
Michaela
Jentl
is
the
product
manager
in
a
big
internaHonal
company
in
Austria
and
a
self

employed
 trainer
 for
 markeHng‐controlling,
 strategy
 development,
 communicaHon,
 and

INTRODUTION 2
trainings
for
start‐ups.
She
inspired
the
course
parHcipants
through
her
global
knowledge

1 LEGAL 8 4 because
of
her
internaHonal
experiences.

2 FINANCE 8 8 12
3 ANALYSIS 12 5 Module
SoT
Skills
4 MARKETING 12 4 10 Petra
Pulst
was
recommended
by
our
German
partner,
BWF,
and
is
an
expert
on
so2
skills
and

5 SOFT
SKILLS 10 2 8 start‐up
consultaHon.
Working
together
with
her
was
very
an
extremely
posiHve
experience

because
 she
 brought
 in
 new
 aspects
 and
 many
 pracHcal
 examples
 for
 the
 parHcipants

6 HUMAN
RESOURCES 8 2
concerning
communicaHon
and
leadership
skills.
60 20 35 10 125

Module
Human
Resources

Module
Finance Manuela
 Mätzener
 is
 a
 self
 employed
 expert
 in
 business
 succession
 and
 has
 wriCen
 a

This
module
was
instructed
by
Woflgang
Egi,
a
self
employed
trainer
for
controlling,
finance,
 extensive
publicaHon
on
transfer/succession
within
family
business.
Her
main
focus
lies
on

and
planning
and
an
expert
on
revitalisaHon
measures.
Because
of
long
standing
pracHcal
 the
 systemic
 approach,
 and
 she
 integrated
 this
 approach
 very
 professionally
 during
 these

experiences
as
an
instructor
at
universiHes
and
having
belonged
to
the
management
board
 lessons,
and
the
parHcipants
saw
the
importance
of
the
whole
company
as
a
system
and
how

of
an
Austrian
company
for
more
than
ten
years,
he
could
bring
in
much
knowledge
to
the
 the
different
parts
of
a
company
are
combined.
She
also
offered
her
wide
network
for
the

topic
finance
and
had
much
advice
for
the
course
parHcipants. promoHon
of
the
training
in
the
whole
of
Austria.

76 77
E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  6 j h i g ^ V E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  6 j h i g ^ V

At
both
locaHons,
Graz
and
Vicenza,
the
course
parHcipants
benefited
from
a
well
balanced
 Closing
Feedback
naHonal
 and
 internaHonal
 trainer
 team
 that
 brought
 in
 addiHonal
 knowledge,
 many
 new
 This
session
took
place
at
the
end
of
the
last
presence
course
day
and
was
moderated
again

aspects,
and
percepHons
for
business
successors
and
contributed
to
the
compensaHon
of
 by
our
external
expert,
Birgit
Mayer.
All
the
course
parHcipants
reported
about
their
own

exisHng
lacks
of
knowledge
on
this
topic.
 experiences
during
the
course
and
what
should
be
obtained
and

changed
concerning
the

training,
training
staff,
content,
proporHon
of
presence/e‐learning/self
study,
Screening
Tool,

Interim
Feedback and
learning
plaxorm.
In
general
parHcipants
were
very
saHsfied
with
this
new
training,
and

This
feedback
session
was
carried
out
in
the
third
presence
block
at
the
beginning
of
April
 the
posiHve
feedback
confirmed
the
consorHums’
work
so
far
and
that
it
was
on
the
right

2008
 moderated
 by
 the
 external
 expert
 for
 business
 succession/transfer,
 Birgit
 Mayer.
 track.

She
moderated
the
interim
feedback
session
and
summarised
the
feedback
of
the
course

parHcipants
concerning
the
presence
modules
so
far,
the
instructors,
the
organisaHon,
the
 Cer,fica,on
Award
use
of
the
Screening
Tool
and
learning
plaxorm,
the
progress
of
the
course
parHcipants
with
 Birgit
Mayer
moderated
this
event
because
she
had
accompanied
the
whole
training
as
an

their
 own
 transfer
 plan,
 the
 saHsfacHon
 with
 the
 external
 coaching,
 and
 the
 experience
 external
 expert
 and
 used
 her
 network
 for
 the
 promoHon
 of
 this
 event
 and
 the
 invitaHon

exchange
between
the
parHcipants.
 of
 representaHves
 of
 economy
 and
 poliHcs.
 The
 project
 contractor,
 bit
 management

(Thomas
Wychodil,
Andrea
Lang
and
Manuela
Ortner‐Arch)
opened
the
cerHficaHon
award

The
 interim
 feedback
 contributed
 to
 the
 assessment
 and
 the
 further
 development
 of
 the
 by
presenHng
the
project
background.
The
FH
JOANNEUM
(Thomas
Schmalzer
and
Rupert

training
 and
 showed
 that
 the
 parHcipants
 were
 very
 saHsfied
 with
 the
 training,
 the
 high
 Beinhauer)
 then
 informed
 the
 parHcipants
 about
 the
 background
 for
 its
 parHcipaHon
 on

quality
 of
 trainers,
 training
 content
 and
 the
 addiHonal
 tools,
 Screening
 Tool,
 and
 learning
 this
 project.
 Furthermore,
 the
 representaHves
 of
 UBIT/Chamber
 of
 Commerce
 (Heinz

plaxorm.
At
that
Hme
the
technical
tools
were
used
to
a
different
extent
by
the
parHcipants,
 Michalitsch,
 Werner
 Lämmerer)
 presented
 the
 moHvaHon
 of
 their
 parHcipaHon
 on
 this

because
 of
 a
 lack
 of
 Hme.
 All
 the
 parHcipants
 were
 employed
 either
 in
 the
 transferred
 project.
A2erwards
the
representaHves
of
the
provincial
and
federal
government
held
a
key

company
or
in
another
company
and
planned
the
parHcipaHon
in
the
presence
blocks
where
 note
 speech
 about
 their
 relaHonship
 with
 the
 topic
 business
 succession/transfer
 and
 the

they
had
direct
contact
to
trainers
and
could
ask
their
quesHons,
and
the
remaining
Hme,
 importance
of
maintaining
these
enterprises
for
the
whole
economy.
Manfred
Wegscheider

when
there
they
had
Hme
le2
because
of
their
job
involvements,
was
used
for
the
tools,
self
 represented
the
governor
as
a
member
of
the
provincial
government
and
Johann
Koroschetz

study,
and
their
own
transfer
plan.
 represented
the
local
mayor
as
municipal
councillor.
Barbara
Eibinger
is
the
president
of
the

Junge
Wirtscha2,a
federal
councillor,
and
a
future

business
successor
within
the
family.
She

Key‐note
Speech
by
Heinz
Michalitsch menHoned
the
necessity
of
measures
for
business
successors
in
Austria
and
complimented

Heinz
 Michalitsch
 is
 a
 self
 employed
 management
 consultant
 and
 the
 chairman
 of
 the
 the
contribuHon
of
the
project
consorHum
to
raise
awareness
on
the
topic
business
succession

AssociaHon
 of
 Management
 Consultants
 (UBIT)/Chamber
 of
 Commerce.
 This
 session
 took
 and
to
deliver
concrete
measures
like
the
training
and
Screening
Tool
as
an
addiHonal
help

place
at
the
end
of
the
third
block
and
was
a
very
open
session
for
further
quesHons
and
do’s
 for
business
successors.

and
don’ts
in
the
business
transfer
process.
Heinz
Michalitsch
brought
in
his
own
experience
 

as
a
business
successor
for
the
take
over
of
a
driving
school
within
the
family
and
his
long

lasHng
experience
as
management
consultant
amongst
other
things
for
the
consultaHon
of

transferred
companies.

78 79
E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  6 j h i g ^ V E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  > i V a n

A2er
the
key
note
speeches,
the
course
parHcipants
were
introduced
and
the
cerHficates
 E^adiIgV^c^c\Ä>iVan
were
awarded
by
Manfred
Wegscheider,
Barbara
Eibinger
and
bit
management
team.
The
 AVgVHXVciVbWjgad!EVdadOVgVbZaaV
cerHficaHon
award
was
very
successful,
and
press
releases
in
various
media
followed,
such
 HijY^d8ZcigdKZcZid
as
in
Manager
Magazin
and
Der
Standard.
Like
the
whole
project,
this
event
contributed
to

make
people
aware
of
the
topic
of
business
succession
at
local,
naHonal,
and
internaHonal

levels.
 The
 main
 BTP
 objecHve
 was
 to
 develop
 an
 effecHve
 training
 instrument
 able
 to
 help

entrepreneurs
in
dealing
with
several
implicaHons
related
with
business
transfer.
The
pilot

training’s
challenge
was
to
design
experimental
training
tools
which,
if
successful,
could
be

spread
and
adopted
all
over
the
EU
states
facilitaHng
companies’
handover
governance.
The

target
groups
were
family
members,
MBOs
(employees
willing
to
take
over
a
company)
and

MBIs
(external
persons
willing
to
take
over
a
company).

A
first
phase
was
dedicated
to
collect
quanHtaHve
and
qualitaHve
data
that
could
lead
to
a

beCer
understanding
of
the
issue’s
main
features:
a
sample
of
small
enterprises
from
the

north‐east
region
of
Italy
were
contacted
and
interviewed
in
order
to
recognise
their
actual

needs
concerning
business
transfer.

A2er
that
it
was
decided
focus
on
two
basic
aspects:
° On‐line
tool
–
called
“Screening
Tool”
‐
able
to
help
the
successors’
self‐assessment.
It

could
let
them
esHmate
their
own
and
their
‐
actual
or
future
‐
business
preparaHon

related
 to
 a
 potenHal
 (imminent
 or
 just
 future)
 business
 handover.
 It
 should
 also
 be

useful
for
possible
buyers
as
a
means
to
measure
the
development
potenHaliHes
of
a

company
to
take
over;
° Designing
 an
 innovaHve
 training
 path
 –
 called
 “European
 Curriculum
 for
 Successors“

–
 with
 all
 the
 partner
 support,
 aimed
 to
 teach
 the
 knowledge,
 skills,
 and
 abiliHes

necessary
for
business
successors.

The
pilot
training
was
carried
out
at
the
same
Hme
in
Graz/Austria
(bit)
and
Vicenza/Italy

(StudioCentroVeneto
‐
SCV).
The
two
courses
followed
the
same
programme,
in
accordance

with
the
training‐plan
which
was
set
up
together
during
the
partner
meeHng
in
Vicenza
in

October
2007
including
the
basic
contents
and
objecHves
of
the
curriculum
as
well
as
a
first

blocks’
calendar
and
a
dra2
of
the
trainers/experts
involved
in
the
training
sessions.


80 81
E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  > i V a n E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  > i V a n

It
is
important
to
note
that
there
was
a
conHnuous
exchange
between
bit
and
SCV
for
the
 ° Star,ng
Day.
whole
duraHon
of
the
project
to
share
ideas
and
experiences
which
lead
to
a
good
and
useful
 Toni
Brunello
and
Paolo
Zaramella
led
this
introducHon
meeHng
with
the
specific
purpose
to

product.
The
specific
contents
were
adapted
to
the
local
situaHon
and
needs. involve
parHcipants,
to
acquaint
them
with
each
other,
and
to
build
an
open
climate
within

the
 group.
 They
 also
 tried
 to
 find
 out
 which
 expectaHons
 and
 which
 main
 difficulHes
 in

The
course
programme
was
developed
within
the
scope
of
a
Leonardo
da
Vinci
Programme
 dealing
with
the
transfer
process
the
parHcipants
had.

funded
by
the
European
Commission
and,
therefore,
the
training
programme
itself
was
free

of
charge
for
the
parHcipants.
According
to
a
typical
VeneHan
(but
maybe
also
European)
 ° The
Modules
Composing
the
BTP
Curriculum.
aPtude,
“free
iniHaHves”
have
someHmes
unexpected
implicaHons,
linked
to
quality
feeling

or
moHvaHon.
When
the
business
transfer
issue’s
complexity
is
considered,
it
is
not
difficult
 1.
Finance
to
understand
that
finding
parHcipants
was
not
so
easy:
thus,
a
markeHng
mix
approach
was
 This
 training
 session
 was
 led
 by
 Alin
 Ivan,
 a
 consultant
 and
 trainer
 coming
 from
 the

needed
in
order
to
adverHse
the
programme.
 consorHum
(SVASTA,
Romania).
Thanks
to
his
basic
knowledge
of
Italian,
and
someHmes
to

In
the
case
of
the
Vicenza
pilot
training,
different
channels
were
jointly
used,
namely
direct
 the
simultaneous
interpreHng,
the
session
was
really
successful.
ParHcipants
appreciated
the

mail,
personal
contacts
(i.e.
people
met
thanks
to
other
events
and
projects),
promoHonal
 internaHonal
scope
of
this
meeHng,
making
clear
that
having
trans‐naHonal
trainers
could
be

acHons
 through
 the
 Italian
 supporHng
 partner
 Vicenza
 Cra2s
 AssociaHon,
 an
 introducHon
 an
important
added
value
to
the
whole
course.
arHcle
published
in
a
specific
entrepreneurial
periodical,
and
a
targeted
adverHsement
in
the
 “I’ve
 been
 posiHvely
 surprised
 by
 the
 interest
 that
 my
 topics
 have
 raised.
 They
 are
 quite

local
newspaper.
The
laCer
was
a
really
successful
strategy
as
it
let
SCV
collect
six
subscripHons,
 technical,
so
usually
they
are
not
easily
appreciated
by
the
wide
audience.
ParHcipants
get

most
of
which
were
involve
not
in
a
family
succession
but
in
a
potenHal
buyout). soon
 involved
 in
 the
 proposed
 exercitaHons
 and
 they
 have
 quickly
 imagined
 innovaHve

markeHng
paths.”
Ivan
Alin,
expert
consultant/trainer,
SVASTA
–
Romania.
For
 the
 Vicenza
 pilot
 training
 18
 people
 registered.
 Unfortunately,
 two
 of
 them
 withdrew

because
of
business
engagements.
So
the
course
had
finally
16
actual
parHcipants.
It
was
 2.
MarkeHng
possible
to
disHnguish
two
main
target
groups:
the
first
was
composed
of
11
family
business
 Marco
 EvangelisH,
 an
 Italian
 consultant
 with
 a
 wide
 experience
 of
 the
 Turkish
 market,

successors,
 and
 the
 second
 one
 was
 consHtuted
 of
 five
 managers/employees
 willing
 to
 led
 this
 module.
 He
 was
 suggested
 to
 StudioCentroVeneto
 by
 the
 BTP‘s
 Turkish
 partner

conHnue
an
exisHng
company.
 CRM
 ConsulHng.
 He
 showed
 strong
 competence
 in
 the
 markeHng
 field
 as
 well
 as
 good

communicaHon
 skills.
 StarHng
 from
 his
 consolidated
 consulHng
 experiences
 (amongst

In
managing
the
Vicenza
pilot
training,
SCV
had
a
double
role
as
project
coordinator
and
as
 his
clients
it
is
possible
to
find
really
presHgious
firms),
he
was
able
to
give
a
lot
of
useful

experts.
SCV
staff
members
(Toni
Brunello
and
Paolo
Zaramella)
were
experts
on
business
 suggesHons
 o2en
 focused
 on
 specific
 cases
 raised
 directly
 from
 parHcipants.
 Thanks
 to

transfer.
 So
 they
 were
 involved
 both
 as
 trainers’
 assessors
 and
 as
 assessed
 trainers:
 it
 let
 several
 inputs
 provided,
 most
 of
 the
 aCendants
 came
 out
 from
 these
 markeHng
 training

them
 follow
 the
 course
 development
 from
 a
 special
 point
 of
 view.
 The
 team
 was
 chosen
 sessions
with
new
ideas
to
improve
their
own
business
development
strategy.
taking
 into
 account
 the
 European
 dimension
 of
 the
 whole
 programme.
 Experts
 coming

from
the
local
and
regional
network
as
well
as
trans‐naHonal
trainers
coming
from
partners
 3.
Interim
Check
countries,
namely
Romania
and
Turkey,
were
included
in
the
team. Toni
 Brunello
 and
 Paolo
 Zaramella
 managed
 the
 interim
 meeHng,
 necessary
 to
 set
 up

and
adapt
the
training
course
contents.
They
got
the
first
feed‐back
from
the
parHcipants

The
training
course
was
held
within
the
following
operaHve‐plan,
for
a
total
duraHon
of
four
 concerning
interests,
challenges,
and
problems.
They
also
presented
the
basic
structure
of

months,
from
the
middle
of
February
unHl
the
middle
of
June
2008: the
two
supporHng
tools:
Screening
Tool
(+
Benchmark
data)
and
the
learning
plaxorm.
The


82 83
E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  > i V a n E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  > i V a n

tools
are
very
useful,
and
allow
the
users
to
integrate
the
learning
path
with
on‐line
materials
 relaHonship
 amongst
 the
 owner,
 his/her
 employees,
 and
 collaborators.
 ParHcipants

(arHcles,
books,
comments,
and
links).
The
basic
Screening
Tool
created
a
“virtual
circuit”
 discovered
a
new
aPtude
to
valorise
people
and
to
get
the
best
from
their
work.
Since
Elena

in
 the
 parHcipants,
 who
 started
 to
 think
 about
 and
 measure
 when
 possible,
 the
 different
 Padovan
is
an
expert
also
in

the
business
transfer
field,
she
also
introduced
the
Business

aspects
that
are
facing
of
in
a
business
transfer
process.
The
benchmark
data
seems
to
be
 Transfer
Plan
supposed
to
be
filled
in
by
each
parHcipant
as
final
part
of
the
BTP
training

very
effecHve
for
the
potenHal
buyers
of
an
exisHng
company:
they
are
able
to
check
the
 path.

different
aspects
of
the
company
and
take
the

decision
of
buying
or
not.
A2er
this
block
the

trainers
were
able
to
contact
the
following
experts
(Dal
Lin,
Barausse,
and
Padovan)
with
a
 ° Closing
Day.
more
detailed
programme
as
well
as
with
some
fresh
and
useful
feed‐backs. Toni
Brunello
and
Paolo
Zaramella
led
this
final
session
in
order
to
collect
all
the
parHcipants’

transfer
plans
and
to
assess
the
whole
training
programme.
It
was
the
occasion
to
exchange

4.
Legal
Aspects strategies
and
future
development
ambiHons:
a
useful
moment
to
confront
the
next
steps

In
this
case
the
trainer
was
Ferruccio
Dal
Lin,
an
Italian
business
consultant
and
expert
in
 each
future
successor
would
wish
to
perform.

reporHng,
who
has
worked
with
micro
and
small
companies
since
1980.
Ferruccio
Dal
Lin

started
 with
 a
 complex
 topic,
 namely
 how
 to
 guarantee
 a
 good
 transfer
 in
 term
 of
 fiscal
 All
these
meeHngs
were
assessed
by
the
aCendants
with
the
project
evaluaHon
form.
The

and
legal
costs/liabiliHes
and,
at
the
same
Hme,
ensure
a
good
transfer.
Thanks
to
his
wide
 outstanding
evaluaHon
results
showed
how
much
the
parHcipants
appreciated
the
modules

experience,
he
presented
a
model,
a
sort
of
matrix
with
four
different
goals:
guarantee
a
 and
how
good
the
training
sessions
were
in
helping
them
design
their
own
future
acHons.

happy
 oldness
 to
 the
 transferor/seller;
 equity
 inside
 the
 family/partnership;
 conHnuity
 of
 The
 basic
 target
 of
 the
 course
 foreseeing
 potenHal
 successors’
 demands
 and
 covering,
 as

the
business,
and
few
costs. much
as
possible,
the
lack
of
knowledge
on
funcHonal
maCers
was
successfully
reached.
In

Ferruccio
Dal
Lin
declared,
at
the
beginning
of
the
lesson,
that
“each
case
is
a
specific
and
 some
cases
the
single
training
session
was
the
start
of
a
more
focused
relaHonship
between

unique
 case”,
 in
 term
 of
 complexity,
 needs,
 and
 soluHons/tools.
 In
 the
 Italian
 legislaHon
 a
parHcipant
and
a
trainer
with
experHse
on
a
parHcular
issue
leading
to
even
more
concrete

there
is
a
big
advantage:
someHmes
there
are
too
many
tools/laws
for
solving
the
business
 soluHons
and
results.

transfer
problems.
In
other
words,
it
is
very
important
to
receive
professional
support
from

an
external
expert
and
to
consider
the
specific
needs
of
each
entrepreneur. The
 use
 of
 innovaHve
 and
 funcHonal
 tools,
 the
 learning
 plaxorm
 and
 the
 Screening
 Tool,

proved
to
be
very
useful.
The
learning
plaxorm
provided:
5.
So2
Skills ° An
 easy
 and
 fast
 means
 to
 get
 all
 course
 materials
 used
 during
 the
 sessions.
 Paper

Luisa
Barausse
led
this
module.
She
is
an
expert
consultant,
partner
of
STAFF,
which
is
a
private
 copies
 were
 always
 provided,
 but
 nowadays
 it
 can
 be
 more
 comfortable
 to
 have
 an

company
focused
on
training
and
research.
During
her
training
sessions,
she
dealt
with
crucial
 online
version,
which
is
available
whenever
needed.
topics,
such
as
communicaHon
skills
and
Hme
management,
from
an
interesHng
perspecHve.
 ° A
networking
instrument,
for
parHcipants
to
be
able
to
easily
get
in
touch
with
other

She
was
able
to
make
parHcipants
think
about
their
life
prioriHes
and,
consequently,
assign
 parHcipants
 through
 its
 forum
 secHon.
 It
 served
 and
 sHll
 serves
 as
 a
 virtual
 meeHng

the
most
correct
value
to
each
of
them.
At
this
occasion
it
was
also
possible
for
the
audience
 point
to
speak
about
business
transfer
issues,
exchanging
points
of
view
and
experience

to
express
single
needs
and
requirements,
finding
useful
answers
and
operaHve
guidelines.
 as
well
as
quesHons
and
answers.

Thanks
 to
 its
 benchmarking
 approach,
 the
 Screening
 Tool
 has
 been
 very
 useful,
 too.

6.
Human
Resources Crucial
aspects
of
the
enterprise’s
management
are
idenHfied;
each
one
with
an
average

The
 leading
 trainer
 of
 this
 meeHng
 was
 Elena
 Padovan,
 a
 freelance
 consultant
 with
 a
 standard
score
(calculated
within
the
single
market
branch)
supposed
to
indicate
the

background
in
psychology.
Her
session
was
focused
on
the
best
way
to
build
a
producHve
 company’s
status
on
that
specific
point.
It
was
useful
not
only
as
a
proper
posiHoning


84 85
E ^ a d i  Ig V ^ c ^ c \ h  "  > i V a n I]ZHjgkZn

instrument,
 but
 also
 as
 an
 actual
 exercise
 able
 to
 “force”
 parHcipants
 to
 think
 about
 J^[Ikhl[o
all
that
different
aspects
as
a
whole.
It
was
not
so
easy
to
find
benchmark
data,
but,
 ?VXdWdGVb^gZo
thanks
to
the
supporHng
partner
Vicenza
Cra2s
AssociaHon,
benchmark
data
was
finally
 8deZc]V\Zc7jh^cZhhHX]dda
available.
 The
 involvement
 of
 the
 Vicenza
 Cra2s
 AssociaHon
 was
 reinforced
 with
 the

parHcipaHon
 of
 its
 Young
 Entrepreneurs
 secHon
 in
 some
 programme
 meeHngs.
 Its
 >cigdYjXi^dc
president
 as
 well
 as
 some
 managers
 gave
 their
 own
 contribuHon,
 also
 ensuring
 their

possible
support
a2er
the
project,
if
necessary.
 The
objecHve
of
this
secHon
is
to
provide
staHsHcal
evidence
on
how
industrial
sector
and

“We
 have
 welcomed
 this
 ini9a9ve
 very
 enthusias9cally.
 From
 some
 years,
 as
 Young
 CraJ
 country
 mould
 the
 successors‘
 and
 transferors‘
 percepHons
 of
 the
 importance
 of
 certain

Entrepreneurs,
we
are
following
the
Business
Transfer
issue:
it
is
a
very
delicate
maOer
but,
if
 skills
and
knowledge
for
a
business
transfer
process.
The
aim
of
this
secHon
is
to
provide

well
managed,
can
also
lead
to
new
development
opportuni9es.”
Andrea
Nardello,
President
 addiHonal
 informaHon
 to
 design
 the
 screening
 tool
 according
 to
 the
 needs
 of
 businesses

of
Cra2
AssociaHon’s
Young
Entrepreneurs.
 located
in
Europe.

First
 a
 brief
 account
 of
 the
 study
 is
 presented.
 It
 follows
 the
 general
 proposiHon
 to
 this

The
overall
impression
is
that
the
approach
adopted
has
been
very
effecHve
as
parHcipants’
 enquiry.
Then
the
design
of
the
study
and
its
methodology
are
presented.
In
this
secHon
a

feedback
seems
to
confirm.
Beginning
from
their
concrete
experiences,
it
was
possible
to
 detailed
explanaHon
of
the
staHsHcal
approach
selected
for
this
analysis
is
discussed.
start
an
acHve
circuit
of
learning
and
teaching,
in
which
all
the
parHes
involved
contributed
 The
results
are
presented,
starHng
with
the
sample
and
data
collecHon.
The
results
of
the

to
 making
 the
 course
 a
 useful
 and
 successful
 experience.
 The
 coordinaHng
 team
 was
 the
 instrument
validaHon
and
model
test
are
discussed.
A
concluding
remark
is
presented
at
the

point
of
reference
for
parHcipants.
They
were
contacted
about
twice
a
month
through
calls,
 end
of
this
secHon.
emails,
as
well
as
direct
and
one‐to‐one
meeHngs.
The
relaHonship
built
in
this
way
was
the

strongest
point
of
the
programme
as
the
parHcipants’
enthusiasm
proves.
A2er
this
first
trial,
 I]ZHijYn
the
pilot
training
can
surely
be
improved,
but
it
is
definitely
to
be
hoped
that
it
will
not
stop
 

with
the
official
deadline
of
the
BTP
Project.
It
is
common
opinion
among
all
the
partners
to
 In
order
to
explore
the
appropriate
content
for
the
screening
tool
in
various
countries
and

try
to
work
together
again,
to
valorise
the
obtained
results,
to
give
them
conHnuity
and
to
 across
 different
 industrial
 sectors,
 a
 study
 was
 required.
 The
 seven
 countries
 selected
 for

improve
them
in
other
projects. this
 project
 are
 Austria,
 Germany,
 Denmark,
 Italy,
 Turkey,
 Romania,
 and
 Spain.
 In
 these


 countries
there
are
historical,
religious,
educaHonal,
and
poliHcal
factors
that
are
decisive
in

causing
cultural
differences
between
them.
Therefore,
the
screening
tool
should
be
adapted

according
to
the
differences
present
in
these
countries.
We
will
asses
the
magnitude
and
detail
of
the
industrial
sector‘s
effect
on
the
successors‘

and
transferors‘
percepHons
of
the
importance
and
value
of
certain
skills
and
knowledge
for

a
successful
business
 transfer
process.
This
percepHon
will
be
evaluated
across
the
seven

countries
involved
in
this
project.
This
analysis
will
be
developed
by
integraHng
country
and

industrial
sector
as
two
independent
variables.


86 87
I]ZHjgkZn I]ZHjgkZn

<ZcZgVaEgdedh^i^dc The
 quesHonnaire
 for
 the
 successors‘
 sample
 asked
 for
 general
 informaHon
 about
 the

take‐over
 process
 in
 terms
 of
 type
 for
 successors,
 how
 he/she
 found
 the
 transferor,
 Hme

NaHonal
culture
in
terms
of
the
country
where
the
business
transfer
process
takes
place
will
 for
the
transfer
process,
and
reasons
for
taking
over
the
firm.
In
terms
of
the
transferors’

moderate
the
relaHon
between
industrial
sector
and
the
knowledge,
skills,
and
competences
 quesHonnaire
version,
different
quesHons
were
asked
in
relaHon
to
the
hand‐over
process

that
a
screening
tool
should
have.
NaHonal
culture
and
the
different
industrial
sectors
will
 in
terms
of
the
stage
of
the
business
transfer,
addressed
successor,
ways
to
find
a
successor,

interact
to
predict
the
content
of
the
screening
tool
for
the
successors
and
transferors.
This
 type
of
business
transfer
most
appealing,
Hme
for
the
transfer
process,
reasons
for
handing

research
aCempts
to
find
out
what
type
of
knowledge,
skill,
and
competences
will
have
to
be
 over
 the
 business,
 plans
 for
 the
 conHnuity
 of
 the
 firm,
 ways
 to
 learn
 about
 the
 transfer

effecHvely
integrated
in
a
training
programme
under
different
industrial
sectors‘
and
naHonal
 process,
and
opinion
of
external
factors
that
might
affect
the
transfer
process.

sePngs‘
condiHons.

The
quesHonnaire
was
designed
in
English
with
consideraHon
of
its
future
translaHon
into

In
order
to
test
the
general
proposiHon,
it
is
necessary
to
analyse
the
country
and
industrial
 the
official
languages
of
the
seven
countries
involved
in
this
research.
QuesHonnaire
tesHng

sector
 together.
 The
 outcome
 of
 this
 analysis
 could
 help
 to
 understand
 the
 importance,
 was
 conducted
 to
 ensure
 that
 the
 quesHonnaire
 designed
 for
 the
 cross‐naHonal
 research

difficulty,
valuable
knowledge
and
skills
in
the
hand
&
take‐over
processes
for
devising
the
 project
would
accomplish
its
objecHve.

different
contents
of
a
screening
tool
for
business
transfer
purposes.

G:HJAIH
9Zh^\cd[i]ZHijYn/FjZhi^dccV^gZ HVbeaZVcY9ViV8daaZXi^dc
In
order
to
decrease
the
margin
of
error
when
comparing
the
samples,
seven
independent

A
quesHonnaire
was
designed
by
the
BTP
consorHum
in
order
to
explore
about
successors‘
 databases
for
successors
and
transferors
were
created
based
on
locaHon
(two
databases
for

and
transferors‘
beliefs
of
the
knowledge
and
skills
needed
for
the
business
transfer
process
 each
of
the
seven
countries)
and
industrial
sector
(manufacturing,
retail/wholesale,
tourism,

in
different
countries
and
industrial
sector.
The
quesHonnaire
was
developed
for
research
on
 and
 services).
 The
 industrial
 sectors
 were
 broken
 down
 into
 the
 sub‐sectors
 presented

issues
relevant
for
business
transfer
in
European
countries.
The
construct
of
the
quesHonnaire
 earlier.
Different
sources
were
consulted
in
each
country
in
order
to
compile
the
sample.
In

was
designed
to
measure
the
successors‘
and
transferors‘
percepHons
based
on
a
four‐point
 general
terms
the
KOMPASS
data
base
and
the
Chamber
of
Commerce
associated
list
were

Likert
scale
in
the
following
terms:
A)
Importance
1:
Very
important
to
4:
Not
important,
B)
 consulted.

Difficulty,
1:
Very
difficult
to
4:
Not
difficult,
C)
Valuable,
1:
Very
valuable
to
4:
Not
Valuable,

and

D)
Agreement,
1:
Strongly
agree
to
4:
Strongly
disagree.
 Between
 March
 and
 May
 2007
 an
 online
 and
 offline
 versions
 of
 the
 quesHonnaire
 was

A
quesHonnaire
was
designed
for
the
successors
and
transferors
who
shared
between
them
 administrated.
 The
 final
 sample
 consists
 of
 a
 total
 of
 340
 successors
 and
 317
 transferors,

the
same
skills
and
capabiliHes.
Yet,
the
intenHon
is
to
explore
the
percepHon
of
the
business
 usable
 quesHonnaires
 from
 the
 seven
 countries
 represented
 in
 the
 consorHum.
 A
 paper

transfer
process
for
both
sides,
the
successors
and
transferors. a
 pencil
 version
 of
 the
 quesHonnaire
 was
 also
 done
 between
 March
 and
 April
 2007.
 It

The
relaHonship
between
the
successors
and
transferors
in
the
take‐over
process
in
terms
 received
228
successors‘
responses
and
223
transferors‘
responses.
Tables
1
to
3
present
the

of
knowledge,
skills,
and
believes
of
the
content
of
suitable
training
programme
and
a
set
 demographic
results
for
the
successors‘
and
transferors‘
samples.
of
demographic
variables
of
the
target
group
were
invesHgated.
The
demographic
variables

selected
 for
 invesHgaHon
 were
 age,
 gender,
 level
 of
 educaHon,
 and
 country.
 AddiHonally,

company
informaHon
was
also
invesHgated
in
terms
of
legal
form,
size
(number
of
employees),

target
market,
and
industrial
sector.

88 89
I]ZHjgkZn I]ZHjgkZn

>chigjbZciKVa^YVi^dc cases
for
the
seven
countries.
Table
4
shows
that
successors
in
manufacturing
businesses

tend
to
rate
lower
the
importance
of
the
financial
competence
within
the
take‐over
process

A
principal
component
analysis
with
a
varimax
rotaHon
was
developed
to
group
the
different
 than
the
successors
in
retail/wholesales,
tourism,
and
services
business
(*p<0.05).
knowledge,
 skills,
 and
 content
 of
 the
 screening
 tool
 dependent
 variables
 into
 different

factors.
The
Reliability
Coefficient
test
–Alpha
Cronbach
was
calculated
in
the
obtained
factor
 We
further
explore
the
interacHon
between
industrial
sector
and
country
by
analysing
the

in
order
to
test
its
reliability.
Each
of
the
variables
which
integrated
the
resulHng
factors
has
 global
impact
of
the
country
independent
variable
on
the
sixteen
factors.
Table
10
shows

communaliHes
 higher
 than
 0.45
 and
 loading
 factors
 higher
 than
 0.5.
 The
 factors
 present
 that
the
country
variable
presents
a
highly
significant
staHsHcal
difference
(*p<0.05)
in
all

an
Alpha
>
than
0.5.
The
Alphas
were
not
calculated
for
the
factors
that
present
only
two
 the
factors
except
for
the
factor
law.
This
result
signifies
that
country
shapes
the
valuable

items.
Five
clusters
of
factors
were
obtained
for
the
successors:
1)
Important
steps
within
 knowledge
 and
 skills
 within
 the
 take‐over
 process.
 This
 result
 implies
 that
 the
 relaHon

the
take‐over
process,
2)
DifficulHes
in
the
take‐over
process,
3)
Valuable
of
knowledge
and
 between
the
industrial
sectors
and
the
importance,
difficulty,
and
valuable
knowledge
and

skills
in
the
take‐over
process,
4)
Valuable
of
knowledge
and
competences
for
the
business’
 skills
 within
 the
 take‐over
 process
 will
 be
 moderated
 by
 the
 country
 where
 the
 business

conHnuity,
 and
 5)
 Content
 of
 the
 screening
 tool.
 Sixteen
 factors
 integrate
 these
 obtained
 operates.
In
order
to
examine
which
country
presents
mean
difference;
a
post
hoc
test
was

clusters,
(please
refer
to
Tables
4
to
6
for
the
details).
The
factor
analysis
for
the
transferor
 applied
to
the
successors’
sample.
Tables
12‐20
present
the
results.

quesHonnaire
 presents
 six
 clusters:
 1)
 Important
 steps
 within
 the
 hand‐over
 process,
 2)

DifficulHes
in
the
hand‐over
process,
3)
Valuable
of
knowledge
and
skills
in
the
hand‐over
 Transferors:
 Seventeen
 univariate
 analyses
 of
 variance
 tests
 (ANOVA)
 were
 conducted
 to

process,
4)
Valuable
of
knowledge
and
competences
that
a
successor
should
have
for
the
 examine
 the
 main
 effect
 of
 country
 and
 industrial
 sector
 on
 the
 seventeen
 factors.
 Table

business’
 conHnuity,
 5)
 Knowledge
 and
 skills
 that
 successors
 should
 have,
 and
 6)
 Content
 10
 suggests
 that
 there
 is
 an
 interacHon
 between
 country
 and
 industrial
 sector
 for
 the

of
the
screening
tool.
Seventeen
factors
integrate
these
obtained
clusters
(please
refer
to
 Management
 and
 Successors’
 Sales
 Skills
 factors
 (p<0.05).
 These
 results
 indicate
 that
 the

Tables
4
to
6
for
the
details). impact
 of
 the
 industrial
 sector
 on
 the
 two
 factors
 is
 not
 the
 same
 in
 the
 seven
 countries

(Austria,
 Germany,
 Denmark,
 Italy,
 Turkey,
 Romania,
 and
 Spain).
 In
 here
 the
 staHsHcal

Successors:
 Sixteen
 univariate
 analyses
 of
 variance
 tests
 (ANOVA)
 were
 conducted
 to
 evidence
presents
different
transferors’
approaches
to
the
importance,
difficulty,
and
value

examine
 the
 main
 effect
 of
 country
 and
 industrial
 sector
 on
 the
 sixteen
 factors.
 Table
 10
 of
certain
knowledge
and
skills
in
the
seven
countries.


suggests
that
there
is
an
interacHon
between
country
and
industrial
sector
for
the
following

factors:
 Technical
 Knowledge,
 CommunicaHon
 Skills,
 LegislaHon
 knowledge,
 Contact
 other
 This
result
signifies
the
importance,
difficulty,
and
valuable
knowledge
and
skills
within
the

successors,
Financial
knowledge,
Commercial
knowledge,
Firm’s
sector
knowledge,
Business
 hand‐over
process
between
manufacturing,
retail/wholesale,
tourism
and
services
business

worth
and,
Finance
(p<0.05).
The
results
partly
supports
the
noHon
that
there
is
a
difference
 (please
see
Table
3).
Table
8
shows
that
transferors
in
manufacturing
businesses
tend
to
rate

in
the
importance,
difficulty,
and
valuable
knowledge
and
skills
within
the
take‐over
process
 lower
than
retail/wholesales
and
services
businesses
the
valuable
of
successors’
sales
skills

between
manufacturing,
retail/wholesale,
tourism
and
services
business.
We
further
explore
 as
a
capability
that
they
should
have
(*p<0.05).

this
result
by
analysing
the
global
impact
of
industrial
sector
independent
variable
on
sixteen

factors.
Table
7
shows
that
the
industrial
sector
variable
presents
a
highly
significant
staHsHcal
 Table
 9
 shows
 that
 transferors
 in
 manufacturing
 businesses
 tend
 to
 rate
 lower
 than

difference
(*p<0.05)
in
the
following
factor:
Financial
Knowledge.
This
result
signifies
that
 retail/wholesales
 the
 importance
 to
 include
 law
 aspects
 in
 the
 screening
 tool
 (*p<0.05).

the
industrial
sector
moulds
the
valuable
knowledge
and
skills
within
the
take‐over
process.
 AddiHonally,
transferors
in
the
retail/wholesales
business
tend
to
rate
higher
than
tourism

In
order
to
examine
which
industrial
sector
presents
mean
difference,
a
post
hoc
test
was
 in
this
respect.
Table
7
shows
that
the
industrial
sector
variable
presents
a
highly
significant

applied
to
the
successors’
sample.
This
procedure
was
developed
for
the
factor
taking
all
the
 staHsHcal
difference
(*p<0.05)
in
the
following
factors:
contact
key
player,
successors’
sales


90 91
I]ZHjgkZn I]ZHjgkZn

skills
and
law.
These
results
signify
that
the
industrial
sector
moulds
the
valuable
knowledge
 >bea^XVi^dch[dgEgVXi^i^dcZgh
and
skills
within
the
hand‐over
process.
One
of
the
challenges
of
this
secHon
is
to
communicate
effecHvely
to
pracHHoners
the
findings

These
results
indicate
that
the
impact
of
the
industrial
sector
on
the
nine
factors
is
not
the
 discussed
here
and
their
implicaHons
for
successors‘
and
transferors‘
day‐to‐day
challenges

same
in
the
seven
countries
(Austria,
Germany,
Denmark,
Italy,
Turkey,
Romania,
and
Spain).
 in
their
firms.
At
the
macro‐level,
this
secHon
draws
aCenHon
of
successors
and
transferors

In
here
the
staHsHcal
evidence
presents
different
successors’
approaches
to
the
importance,
 to
 potenHal
 and
 actual
 advantages
 of
 the
 naHonal
 context
 within
 the
 business
 transfer

difficulty,
and
value
of
certain
knowledge
and
skills
in
the
seven
countries.

 process
 takes
 place.
 It
 also
 enhances
 the
 business
 owners’
 awareness
 of
 the
 significant

role
 of
 the
 industrial
 sector
 that
 shapes
 the
 type
 of
 skills
 and
 knowledge
 the
 transferors

8dcXajh^dchVcY>bea^XVi^dch and
 successors
 should
 develop
 in
 order
 to
 succeed
 in
 the
 business
 transfer
 process.
 This

awareness
might
help
transferors
to
understand
their
role
in
the
business
transfer
process

The
 primary
 purpose
 of
 this
 chapter
 is
 to
 provide
 staHsHcal
 evidence
 on
 the
 magnitude
 beCer
and
devise
appropriate
means
of
handling
its
diversity
at
the
micro‐level.
For
example,

and
 detail
 of
 the
 industrial
 sector
 and
 country
 effects
 on
 the
 successors‘
 and
 transferors‘
 it
would
be
pointless
to
devise
law
courses
for
the
business
transfer
process
on
the
European

percepHons
 of
 the
 importance
 and
 value
 of
 certain
 skills
 and
 knowledge
 for
 a
 successful
 level,
given
the
diversity
of
the
different
legislaHons
across
Europe.
Based
on
the
findings

business
transfer
process.
The
empirical
analysis
consisted
of
asking
the
same
type
of
training,
 and
their
interpretaHon,
it
seems
that
the
training
tools
should
be
devised
according
to
the

skills,
and
knowledge
type
of
quesHons
to
the
two
groups
(successors
and
transferors),
and
 contextual
factors
where
the
firms
operate.
A
firm’s
industrial
sector
and
the
naHonal
culture

a2er
 controlling
 the
 industrial
 sector
 and
 country,
 comparing
 the
 extent
 to
 which
 their
 in
which
it
operates
appear
to
have
a
stronger
effect
on
the
content
of
the
screening
tool

percepHon
were
both
different
and
to
some
extent
similar.
 which
eventually
facilitates
the
business
transfer
process.


While
the
staHsHcal
results
of
this
study
provide
insight
into
the
perceived
impact
of
certain

skills
and
knowledge
on
the
successful
business
transfer
process,
they
do
not
allow
accurate

conclusions
to
be
drawn
regarding
the
extent
to
which
these
factors
are
key
elements
for
a

“successful”
business
transfer
process.
The
tentaHve
interpretaHon
of
the
quanHtaHve
data

presented
suggests
that
cultural
and
other
environmental
factors
are
major
determinants
of

certain
knowledge,
skills,
and
competences
to
be
included
in
the
screening
tool.
The
results

presented
 in
 this
 chapter
 encourage
 further
 study
 of
 the
 impact
 of
 industrial
 sector
 and

country
in
the
design
of
a
training
tool
for
business
located
in
Europe.


From
 the
 transferors‘/successors‘
 side,
 everything
 is
 important,
 there
 is
 only
 a
 slight

difference
 between
 the
 topics.
 The
 consorHum
 has
 to
 decide
 if
 the
 differences
 based
 on

staHsHcal
data
are
big
enough
to
be
regarded
in
the
division
of
hours
or
if,
based
on
their

expert
knowledge
the
consorHum
members
decide
themselves
where
the
main
emphasis

should
be.
The
agreement
of
the
consorHum
is
that
the
staHsHcal
data
is
not
big
enough
to

be
regarded
and
that
the
division
of
hours
is
made
according
to
their
expert
knowledge.

92 93
;ZZYWVX`VcY6YVeiVi^dcd[i]Z8jgg^Xjajb ;ZZYWVX`VcY6YVeiVi^dcd[i]Z8jgg^Xjajb

<[[ZXWYaWdZ7ZWfjWj_ede\j^[9khh_Ykbkc ° most
 of
 the
 contents
 and
 approaches
 have
 been
 well
 appreciated
 because
 the

EVdadOVgVbZaaV parHcipants
found
them
innovaHve
and
new.
Before
aCending
the
BTP
course,
they
did

HijY^d8ZcigdKZcZid not
consider
many
key
aspects
of
their
own
transfer.

For
the
evaluaHon
of
the
curriculum
we
considered
three
main
phases:
 Comments
from
the
experts
and
trainers:
1)
markeHng
of
the
training
course; ° the
group
of
parHcipants
showed
high
moHvaHon;
this
aPtude
permiCed
easier
work;
2)
the
course
and
the
feed‐
back
(for
single
blocks
and
the
general
evaluaHon); ° some
of
the
trainers
and
experts
asked
if
it
was
possible
to
split
the
parHcipants
into
two

3)
conclusion
of
the
course
and
hypothesis
for
the
future. groups
(family
business
successors
and
potenHal
conHnuators);
° due
to
the
different
target
groups
(i.e.
speaking
about
finance,
the
needs
are
completely

BVg`Zi^c\d[i]ZIgV^c^c\8djghZ/ different
for
an
external
person
who
would
like
to
take
over
an
exisHng
company
from

those
of
a
daughter
or
son
thinking
about
a
succession
inside
the
family
business)
parts

First
 of
 all,
 we
 underline
 that
 in
 the
 Italian
 market,
 and
 perhaps
 also
 on
 the
 Austrian
 of
the
courses
were
not
useful
for
some
parHcipants.;
market,
there
are
many
courses
similar
to
the
BTP
pilot.
These
courses
are
focused
on
“new
 ° a
basic
check
before
the
lessons/blocks
would
be
useful,
not
only
for
fiPng
the
contents,

entrepreneurs”:
 most
 of
 them
 are
 targeted
 at
 sons
 or
 daughters
 working
 or
 planning
 to
 but
also
for
the
parHcipants
to
assess
their
level
of
knowledge;
work
in
the
family
business.
Moreover,
some
courses
are
focused
on
start‐ups,
are
normally
 ° a
 personalised
 and
 short
 interview
 a2er
 or
 before
 each
 lesson
 could
 be
 considered,

organised
by
public
bodies,
i.e.
Chambers
of
Commerce,
and
offer
some
financial
aid,
such
 especially
if
the
number
of
parHcipants
is
not
very
high
(like
the
BTP
pilot);
as
special
loans.
The
potenHal
BTP
parHcipant
has
to
consider
the
concrete
added
value
of
 ° in
fact,
due
to
the
pracHcal
approach,
one
of
the
main
needs
expressed
by
from
the

the
pilot.
It
is
of
utmost
importance
to
underline
the
difference
between
the
BTP
course
and
 parHcipants
was:
“I
would
like
to
receive
more
pracHcal
informaHon
and
personalised

other
similar
courses.
 soluHon
for
my
single
case”.
Every
hour
of
acHve
parHcipaHon
in
terms
of
presence
Hme
has
to
be
considered
well
because

all
parHcipants
usually
work
in
their
own
business
or
in
a
company
as
employees/managers. Thanks
to
these
comments,
the
general
evaluaHon
could
be
summarized
as
follow:
° the
whole
pilot
received

a
very
high
score
in
terms
of
evaluaHon
(more
or
less
all
the

I]Z8djghZVcYi]Z;ZZY"WVX`/ results
from
4
to
5,
with
a
strong
concentraHon
in
the
highest
score);
° in
general
the
course
needs
more
Hme:
some
maCers
were
interesHng,
but
the
lessons

Comments
from
the
parHcipants: were
quite
short;
° all
 parHcipants
 asked
 for
 more
 Hme
 for
 the
 “face
 to
 face”
 meeHngs:
 the
 subjects,
 ° many
parHcipants
asked
for
details
concerning
the
single
blocks
and
for
more
materials/
especially
finance
and
fiscal/law,
were
complex,
so
longer
lessons
would
be
welcome; documents,
before
the
lessons,
useful
to
approach
the
single
subjects;
° to
 support
 the
 lessons
 beCer,
 more
 basic
 material
 should
 be
 available
 before
 the
 ° the
 involvement
 and
 the
 pracHcal
 approach
 worked
 well:
 all
 the
 evaluaHon
 of
 the

meeHngs
(more
preliminary
reading
material) teachers
and
their
skills
were
very
good
or
excellent;
° someHmes
 a
 more
 pracHcal
 approach
 would
 be
 useful;
 more
 case
 histories,
 more
 ° the
 transfer
 plan
 was
 considered
 useful
 by
 each
 parHcipant
 especially
 because
 it

examples
or
exercises
(i.e.
for
finance
block); permiCed
 the
 parHcipants
 to
 think
 about
 the
 future
 in
 terms
 of
 competence,
 skills,

° before
the
lessons
it
would
be
useful
to
check
and
refresh
the
basic
know‐how
necessary
 necessity
of
aids,
etc;
to
understand
the
contents
the
trainer
is
going
to
use; ° all
the
parHcipants
said:
“I
will
suggest
the
course
to
a
colleague
or
to
another
person”.

This
answer
shows
very
well
the
good
result
and
the
correct
content
of
the
BTP
pilot.

94 95
;ZZYWVX`VcY6YVeiVi^dcd[i]Z8jgg^Xjajb ;ZZYWVX`VcY6YVeiVi^dcd[i]Z8jgg^Xjajb

Concerning
the
specific
comments
of
the
parHcipants,
the
trainers
and
the
experts
about
the
 The
 target
 group
 of
 the
 training
 are
 adults
 and
 not
 students/young
 people.
 A
 pracHcal

Screening
Tool
and
benchmark
data,
these
are
the
main
statements: approach
with
a
conHnuous
exchange
between
the
parHcipants
and
the
experts/trainers
is

° in
 general,
 the
 tools
 work
 well,
 are
 innovaHve,
 and
 are
 a
 good
 starHng
 point
 for
 the
 strongly
preferred.
The
evaluaHon
results
underline
this
fact.
parHcipants;
° some
of
the
quesHons
inside
the
Screening
Tool
are
not
clear,
especially
for
the
micro

 Some
 basic
 knowledge
 concerning
 the
 company
 and
 the
 business
 relaHons
 are
 already

companies,
for
some
specific
branches,
and
the
Italian/VeneHan
situaHon; known.
So
the
single
teacher
can
refresh
very
briefly
some
aspects
and
go
deeper
only
into

° the
calculaHon
model
of
the
situaHon
(spotlight:
red,
yellow,
and
green)
should
have
 the
basic
new
topics.
different
weights
(it
depends
on
the
importance
of
the
maCer); Concerning
the
course
duraHon,
we
have
to
remember
that
the
original
distribuHon
was:
° some
of
the
requested
documents
in
each
part
are
o2en
not
available,
especially
for
the
 ‐
48%
face
to
face
(in
presence
meeHngs);
micro
companies
and
for
some
specific
branches; ‐
16%
e‐learning/e‐consulHng
(use
of
the
learning
plaxorm,
forum);
° at
the
same
Hme,
the
whole
quesHonnaire
and
the
requested
documents/data
were
a
 ‐
36%
self
study.
very
effecHve
sHmulus
to
analyse
aspects
normally
considered
not
important; Taking
into
consideraHon
the
feed‐back
from
the
parHcipants
as
well
as
from
the
experts/
° the
 pilot
 course
 increased
 the
 level
 of
 “entrepreneurial
 culture”
 in
 the
 parHcipaHng
 trainers,
we
suggest
a
longer
course
with
at
least
the
30/40%
more
in
terms
of
hours,
plus

micro
or
small
organisaHon
(from
2
to
25
employees); some
short
work‐shops
(not
compulsory)
for
the
tesHmonials
and
for
some
extra
lessons
in

° benchmark
data
was
in
general
considered
good;
 subjects
considered
useful
by
the
parHcipants
for
their
own
situaHon.
° it
would
be
useful
to
find
the
data
for
each
branch,
adding
some
other
aspects
concerning

the
market
(current
situaHon,
trends,
etc.)
and
human
resources. A
new
version
of
the
“European
Curriculum
for
Successors”
could
be
designed
as
follow:
° a
longer
course
over
a
longer
period
of
Hme
(i.e.
a
sort
of
Master‘s
programme
with
a

I]Z6YVeiVi^dcd[i]Z8jgg^Xjajb duraHon
of
six
to
eight
months)
for
working
people
could
be
promoted
successfully
in

the
educaHonal
market;
First
of
all,
we
have
to
consider
that
the
pilot
was
offered
free
of
charge.
In
the
final
evaluaHon
 ° lessons
also
in
the
evening
(8‐11
PM)
to
facilitate
the
parHcipaHon;
Saturday
as
a
day
for

form,
we
asked
the
potenHal
cost
for
a
future
course:
in
general
the
parHcipants
said
the
 training
could
be
maintained;
course
should
cost
no
more
than
1,000/1,500
Euros.
The
level
of
awareness
is
sHll
not
high,
 ° a
fee
should
be
paid
for
the
new
course,
but
it
should
not
be
very
high:

and
the
compeHHon
in
the
educaHonal
market
is
very
high.
A
good
way
would
be
to
maintain
 ° more
space
for
the
tesHmonials:
former
entrepreneurs
who
solved
their
family
business

a
strong
 link
 with
 the
 local
 Trade
 AssociaHon
 to
 promote
the
course
and
disseminate
the
 processes;
son
or
daughter
that
took
over
the
family
business;
people
who
bought
an

results. external
 company,
 or
 insHtuHons
 (i.e.
 chambers
 of
 commerce
 or
 trade
 associaHons)

supporHng
this
subject;
etc.;
Concerning
 the
 organisaHon
 of
 the
 courses
 (duraHon,
 Hme,
 locaHon,
 etc.),
 we
 have
 to
 ° more
space
to
the
finance
block,
especially
concerning
financial
aids;
consider
that
all
the
parHcipants
work
and
are
busy,
so
a
flexible
Hmetable,
extra
lessons,
and
 ° a
general
support
for
the
matching
(for
both
the
situaHon:
succession
of
external
take

evening
meeHngs
would
be
welcome.
The
original
Hmetable
(Friday
a2ernoon
and
Saturday)
 over)
is
considered
welcome;
worked
well. ° the
 matching
 cannot
 be
 “automaHc”,
 but
 a
 general
 support
 in
 term
 of
 coaching
 and

professional
aid
is
needed;

96 97
;ZZYWVX`VcY6YVeiVi^dcd[i]Z8jgg^Xjajb I ] Z  H X g Z Z c ^ c \  Id d a

° this
support
has
to
be
organised
differently,
for
example:
 J^[IYh[[d_d]Jeeb
° for
 the
 family
 business,
 a
 transfer
 plan
 is
 welcome,
 and
 the
 course
 has
 to
 6cYgZVAVc\
concentrate
the
lessons
in
the
“so2
skills”
aspects
and
the
leadership;
 W^ibVcV\ZbZci7ZgVijc\<bW=
° for
 an
 external
 transfer,
 it
 is
 important
 to
 consider
 the
 financial
 aids,
 the
 right

evaluaHon
of
the
potenHal
company,
the
whole
business
plan,
etc;
 7VX`\gdjcY
° in
 general,
 the
 parHcipants
 asked
 for
 more
 scope
 for
 strategic
 aspects:
 again
 the

development
of
the
single
market
and
the
new
internal
leadership; The
project
consorHum’s
many
years
of
experience
in
the
area
of
start‐ups
and
succession/
° concerning
the
non
family
business
transfer:
a
new
survey
shows
that
all
around
Europe
 transfer
 consultaHon
 together
 with
 an
 intensive
 phase
 of
 market
 research
 in
 the
 field
 of

there
are
twice
as
many
transferors
as
there
are
sellers; business
 succession
 showed
 a
 severe
 lack
 of
 training
 offers
 for
 business
 successors
 and

° this
 means
 that
 for
 a
 potenHal
 conHnuator
 it
 might
 not
 be
 that
 difficult
 to
 find
 a
 transferors.
Easy‐to‐use
tools
were
also
not
available
that
would
enable
an
iniHal
check
of
an

company.
The
problem
is
to
find
the
right
company
in
terms
of
structure,
potenHality
of
 enterprise
and
its
economic
aCracHveness
without
the
support
of
an
external
consultancy.

the
market
and,
above
all,
price/investment.
Within
the
scope
of
the
“Business
Transfer
Programme”
and
in
addiHon
to
the
training,
a

Finally,
in
a
future
course,
the
technical
or
“hard
aspects”
(legal/fiscal/finance,
etc.)
and
“so2
 specific
technical
instrument,
the
Screening
Tool,
was
designed
to
meet
the
requirements

skills”
(relaHons,
training,
management,
etc.)
have
to
be
balanced
well.
In
fact,
both
aspects
 and
demands
of
business
successors,
of
transferors
as
well
as
of
self‐employed
management

were
 appreciated
 a
 lot
 during
 the
 BTP
 pilot,
 not
 only
 because
 the
 trainers‘
 knowledge/ consultants.
The
Screening
Tool
provides
potenHal
successors/transferors
with
a
first
business

experiences
was
of
a
high
level,
but
also
because
this
approach
permits
a
general
overview
 analysis,
facilitaHng
the
idenHficaHon
process
of
finding
the
right
business
and
the
collecHon

of
the
complexity
of
business
transfer
process. of
important
entrepreneurial
informaHon.

A
 simulaHon
 of
 succession/follow‐up
 situaHons
 is
 possible
 and
 enables
 the
 formulaHon

of
various
concepts
for
business
succession
(best
case
–
worst
case
scenarios)
and
allows


 methodical
 knowledge
 to
 be
 put
 into
 pracHce.
 The
 process
 of
 succession
 can
 be
 worked

through
 several
 Hmes,
 and
 the
 different
 results
 can
 be
 compared,
 e.g.
 the
 current
 status

of
the
transferred
company
compared
with
the
status
a2er
obtaining
addiHonal
succession

related
informaHon.

It
should
be
menHoned
that
the
Screening
Tool
is
a
support
tool
for
the
preparaHon
phases

of
a
transfer
process
that
provides
addiHonal
informaHon
for
the
decision
making,
but
it
is

not
a
replacement
for
expert
knowledge,
like
lawyers
and
tax
advisers.


9ZhXg^ei^dcd[i]ZHXgZZc^c\Idda

The
project
consorHum
decided
to
design
a
very
flexible
and
adaptable
web‐based
tool
that

is
independent
form
Hme
and
place
and
can
be
adapted
to
the
needs
of
small
and
medium

sized
enterprises.
It
consists
of
two
main
parts:


98 99
I ] Z  H X g Z Z c ^ c \  Id d a I ] Z  H X g Z Z c ^ c \  Id d a

° Detailed
quesHon
catalogue
including
quesHons
on
the
general,
legal,
finance,
markeHng,
 8ki_d[iiJhWdi\[hFhe]hWcc[
human
resources,
locaHon,
and
technical
infrastructure
situaHon
of
the
company
and

° Benchmark
data
base:
consisHng
of
available
benchmarks
for
the
industry 8]Vgi'
SCREENING
TOOL
In
 the
 first
 stage
 of
 development,
 the
 tool
 is
 available
 in
 three
 languages
 of
 the
 project

consorHum,
namely
in
English,
German,
and
Italian,
with
English
being
the
basis
of
the
tool.
 English German Italien
All
quesHons
were
first
designed
in
English
and
then
translated
into
other
languages.
This

6
Industries
(expandable
in
future)
means
that
any
necessary
changes
to
the
quesHons
have
to
be
made
first
in
English
and
then

translated
into
the
other
languages.
An
extension
to
other
languages
is
possible
at
anyHme

Carpenter Locksmith Mechanic Hairdresser Small
Restaurant Retail
depending
on
the
decision
of
the
project
consorHum
as
to
which
addiHonal
languages
should

be
offered
and
who
will
bear
the
translaHon
costs.

QuesHon
Catalogue Benchmarks
The
tool
has
been
designed
for
six
industries
of
the
project’s
target
sector
(cra2
and
trade):

Legal MarkeHng Assets
and
liability
structure
carpenters,
 locksmiths,
 mechanics,
 hairdressers,
 small
 restaurants
 &
 bars,
 and
 retail
 and

can
 be
 expanded
 easily
 in
 future
 to
 other
 industries.
 As
 already
 menHoned,
 there
 is
 one
 Finance Human
Resources Capital
structure
main
quesHonnaire
which
includes
quesHons
on
various
parts
of
an
enterprise.
The
enHre

LocaHon Technical
 Profit/loss
structure
quesHonnaire
is
available
for
each
industry,
and
quesHons
can
be
selected
or
le2
out
depending
 Infrastructure
on
the
industry
and
the
country.
The
same
applies
to
the
industry
benchmarks.
There
is
one

main
benchmark
catalogue
that
was
developed
with
all
the
consorHum
members
during
the

project
in
accordance
with
local
Chambers
of
Commerce
or
insHtutes
for
SMEs
which
can
be
 6eea^XVi^dcd[i]ZHXgZZc^c\Idda
adapted
to
the
available
benchmarks
in
the
respecHve
country
and
industry.
Both,
 the
 quesHon
 catalogue
 and
 the
 benchmark
 data
 base
 of
 the
 Screening
 Tool,
 are
 The
Screening
Tool
is
designed
as
a
web‐based
tool
and
is
located
on
the
common
project

designed
to
be
as
flexible
as
possible
and
can
be
extended
to
further
industries
and
countries
 consorHum’s
 plaxorm
 hCp://btp.bitonline.cc,
 which
 can
 be
 entered
 by
 the
 user
 with
 a

in
future.
 username
and
password
obtained
through
the
project
contractor
or
a
partner
insHtuHon.


The
 chart
 2
 gives
 an
 overview
 of
 the
 main
 structure
 of
 the
 Screening
 Tool
 (languages,
 The
technical
design
of
the
Screening
Tool
offers
the
following
two
main
opHons:

industries,
quesHon
catalogue,
and
benchmark
data
base): 1.




Screening
a)
Current
Screening
Overview
b)
Screening
Reports
2.




Benchmark
Data
Base

1.
Screening
This
part
consists
of
seven
catalogues
of
quesHons
concerning
the
following
business
areas

of
the
company
being
taken
over:


100 101
I ] Z  H X g Z Z c ^ c \  Id d a I ] Z  H X g Z Z c ^ c \  Id d a

° General
quesHons ° Red:
insufficient
informaHon
about
the
company,
and
the
user
should
try
to
get
more

° Legal
situaHon/legal
aspects informaHon
° Financial
situaHon

° MarkeHng
 It
is
advisable
to
save
the
first
screening
so
that,
when
the
screening
is
carried
out
again,
the

° LocaHon
 user
can
start
a
new
round
and
save
it
under
a
new
name
(second
screening).
This
allows
a

° Human
resources
 comparison
between
the
different
screening
scenarios
to
be
made
with
views
of
the
old
and

° Technical
infrastructure
 new
levels
of
informaHon.


A2er
 entering
 the
 tool,
 the
 language
 is
 selected
 first,
 then
 the
 country,
 and
 finally
 the
 a.
Screening
Overview:

industry.
Then
the
screening
is
carried
out.
The
quesHonnaire
for
each
business
area
is
then
 The
user
gets
an
overview
of
the
results
of
the
completed
screening
and
the
business
areas

answered
according
to
the
following
three
answer
opHons:
 he
or
she
is
well
informed
of
as
well
as
the
areas
in
which
more
informaHon
is
necessary
‡
Yes,
I
have
the
data
and
can
interpret
them
(e.g.
I
have
the
balance
sheets
of
the
last

three
years,
and
I
can
use
this
informaHon
–
I
know
what
it
means
for
the
company
close
 b.
Screening
Reports:

to
succession/transfer)

 The
screening
can
be
carried
out
several
Hmes,
and
each
report
can
be
saved,
deleted,
or

‡ Yes,
I
have
the
relevant
data
but
cannot
interpret
them
(e.g.
I
have
the
balance
sheets
 edited.
The
report
gives
an
overview
of
the
completed
screening,
and
a
comparison
between

of
the
last
three
years,
but
I
don’t
understand
the
figures
and
don’t
know
what
it
means
 various
screenings
is
possible
(worst‐best
case).

for
my
take‐over
company) 

‡ No,
 I
 don’t
 have
 the
 relevant
 data
 (e.g.
 I
 either
 have
the
balance
 sheets
of
 the
last
 2.
Benchmark
Data
Base:
three
years
nor
can
I
use
the
informaHon)
 The
 benchmark
 tool
 is
 based
 on
 a
 benchmark
 data
 base
 including
 benchmarks
 available

in
 the
 project
 partner
 countries
 and
 for
 the
 selected
 industries.
 The
 data
 base
 has
 been

The
user
has
to
go
through
each
part
in
detail
and
select
one
of
the
three
answer
opHons.
 developed
to
be
as
flexible
as
possible
and
can
be
adapted
at
any
Hme
to
other
countries

At
the
boCom
of
each
quesHon,
documents
are
listed
which
deliver
important
informaHon
 and
industries.
on
the
company
being
taken
over
and
which
support
the
decision
making
process.
The
user
 The
benchmark
tool
allows
the
user
to
compare
the
company’s
benchmarks
with
the
average

should
have
an
overview
as
to
which
documents
are
already
available
and
which
that
are
 benchmarks
of
the
industry
as
far
as
average
data
of
the
industry
is
available.
This
screening

missing.
The
more
documents
are
available
and
interpretable,
the
beCer
the
user
is
informed
 tool
is
oriented
towards
due
diligence
and
designed
for
the
target
sector
of
the
smallest‐,

about
the
company
being
taken
over. small‐
and
medium
sized
businesses.
The
tool
is
divided
into
three
steps:
first,
the
selecHon
of
the
country,
second,
the
selecHon

A2er
answering
the
seven
business
areas,
the
user
will
receive
an
overview
of
the
current
 of
 the
 industry,
 and,
 third,
 entering
 of
 the
 benchmark
 data
 of
 the
 company
 being
 taken‐
informaHon
 status
 of
 the
 company
 to
 be
 transferred.
 The
 overview
 summarises
 all
 seven
 over.
The
formulas
are
listed
on
the
le2
hand
side,
and
a2er
the
calculaHon
the
results
are

business
areas
(general,
financial,
legal,
markeHng,
locaHon,
human
resources,
and
technical
 entered
into
the
tool.
The
entered
figures
come
up
in
red/orange/green,
and
the
results
are

infrastructure)
and
is
highlighted
in
red,
orange,
or
green,
just
like
a
traffic
light
system: as
follows:
° Green:
very
well
informed
about
the
company ° Green:
The
entered
value
is
above
the
average
of
the
industry

° Orange:
 parHally
 well
 informed,
 but
 there
 is
 a
 lack
 of
 informaHon
 in
 some
 business
 ° Orange:
The
entered
value
is
the
same
as
the
average
of
your
industry
areas
 ° Red:
The
entered
value
is
below
the
average
of
your
industry

102 103
I ] Z  H X g Z Z c ^ c \  Id d a HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh

Finally,
 the
 listed
 results
 can
 be
 saved,
 and
 the
 benchmark
 tool
 can
 be
 completed.
 The
 IobbWX_e\j^[8JFCeZkb[i
entered
figures
will
be
included
in
the
average,
and,
thus,
the
average
of
the
stated
industries

is
updated.
 This
secHon
will
give
a
short
overview
of
the
suggested
training
modules
and
describe
the

goals
and
contents
of
the
modules.
Each
module
can
be
seen
as
an
integrated
stand
alone

To
 summarise,
 the
 Screening
 Tool
 supports
 the
 successor‘s
 self‐assessment,
 shows
 the
 learning
unit
employing
the
blended
learning
method,
which
integrates
presence
parts
as

current
 informaHon
 status
 of
 business
 take‐overs,
 provides
 an
 overview
 to
 transferors
 as
 well
 as
 online
 course
 work,
 and
 self
 study.
 All
 course
 modules
 exhibit
 a
 pracHce‐oriented

to
how
far
the
transfer
process
has
progressed,
and
supports
both
in
the
decision
making
 focus.
the
blended
learning
method
is
followed
in
all
modules.
The
following
secHons
will

process. outline
the
modules,
starHng
with
the
presence
parts
and
presenHng
the
online
and
offline

materials
used.
All
modules
are
tailored
to
the
specific
needs
of
the
target
group.

Each
module
descripHon
below
is
structured
in
a
way
very
similar
to
a
syllabus,
which
will

enable
the
reader
to
compare
the
modules
of
the
BTP
method
to
other
alternaHve
training

designs.
This
serves
to
increase
transparency
and
effecHveness
in
the
organisaHon
of
such

a
 programme.
 Modules
 are
 first
 described
 in
 a
 general
 secHon
 outlining
 basic
 goals
 and

outcomes
 of
 the
 module.
 A
 clear
 amount
 of
 counselling/training
 hours
 is
 given
 for
 each

acHvity
and
for
each
module
indicaHng
the
distribuHon
of
hours
for
presence
and
e‐learning.

The
general
aims
depicted
in
the
introductory
part
of
each
module
descripHon
are
broken

down
to
specific
objecHves
indicaHng
clearly
the
learning
goals
of
the
module.
Based
on
these

objecHves,
a
schedule
for
the
group
meeHngs
including
the
detailed
contents
of
the
module

is
presented.
The
methods
used
throughout
the
course
module
are
described
integraHng
e‐
learning,
and
presence
learning
parts.


Each
 module
 requires
 the
 fulfilment
 of
 certain
 prerequisites,
 which
 are
 listed
 in
 its

corresponding
 secHon.
 Exemplary
 literature
 and
 web
 links
 are
 given
 to
 provide
 a
 deeper

insight
 into
 each
 module.
 Throughout
 the
 training
 programme,
 literature,
 web
 links,
 and

online
 material
 are
 available
 electronically
 (on
 the
 website)
 organised
 in
 the
 modular

structure
of
the
curriculum
and
within
the
modules.


The
modules
are:
1. FINANCE
 4. MARKETING

2. LEGAL
ASPECTS
 5. SOFT
SKILLS

3. BUSINESS
ANALYSIS
 6. HUMAN
RESOUCE
MANAGEMENT

104 105
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh";^cVcXZ HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh";^cVcXZ

<_dWdY[ ;VXZ"id"[VXZ8dciZci

As
a
maCer
of
fact,
any
managerial
posiHon
and
consequently
also
the
business
succession
 Time Day
1 Time Day
2


process
requires
thorough
knowledge
in
finance.
The
evaluaHon
of
the
resources
necessary
 Summary
of
the
content
of
Day
1,

for
growth,
financial
prevision,
investment
decisions,
value
management,
and
the
financial
 0.5
h IntroducHon 0.5
h
QuesHons
management
of
the
company
in
crisis
situaHons
or
during
a
takeover
process
alike
involve

Capital
Resources

an
inter‐funcHonal
cooperaHon,
a
common
financial
approach,
and
a
quanHficaHon
of
value

Financial
Sources:
Own
vs.
 Investment
Planning

on
financial
basis.
This
module
aims
to
facilitate
business
transfer
by
building
the
necessary
 1.5
h 1.5
h
Foreign
Sources;
Internal
vs.
 Dynamic
and
staHc
Methods
capabiliHes
to
deal
with
financial
aspects
of
succession.
external
Sources
ParHcipants
 will
 be
 familiarised
 with
 the
 financial
 aspects
 to
 be
 considered
 in
 a
 business
 Break Break
takeover
process
and
will
learn
to
understand
accounHng
to
communicate
and
implement
 Basic
Financial
Concepts:
Cost
calcula,on

necessary
 financial
 controls
 and
 plans
 as
 part
 of
 their
 management
 role.
 Managers
 will
 Balance
Sheet
1.5
h CalculaHon
of
the
market
price 2
h
learn
about
the
behaviour
of
costs
and
expenses
and
the
reasons
why
the
control
process
 Profit
&
Loss
Account
CalculaHon
methods,
Liquidity
is
 essenHal
 to
 success
 and
 will
 understand
 that
 the
 economics
 of
 business
 is
 essenHal
 to
 Methods
to
calculate
the
profit
profitability
and
growth. Break Break
QuesHons
&
Answers
 Methods
of
Financing,
Financial

=djgh
0.5
h Case
Study
PresentaHon
for
 2
h Restructuring
and
Funding
Systems
This
module
should
consist
of
at
least
a
total
of
21
hours
divided
into
12
hours
of
face‐to‐face

Self‐study Micro
Credits,
Venture
Capital
learning
–
presence
Hme,
3
hours
for
e‐learning
and
6
hours
of
self‐study
–
essay
/
project

work. Break
Controlling
1.5
h
HeZX^ÒXDW_ZXi^kZh Overview,
Tasks,
Benchmarking
The
specific
objecHves
of
this
module
are:
0.5h QuesHons
and
Conclusions

° A2er
compleHon
of
the
module,
parHcipants
will
be
able
to
apply
their
knowledge
into

pracHce
to
find
an
appropriate
business. Total
4
h Total
8
h
Table
1:
Finance
for
Successors
‐
Face‐to‐face
Content
° ParHcipants
 will
 understand
 and
 use
 financial
 accounts,
 management
 accounts,
 and

financial
 management
 techniques
 to
 successfully
 valuate,
 takeover,
 and
 manage

businesses.

° ParHcipants
will
know
the
main
financial
sources
and
funding
systems
and
recapitalisaHon

measures.

106 107
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh";^cVcXZ HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh";^cVcXZ

BZi]dYh A^iZgVijgZ:mVbeaZ^c<ZgbVc
The
 course
 module
 will
 uHlise
 a
 combinaHon
 of
 learning
 methods
 including
 group
 work,
 It
is
recommended
to
list
preliminary
and
follow‐up
literature
based
on
the
recommendaHon

discussions,
 case
 studies,
 short
 assignments,
 self‐study,
 and
 face‐to‐face
 lectures.
 The
 of
the
trainer.
The
following
is
an
example
for
a
workshop
in
German:

use
of
a
learning
plaxorm
via
addiHonal
material
and
online
content
is
offered
is
strongly

recommended.
 Preliminary:
Contents
of
this
module
should
be
applied
especially
to
pracHcal
planning
and
to
the
work
 Preissler,
P.
R.
(2007).
Controlling.
Lehrbuch
und
Intensivkurs.
13
Auflage.

on
the
final
transfer
plan,
including
recurring
do’s
and
don’ts
sessions,
which
should
take
into
 München:
Oldenburg.
account
the
concrete
succession
plans
of
the
parHcipants.
In
order
to
opHmise
the
learning
 Pernsteiner,
H.,
Andessner,
R.
(2007).
Finanzmanagement
kompakt.
2
Aufflage,

process
 and
 successfully
 conclude
 the
 module,
 self‐study
 using
 the
 materials
 provided
 is
 Wien:
Linde.
essenHal.
 Learning
 groups
 can
 be
 formed
 face
 to
 face
 or
 virtually,
 and
 the
 presence
 days
 Kralicek,
P.
(1995).
Kennzahlen
für
Geschä2sführer.
3.
Auflage.
Wien:
Überreuter.
serve
 as
 possibiliHes
 to
 answer
 quesHons
 and
 discuss
 the
 content
 of
 the
 module
 with
 Milichamp,
A.H.
(1992).
Finance
for
Non‐Financial
Managers.
An
AcHve‐Learning
Approach,

other
 course
 parHcipants
 and
 the
 instructors.
 Preliminary
 and
 follow‐up
 readings
 as
 well
 London:
DP
PublicaHons
Ltd.
as
 possible
 electronic
 resources
 are
 strongly
 recommended
 parts
 of
 the
 course
 contents.

The
goal
of
combining
methods
is
to
move
to
and
from
between
theoreHcal
concepts
and
 Follow‐up
pracHcal
applicaHons
in
order
to
create
relevance
for
the
parHcipants.
 Owen,
J.
(2003).
Hard–core
management:
revealing
the
unwriCen
rules.

London:
Kogan
Page.
EgZgZfj^h^iZh ACCA
UK
(2006).
Strategic
Financial
Management,
Handbook
for
Final
ExaminaHon.

ParHcipaHon
in
this
module
requires
parHcipants
to
have
basic
knowledge
of
accountancy
 London:
ACCA
UK.
and
financial
management. Wöhe,
G.,
Bilstein,
J.
(1991).
Grundzüge
der
Unternehmensfinanzierung.

München:
Vahlen.
6hhZhhbZci Haberstock,
L.
(1987).
Kostenrechnung.
8
Auflage,
Hamburg:
Schmidt.

Pernsteiner,
H.,
Andessner
R.
(2007).
Finanzmanagement
kompakt.
2
Auflage.

Pre‐assessment:
 Wien:
Linde.
It
is
strongly
recommended
to
discuss
the
level
of
prior
knowledge
with
the
parHcipants
using

a
forum
or
emails
to
get
a
general
impression
of
the
level
of
knowledge
of
the
parHcipants

group.
 LZWA^c`h
It
 is
 recommended
 to
 list
 web
 links
 based
 on
 the
 recommendaHon
 of
 the
 trainer.
 The

Final
assessment:
 following
is
an
example:
To
 prove
 that
 parHcipants
 have
 understood
 the
 presence
 contents
 and
 achieved
 the
 e‐ 

learning
units,
parHcipants
should
write
an
essay
on
a
topic
set
by
the
trainer
(e.g.
cash
flow
 Cogent
ValuaHon
:
www.cogentvaluaHon.com
forecast
elaboraHon,
evaluaHon
of
companies). Investopedia:
www.investopedia.com

108 109
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"AZ\Va6heZXih HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"AZ\Va6heZXih

B[]Wb7if[Yji mandatory
legal
provisions
in
favour
of
family
members
have
to
be
taken
into
account.
° ParHcipants
 will
 be
 knowledgeable
 about
 issues
 of
 liability
 (i.e.
 debt
 of
 company
 –

Business
 succession
 has,
 among
 the
 many
 related
 aspects
 for
 successful
 execuHon
 of
 the
 transfer
to
business
successor;
liability
for
unknown
responsibiliHes).
business
transfer
process,
also
a
strong
relaHon
to
legal
aspects.
Most
importantly
issues
of
 ° ParHcipants
 will
 become
 aware
 of
 the
 legal
 norms
 protecHng
 employees
 in
 case
 of

corporate
law,
inheritance
legislaHon,
liability
regulaHons,
labour
law
issues,
and
tax
law
are
 business
transfer.
integral
parts
of
this
module.
ParHcipants
will
get
the
most
important
informaHon
on
the
 ° ParHcipants
will
know
what
to
take
into
account
in
terms
of
tax
legislaHon,
such
as
tax

current
legal
situaHon
with
respect
to
the
aspects
menHoned
above
and
will
learn
how
to
 on
gi2s
and
inheritance,
legal
fees,
or
tax
of
transfer
of
ownership
on
real
estate,
among

search
 independently
 for
 further
 detailed
 informaHon.
 Through
 mixed
 teaching
 methods,
 others.
the
 content
 will
 be
 presented
 as
 such
 that
 parHcipants
 with
 liCle
 or
 no
 prior
 knowledge
 ° ParHcipants
will
be
able
to
avoid
legal
pixalls
in
the
succession
process.
about
these
legal
aspects
will
get
a
profound
insight
into
the
pixalls
and
opportuniHes
within
 ° ParHcipants
 will
 understand
 the
 importance
 of
 qualificaHons
 in
 internaHonal

the
 legal
 framework
 governing
 business
 succession.
 Certainly
 legal
 aspects
 differ
 in
 each
 consulHng.
member
country
of
the
European
Union.
This
is
also
true
for
those
areas
with
an
impact
on
 ° ParHcipants
will
be
able
to
apply
their
legal
knowledge
to
pracHcal
succession
cases,
to

the
business
transfer
process.
Therefore
a
localised
version
of
contents
is
necessary
for
this
 develop
their
own
recommendaHons
or
strategies,
and
to
address
the
specific
needs
of

module.
 European
SMEs.

=djgh ;VXZ"id"[VXZ8dciZci
This
module
should
consist
of
at
least
a
total
of
16
hours
divided
into
10
hours
of
face‐to‐face

learning
–
presence
Hme,
2
hours
for
e‐learning
and
4
hours
of
self‐study
–
essay
/
project
 Time Day
1 Time Day
2
work. Summary
of
the
content
of
Day
1,

0.5
h IntroducHon 0.5
h
QuesHons
HeZX^ÒXDW_ZXi^kZh
1
h Corporate
Law 2
h Labour
Law
In
order
to
account
for
complex
issues
related
to
the
legal
aspects
of
business
succession,

parHcipants
will
have
to
gain
knowledge
in
the
different
areas
of
law
governing
the
transfer
 Break Break
process.
As
especially
small
to
medium‐sized
enterprises
and
their
business
operaHons
can
 Law
of
Inheritance
and
Related

1
h 1
h Taxes
and
Legal
Fees
be
 seen
 as
 highly
 interdependent
 systems,
 it
 is
 imperaHve
 to
 equip
 parHcipants
 with
 the
 Issues
necessary
knowledge,
skills,
and
abiliHes
(KSAs)
to
act
within
the
legal
world
and
be
able
to
 Break Break
lead
qualified
discussions
with
legal
experts.
This
module
develops
exactly
these
KSAs.
The

Contract
Law
and
Business

specific
objecHves
of
this
module
are: 1
h 1
h Liability
RegulaHons
Transfer


° ParHcipants
understand
the
law
of
corporaHons
and
partnerships
and
will
get
to
know
 Break Break


the
concept
of
limited
liability.
 Do’s
and
Don’ts
for
the
Transfer/
0.5
h QuesHons
and
Conclusion 1
h
° ParHcipants
will
learn
about
the
characterisHcs
of
effecHve
and
legally
sound
business
 Succession
Plan
cooperaHon. 0.5
h QuesHons
and
Conclusion
° ParHcipants
 will
 know
 how
 to
 make
 wills
 and
 donaHons
 while
 being
 aware
 of
 which
 Total
4h Total
6h
Table
2:
Legal
Aspects
of
Business
Succession
‐
Face‐to‐face
Content

110 111
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"AZ\Va6heZXih HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"AZ\Va6heZXih

BZi]dYh Preliminary
and
Follow‐up
Readings:
The
 course
 module
 will
 uHlise
 a
 combinaHon
 of
 learning
 methods
 including
 group
 work,
 Bucher
J.
(1997).
Unternehmensübergang
und
Altlasten.
Wien:
ecolex.
discussions,
 case
 studies,
 short
 assignments,
 self‐study,
 and
 face‐to‐face
 lectures.
 The
 Karollus,
M.
(1995).
Unternehmerwechsel
und
Dauerschuldverhältnis,

use
of
a
learning
plaxorm
via
addiHonal
material
and
online
content
is
offered
is
strongly
 Österreichische
Juristenzeitung
1995,
241‐248,
292‐296.

recommended.
 Wagnest,
W.
(1997).
Die
Ha2ung
bei
Übergang
eines
Unternehmens
oder
Betriebes.

Contents
of
this
module
should
be
applied
especially
to
pracHcal
planning
and
to
the
work
 Wien:
Verlag
des
ÖGB.
on
the
final
transfer
plan,
including
recurring
do’s
and
don’ts
sessions,
which
should
take
into
 Bydlinski
P.
(2007).
Grundzüge
des
Privatrechts.
Wien:
Manz.

account
the
concrete
succession
plans
of
the
parHcipants.
In
order
to
opHmise
the
learning
 Mader,
P.
(2008).
Kapitalgesellscha2en.
Wien:
Orac.

process
 and
 successfully
 conclude
 the
 module,
 self‐study
 using
 the
 materials
 provided
 is
 Schummer,
G.
(2006).
Personengesellscha2en
6.
Auflage.
Wien:
Orac.

essenHal.
 Learning
 groups
 can
 be
 formed
 face
 to
 face
 or
 virtually,
 and
 the
 presence
 days

serve
 as
 possibiliHes
 to
 answer
 quesHons
 and
 discuss
 the
 content
 of
 the
 module
 with
 LZWA^c`h
other
 course
 parHcipants
 and
 the
 instructors.
 Preliminary
 and
 follow‐up
 readings
 as
 well
 It
is
recommended
to
list
web
links
based
on
the
recommendaHon
of
the
trainer.

as
 possible
 electronic
 resources
 are
 strongly
 recommended
 parts
 of
 the
 course
 contents.

The
goal
of
combining
methods
is
to
move
to
and
from
between
theoreHcal
concepts
and

pracHcal
applicaHons
in
order
to
create
relevance
for
the
parHcipants.


EgZgZfj^h^iZh
ParHcipaHon
 in
 this
 module
 requires
 parHcipants
 to
 have
 a
 basic
 knowledge
 of
 or
 some

pracHcal
experience
in
the
business
succession
process
and
about
the
general
legal
system

in
their
country.

6hhZhhbZci
Pre‐assessment:

It
is
strongly
recommended
to
discuss
the
level
of
prior
knowledge
with
the
parHcipants
using

a
forum
or
emails
to
get
a
general
impression
of
the
level
of
knowledge
of
the
parHcipants.

Final
assessment:

Short
assignments
and
in
class
parHcipaHon
together
with
the
final
transfer
plan
will
be
the

basis
for
assessment
of
the
parHcipant‘s
knowledge.

A^iZgVijgZ^c<ZgbVc
It
is
recommended
to
list
preliminary
and
follow‐up
literature
based
on
the
recommendaHon

of
the
trainer.
The
following
is
an
example
for
a
workshop
in
German:


112 113
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"7jh^cZhh6cVanh^h HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"7jh^cZhh6cVanh^h


8ki_d[ii7dWboi_i ;VXZ"id"[VXZ8dciZci

In
 any
 company
 certain
 criHcal
 factors,
 such
 as
 the
 shareholder
 value,
 the
 corporate
 Time Day
1 Time Day
2
environment,
 the
 locaHon,
 and
 the
 technical
 equipment,
 are
 of
 crucial
 importance
 to
 its
 Summary
of
the
Content
of
Day
1,

success.
For
business
transfer
processes,
these
maCers
play
an
even
more
important
role
as
 0,5
h IntroducHon
 0.5
QuesHons
knowledge
about
these
facts
may
be
tacit
or
hidden
within
the
company.
The
skills
to
analyse

ObjecHves,
content
and
 Basics
of
the
of
calucaHon
of
the

the
values
and
potenHals
for
development
of
the
company
to
be
transferred
are
imperaHve

procedure
of
the
business
 Shareholder
Value;

to
a
sound
succession.
If
transfers
do
not
take
place
within
a
family
structure,
transferors
 1,5
h 2
h
analysis
and
the
relaHon
with
 ° Cash
Flow,
Liquidity
typically
try
to
get
the
maximum
profit
out
of
the
sale
of
the
company.
Consequently
it
is

contractual
agreements ° EvaluaHon
methods
very
important
for
successors
to
get
a
realisHc
overview
of
and
certain
know
how
about
the

environment
(locaHon)
and
technical
equipment
and
the
value
and
price
of
a
company.
This
 Break Break
module
provides
the
parHcipant
with
the
necessary
tools
to
undertake
this
analysis.
 Analysis
of
the
assets
and

liabilites
structure
as
well
of
the

Analysis
of
the
assets
and
its

=djgh
 profit
structure;
implicaHon
on
the
company’s
value
This
module
should
consist
of
at
least
a
total
of
25
hours
divided
into
13
hours
of
face‐to‐face
 ° Basics
like
Balance
Sheet,

2,5
h 2
h ° Investments
and
current

learning
–
presence
Hme,
4
hours
for
e‐learning
and
8
hours
of
self‐study
–
essay/project
 Profit
&
Loss
Account,
assets.
work. ° Financial
Analysis,
Past

° Benchmarks
Performance
Analysis;

HeZX^ÒXDW_ZXi^kZh ° Management
raHos
This
module
will
provide
parHcipants
with
the
necessary
knowledge,
skills,
and
abiliHes
how
 Break
to
evaluate
the
company
and
its
environment
as
well
as
the
technical
equipment.
This
module

QuesHon
&
Answers
further
 develops
 the
 ability
 to
 apply
 this
 knowledge
 within
 the
 scope
 of
 the
 transferring

Case
Study,
task
for
self
study
 Analysis
of
the
cost
and
profit

process.
A
very
important
part
of
this
module
will
be
the
descripHon
and
the
interpretaHon
 0,5
h
 1,5
h
and
preparaHon
for
pracHcal
 structure
of
economic
operaHng
figures.
The
specific
objecHves
of
this
module
are:
assignment


° ParHcipants
will
understand
the
basic
principles
of
business
valuaHon

° ParHcipants
will
know
about
the
importance
of
the
environmental
condiHons
and
the
 0,5
h
 QuesHons
and
Conclusion
current
state
of
the
technical
equipment
and
how
to
avoid
pixalls. Break
° ParHcipants
will
be
able
to
apply
their
knowledge
to
pracHcal
take
over
cases,
to
read

1,5
h PracHcal
Assignment

and
understand
official
papers,
and
to
become
aware
of
potenHal
risks
that
could
be

hidden
in
the
taken
over
enterprise. Total
5
h Total
8
h
Table
3:
Business
Analysis
‐
Face‐to‐face
Content
° ParHcipants
will
get
to
know
the
elements
of
economic
operaHng
figures
and
how
to

interpret
them.


114 115
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"7jh^cZhh6cVanh^h HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"7jh^cZhh6cVanh^h

BZi]dYh Matschke,
M.
J.
Brösel,
G.
(2007):
Unternehmensbewertung
:
FunkHonen,
Methoden,

The
 course
 module
 will
 uHlise
 a
 combinaHon
 of
 learning
 methods
 including
 group
 work,
 Grundsätze
‐
3.,
überarb.
und
erw.
Aufl.
Wiesbaden:
Gabler.
discussions,
case
studies,
short
assignments,
self‐study,
and
face‐to‐face
lectures.
The
use
 Kinkel
S.
(2004)
Erfolgsfaktor
Standortplanung
:
in‐
und
ausländische
Standorte
richHg

of
a
learning
plaxorm
via
which
addiHonal
material
and
online
content
is
offered
is
strongly
 bewerten.
Berlin
[u.a.]:
Springer.
recommended.
 Bruns,
K.
(1997).
Analyse
und
Beurteilung
von
EntsorgungslogisHksystemen.
Ökonomische,

Contents
of
this
module
should
be
applied
especially
to
pracHcal
planning
and
to
the
work
 ökologische
u.
gesellscha2liche
Aspekte.
Wiesbaden:
Deutscher
Univ.‐Verl.

on
the
final
transfer
plan,
including
recurring
do’s
and
don’ts
sessions,
which
should
take
into
 Jauk,
A.
(2006).
Das
Grundbuch
in
der
Praxis
:
das
ABC
der
Grundbuchseintragungen.
Wien:

account
the
concrete
succession
plans
of
the
parHcipants.
In
order
to
opHmise
the
learning
 Orac.
process
 and
 successfully
 conclude
 the
 module,
 self‐study
 using
 the
 materials
 provided
 is

essenHal.
 Learning
 groups
 can
 be
 formed
 face
 to
 face
 or
 virtually,
 and
 the
 presence
 days
 Follow‐up
serve
 as
 possibiliHes
 to
 answer
 quesHons
 and
 discuss
 the
 content
 of
 the
 module
 with

other
 course
 parHcipants
 and
 the
 instructors.
 Preliminary
 and
 follow‐up
 readings
 as
 well
 AugusHn,
K.,
Gumpetsberger,
A.,
Haltrich,
W.,
Herzog,
B.
(2005).

as
 possible
 electronic
 resources
 are
 strongly
 recommended
 parts
 of
 the
 course
 contents.
 Betriebsnachfolge
–
perfekt
geregelt.
Graz:
dbv‐Verlag

The
goal
of
combining
methods
is
to
move
to
and
from
between
theoreHcal
concepts
and
 Domschke,
W.,
Drexl
A.
(1996).
LogisHk,
Bd.3,
Standorte.
München:
Oldenbourg.
pracHcal
applicaHons
in
order
to
create
relevance
for
the
parHcipants.
 Zobl,
D.
(2004).
Grundbuchrecht
‐
2.,
erg.
und
nachgeführte
Aufl.
Zürich:
Schulthess.

Schoppler,
M.
(2007).
Standortwahl
für
kleine
und
miClere
Handelsunternehmen
:

EgZgZfj^h^iZh dargestellt
am
Beispiel
der
Blue
Tomato
GmbH.

ParHcipants
should
have
basic
knowledge
of
the
environmental
situaHon
and
the
technical
 Haeseler,
H.
R.
(2007).
Unternehmensbewertung:
Grundlagen
der
Bewertung
von

equipment
of
the
taken
over
company. Unternehmen
und
Beteiligungen.
Wien:
Orac.

6hhZhhbZci LZWA^c`h
This
module
integrates
the
contents
of
the
complete
course.
There
is
no
specific
assessment
 It
is
recommended
to
list
web
Links
based
on
the
recommendaHon
of
the
trainer.
The

for
this
module
alone.
The
module
will
be
assessed
on
the
basis
of
the
final
transfer
plan,
 following
is
an
example:
which
is
to
be
established
by
every
parHcipant.
English:
A^iZgVijgZ^c<ZgbVc www.sba.gov/idc/groups/public/documents/sba_homepage/pub_fm4.pdf
It
is
recommended
to
list
preliminary
and
follow‐up
literature
based
on
the
recommendaHon
 German:
of
the
trainer.
The
following
is
an
example
for
a
workshop
in
German:
 www.univie.ac.at/bwl/iev/lehre/ss06/zusatz_2.pdf
www08.mg.hs‐niederreihn.de/dozenten/krause/Elemente/KennzahlenT2.pdf
Preliminary www.kore‐virtuell.at/joanneum/Lehreinheit%20Einf%81hrung%20VBM.pdf
www.mdi.at/fileadmin/mdi/download/controlling/woerterbuch.pdf
Behringer,
S.
(2002).
Unternehmensbewertung
der
MiCel‐
und
Kleinbetriebe
:
 www.realfinanz.at/produkte/Grundbuch.pdf

betriebswirtscha2liche
Verfahrensweisen
2.,
neu
bearb.
und
erw.
Aufl.
Berlin:
Erich
 www.kwr.at/kwr/pdf/RechtsHpp0701.pdf
Schmidt. 


116 117
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"BVg`Zi^c\ HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"BVg`Zi^c\

CWha[j_d] ;VXZ"id"[VXZ8dciZci

Businesses
today
are
faced
with
the
growing
need
to
adopt
new
approaches
towards
winning
 Time Day
1 Time Day
2


the
market.
The
challenge
is
to
offer
a
mix
that
produces
the
necessary
client
saHsfacHon
as
 Summary
of
the
Content
of
Day
1,

well
as
a
saHsfactory
company‐market
exchange
relaHonship
bearing
in
mind
that
today’s
 0.5
h IntroducHon 0.5
h
QuesHons
clients
or
customers
are
looking
for
soluHons
and
not
products.
In
this
module
parHcipants

MarkeHng
Basics
and
the
 MarkeHng
in
the
21st
Century.

will
take
a
closer
look
at
the
concepts
of
strategic
markeHng
as
the
basis
of
planning.
For
a

company Present
vision.
successful
business
transfer,
it
is
imperaHve
to
be
familiar
with
the
different
components
of

° MarkeHng
Task ° MarkeHng
an
integrated

the
markeHng
mix
as
operaHng
tools
for
companies.
This
helps
to
differenHate
a
company
 2
h 2
h
° The
Environment business
philosophy
from
its
compeHHon
in
such
a
way
as
to
be
perceived
clearly
by
the
market.

° Internal
Analysis ° Commercial
research
° SWOT
Analysis ° Market
PosiHoning
=djgh
This
module
consists
of
a
total
of
21
units
divided
into
13
units
of
face‐to‐face
learning
– Break Break
presence
Hme‐
and
4
units
for
e‐learning.
Besides,
this
course
needs
an
esHmated
amount
 MarkeHng
in
the
21st
Century.

of
6
hours
for
self
study
 The
Company
and
the
client Present
Vision.
2
h ° Principles
of
the
Company 2
h ° Specific
Offer
HeZX^ÒXDW_ZXi^kZh ° Customer
SaHsfacHon ° PromoHonal
CommunicaHon
ImplemenHng
the
change
process
of
business
transfer
and
maintaining
or
expanding
market
 ° Post
sales
RelaHons
presence,
 customer
 saHsfacHon,
 and
 sales
 is
 crucial
 to
 successful
 business
 succession.
 To
 Break
equip
 parHcipants
 with
 the
 necessary
 tools
 to
 actually
 be
 able
 to
 run
 and
 manage
 this

TransformaHon
of
the
theoreHcal

process
with
respect
to
all
markeHng
related
issues
is
the
key
objecHve
to
this
module.
In

3
h knowledge
into
pracHce
–
work
on

parHcular
parHcipants
will
learn:
his/her
company

° The
importance
of
the
markeHng
strategy
in
the
business
succession
process 0.5
h QuesHons
and
Conclusions 0.5
h QuesHons
and
Conclusions


° The
4
Ps
of
the
markeHng
mix
(Product,
Price,
PromoHon,
and
Placement) Total
5
h Total
8
h
° MarkeHng
analysis
using
state
of
the
art
techniques Table
4:

Marke9ng
‐
Face‐to‐face
Content
° How
to
apply
the
acquired
knowledge
to
their
parHcular
pracHcal
case
and
other
cases
BZi]dYh
The
 course
 module
 will
 uHlise
 a
 combinaHon
 of
 learning
 methods
 including
 group
 work,

discussions,
 case
 studies,
 short
 assignments,
 self‐study,
 and
 face‐to‐face
 lectures.
 The

use
of
a
learning
plaxorm
via
addiHonal
material
and
online
content
is
offered
is
strongly

recommended.

Contents
of
this
module
should
be
applied
especially
to
pracHcal
planning
and
to
the
work

on
the
final
transfer
plan,
including
recurring
do’s
and
don’ts
sessions,
which
should
take
into


118 119
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"BVg`Zi^c\ HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"Hd[iH`^aah

account
the
concrete
succession
plans
of
the
parHcipants.
In
order
to
opHmise
the
learning
 Ie\jIa_bbi
process
 and
 successfully
 conclude
 the
 module,
 self‐study
 using
 the
 materials
 provided
 is

essenHal.
 Learning
 groups
 can
 be
 formed
 face
 to
 face
 or
 virtually,
 and
 the
 presence
 days
 Business
transfer
is
a
complex
process.
Managing
such
a
process
involves
both
the
technical

serve
 as
 possibiliHes
 to
 answer
 quesHons
 and
 discuss
 the
 content
 of
 the
 module
 with
 and
the
emoHonal
side.
Both
management
knowledge
and
techniques,
and
so2
skills
should

other
 course
 parHcipants
 and
 the
 instructors.
 Preliminary
 and
 follow‐up
 readings
 as
 well
 be
trained.
Analyses
from
the
last
10‐20
years
have
shown
that
the
smaller
the
company,

as
 possible
 electronic
 resources
 are
 strongly
 recommended
 parts
 of
 the
 course
 contents.
 the
 higher
 the
 emoHonal
 and
 psychological
 impact.
 The
 challenge
 is
 parHcularly
 hard
 for

The
goal
of
combining
methods
is
to
move
to
and
from
between
theoreHcal
concepts
and
 successors
for
several
reasons.
The
transferor
has
already
lived
his/her
life
and
career
and

pracHcal
applicaHons
in
order
to
create
relevance
for
the
parHcipants.
 has
developed
a
management
style.
This
is
not
easy
to
be
changed.
But
the
handover
‐
an

important
change
framework
itself
‐
requires
changes
within
and
during
the
process.
Business

EgZgZfj^h^iZh flexibility
 needs
 adaptability.
 And
 since
 the
 transferor
 is
 generally
 not
 in
 the
 condiHon
 of

ParHcipants
 should
 have
 knowledge
 of
 the
 basic
 characterisHcs
 of
 the
 company
 to
 be
 adapHng
him/herself
or
of
easily
accepHng
change,
it
is
up
to
the
successor
to
carry
the
main

transferred. weight
of
the
flexibility
challenges.


6hhZhhbZci As
business
leader
and
relaHonship
manager,
the
successor
is
asked
to
involve
collaborators

Small
 assignments
 and
 acHve
 class
 parHcipaHon
 will
 serve
 as
 one
 pillar
 for
 grading
 this
 and
to
promote
their
moHvaHon
to
conHnuous
up‐to‐date
management,
to
innovaHon,
and

module.
In
addiHon,
the
transfer
plan
will
be
part
of
the
assessment
for
this
module.
 to
effecHve
compeHHveness.
The
successor
should
learn
and
conHnuously
improve
his/her

aPtudes
to
manage
small
groups
and
relaHonship
with
individuals.
As
a
business
conHnuer,

A^iZgVijgZ the
successor
must
be
ready
to
understand
how
the
transferor
may
feel
about
the
person

who
is
now
going
to
manage
the
business.
S/he
must
be
skilled
in
involving
and
moHvaHng

Preliminary
and
Follow‐up
Readings all
collaborators
in
the
business
change
processes.

° Lovelock,
C.H.,
Wirtz
J.
(2007).
Services
markeHng:
people,
technology,
strategy.
Upper
 This
course
will
teach
the
parHcipants
how
to
recognise,
to
get,
to
manage,
and
to
improve

Saddle
(NJ):
PrenHce
Hall. such
skills.

° Cravens,
D.W.,
Piercy,
N.
(2006).
Strategic
markeHng.
Boston:
McGraw‐Hill.
° Kotler,
P.,
Armstrong,
G.
(2007):
Principles
of
markeHng.
Englewood
Cliffs
(NJ):
 =djgh

PrenHce‐Hall. This
module
consists
of
a
total
of
16
hours
divided
into
12
hours
of
face‐to‐face
learning,
2

° Kotler
P.
(2006).
MarkeHng
management.
Upper
Saddle
River
(NJ):
Pearson
EducaHon
 hours
e‐learning
and
approximately
2
hours
self‐study.
InternaHonal.
HeZX^ÒXDW_ZXi^kZh

 In
 order
 to
 become
 more
 and
 more
 aware
 of
 mulH‐faced
 business
 transfer
 processes,

parHcipants
will
learn
a
systemic
approach
to
the
company
as
a
human
team,
engaged
to
be

professional
and
compeHHve
in
the
market.
Every
parHcipant
is
expected
to
get
personally

involved
in
a
dialogue
with
the
transferor,
at
least
while
the
transferor
is
sHll
there.
People
in

the
company,
and
out
of
it,
should
be
seen
as
individuals
instead
of
figures.
The
discussion
of


120 121
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"Hd[iH`^aah HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"Hd[iH`^aah

real‐life
cases,
and
some
advice
and
addresses
for
excursions
on
the
web
will
help
to
improve
 ;VXZ"id"[VXZ8dciZci

this
aPtude.
Time Day
1 Time Day
2
The
specific
objecHves
of
this
module
are: Summary
of
the
Content
of
Day
1,

0.5
h IntroducHon 0.5
h
QuesHons
° ParHcipants
will
understand
their
role
and
the
expected
behaviour
towards
people. The
Successor
as
a
Business

° They
 will
 start
 to
 recognise
 human
 psychology,
 behaviour,
 and
 reacHon
 in
 different
 ConHnuer:
situaHons
and
roles. Business
Transfer
SituaHons
‐
0.5
h 1
h ° Understanding
and
Managing

° ParHcipants
will
become
aware
of
the
importance
of
understanding
their
business
as
a
 The
Importance
of
So2
Skills
the
ConnecHon
with
the
Former

global
picture
(vision)
and
as
a
specific,
compeHHve
opportunity
in
the
market
(mission)
 Business
Vision
and
Mission
to
be
pursued
by
a
compact
team
(values); The
Successor
as
a
Business

° They
 will
 learn
 about
 the
 importance
 of
 transferring
 such
 a
 vision
 and
 mission
 and
 Different
Kinds
of
RelaHonships
with

Leader:
values
sensiHvity
as
an
essenHal
basis
for
people
moHvaHon. the
Previous
Business
Management

1
h ° Understanding
the
Business
 1,5
h
° ParHcipants
will
become
aware
of
the
importance
of
listening
to
the
transferor’s
feelings
 Style.
Conveying
the
Personal

Vision
and
Mission
in
the

and
points
of
view,
and
will
be
sensiHsed
towards
trying
to
understand
and
posiHvely
 Leading
Style.
Scenario
and
in
the
Market
manage
them.
 Break Break
° ParHcipants
 will
 be
 able
 to
 apply
 their
 knowledge
 to
 concrete
 business
 transfer
 The
Successor
as
a
Professional

situaHons. RelaHonship
Manager:

 ° The
Inner
Side
Different
Kinds
of
SituaHons

° Inspiring
Collaborators
Concerning
the
RelaHonship
with

1
h ° How
to
PracHce
 3
h
Previous
Transferors.
Case
Analysis

Empowerment
towards

(Small
Groups)
People
° PracHcal
Experience
(Small

Groups)
Break
The
Successor
as
a
Business

Professional
 Time
 Management

ConHnuer
on
the
Market.
Change

0.5
h and
 DelegaHon.
 The
 Basic
 and
 1.5
h
Management:
Involving
All
Those

What
is
New
Interested
in
the
Transfer
Process
0.5
h QuesHons
and
Conclusions 0.5
h QuesHons
and
Conclusions
Total
4h Total
8
h
Table
5:

SoJ
Skills
‐
Face‐to‐face
Content

122 123
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"Hd[iH`^aah HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"Hd[iH`^aah

BZi]dYh AA.VV.,
Padri
e
figli
in
azienda:
aspeCaHve
a
confronto,
Assolombarda,
Gruppo
Giovani

The
 course
 module
 will
 uHlise
 a
 combinaHon
 of
 learning
 methods
 including
 group
 work,
 Industriali,
1990
discussions,
 case
 studies,
 short
 assignments,
 self‐study,
 and
 face‐to‐face
 lectures.
 The
 Gersick
K.,
Davies
J.,
Hampton
M.
and
Landesberg
I.,
GeneraHon
to
GeneraHon
‐
life
cycles
use
of
a
learning
plaxorm
via
addiHonal
material
and
online
content
is
offered
is
strongly
 of
the
Family
Business,
Harvard
Business
School
Press,
1997.
recommended.
 Morris
M.,
Williams
R.,
W.
and
Nel
D.,
Factors
influencing
Family
Business
Succession,
Contents
of
this
module
should
be
applied
especially
to
pracHcal
planning
and
to
the
work
 InternaHonal
Journal
of
Entrepreneurial
Behaviour
and
Research,
Vol
2,
No
3,
MCB
Univ.

on
the
final
transfer
plan,
including
recurring
do’s
and
don’ts
sessions,
which
should
take
into
 Press
1996.
account
the
concrete
succession
plans
of
the
parHcipants.
In
order
to
opHmise
the
learning
 Jean‐Marc
TARIANT,
Pour
reprendre
une
enterprise,
EdiHon
d’organisaHon
2000
process
 and
 successfully
 conclude
 the
 module,
 self‐study
 using
 the
 materials
 provided
 is
 ATELIER
STUDIOCENTRO
VENETO,
ProgeCo
Ri‐lancio,
Regione
Veneto
assessorato
PMI,

essenHal.
 Learning
 groups
 can
 be
 formed
 face
 to
 face
 or
 virtually,
 and
 the
 presence
 days
 Vicenza
OCobre
2002
ATELIER
STUDIOCENTRO
VENETO,
Ricerca
AncorArHgiani,
gesHre
il

serve
 as
 possibiliHes
 to
 answer
 quesHons
 and
 discuss
 the
 content
 of
 the
 module
 with
 passaggio
generazionale
all’interno
delle
imprese
ArHgiane
Veneziane,
ConfarHgianato

other
 course
 parHcipants
 and
 the
 instructors.
 Preliminary
 and
 follow‐up
 readings
 as
 well
 Venezia,
2002.
as
 possible
 electronic
 resources
 are
 strongly
 recommended
 parts
 of
 the
 course
 contents.
 BARNES
L.B.‐HERSHON
S.A.,
Trasferring
Power
in
family
Business,
in
“Harward
Espansione”,

The
goal
of
combining
methods
is
to
move
to
and
from
between
theoreHcal
concepts
and
 20,
1983.
pracHcal
applicaHons
in
order
to
create
relevance
for
the
parHcipants.
 LEVINSON
H.,
Don‘t
choose
your
own
successor,
in
„Harvard
Business
Review“,
novembre‐
dicembre1974.
EgZgZfj^h^iZh SONNENFELD
J.,
Heroes
in
collision:
Chief
execuHve
reHrement
and
the
parade
of
future

ParHcipaHon
in
this
module
requires
parHcipants
to
be
moHvated
to
lead
a
business
and
to
 Leader,
in
“Human
Resource
management”,
Summer,
vol.
XXV.
have
a
minimum
basic
knowledge
of
business
management.
Follow‐up
6hhZhhbZci BAUER
M.
„Tra
impresa
e
famiglia:
trasmissione
e
successione
nelle
piccole
e
medie

Short
 assignments
 and
 discussions
 will
 serve
 as
 one
 basis
 for
 course
 assessment.
 AcHve
 imprese“;
Nuova
Italia
ScienHfica,
Roma,
1997
parHcipaHon
in
face‐to‐face
classes
accounts
for
60%
of
the
final
grade.
 BRUNELLO
T.,
Passaggi
ObbligaH,
F.
Angeli,
Milano
2003.
Gibb
Dyer
W.
Jr.,
1986,
Cultural
change
in
family
firms
‐
AnHcipaHng
and
managing
business

A^iZgVijgZ and
family
transiHons
(Jossey‐Bass
Publishers,
San
Francisco)
McGivern
C.,
1978,
The
dynamics
of
management
succession,
Management
Decision,
Preliminary Vol.
16,
1,
32‐42
Barnes
L.,
Hershon
S.,
1976,
Transferring
power
in
the
family
business,
Harvard
Business
Review,
Juillet‐Août,
105‐114 LZWa^c`h
Bragard
L.,
Van
Caillie
D.,
1994,
Aspects
stratégiques
et
humains
de
la
transmission (overview)

des
PeHtes
et
Moyennes
Entreprises
familiales:
résultats
d‘une
enquête,
in
„Héritage
et hCp://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/entrepreneurship/support_measures/transfer_business/
transmission
intergénéraHonnelle“,
Chapitre
9
(De
Boeck
Université,
Bruxelles) index.htm
Donckels
R.,
Frölich
E.,
1991,
Are
family
businesses
really
different?
European
experiences
 The
European
Forum
on
the
Transfer
of
Business,
Lille/France
1997

from
STRATOS,
Family
Business
Review,
2,
149‐160 Europa
‐
Markets
for
Business
Transfers
(page
14‐15)

124 125
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"Hd[iH`^aah HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"=jbVcGZhdjgXZBVcV\ZbZci

hCp://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/entrepreneurship/support_measures/transfer_business/ >kcWdH[iekhY[CWdW][c[dj
transfer‐brochure‐en.pdf
hCp://www.unioncamere.it/allegaH/lille_conclusions1997_en.pdf
(page
8). In
 this
 course
 you
 will
 be
 placed
 at
 the
 forefront
 in
 understanding
 how
 organizaHons
 can

gain
a
sustainable
compeHHve
advantage
through
its
people.
The
role
of
HR
managers
is
no

longer
 limited
 to
 service
 funcHons,
 such
 as
 recruiHng
 and
 selecHng
 employees.
 Today
 HR

managers
assume
an
acHve
role
in
the
business
transfer
process,
especially
in
the
strategic

planning
and
decision
making
in
their
organisaHons.
MeeHng
challenges
head‐on
and
using

human
resources
effecHvely
are
criHcal
to
the
success
of
any
work
organisaHon.

Nevertheless,
 in
 recent
 years
 the
 field
 of
 Human
 Resource
 Management
 (HRM)
 has

changed
drasHcally.
Nowadays
HR
managers
play
a
key
role
in
organisaHonal
development.

TradiHonally
managers
believed
that
organisaHons
that
had
access
to
capital
or
technology

could
achieve
a
compeHHve
advantage.
Another
approach
is
that
organisaHons
that
could

offer
quality
products
and
services
are
a
step
ahead
from
compeHtors.
Nonetheless
human

capital
is
the
sole
factor
that
could
maintain
an
organisaHon‘s
compeHHve
advantage.

In
the
light
of
the
complex
business
transfer
process,
both
transferors
and
successors
must

be
able
to
master
the
key
HR
funcHons
in
order
to
succeed
in
this
process.
One
of
the
main

objecHves
of
this
module
is
to
develop
an
understanding
of
the
business
transfer
concept
and

process
in
relaHon
with
Human
Resource
Management
funcHon.
Reaching
this
objecHve
will

be
done
by
discussing
the
importance
of
linking
each
of
the
human
resources
funcHons
to

the
business
transfer
process.
The
business
transfer
process
could
be
done
from
the
owner

to
an
employee
or
to
a
family
member.
This
would
be
the
path
which
the
business
to
be

transferred
should
take
to
create
a
compeHHve
advantage
in
today‘s
business
environment.


The
module
itself
is
divided
into
four
topics:
1.
 Importance
and
role
of
Human
Resources

at
the
Hme
of
business
transfer
process,
2.
Alignment
of
the
HRM
strategy
with
the
enterprise

strategy,
3.
HRM
at
the
Business
Transfer
Process,
4.
Expanding
HRM
Horizons.

=djgh

This
module
should
consist
of
a
total
of
14
hours
divided
into
8
hours
(one
day)
of
face‐to‐
face
learning
and
2
hours
e‐learning
and

approximately
4hours
self‐study.

126 127
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"=jbVcGZhdjgXZBVcV\ZbZci HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"=jbVcGZhdjgXZBVcV\ZbZci

HeZX^ÒXDW_ZXi^kZh ;VXZ"id"[VXZ8dciZci

This
 module
 discusses
 the
 importance
 of
 Human
 Resource
 Management
 through
 the

analysis
of
its
specific
topics
which
will
train
the
parHcipants
in
the
capability
to
design
and
 Time Day
1
implement
HRM
strategies
to
achieve
organisaHonal
compeHHve
advantages
in
the
business
 0,5
h IntroducHon

transfer
process. Alignment
of
the
HRM
Strategy
with
the
Enterprise
Strategy
‐State
of
the
HRM


 2
h

FuncHons
before
Decision
Making
Business
Transfer

The
specific
objecHves
of
this
module
are: Break
° ParHcipants
will
understand
both
short‐
and
long‐term
organisaHonal
challenges
in
the
 1.5
h HRM
Planning
for
the
Business
Transfer
Process

area
of
HRM
to
make
a
posiHve
impact
on
firm
development. Break
° ParHcipants
will
discuss
each
of
the
HRM
funcHons
to
help
understand
how
the
funcHons
 HRM
at
the
Business
Transfer
Process
are
managed
in
the
HRM
department. ° New
Human
Resources
Management

Planning
at
the
Time
of
Business

° ParHcipants
will
analyse
the
different
situaHons
that
could
emerge
in
the
organisaHons
 1.5
h Transfer
ProcessCreaHng
High‐performance
Work
System

and
affect
the
HRM
department
in
order
to
find
the
way
to
approach
them. ° Career
Development
at
the
Business
Transfer
Process
–
Acquiring
New

° ParHcipants
will
learn
to
develop
team‐work
capabiliHes
in
order
to
enhance
collaboraHve
 Employees
and
Dismissal
learning
for
human
development
and
effecHve
human
capital
achievement.
Break
° ParHcipants
 will
 idenHfy
 the
 requirements
 for
 aCaining
 a
 work
 environment
 that

Expanding
HRM
Horizons
promotes
honesty,
respect,
and
people‘s
dignity.
° DesignaHng
New
Human
Resources
Management
Structure
° ParHcipants
will
discuss
the
importance
of
understanding
the
employee,
groups,
and

1.5
h
 ° SePng
Human
Resources
Working
requirements
organisaHonal
needs
in
the
development
of
their
funcHons.
° Enhancing
Employee
–
Management
RelaHons:
RouHne
Exercising
Control


of
New
Human
Resources
System

Break
1
h Conclusion
and
PracHcal
Assignment
Total
8
h

Table
6:

Human
Resources
‐
Face‐to‐face
Content

BZi]dYh
The
 course
 module
 will
 uHlise
 a
 combinaHon
 of
 learning
 methods
 including
 group
 work,

discussions,
 case
 studies,
 short
 assignments,
 self‐study,
 and
 face‐to‐face
 lectures.
 The

use
of
a
learning
plaxorm
via
addiHonal
material
and
online
content
is
offered
is
strongly

recommended.

Contents
of
this
module
should
be
applied
especially
to
pracHcal
planning
and
to
the
work

on
the
final
transfer
plan,
including
recurring
do’s
and
don’ts
sessions,
which
should
take
into

account
the
concrete
succession
plans
of
the
parHcipants.
In
order
to
opHmise
the
learning


128 129
HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"=jbVcGZhdjgXZBVcV\ZbZci HnaaVW^d[i]Z7IEBdYjaZh"=jbVcGZhdjgXZBVcV\ZbZci

process
 and
 successfully
 conclude
 the
 module,
 self‐study
 using
 the
 materials
 provided
 is
 Sisson,
K.,
Storey,
J.
(2000).
The
RealiHes
of
Human
Resource
Management.

essenHal.
 Learning
 groups
 can
 be
 formed
 face
 to
 face
 or
 virtually,
 and
 the
 presence
 days
 Buckingham:
Open
University
Press.
serve
 as
 possibiliHes
 to
 answer
 quesHons
 and
 discuss
 the
 content
 of
 the
 module
 with
 Bach,
S.,
Sisson,
K.
(2000).
Personnel
Management:
A
Comprehensive
Guide
to
Theory
and

other
 course
 parHcipants
 and
 the
 instructors.
 Preliminary
 and
 follow‐up
 readings
 as
 well
 PracHce.
Oxford:
Blackwell.
as
 possible
 electronic
 resources
 are
 strongly
 recommended
 parts
 of
 the
 course
 contents.
 Hollinshead,
G.,
Leat,
M.
(1995).
Human
Resource
Management:
An
InternaHonal
and

The
goal
of
combining
methods
is
to
move
to
and
from
between
theoreHcal
concepts
and
 ComparaHve
PerspecHve.
Upper
Saddle
(NJ)
FT
PrenHce
Hall.
pracHcal
applicaHons
in
order
to
create
relevance
for
the
parHcipants.
 Salaman,
M.
(2001).
Industrial
RelaHons,
Upper
Saddle
(NJ)
FT
PrenHce
Hall.
Tayeb,
M.
(2005).
InternaHonal
Human
Resource
Management:
A
MulHnaHonal
Company

Using
case
studies
is
the
opHmal
learning
strategy
for
the
teaching‐learning
process.
One
of
 PerspecHve.
Oxford:
Oxford
University
Press.
the
principal
objecHves
of
this
learning
strategy
is
that
the
parHcipant
takes
a
key
role
in
the
 Torrington,
D.,
Hall,
L.,
Taylor,
S.
(2002).
Human
Resource
Management.

learning
process.
The
case
study
is
the
teaching‐learning
strategy
that
confronts
parHcipants
 Upper
Saddle
(NJ):
FT
PrenHce
Hall
with
 real‐life
 situaHons
 in
 the
 area
 of
 HRM.
 In
 this
 way
 parHcipants
 can
 learn
 to
 make

decisions
to
propose
soluHons
to
a
specific
situaHon.
It
is
important
to
remember
that
there
 LZWA^c`h
are
no
unique
soluHons;
however,
some
soluHons
could
be
beCer
than
others.
 It
is
recommended
to
list
web
links
based
on
the
recommendaHon
of
the
trainer.
The

following
is
an
example:
EgZgZfj^h^iZh ° Centre
for
Economic
Performance
‐
www.cep.lse.ac.uk
ParHcipaHon
in
this
module
requires
parHcipants
to
be
moHvated
to
lead
a
business
and
to
 ° Chartered
InsHtute
of
Personnel
and
Development
(CIPD)
‐
www.cipd.co.uk
have
a
minimum
basic
knowledge
of
business
management. ° ConfederaHon
of
BriHsh
Industry
(CBI)
‐
www.cbi.org.uk
° Department
of
Trade
and
Industry
(DTI)
‐
www.dH.gov.uk
6hhZhhbZci ° Human
Resource
Management
‐
www.bized.ac.uk
In
 class
 parHcipaHon
 and
 short
 assignments
 could
 serve
 as
 a
 basis
 for
 assessment
 of
 the
 ° InsHtute
of
Management
‐
www.inst‐mgt.org.uk
course
module. ° The
Financial
Times
‐
www.2.com
° Trades
Union
Congress
(TUC)
‐
www.tuc.org.uk
A^iZgVijgZ
 

It
is
recommended
to
list
preliminary
and
follow‐up
literature
based
on
the
recommendaHon

of
the
trainer.


Preliminary
and
Follow‐up
Reading


Armstrong,
M.
A.
(2003).
Handbook
of
Human
Resource
Management
PracHce.

London:
Kogan
Page.
Legge,
K.
(1995).
Human
Resource
Management
:
Rhetoric
and
RealiHes.

London:
Macmillan.

130 131
8dcXajY^c\GZbVg`hVcYDjiadd` 8dcXajY^c\GZbVg`hVcYDjiadd`

9edYbkZ_d]H[cWhaiWdZEkjbeea The
results
of
our
efforts
were
a
curriculum
for
business
transferees
that
can
be
applied
in

different
European
countries
and
that
consists
of
an
individual
path
and
a
group
path.
The

GZcZLZcoZa!7ZgcVYZiiZ;gZX] curriculum
was
structured
in
the
following
way:
;=?D6CC:JB
Idc^7gjcZaad ° OrientaHon
 phase:
 here
 the
 parHcipants
 are
 provided
 with
 all
 necessary
 informaHon

HijY^d8ZcigdKZcZid about
learning
materials,
the
uHlised
methodology,
goals
and
contents
of
the
training

modules,
 a
 Hme
 schedule,
 and
 expected
 results.
 The
 trainers
 and
 consultants
 are

introduced,
too.

When
 we
 began
 the
 Business
 Transfer
 Programme,
 we
 had
 several
 goals
 in
 mind.
 First,

we
wanted
to
promote
business
transfer
in
the
European
Union.
Since
about
a
third
of
all
 ° E‐learning/Self‐study/supervision:
 this
 phase
 is
 started
 at
 the
 same
 Hme
 as
 the

European
businesses
are
to
be
transferred
within
the
next
10
years
and
transfers
are
more
 orientaHon
phase
and
goes
on
Hll
the
end
of
the
programme.
Every
learning
material

and
more
taking
place
outside
the
family,
business
transfer
has
become
a
major
policy
issue
in
 can
be
found
on
the
online
plaxorm.
AddiHonally
the
internet
plaxorm
serves
as
an
aid

Europe.
As
we
have
discussed
earlier,
every
year
690,000
jobs
depend
on
successful
business
 to
develop
an
individual
business
plan.
succession.
Due
to
the
fact
that
business
transfer
within
the
family
diminishes
nowadays,
the

process
of
business
transfer
faces
difficulHes
that
cannot
be
ignored.
Problems
arise
because
 ° Group
 trainings:
 the
 first
 training
 session
 is
 primarily
 dealing
 with
 face‐to‐face

measures
released
by
the
European
Commission
supporHng
business
transfer
are
only
half
 experience
 exchange
 and
 knowledge
 transfer.
 As
 teaching
 methods
 we
 use
 lectures,

implemented
in
the
member
states
and
transferees
are
o2en
not
well
prepared
to
take
over
 small
 group
 works,
 independent
 work,
 coaching
 and
 supervision,
 group
 discussions,

a
 business.
 SupporHng
 business
 transfer
 in
 Europe
 means
 that
 we
 can
 help
 not
 only
 one
 answer
sessions,
and
working
on
a
case
study.
single
entrepreneur
but
also
the
European
economy,
since
every
closed
enterprise
means
a

loss
in
wealth
and
a
decrease
of
employment
figures.
The
beCer
the
transfer
is
prepared
and
 ° Individual
 succession
 plan:
 in
 this
 part
 the
 aim
 is
 to
 develop
 an
 individually‐tailored

transferees
are
educated
in
managing,
the
greater
probability
of
success
and
the
possibility
 plan
for
the
parHcipant‘s
own
business
succession.
It
will
be
used
to
meet
the
needs

to
create
new
jobs
for
the
local
economy. communicated
by
the
parHcipants
in
their
individual
consulHng
session.

Second,
we
wanted
to
introduce
different
methods
of
teaching
and
training
in
the
field
of
 In
 order
 to
 test
 our
 curriculum,
 we
 had
 trials
 it
 in
 two
 pilot
 trainings,
 which
 both
 started

business
transfer.
One
only
has
to
look
at
exisHng
regulaHons
in
different
member
states
to
 in
February
2008
and
lasted
for
two
months.
One
was
conducted
in
Graz,
the
other
one
in

realise
that
teaching
business
transfer
is
not
an
easy
task.
What
is
right
and
useful
in
one
 Vicenza.
The
feedback
that
was
given
by
the
parHcipaHng
transferees
in
both
pilot
trainings

country
can
be
the
total
opposite
in
another.
In
this
book
we
have
discussed
circumstances
 was
extremely
posiHve,
and
so
we
are
looking
forward
to
other
applicaHons
of
this
syllabus.
for
business
transfer
in
the
countries
of
our
project
partners.
There
are
various
insHtuHons

that
promote
business
transfers
in
these
countries.
However,
we
aim
at
implemenHng
the
 The
integraHon
of
e‐learning
into
the
training
process
was
developed
following
state
of
the

newly
developed
syllabus
of
the
Business
Transfer
Programme
in
the
parHcipaHng
countries
 art
 theoreHcal
 insights
 into
 the
 approaches
 to
 e‐learning.
 With
 the
 help
 of
 project
 team

and
beyond.
Our
learning
method
consists
of
self‐directed
learning,
face‐to‐face
training,
e‐ members
as
well
as
expert
insHtuHons,
all
technical
and
educaHonal
issues
could
be
resolved

learning,
individual
coaching,
and
learning
from
experience.
PuPng
it
together
provides
us
 delivering
a
high
end
product
for
a
contemporary
blended
syllabus.
The
mix
of
methods
is
at

with
an
integrated
soluHon
that
combines
the
process
of
consulHng,
training,
and
experience
 the
core
of
the
e‐learning
concept
which
the
business
transfer
training
programme
follows.

exchange.


132 133
8dcXajY^c\GZbVg`hVcYDjiadd` 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>

The
project
primarily
aims
at
reducing
expensive
class
room
presence
as
well
as
to
realise
 7dd[n[i
higher
quality
by
employing
a
modern
methodological
concepHon.

6ccZm>HiVi^hi^XVa9ViV
The
end
product
is
a
standardised
approach
to
learning
and
teaching
business
transfer
from
 ?VXdWdGVb^gZo
the
teachers’,
transferors’
and
transferees’
point
of
view.
We
believe
that
our
systemisaHon
 8deZc]V\Zc7jh^cZhhHX]dda87H
of
the
learning
and
teaching
processes
will
benefit
all
protagonists
in
this
programme.
It
is

our
wish
that
it
will
be
posiHvely
recognised
for
a
long
Hme.
 IVWaZ&/9Zbd\gVe]^XKVg^VWaZh
Successors Transferors
The
consorHum
will
also
conHnue
its
efforts
in
the
longer
run
trying
to
offer
the
curriculum

Demographic
Variables Number % Number %
vocaHonal
 training
 programmes
 and
 to
 support
 other
 VET
 (VocaHonal
 EducaHon
 and

Training)
 providers
 for
 licensing
 across
 Europe
 and
 worldwide.
 Through
 this
 significant

impact
and
perfecHon
in
the
consulHng
services
offered
to
transferees,
the
improvement
of
 Age
the
effecHveness
of
transfers
can
be
expected,
and
the
European
corporate
landscape
and
 30
or
less
than
30
years
old 82 24.1 17 5.4
consequently
the
whole
economy
will
benefit
from
our
efforts. 31
through
40
years
old 182 53.5 35 11.0
41
through
50
years
old 64 18.8 53 16.7
51
through
60
years
old 10 2.9 106 33.4
Over
60
years
old 2 0.6 106 33.4

Gender
Female 108 31.8 63 19.9
Male 230 67.6 244 77.0

Na,onality
Austrian 45 13.2 40 12.6
Danish 39 11.5 39 12.3
German 50 14.7 50 15.8
Italian 56 16.5 48 15.1
Spanish 44 12.9 33 10.4
Turkish 52 15.3 50 15.8
Romanian 51 15.0 49 15.5
Other
NaHonaliHes 3 0.9 8 2.5

134 135
6ccZmZh"6ccZm> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>

IVWaZ'/CjbWZgd[8VhZhWn>cYjhig^VaHZXidgVcY8djcign IVWaZ)/Edhi=dXH]Z[[‚IZhiBjai^eaZ8dbeVg^hdch/>cYjhig^VaHZXidg
9ZeZcYZciKVg^VWaZ/;^cVcX^Va@cdlaZY\Z
Successors Austria Germany Denmark Italy Turkey Romania Spain
Manufacturing 2 50 21 14 11 18 7 (I)
Industrial
Sector (J)
Industrial
Sector Mean
Difference
(I‐J) Sig.

Retail/Wholesales 10 0 12 4 12 6 13 Manufacturing Retail/Wholesales ‐.4204028(*) .033

Tourism 14 0 1 15 2 24 4 
 Tourism ‐.6091709(*) .000

Services 21 0 8 23 7 3 9 
 Services ‐.4304451(*) .013


Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level.
Unknown 0 0 0 0 18 0 0
Other
Sectors 0 0 0 0 0 0 11
Total
Cases 47 50 42 56 32 51 44
IVWaZ*/>chigjbZciKVa^YVi^dcÄHjXXZhhdghIgVch[Zgdgh
Online 42 50 1 0 0 18 1
Successors Transferors
Offline 5 0 41 56 50 33 43
Important
Steps
within
the
 Important
Steps
within
the
Hand‐over

Take‐over
Process Alpha Process Alpha
Technical
Knowledge
(Legal(6),
Tax(7),
 Technical
Knowledge
(Legal(4),
Tax(5),

IVWaZ(/CjbWZgd[8VhZhWn>cYjhig^VaHZXidgVcY8djcign Admon(8),
Financial(9)) 0.768 AdministraHve(6)) 0.861
Communica,on
Skills
(Employees(2),
 Communica,on
Skills
(Successors(1),

Transferors Austria Germany Denmark Italy Turkey Romania Spain
Clients(3),
Contact(4),
Training(5)) 0.714 Employees(2)) n.a
Manufacturing 7 50 32 14 15 6 9 Difficul,es
within
the
Take‐over
Process Difficul,es
within
the
Hand‐over
Process
Retail/Wholesales 10 0 2 2 12 3 16 Management
(Legal(4),
Tax(5),

Tourism 4 0 1 13 7 29 12 Legisla,on
Knowledge
(Tax(8),
Legal(7)) n.a Admin(6),
Financial(7)) 0.754
Contact
Key
Players
(Clients(4),
 Contact
Key
Players
(Successor(1),

Services 19 0 5 19 13 11 2
Employees(3),
Business(1)) 0.542 Employees(2),
Clients(3)) 0.888
Unknown 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 Contact
Other
Successors
(Training(6),

Other
Sectors 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Successors(5)) n.a
Financial
knowledge
(Financial(10),

Total
Cases 40 50 40 48 50 49 40
Owner(2)) n.a
Online 38 50 0 0 0 2 3 Valuable
Knowledge
and
Skills
in
the
take‐ Valuable
Knowledge
and
Skills
in
the

Offline 2 0 40 48 50 47 37 over
process Hand‐over
Process
Commercial
Knowledge
(Legal(4),
 Legal
Aspects
(Legal(2),
Taxes(3);

Financial(3),
Commercial(2)) 0.718 Pension(4)) 0.737
SoT
Skills
and
Marke,ng
Competences

(MarkeHng(9),
Leadership(8),
 Nego,a,on
Aspects
(Shareholders(1),

CommunicaHon(7) 0.727 NegoHaHon(5)) n.a
Firm’s
Sector
Knowledge
(Work

Experience(10),
Customer(5),
Branch(1)) 0.568

136 137
6ccZmZh"6ccZm> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>

IVWaZ+/>chigjbZciKVa^YVi^dcÄHjXXZhhdghIgVch[Zgdgh IVWaZ-/Edhi=dXAH9IZhiBjai^eaZ8dbeVg^hdch/8djcign
9ZeZcYZciKVg^VWaZ/HjXXZhhdghÉHVaZhH`^aah
Successors Transferors
Valuable
KW
&
Competences
 Valuable
KW
&
Competences
that
a
successor
should
 (I)
Industrial
Sector (J)
Industrial
Sector Mean
Difference
(I‐J) Sig.
for
con,nue
Business Alpha have
for
con,nue
Business Alpha Manufacturing Retail/Wholesales ‐.3474594(*) .033
Business
Worth
(Market(8),
 Finance
(Legal(1),
Financing(3),
Liability(4),
 
 Service ‐.2834047(*) .040
Technical(7),
ValuaHon(6)) 0.602 Funding(5)) 0.732
Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level.
Financial
Competence

(Liability(4),
Financing(3)) n.a Sales
(Technical(7),
Market(8),
So2
Skills
(9)) 0.667
IVWaZ./Edhi=dXAH9IZhiBjai^eaZ8dbeVg^hdch/>cYjhig^VaHZXidg
HRM
(Labour
Law(2),
Human
Resources(10),
 9ZeZcYZciKVg^VWaZ/AVl
ValuaHon(6)) 0.604
(I)
Industrial
Sector (J)
Industrial
Sector Mean
Difference
(I‐J) Sig.

Knowledge
and
Skills
that
Successors
Should
Have
Manufacturing Retail/Wholesales ‐.4721950(*) .009
Successors’
Sales
Skills
(AccounHng
Skills
(5),

CommunicaHon
Skills
(6),
Leadership
Skills(7),
 Retail/Wholesales Tourism .4018437(*) .043
MarkeHng
Skills
(8)) 0.630 Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level.
Successors’
Firm
Knowledge
(KW
Branch(1),
KW

Commercial(2),
KW
Financial(3)) 0.679 IVWaZ&%/6CDK6/IgVch[ZgdghHjXXZhhdgh
Successors’
Work
Experience
(Work
Experience(9)) n.a Country
*
 Country
*

Industrial
 Industrial
 Industrial
 Industrial

Factor
 Sector
 Sector Country
 Factor
 Sector Sector Country
IVWaZ,/>chigjbZciKVa^YVi^dcÄHjXXZhhdghIgVch[Zgdgh Transferors F p F p F p Successors F p F p F p
Technical
 Technical

Successors Transferors Knowledge .691 .793 .013 .998 3.599* .002 Knowledge 1.875* .026 .255 .858 7.947* .000
Content
of
the
Screening
Tool Alpha Content
of
the
Screening
Tool Alpha CommunicaHon
 CommunicaHon

SoT‐Skills
(HR
(15),
So2
Skills
 Skills .728 .755 .073 .975 3.403* .003 Skills 1.738 .044 1.531 .207 11.119* .000
(16),
CommunicaHon(17),
 SoT
Skills
(So2
Skills
(22.16),
CommunicaHon
 LegislaHon

PresentaHon(18),
NegoHaHon(19),
 (22.17),
PresentaHon
(22.18),
NegoHaHon
 Management 1.887* .024 1.652 .178 4.342* .000 Knowledge 2.375* .003 .355 .800 7.130* .000
Self
&
Time(20)) 0.901 (22.19),
Self
&
Hme
Management
(22.20)) 0.863 Contact
Key
 Contact
Key

Marke,ng
(MarkeHng(11),
 Marke,ng
(MarkeHng
(22.11),
Market
(22.12),
 Player 1.480 .112 5.031* .002 17.861* .000 Player 1.681 .055 .085 .968 12.290* .000
Market(12),
CompeHHon(13),
 CompeHHon
(22.13),
Sales
(22.14),
Human
 0.846 Contact
Other

Sales(14)) 0.856 Resources
(22.15)) Legal
Aspects .846 .626 .448 .719 19.630* .000 Successors 3.642* .000 1.811 .146 23.743* .000
Law
(Law
in
general(1),
Tax
Law(2),
 0.906 Legisla,on
(Law
(22.1),
Tax
(22.2),
Labour
 NegoHaHon
 Financial

Business
Law(3)) (22.4)) 0.810 Aspects .959 .499 2.225 .085 9.176* .000 Knowledge 2.716* .001 .399 .754 11.178* .000
Business
Finance
(Business
(22.3),
Finance
 Successors’
 Commercial

Finance
(Finance(5),
Financing(6),
 (22.5),
Financing
(22.6),
Credit
(22.7),
Liability
 Sales
Skills 2.797* .000 2.654* .049 7.986* .000 Knowledge 2.032* .014 1.571 .197 4.215* .000
Liability(8)) 0.769 (22.8),
Founding
(22.9)) 0.896
External
Financial
Resources

(Credit(7),
Funding(9)) n.a Infrastructure
(Technical
(22.10)) n.a

138 139
6ccZmZh"6ccZm> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>

So2
Skills
 IVWaZ&'/Edhi=dXIZhi
Successors’
Firm
 and
MKT

Successors Transferors
Knowledge 1.190 .279 .178 .911 2.877* .010 Competences 1.657 .060 1.884 .133 10.455* .000
Successors’
 Important
Steps
within
the
Take‐over
Process Important
Steps
within
the
Hand‐over
Process
Work
 Firm’s
Sector
 Communica,on
Skills Communica,on
Skills
Experience .689 .795 1.824 .143 3.175* .005 Knowledge 2.625* .001 .722 .510 19.086* .000
Finance 1.183 .285 .862 .461 4.831* .000 Business
Worth
 3.146* .000 1.758 .156 4.584* .000
Austria Germany 1.8089678(*) .000 Austria Romania ‐.8163001(*) .000
Financial
 Italy .8183598(*) .000 
 Denmark ‐.7322294(*) .001
Sales 1.674 .056 .437 .727 3.942* .001 Competence 1.458 .122 3.380* .019 10.974* .000 Germany Italy ‐.9906080(*) .000 Germany Romania ‐.6213637(*) .001
HRM 1.113 .344 .510 .676 6.853* .000 So2
Skills
 1.132 .333 1.763 .156 2.261* .039
Romania ‐1.6527369(*) .000 
 Denmark ‐.5372930(*) .009
Business’

Finance 1.222 .256 1.122 .341 5.119* .000 MarkeHng
 1.481 .121 1.518 .211 7.056* .000 Turkey ‐1.5227055(*) .000 
Italy Romania ‐.5782546(*) .004
So2
Skills .687 .796 2.400 .069 2.284* .037 Law
 .753 .718 1.100 .350 1.919 .080 Denmark ‐2.1155994(*) .000 
 Denmark ‐.4941839(*) .020
MarkeHng 1.281 .215 .896 .444 1.245 .284 Finance
 1.978* .021 1.237 .298 4.137* .001
Spain ‐1.4852098(*) .000 Romania Turkey .9376140(*) .000
External
Finance

Law 1.368 .165 2.709* .046 3.420* .003 Resources
 .944 .513 1.292 .279 11.719* .000 Italy Romania ‐.6621289(*) .000 
 Spain .6372311(*) .002
Infrastructure .744 .738 .124 .946 8.556* .000 Turkey ‐.5320974(*) .004 Turkey Denmark ‐.8535434(*) .000
Notes:
*p<0.05
Denmark ‐1.1249914(*) .000 Denmark Spain .5531604(*) .013
Spain ‐.4946017(*) .004
IVWaZ&&/Edhi=dXIZhi
Romania Denmark ‐.4628625(*) .008 

Successors Transferors
Turkey Denmark ‐.5928940(*) .002
Important
Steps
within
the
Take‐over
Process Important
Steps
within
the
Hand‐over
Process
Denmark Spain .6303897(*) .001 

Technical
Knowledge Technical
Knowledge Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level.
Austria Germany ‐1.0359022(*) .000 Austria Germany ‐.7977880(*) .000
Italy ‐1.0482800(*) .000 
 Italy ‐1.1793878(*) .000
Romania ‐1.1615871(*) .000 
 Romania ‐.9241021(*) .000
Denmark ‐1.4379317(*) .000 
 Denmark ‐.9122014(*) .000
Spain ‐1.6847599(*) .000 
 Spain ‐.5213173(*) .019
Turkey Denmark ‐.8411447(*) .016 Germany Turkey .4971384(*) .011
Spain ‐1.0879729(*) .001 
Italy Turkey .8787381(*) .000

 Spain .6580705(*) .002
Romania Turkey .6234525(*) .002
Turkey Denmark ‐.6115517(*) .004
Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level.

140 141
6ccZmZh"6ccZm> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>

IVWaZ&(/Edhi=dXIZhi IVWaZ&)/Edhi=dXIZhi
Successors Transferors Successors Transferors
Difficul,es
within
the
Take‐over
Process Difficul,es
within
the
Hand‐over
Process Valuable
Knowledge
and
Skills
in
the
Take‐over
 Valuable
Knowledge
and
Skills
in
the
Hand‐over

Legisla,on
Knowledge Management Process Process
Austria Germany .4332920(*) .026 Austria Italy ‐.4972430(*) .017
Commercial
Knowledge Legal
Aspects

 Italy .6610042(*) .001 
 Romania ‐.7943254(*) .000
Austria Italy ‐.6723558(*) .000 Austria Germany ‐1.7164434(*) .000

 Romania ‐.5554468(*) .004 Germany Italy ‐.8929598(*) .000

 Denmark .5205395(*) .017 
 Romania ‐1.1900422(*) .000 Romania ‐.4106729(*) .033 Italy ‐1.5416239(*) .000

 Spain .9598457(*) .000 
 Turkey ‐.4689064(*) .012 Turkey ‐.5379425(*) .013 Romania ‐1.8162270(*) .000

Germany Romania ‐.9887388(*) .000 
 Denmark ‐.3853250(*) .046 Denmark ‐1.2633405(*) .000 Turkey ‐.4698372(*) .006

 Spain .5265537(*) .004 
 Spain ‐.5116089(*) .009
Spain ‐.6145718(*) .002 Denmark ‐1.2013382(*) .000

Italy Romania ‐1.2164511(*) .000 
Italy Turkey .4240534(*) .026
Germany Italy ‐.5308301(*) .011 Spain ‐.8052690(*) .000

Romania Turkey .8386547(*) .000 
 Denmark .5076347(*) .011

 Denmark 1.0759863(*) .000 
Romania Turkey .7211358(*) .000 Denmark ‐1.1218148(*) .000 Germany Turkey 1.2466062(*) .000

 Spain 1.5152925(*) .000 
 Denmark .8047172(*) .000 Spain ‐.4730462(*) .030 Denmark .5151052(*) .003

Turkey Spain .6766379(*) .001 
 Spain .6784333(*) .001 Italy Denmark ‐.5909847(*) .002 Spain .9111744(*) .000

Denmark Spain .4393062(*) .035
Romania Denmark ‐.8526677(*) .000 Italy Turkey 1.0717867(*) .000
Contact
Key
Players Contact
Key
Players
Turkey Denmark ‐.7253981(*) .001 Denmark .3402857 .051
Austria Germany 1.3617181(*) .000 Austria Germany 1.0661969(*) .000
Germany Italy ‐1.3370956(*) .000 
 Romania .5449831(*) .004 Denmark Spain .6487687(*) .001 Spain .7363549(*) .000
Romania ‐1.7133658(*) .000 
 Turkey 1.2352819(*) .000 SoT
Skills
and
Marke,ng
Competences Romania Turkey 1.3463898(*) .000
Turkey ‐1.0105660(*) .000 
 Denmark .6382635(*) .001 Austria Germany .7961918(*) .000 Denmark .6148888(*) .000
Denmark ‐1.6519225(*) .000 
 Spain .4510234(*) .023
Romania ‐.4178881(*) .020 Spain 1.0109580(*) .000
Spain ‐1.1368135(*) .000 
Germany Italy ‐1.4179519(*) .000
Denmark ‐.6229817(*) .001 Turkey Romania ‐1.3463898(*) .000
Italy Romania ‐.3762702(*) .027 
 Romania ‐.5212139(*) .002
Romania Turkey .7027998(*) .000 
 Denmark ‐.4279334(*) .016 Spain ‐.5216873(*) .005 Denmark ‐.7315010(*) .000
Spain .5765523(*) .001 
 Spain ‐.6151735(*) .001 Germany Italy ‐.7308699(*) .000 Spain ‐.3354318 .056
Turkey Denmark ‐.6413564(*) .003 
Italy Romania .8967381(*) .000 Romania ‐1.2140799(*) .000 Denmark Spain .3960692(*) .033
Denmark Spain .5151089(*) .011 
 Turkey 1.5870370(*) .000
Turkey ‐.4638319(*) .034 Nego,a,on
Aspects

 Denmark .9900185(*) .000
Denmark ‐1.4191735(*) .000 Austria Germany .3957678(*) .044

 Spain .8027784(*) .000

Romania Turkey .6902989(*) .000 Spain ‐1.3178791(*) .000 
 Italy ‐.7125502(*) .000

Turkey Denmark ‐.5970184(*) .001 Italy Romania ‐.4832100(*) .004 
 Denmark ‐.7451514(*) .000

 Spain ‐.7842586(*) .000 Denmark ‐.6883036(*) .000 
Germany Italy ‐1.1083180(*) .000
Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level.

142 143
6ccZmZh"6ccZm> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>

Spain ‐.5870092(*) .001 
 Romania ‐.4080994(*) .028 IVWaZ&+/Edhi=dXIZhi


Romania Turkey .7502480(*) .000 
 Denmark ‐1.1409192(*) .000 Successors Transferors
Turkey Denmark ‐.9553416(*) .000 
 Spain ‐.7198310(*) .000 Valuable
KW
&
Competences
for
Con,nue
 Valuable
KW
&
Competences
that
a
Successor

Spain ‐.8540472(*) .000 
Italy Romania .7002186(*) .000 Business Should
Have
for
Con,nue
Business


 Turkey .9448337(*) .000 Business
Worth Finance


Romania Denmark ‐.7328198(*) .000 Austria Germany ‐.8699937(*) .000 Austria Romania 1.0808359(*) .000


Turkey Denmark ‐.9774349(*) .000 Germany Italy .7455492(*) .000 
Germany Romania 1.2359147(*) .000


 Spain ‐.5563466(*) .007 
 Romania 1.0257584(*) .000 
 Turkey .4909454(*) .010


Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level 
 Turkey .5524006(*) .017 
Italy Romania 1.1859689(*) .000

 Denmark .8454001(*) .000 
 Turkey .4409996(*) .023
IVWaZ&*/Edhi=dXIZhi 
 Spain 1.0777658(*) .000 
Romania Turkey ‐.7449693(*) .000
Successors 
Romania Turkey ‐.4733579(*) .022 
 Denmark ‐1.0376814(*) .000
Valuable
Knowledge
and
Skills
in
the
Take‐over
Process 
Turkey Spain .5253652(*) .015 
 Spain ‐1.2615740(*) .000
Firm’s
Sector
Knowledge 
Turkey Spain ‐.5166047(*) .013
Austria Germany ‐.9874410(*) .000 Financial
Competence Sales
Italy ‐.5358630(*) .001 Austria Germany .8966607(*) .000 Austria Germany ‐.4676775(*) .019
Romania .5778439(*) .001 
 Italy ‐1.1076630(*) .000 
 Romania .5563075(*) .006
Turkey ‐.7647691(*) .000 
Germany Italy ‐2.0043236(*) .000 
 Turkey .6143969(*) .003
Spain ‐1.0214902(*) .000

 Romania ‐1.0784465(*) .000 
Germany Romania 1.0239850(*) .000
Germany Italy .4515780(*) .013

 Turkey ‐.6323839(*) .003 
 Turkey 1.0820744(*) .000
Romania 1.5652849(*) .000

 Denmark ‐1.0423899(*) .000 
 Denmark .4118427(*) .039
Denmark 1.1884922(*) .000

 Spain ‐1.1556814(*) .000 
 Spain .8783019(*) .000
Italy Romania 1.1137069(*) .000
Denmark .7369142(*) .000 
Italy Romania .9258771(*) .000 
Italy Romania .7937341(*) .000

Spain ‐.4856272(*) .003 
 Turkey 1.3719398(*) .000 
 Turkey .8518235(*) .000


Romania Turkey ‐1.3426130(*) .000 
 Denmark .9619338(*) .000 
 Spain .6480510(*) .002
Denmark ‐.3767927(*) .026 
 Spain .8486423(*) .000 
Romania Denmark ‐.6121423(*) .002
Spain ‐1.5993340(*) .000 
Romania Turkey .4460627(*) .018 
Turkey Denmark ‐.6702317(*) .001
Turkey Denmark .9658203(*) .000 
Turkey Denmark ‐.4100060(*) .039 
Denmark Spain .4664592(*) .030
Denmark Spain ‐1.2225414(*) .000 
 Spain ‐.5232975(*) .008
Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level.
Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level.

144 145
6ccZmZh"6ccZm> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>

IVWaZ&,/Edhi=dXIZhi IVWaZ&-/Edhi=dXIZhi
Transferors Successors Transferors
Valuable
KW
&
Competences
that
a
Successor
Should
Have
for
Con,nue
Business Content
of
the
Screening
Tool Content
of
the
Screening
Tool
HRM SoT‐Skills SoT
Skills
Austria Germany .7054378(*) .000 Spain Austria 1.1434878(*) .000 Austria Spain ‐.6510523(*) .011

 Romania ‐.5331360(*) .007 Germany .7121851(*) .007 Germany Turkey .5207210(*) .015

 Turkey .6860845(*) .001 
 Italy 1.0112927(*) .000 
 Denmark .4766529(*) .047
Germany Italy ‐.5729550(*) .002 
 Romania .8195750(*) .001 Italy Spain ‐.4990204(*) .043

 Romania ‐1.2385739(*) .000 
 Turkey .9256205(*) .000 Romania Turkey .6473094(*) .003

 Spain ‐1.0817349(*) .000 
 Denmark .6032413(*) .013

Italy Romania ‐.6656189(*) .000 Turkey Spain ‐.9285483(*) .000

 Turkey .5536017(*) .004 Denmark Spain ‐.8844802(*) .001

 Spain ‐.5087800(*) .011 Marke,ng Law

Romania Turkey 1.2192206(*) .000 Austria Italy ‐.7480187(*) .002 Austria Italy ‐.5156562(*) .033

 Denmark .8942147(*) .000 
 Romania ‐1.0755126(*) .000 
 Romania ‐.5072529(*) .022
Turkey Spain ‐1.0623816(*) .000 
 Denmark ‐.9918225(*) .000 
Germany Italy ‐.6720912(*) .002
Denmark
 Spain ‐.7373757(*) .000 Germany Italy ‐1.0218840(*) .000 
 Romania ‐.6636879(*) .000
Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level. 
 Romania ‐1.3493779(*) .000 
Italy Spain .7265861(*) .002

 Turkey ‐.4943508(*) .027 
Romania Spain .7181828(*) .001

 Denmark ‐1.2656878(*) .000 
Denmark Spain .4954738(*) .049

 Spain ‐.4607395(*) .040

Italy Turkey .5275332(*) .020 


 Turkey .5275332(*) .020 


 Spain .5611445(*) .014 


Romania Turkey .8550271(*) .000 


 Spain .8886384(*) .000 


Turkey Denmark ‐.7713370(*) .001
Denmark Spain .8049483(*) .000
Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level.

146 147
6ccZmZh"6ccZm> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>

IVWaZ&./Edhi=dXIZhi IVWaZ'%/Edhi=dXIZhi
Successors Transferors Successors Transferors
Content
of
the
Screening
Tool Content
of
the
Screening
Tool Difficul,es
within
the
Take‐over
Process Knowledge
and
Skills
that
Successors
Should
Have
Finance Business’
Finance
Contact
Other
Successors Successors’
Sales
Skills
Austria Italy ‐1.0459377(*) .000 Austria Romania .5094124(*) .025
Austria Germany .8403588(*) .000 Austria Romania ‐.5443768(*) .006

 Romania ‐.5309634(*) .022 
 Turkey 1.0163725(*) .000

 Spain ‐.5039455(*) .042 
 Denmark .5324404(*) .044 
 Italy ‐.6553542(*) .000 
 Turkey .4474646(*) .026
Germany Italy ‐1.2097284(*) .000 
Germany Turkey .8597428(*) .000 
 Romania 1.1316394(*) .000 
Germany Romania ‐.7892355(*) .000

 Romania ‐.6947540(*) .002 
Italy Turkey .7066575(*) .002 
 Denmark ‐.8814342(*) .000 
 Denmark ‐.4375251(*) .026

 Spain ‐.6677362(*) .005 
Romania Turkey .5069601(*) .016 Germany Italy ‐1.4957130(*) .000 
Italy Romania ‐.7483833(*) .000

Italy Romania .5149743(*) .022 
Turkey Spain ‐.5751492(*) .014 
 Romania .2912806(*) .033 
 Denmark ‐.3966729(*) .046

 Turkey 1.1536518(*) .000

 Turkey ‐.9855606(*) .000 
Romania Turkey .9918414(*) .000

 Denmark .7390006(*) .003 


 Denmark ‐1.7217930(*) .000 
 Spain .6338302(*) .002

 Spain .5419922(*) .026 


 Spain ‐1.0939421(*) .000 
Turkey Denmark ‐.6401310(*) .002

Romania Turkey .6386775(*) .003

Turkey Spain ‐.6116597(*) .009 Italy Romania 1.7869937(*) .000 Successors’
Firm
Knowledge
External
Financial
Resources Infrastructure 
 Turkey .5101524(*) .001 Austria Germany ‐.8119781(*) .000
Austria Turkey ‐1.3221606(*) .000 Austria Germany ‐1.7806182(*) .000 
 Spain .4017709(*) .006 
 Italy ‐.7756280(*) .000
Germany Italy ‐.6096935(*) .004 
 Italy ‐.7239809(*) .001 
RomaniaTurkey ‐1.2768412(*) .000 
 Denmark ‐.8526376(*) .000

 Romania ‐.5812982(*) .002 
 Romania ‐.7761830(*) .000 
 Denmark ‐2.0130736(*) .000 
 Spain ‐.4905355(*) .023

 Turkey ‐1.6712624(*) .000 
 Turkey ‐.4870885(*) .023

 Spain ‐1.3852227(*) .000 
Germany Romania .9578573(*) .000

 Spain ‐.6743374(*) .001 
 Denmark ‐1.2045647(*) .000

Turkey Denmark ‐.7362324(*) .000 
 Turkey .4560686(*) .017

Italy Turkey ‐1.0615689(*) .000 
Germany Italy 1.0566373(*) .000

Romania Turkey ‐1.0899642(*) .000 
 Romania 1.0044351(*) .000 Denmark Spain .6278508(*) .000 
Italy Romania .9215073(*) .000


Turkey Denmark 1.3450365(*) .000 
 Turkey 1.2935297(*) .000 Financial
Knowledge 




 Spain .9969250(*) .000 
 Denmark .5760535(*) .006 Austria Germany ‐1.0909909(*) .000 
Romania Turkey ‐.5017887(*) .009

 Spain 1.3506723(*) .000 
 Romania .4462502(*) .017 
 Denmark ‐.9985168(*) .000

Italy Denmark ‐.4805838(*) .035 Turkey .4606076(*) .026 
 Spain ‐.6364148(*) .002

Romania Denmark ‐.4283817(*) .041 Germany Italy 1.2902795(*) .000 
Turkey Denmark ‐.4967281(*) .015

Turkey Denmark ‐.7174762(*) .001

 Romania 1.5372411(*) .000 Successors’
Work
Experience

Denmark Spain .7746189(*) .001
Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level.

 Turkey 1.5515985(*) .000 Austria Germany ‐.6637043(*) .001

148 149
6ccZmZh"6ccZm> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>>


 Denmark .8399905(*) .000 
 Turkey ‐.4992468(*) .018 7dd[n??



 Spain 1.0211840(*) .000 
Germany Italy .8373554(*) .000 IgV^c^c\Egd\gVbbZh[dg7jh^cZhhIgVch[ZgVcYHiVgi"je:ciZgeg^hZh
KVaZcX^VGZ\^dc#

Italy Denmark ‐.4502890(*) .021 
 Romania .7763014(*) .000
GVaYZ6gg^WV7jZcd

RomaniaDenmark ‐.6972506(*) .000 
 Denmark .6326075(*) .002
:H>8BVg`Zi^c\VcY7jh^cZhhHX]dda

 Spain ‐.5160571(*) .003 
 Spain .5678403(*) .007

Turkey Denmark ‐.7116080(*) .001 
Italy Turkey ‐.6728979(*) .001 As
there
are
no
specific
training
programmes
for
business
succession
in
the
Valencia
Region


 Spain ‐.5304145(*) .007 
Romania Turkey ‐.6118440(*) .002 (Valencia
Community),
the
analyses
will
concentrate
on
the
programs
for
start‐up
enterprises.


Turkey Denmark .4681500(*) .027 Only
in
Barcelona
there
is
a
new
master
programme
on
family
business
transfer
Based
on
observed
means.
*

The
mean
difference
is
significant
at
the
.05
level.
A.
Training
Programmes
for
Business
Transfer
The
only
programme
on
business
transfer
that
exists
in
Spain
is
offered
by
IDEC
(InsHtuto

de
 Educación
 ConHnua)
 and
 the
 University
 Pompeu
 Fabra
 of
 Barcelona.
 It
 is
 an
 unHtled

post‐graduate
 master’s
 programme
 on
 Management
 and
 Transfer
 of
 Family
 Business.
 The

duraHon
of
the
course
is
750
hours
and
the
content
of
the
programme
is
as
follows:

PART
1 The
Business
Family
PART
2 OrganisaHonal
Aspects
PART
3 Corporate
Structure
and
Governance
PART
4 TaxaHon

PART
5 OrganisaHon

PART
6 Planning
the
Succession
Process
PART
7 The
Family
Protocol

B.
Training
Programmes
for
Start‐up

7#&#EjWa^X>chi^iji^dch#
ó Regional
Ministry
of
Economy,
Finances
and
Employment.
This
organisaHon
is
in
charge
of
the
employment
policies
in
the
Valencia
Community.
Within

the
ministry,
the
Valencia
Service
of
Training
and
Employment
(SERVEF
in
Spanish
language)

is
 responsible
 to
 impel
 and
 execute
 the
 acHve
 policies
 of
 professional
 training.
 Inside
 the

occupaHonal
training,
a
specialty
denominated
“Services
to
Companies”
exists.
Within
this


150 151
6ccZmZh"6ccZm>> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>>

professional
family,
we
can
find
several
modules
related
to
the
creaHon
of
companies
and
 BASIC
MANAGEMENT
OF
THE


WORKER‐OWNED
LIMITED
 40
training
for
business
people:

 COMPANIES.
DescripHon Hours
° Professional
 Area:
 Managerial
 Consultancy
 (EMCE).
 For
 students
 with
 secondary

school The
Social
Economy.
Concept. 1

CREATION
AND
MANAGEMENT
OF
COMPANIES:
 400 CharacterisHcs
of
Worker‐owned
Limited
Companies 1
DescripHon Hours Legal
RegulaHon 8
ConsHtuHon
of
a
Company.
The
Business‐plan 45 Social
Security 5
Economic‐financial
Techniques 143 TaxaHon
System
 5
Accountancy
Techniques 65 Importance
of
Human
Resources
and
CommunicaHon. 5
Fiscal
Management.
Labour
Management. 67 Roles
of
Management
 5
MarkeHng
and
Sales 30 Planning
and
Control:
to
Establish
ObjecHves
and
Systems. 8
Quality
Management. 30 Subsidies
Programs
 2

Labour
Risks
in
the
Workplace
 20

° Professional
Area:
Area
for
Specialised
Centres
(EMZZ).
The
student
is
required
to
have
 MANAGER

OF
THE
WORKER‐OWNED
COMPANIES 116


Professional
Training
(Level
1)
or
similar
and
previous
working
experience. DescripHon Hours
BASIC
LEVEL

ON
WORKER‐OWNED
COMPANIES 30 Planning
and
Strategies
of
Worker‐owned
Limited
Companies 15
DescripHon Hours Human
Resources 20
The
Social
Economy.
Concept 1 TaxaHon
system
 10
CharacterisHcs
of
Worker‐owned
Limited
Companies 1 MarkeHng
and
Foreign
Trade 15
Juridical
RegulaHon
 8 Social
Security 15
Social
Security
 5 Safety
and
Hygiene
at
The
Work 10
TaxaHon
System 5 Company
ComputerizaHon 10
Steps
to
ConsHtute
a
Company
or
to
Be
Self‐employed 5 Conferences
and
Visits
to
Companies 10
Self‐Employment 1

152 153
6ccZmZh"6ccZm>> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>>

ó European
Center
of
Companies
and
InnovaHon
(CEEI)

 SWOT SWOT


While
 most
 trainings
 in
 the
 IMPIVA
 and
 the
 technological
 insHtutes
 focus
 on
 already

The
Economic‐financial
Plan Economic
Viability.
Financial
viability.
consHtuted
companies,
all
acHons
directed
at
entrepreneurs
belong
exclusively
to
the
CEEI

in
 the
 Technological
 Park
 of
 Paterna,
 in
 the
 outskirts
 of
 Valencia.
 The
 main
 objecHve
 of
 To
Make
a
Start Legal
Forms.
ConsHtuHonal
Procedures.
these
centres
is
to
impel
the
creaHon
of
new
companies,
especially
those
with
innovaHve
 Labour
Contracts.
Spanish
TaxaHon
System.

character. ElaboraHon
of
Plan
of
Company The
Document
Plan
of
the
Company
The
 acHviHes
 of
 the
 CEEI
 are
 very
 diverse
 and
 include
 training
 acHviHes,
 such
 as
 courses,

seminars,
 and
 conferences.
 The
 courses
 in
 creaHon
 of
 companies
 (inici@)
 are
 directed
 at
 ó Valencia
Youth
InsHtute
(IVAJ)
of
the
Regional
Ministry
of
Welfare.

business
 start
 ups.
 The
 purpose
 is
 to
 acquire
 a
 global
 vision
 of
 the
 different
 areas
 of
 the
 The
 courses
 of
 this
 organisaHon
 are
 open
 to
 any
 age
 group.
 The
 acHviHes
 developed
 are

company
by
means
of
a
basic
mulHdisciplinary
training.
The
course
includes
120
face
to
face
 manifold
 and
 include
 the
 Young
 Companies
 CreaHon
 Programme
 (PCEJ),
 which
 includes

and
150
online
hours.
The
programme
is
as
follows: several
acHons,
all
of
which
are
free
of
charge.
The
training
courses
on
business
management

last
for
five
days
and
are
provided
on
a
monthly
basis.
The
programme
is
as
follows:
PRESENTIAL
COURSE
OF
COMPANIES
CREATION
MODULES HOURS 1.


Legal
Forms Analysis
of
the
Different
Types

IntroducHon 2 2.


Steps
and
Procedures AdministraHve
Licenses
MarkeHng
and
Commercial
Management 38 3.


Business
Plan Develop
of
the
Commercial
Viability
of
the

Planning
and
Labour
LegislaHon 32 Idea
AccounHng
and
Business
Law 48 4.


TaxaHon

 Billing,
Minimum
Requirements.

AccounHng.
Tax
ON‐LINE
COURSE
OF
COMPANIES
CREATION
 5.


TaxaHon
PracHce CompleHon
of
the
Official
Forms
CHAPTER LESSON 6.

Financial
Plan
 Forecast
of
Revenue
and
Expenditure.

Insolvency
Risks.
Loss
and
Benefits.
Balance
IntroducHon IntroducHon
7.


Labour
Contracts
 Labour
Procedures
and
Subsidies
The
MoHvaHon
to
Learn The
Entrepreneur
and
the
Idea
8.


Self‐employment
Social
Security
System NaHonal
Insurance
ContribuHon
The
Plan
of
Company

 The
Business
Plan


9.


Entrepreneur
AssociaHon Working
Experience
of
an
Entrepreneur
End
and
Mission End
and
Mission
10.
Sales
Techniques Process
of
CommercializaHon
of
the
Idea
Analysis
of
the
General
Environment. Analysis
of
the
General
Environment.
The
Analysis
of
Close
Environment

 Suppliers.
Clients.
CompeHtors.
SubsHtute
 ó Chamber
de
Commerce,
Industry
and
Shipping
of
Valencia
Products. This
organisaHon
develops
its
training
acHviHes
mainly
for
companies
and
through
the
Business

The
Internal
Analysis

 Products
and
Services.
Processes.
 School
Lluís
Lives.
Nevertheless,
since
it
belongs
to
the
Net
of
Chambers
of
Commerce
of

Resources. Spain,
it
is
also
part
of
the
FoundaHon
INCYDE
(InsHtute
of
CreaHon
and
Development
of
the

Company),
which
has
as
its
objecHve
to
support
the
creaHon
and
consolidaHon
of
companies


154 155
6ccZmZh"6ccZm>> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>>

thanks
to
their
own
methodology
and
team. course
for
Small
Trade
include
the
study
and
viability
of
the
idea,
the
transformaHon
of
the

The
entrepreneur
training
financed
by
the
FoundaHon
INCYDE
is
summed
up
in
the
Program
 idea
into
a
company
plan
and
the
steps
needed
to
start
a
company.


of
CreaHon
and
ConsolidaHon
of
Companies.
It
lasts
eight
weeks
over
a
period
of
two
and
a

half
months,
alternaHng
three
weeks
of
lessons
(3
hours
per
day)
and
a
week
of
consultancy
 B.
2.
Unions.
with
specialist
advisers.
This
course
is
offered
in
Valencia
four
or
five
Hmes
a
year,
and
its
 –

Comisiones
Obreras
(CC.OO.)


methodology
consists
of
three
phases:

 This
 organisaHon
 collaborates
 in
 the
 training
 promoted
 by
 the
 SERVEF,
 in
 job‐related

° From
 the
 idea
 to
 the
 project.
 Analysis
 of
 the
 entrepreneur
 idea
 and
 realisaHon
 of
 a
 professional
training,
through
its
secHon
FOREM
as
well
as
in
the
acHons
OPEA.
Although

viable
 managerial
 project
 through
 individualised
 tuiHon
 and
 the
 combinaHon
 of
 FOREM
 was
 not
 offering
 courses
 related
 to
 the
 creaHon
 or
 administraHon
 of
 companies

administraHon
 tools
 and
 individualised
 consultancy.
 The
 training
 content
 of
 the
 when
we
carried
out
this
study,
it
had
already
been
chosen
for
the
acHviHes
of
informaHon

programmes
is
organised
in
eight
modules: and
moHvaHon
for
the
self‐employment
and
advice
of
managerial
projects.



MarkeHng
and
Trade Internet
Trade –

Unión
Sindical
Obrera
(USO)


The
 training
 work
 of
 this
 union
 is
 arHculated
 in
 Valencia
 through
 the
 Fundación
 Treball
 i

Financial
Analysis Foreign
Trade
Formació
 (TREFOR).
 As
 menHoned
 previously,
 this
 foundaHon
 offers
 training
 under
 the

Juridical
and
Fiscal
Aspects Management
CommunicaHon funding
of
the
acHons
OPEA
of
the
SERVEF.
They
mainly
focus
on
informaHon
and
moHvaHon

CompuHng
ApplicaHons Quality
Management for
the
self‐employed
offering
courses
during
the
second
half
of
the
year
and
carry
out
advice

tutorials
for
entrepreneurs.

–

Unión
General
de
Trabajadores
(UGT)
° From
the
viable
project
to
the
opening
of
the
company.
Once
the
project
is
finalised,
 AddiHonally
to
advising
entrepreneurs,
the
web
page
of
this
union
provides
guides,
available

they
begin
a
follow
up
period.
A
consultant
visits
each
company
to
carry
out
periodic
 in
PDF
format,
which
are
helpful
in
acquiring
a
basic
global
view
on
the
business
acHvity.

interviews
with
the
future
manager.
The
consultants
keep
up
their
consultancy
for
two
 These
guides
represent
one
of
the
few
long
distance
training
offers
we
have
seen.
The
most

years
unHl
the
company
is
consolidated. interesHng
are
the
following
ones:


° From
the
opening
of
the
company
to
the
consolidaHon.
A2er
starHng
the
companies,

the
programmes
sHmulate
the
consolidaHon
and
cooperaHon
among
them. ° Self‐employment.
 On
 22
 pages
 it
 shows
 the
 advantages
 and
 inconveniences
 of
 the

creaHon
of
companies,
the
business
plan,
and
the
necessary
previous
analyses

ó City
Council
of
Valencia. ° PracHcal
 guide
 for
 entrepreneurs.
 This
 document
 is
 more
 complete
 (95
 pages)
 and

The
City
Council
of
Valencia
manages
an
Agency
of
Local
Development
including
the
Office
of
 encompasses:
Economic
PromoHon
and
Employment.
This
office
has
several
branches
in
the
city
and
is
in

charge
of
informing
and
helping
entrepreneurs
with
the
necessary
steps
for
the
consHtuHon
 ‐

IntroducHon
to
self‐employment.
and
sePng
up
of
their
company
as
well
as
in
receiving
grants
and
funding
from
other
public
 ‐

The
managerial
project.
organisaHons.

 ‐

Juridical
form
of
the
company.
Training
is
managed
by
the
Employment
Service,
which
collaborates
with
the
FoundaHon
of
 ‐

Annexes
with
the
basic
administraHve
documentaHon
and
addresses
of
interest.


Chamber
of
Commerce,
INCIDE.
The
course
for
CreaHon
of
Companies
and
the
supporHng


156 157
6ccZmZh"6ccZm>> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>>

B.
3.
Private
ins9tu9ons.

 –

Associa9on
of
Entrepreneurs
of
Valencia
(COEV)


–

Associa9on
of
Young
Entrepreneurs
of
Valencia
(AJEV)

 This
organisaHon
offers
companies
management
training
in
the
format
of
very
specialised

This
associaHon
provides
support
exclusively
to
its
partners,
who
can
be
businesspeople
or
 seminars
directed
to
experienced
professionals.
companies.
The
laCer
are
full
members
with
access
to
all
the
services
of
the
organisaHon,

e.g.
meeHngs,
business
dinners,
Young
Manager
Prize,
and
conferences.
 –

School
of
Business
Administra9on
of
the
Mediterranean
(EDEM)


For
business
people
AJEV
promotes
new
vocaHonal
and
managerial
iniHaHves,
their
inclusion
 This
 organisaHon
 is
 a
 good
 example
 of
 training
 centres
 which
 periodically
 offer
 courses

in
the
net
of
the
associaHon
and
counselling
services.
 directed
at
the
entrepreneur.
We
can
highlight
the
basic
course
on
“How
to
Be
a
Manager”.

This
 year
 this
 course
 is
 supposed
 to
 last
 more
 than
 100
 hours
 and
 is
 almost
 exclusively

–


Valencia
Confedera9on
of
Enterprises.


 designed
to
facilitate
the
managerial
and
entrepreneur
abiliHes.
The
 enterprise
 confederaHons
 organise
 job‐related
 training
 courses
 under
 the
 economic

umbrella
 of
 the
 SERVEF.
 This
 training
 is
 offered
 through
 the
 FoundaHon
 Training
 and
 B.
4.
University
Centres.


Employment.
 Among
 the
 job‐related
 training
 courses
 offered
 during
 the
 first
 quarter
 of
 –

University
of
Valencia:
Founda9on
University‐
Enterprise
(ADEIT)


2005,
we
can
find:

 The
University
of
Valencia,
through
its
FoundaHon
University‐Enterprise
(ADEIT),
wants
to

strengthen
and
foster
the
teaching
and
diffusion
of
the
managerial
culture.
ADEIT
organises

° Course
of
managerial
abiliHes,
26
hours
evening
course.
It
was
offered
four
Hmes
in
the
 two
courses
for
entrepreneurs:



first
quarter
of
2005.

° Management
of
SMEs,
26
hours
evening
course.
Three
courses
of
this
type
were
offered
 ° “Who
 can
 be
 an
 entrepreneur?”
 This
 is
 a
 free
 course
 dedicated
 to
 the
 second
 cycle

between
January
and
May
2005. students
of
the
university.
It
lasts
52
hours.
° “Programme
 of
 CreaHon
 and
 Development
 of
 Enterprises”,
 in
 collaboraHon
 with
 the

–

Bancaja
Founda9on.

 FoundaHon
School
of
Industrial
OrganizaHon
(EOI).
The
content
is:
The
Bancaja
FoundaHon
supports
acHviHes
for
young
entrepreneurs.
AddiHonally
to
a
web

page
with
useful
informaHon
and
a
simulator,
it
offers
the
course
“CreaHon
of
Companies
for
 1ªPhase From
the
Idea
to
the
Project.
Young
Entrepreneurs”.
It
lasts
150
hours
(100
face
to
face
hours
and
50
hours
of
tutorship),

The
objecHve
is
to
make
the
entrepreneur
to
carry
out
a
viable
project.
13
modules.
it
is
free
of
charge
and
includes
pracHcal
work
on
the
business
plan.
The
programme
of
the

last
course
was: 2ªPhase From
the
Viable
Project
to
the
Opening
of
the
Company.
The
objecHve
is
to
sHmulate
the
entrepreneur
to
start
the
project
elaborated.
IntroducHon How
to
Make
a
Managerial
Project
Real 4
Hours 3ªPhase From
the
Opening
of
the
Company
to
its
ConsolidaHon:
Net
of
SMEs

Module
I MarkeHng
and
CommercializaHon 30
Hours The
objecHve
of
this
net
is
to
encourage
contacts
among
companies
of
common
and/or

Module
II Planning
and
Labour
RegulaHon 20
Hours complementary

sectors
that
can
share
problems
and
similar
soluHons,
trying
to
facilitate

the
exchange
of
knowledge
Module
III AccounHng
and
Business
Law 46
Hours

158 159
6ccZmZh"6ccZm>> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>>

–

University
Cardinal
Herrera

 Training
in
Managerial
Abili,es Integral
Control
Panels.


Apart
 from
 offering
 the
 graduate
 degree
 programmes,
 the
 university
 centre’s
 school
 of

‐

DirecHon
According
to
ObjecHves. ‐

Economic‐Financial
Management.
business
organises
summer
courses
of
short
duraHon
on
How
to
Create
your
Company
Step

by
Step.
Moreover,
they
have
technicians
who
give
individualised
advice.

 ‐

DirecHon
According
to
Sales. ‐

InformaHon
and
Knowledge
‐

DirecHon
of
High
Output
Teams. ‐

Managerial
OrganizaHon
–

University
Centre
La
Florida ‐

DirecHon
of
MeeHngs. ‐

ACenHon
to
the
Client.

Inside
the
programme
denominated
as
Students
Services,
this
educaHonal
centre
depends

‐

Leadership ‐

MarkeHng
of
the
Company.

on
 the
 grants
 approved
 by
 the
 SERVEF
 within
 the
 procedures
 of
 OPEA
 to
 support
 the

entrepreneur
and
offer
individualised
advice
regarding
the
study
of
viability
of
the
idea
and
 ‐

Management
of
Conflicts. ‐

The
TaxaHon
in
the
Company
the
elaboraHon
and
sePng
up
of
the
business
plan. ‐

CommunicaHon
for
Management. ‐

Design
of
Processes.
‐

DirecHon
and
Management
of
Personnel. ‐

Design
of
Products
and
Services

–

Catholic
University
of
Valencia
San
Vicente
Mar6r
(UCV)


‐

Labour
RecruiHng.
In
spite
of
having
been
founded
only
in
2004‐2005,
the
UCV
has
already
begun
to
establish

Training
in
Innova,on
a
 programme
 of
 business
 people
 called
 CREA.
 So
 far
 they
 have
 only
 offered
 a
 series
 of

informaHve
conferences.


 ‐

ExploraHon
of
Business
OpportuniHes.
‐

EvaluaHon
of
Business
OpportuniHes.
–


MetaForum ‐

In‐
Entrepreneurship.
This
company
specialises
in
the
consultancy
and
the
training
of
entrepreneurs.
An
important

‐

Management
of
InnovaHon.
part
of
its
acHviHes
is
devoted
exclusively
to
the
world
of
the
entrepreneur.
The
acHviHes


of
their
“Service
of
Programmes
InstallaHon
for
the
CreaHon
of
Enterprises”
SIPCRE
include

training
programmes.
These
can
be
face
to
face,
virtual
(on‐line)
or
on
DVD
and
are
addressed

Because
of
the
range
of
services
SIPCRE
offers
is
very
broad,
we
will
focus
on
PCRE,
which

to
the
populaHon
in
general,
to
tutors,
and
business
people
and
include:


we
have
already
presented
in
the
previous
secHon.
PRCE
will
include
a
complete
range
of

services
for
three
groups:



Training
in
Managerial
Abili,es Training
in
Managerial
Administra,on ° For
universiHes
it
offers
trainings
to
promote
the
entrepreneurial
aPtudes,
exploraHon

‐

Sales
Techniques ‐

Starts
up
of
the
Company of
 opportuniHes
 for
 the
 self‐employment,
 of
 managerial
 administraHon,
 as
 well
 as

‐

PresentaHon
Techniques. 
‐
PracHcal
AccounHng
 specialised
 and
 advanced
 training
 in
 personal
 and
 managerial
 development
 and
 in

management.

‐

NegoHaHon
Techniques. 
‐

Budgetary
AccounHng

° Enterprising
teams
are
given
advice
and
support
in
the
diverse
phases
of
their
managerial

‐

Plan
of
Personal
MarkeHng. ‐

Quality
and
Excellence

idea.
‐

CreaHvity
and
SoluHon
of
Problems. ‐

Planning
and
Strategic
DirecHons.
 ° New
managers
are
given
support
and
training
in
specific
areas.


‐

Planning
and
OperaHve
DirecHons.


160 161
6ccZmZh"6ccZm>> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>>

–


Polytechnic
University
of
Valencia
(UPV)

 and
 longevity.
 
 It
 combines
 specific
 theoreHcal
 concepts
 of
 family
 business
 with
 pracHcal

At
 this
 public
 university,
 we
 can
 find
 the
 InsHtute
 for
 the
 CreaHon
 and
 Development
 of
 experience
of
family
businessmen
and
of
family
management
consultants.
The
methodology

Enterprises
(ICDE),
which
is
in
charge
of
the
development
and
management
of
the
Program
 combines
theoreHcal
lessons
with
roundtables
formed
by
family
businessmen
and
by
family

IDEAS.
We
will
concentrate
only
on
the
training
courses
developed
by
IDEAS.
The
Courses
on
 management
consultants.
The
content
of
the
diploma
is
as
follows:

Business
Management:
Part
1 The
Family
Business.
Concept
and
CharacterisHcs
From
the

Idea
to
the
Product
(20
h) Budgetary
 Accountancy
 for
 Managers
 and

 Part
2 The
 GeneraHon
 Cycle
 of
 the
 Family
 Business:
 Challenges
 and
 ProblemaHc

Entrepreneurs

(40
h) Individuals
in
each
One
of
the
Phases
The
OperaHve
and
Strategic
Planning
of
an
 Company
 
 TaxaHon,
 Legal
 Forms
 and
 Legal
 Part
3 Influence
of
the
Values
of
the
Family
in
the
ConHnuity
of
the
Business
Integral
Control

(30
h) Procedures
(20
h)
Part
4 Succession
and
ConHnuity
of
the
Business
Family
PracHcal
Workshop
ISO
9000
(20
h) Design
 of
 the
 Product
 and
 Successful

Part
5 The
Family
Protocol.

Be
Prepared
for
Problems
Services
(20
h)
Part
6 The
 CommunicaHon
 and
 the
 ResoluHon
 of
 Personal
 Conflicts
 in
 the
 Family

PracHcal
 Accountancy
 for
 Managers
 and

 Development
of
a
Culture
of
Services
(20
h)
Business
Entrepreneurs
(40
h)
Part
7 Organising
Design:

the
Process
of
Internal
Restructuring
in
the
Family
Business
Finances
for
Non‐professionals
(20
h) RecruiHng
(20
h)
Part
8 Organs
of
Government
of
the
Family
Business
C.
Review
of
ExisHng
Training
Programmes
on
Family
Businesses.
 Part
9 The
Human
Resources
in
the
Family
Business
Part
10 Growth
of
the
Family
Business
–

University
of
Alicante. Part
11
 Legal
Regimen
of
the
Family
Business
The
 summer
 university
 Rafael
 Altamira
 of
 the
 University
 of
 Alicante
 organises
 the
 course

Part
12
 Finance
and
Investment

Htled
“The
Family
Business:
Problems
and
SoluHons”.

It
is
a
short‐duraHon
course.
During
one
week
the
course
tries
to
show
diverse
aspects
related
 Part
13
 Advice
to
Family
Businesses
to
the
family
business:
the
concept
of
family
business
and
its
importance
in
the
economy
of

Alicante,
their
main
problems,
the
tools,
which
exist
to
confront
them,
and
some
experience
 8dcXajh^dch
coming
from
the
applicaHon
of
those
tools.
 In
the
Valencia
Region,
the
importance
of
SMEs
is
enormous
and
the
problem
of
successful

business
transfer
is
similar
to
the
rest
of
Europe.
In
spite
of
the
importance
of
the
qualificaHon

–


Catholic
University
of
Valencia. of
the
successors,
there
is
no
specific
training
programme
addressed
to
this
maCer.
In
order

This
 private
 university
 organises
 the
 University
 Diploma
 in
 Management
 and
 Advice
 of
 to
 improve
 the
 qualificaHon
 of
 future
 business
 successors
 and
 contribute
 to
 the
 survival

Family
 Businesses.
 The
 diploma
 has
 a
 duraHon
 of
 one
 year.
 The
 fundamental
 objecHve
 of
 the
 SME
 in
 Valencia
 Region,
 it
 would
 be
 convenient
 to
 develop
 a
 training
 programme

of
 the
 University
 Diploma
 is
 to
 contribute
 to
 the
 learning
 of
 the
 instruments,
 tools
 and
 dedicated
to
this
problemaHc
aspect
of
business
management.
strategies,
applicable
specifically
to
the
family
businesses
so
that
they
can
achieve
a
beCer

and
 more
 efficient
 development
 in
 the
 markets
 and
 an
 increase
 of
 their
 compeHHveness


162 163
6ccZmZh"6ccZm>> 6ccZmZh"6ccZm>>

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y
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the
Problems
 Madrid:
C.E.
ConsulHng



patrimonial
programada Concerning
the
Succession
 Empresarial,
2003
Title Main
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and
Edited
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iniciaHvas
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 2001
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166