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EUROCODE 2 WORKED EXAMPLES

**Copyright: European Concrete Platform ASBL, May 2008.
**

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the European Concrete Platform ASBL. Published by the European Concrete Platform ASBL Editor: Jean-Pierre Jacobs 8 rue Volta 1050 Brussels, Belgium Layout & Printing by the European Concrete Platform All information in this document is deemed to be accurate by the European Concrete Platform ASBL at the time of going into press. It is given in good faith. Information on European Concrete Platform documents does not create any liability for its Members. While the goal is to keep this information timely and accurate, the European Concrete Platform ASBL cannot guarantee either. If errors are brought to its attention, they will be corrected. The opinions reflected in this document are those of the authors and the European Concrete Platform ASBL cannot be held liable for any view expressed therein. All advice or information from the European Concrete Platform ASBL is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents and take responsibility for its use and application. No liability (including for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted. Readers should note that all European Concrete Platform publications are subject to revision from time to time and therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version. This publication is based on the publication: "Guida all'uso dell'eurocodice 2" prepared by AICAP; the Italian Association for Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete, on behalf of the the Italian Cement Organziation AITEC, and on background documents prepared by the Eurocode 2 Project Teams Members, during the preparation of the EN version of Eurocode 2 (prof A.W. Beeby, prof H. Corres Peiretti, prof J. Walraven, prof B. Westerberg, prof R.V. Whitman). Authorization has been received or is pending from organisations or individuals for their specific contributions.

Commissioned by CEMBUREAU. The document is rich in theoretical explanations and draws on much recent research. The commentary will prove an authentic companion to EC 2 and deserves every success. BIBM. With a wealth of code writing experience in Europe. This publication will assist in building confidence in the new code. They are born out of an ambitious programme initiated by the European Union. EFCA and ERMCO this publication should prove immensely valuable to designers in discovering the background to many of the code requirements. The problems of coming to terms with a new set of codes by busy practising engineers cannot be underestimated. conditioned by the agreed format for Eurocodes. Eurocode 2 (EC 2) for concrete structures draws heavily on the CEB Model Code. And yet the presentation and terminology. Worked examples further illustrate the application of the code and should promote understanding. it was possible to approach the task in a rational and logical manner. They embody the collective experience and knowledge of whole of Europe. Comparisons with the ENV stage of EC2 are also provided in a number of cases. which offers tools for the design of economic and innovative concrete structures. Also EC 2 in common with other Eurocodes. This is the backdrop to the publication of ‘Commentary and Worked Examples to EC 2’ by Professor Mancini and his colleagues. tends to be general in character and this might present difficulty to some designers at least initially.Attributable Foreword to the Commentary and Worked Examples to EC2 Eurocodes are one of the most advanced suite of structural codes in the world. The chapter on EN 1990 (Basis of structural design) is an added bonus and will be appreciated by practioners. might obscure the similarities to many national codes. Professor R S Narayanan Chairman CEN/TC 250/SC2 (2002 – 2005) . The publication brings together many of the documents produced by the Project Team during the development of the code. Like many current national codes in Europe. Eurocodes reflect the results of research in material technology and structural behaviour in the last fifty years and they incorporate all modern trends in structural design.

2. consuming more calculation time. BIBM. further to courses and trainings on a national and international level. like EC-2.Foreword to Commentary to Eurocode 2 and Worked Examples When a new code is made. It is a rule for every project. practical rules can be given. 5. for helping in getting together all background information. I would like to thank my colleagues of the Project Team. Hugo Corres and Konrad Zilch. serve as an essential and valuable contribution to this implementation. derived by scientists. especially Robin Whittle. but not on the cost of significant concessions with regard to quality. that the code is not prepared for those who make it. a number of principles should be regarded: 1. A lot of effort was invested to achieve all those goals. Models with different degrees of complexity may be offered. 4. Often socalled “accurate” formulations. A code should be open-minded. A code should be simple enough to be handled by practicing engineers without considerable problems. 6. This book may. As an alternative more detailed design rules may be offered. which means that it cannot be based on one certain theory. Here the word “accuracy” should be well understood. Joost Walraven Convenor of Project Team for EC2 (1998 -2002) . International consensus had to be reached. That means that the writers should be aware. Codes should be transparent. that it should not be considered as finalized if implementation has not been taken care of. New developments should be recognized as much as possible. as such increasing the transparency. EFCA and ERMCO for their initiative. excluding others. another important condition applies. For instance simple. Finally I would like to thank CEMBURAU. cannot lead to very accurate results. support and advice to bring out this publication. On the other hand simplicity should not lead to significant lack of accuracy. leading to conservative and robust designs. corresponding to a good representation of the structural behaviour and of the material physics. Also my colleague Giuseppe Mancini and his Italian team are gratefully acknowledged for providing a set of very illustrative and practical working examples. or an existing code is updated. consistent and coherent. but resulting in more accurate and economic results. For writing a Eurocode. but for those who will use it. It contains extensive background information on the recommendations and rules found in EC2. but not at the cost of too complex theoretical formulations. A code may have different levels of sophistication. Codes should be based on clear and scientifically well founded theories. It is important that this background information is well documented and practically available. Bo Westerberg. because the input values can not be estimated with accuracy. 3.

................................................2] ........................ 4-3 EXAMPLE 4..........1] ......................................................4........................................................... 6-12 EXAMPLE 6................................................. WORKED EXAMPLES – DURABILITY .............. WORKED EXAMPLES – BASIS OF DESIGN ...........................1] .2] ............................. ULS COMBINATION OF ACTION OF A RESIDENTIAL CONCRETE FRAMED BUILDING [EC2 – CLAUSE 2.8............1........................................6 [EC2 CLAUSE 6...........2 [EC2 CLAUSE 4..........2 (CONCRETE C90/105) [EC2 CLAUSE 6.....................................................................................................................4] .............. ULS COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS ON A REINFORCED CONCRETE RETAINING WALL [EC2 – CLAUSE 2......................................................... CONCRETE RETAINING WALL: GLOBAL STABILITY AND GROUND RESISTANCE VERIFICATIONS [EC2 – CLAUSE 2.................................................................... 4-1 EXAMPLE 4.4]....................................................................................4] . 6-1 EXAMPLE 6........... 2-1 EXAMPLE 2............... 4-1 EXAMPLE 4.............................. 2-4 EXAMPLE 2.......................................... 6-9 EXAMPLE 6..................................................3.........................................3]............................................................ ULS COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS FOR A CONTINUOUS BEAM [EC2 – CLAUSE 2........4] .......SUMMARY SECTION 2...................................1 [EC2 CLAUSE 4.......................................................................4] .....7 SHEAR – TORSION INTERACTION DIAGRAMS [EC2 CLAUSE 6............................ ULS COMBINATIONS OF ACTIONS FOR A CANOPY [EC2 – CLAUSE 2......... 2-2 EXAMPLE 2..........................................................EC2 – worked examples summary EUROCODE 2 ....................................................... 6-5 EXAMPLE 6.... [EC2 CLAUSE 6........5]............................................5 [EC2 CLAUSE 6......4] ........................................2] ....... 6-3 EXAMPLE 6........................ 4-4 SECTION 6......... 2-6 EXAMPLE 2............1 (CONCRETE C30/37) [EC2 CLAUSE 6.....C FOR A PRESTRESSED BEAM [EC2 CLAUSE 6............ WORKED EXAMPLES – ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES ..... 6-4 EXAMPLE 6. 6-7 EXAMPLE 6.............................................. 2-9 SECTION 4.........................................4B – THE SAME ABOVE........................................4] ................. WITH STEEL S500C fyd = 435 MPA..........................3 CALCULATION OF VRD................... 6-1 EXAMPLE 6...............4] .................... 6-15 Table of Content ...3 [EC2 CLAUSE 4.................... WALL BEAM [EC2 CLAUSE 6................ 2-1 EXAMPLE 2..........................................................................................3] ...................4 DETERMINATION OF SHEAR RESISTANCE GIVEN THE SECTION GEOMETRY AND MECHANICS [EC2 CLAUSE 6.............................2........................................................ 6-10 EXAMPLE 6................................5......2] ........WORKED EXAMPLES ..............................................................

.....................2] ......4] ... [EC2 CLAUSE 5..3 – 7...................14.. 6-21 EXAMPLE 6........................ 11-1 EXAMPLE 11.....................................................2 – 7........................1 EVALUATION OF SERVICE STRESSES [EC2 CLAUSE 7...... 7-1 EXAMPLE 7..................................... 7-18 SECTION 11........................5]..............5 APPLICATION OF THE APPROXIMATED METHOD [EC2 CLAUSE 7..................3........................... SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES – WORKED EXAMPLES ................................................... THICK SHORT CORBEL....4................................................................................................ 11-1 EXAMPLE 11... DESIGN FORMULAS DERIVATION FOR THE CRACKING LIMIT STATE [EC2 CLAUSE 7.........4] ....3......................2] ...5] ..... a<Z/2 [EC2 CLAUSE 6................. 11-3 Table of Content .....................................EC2 – worked examples summary EXAMPLE 6................................................5 – 11..................................................6] ..2 DESIGN OF MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT [EC2 CLAUSE 7...............................................................3 EVALUATION OF CRACK AMPLITUDE [EC2 CLAUSE 7.........................................4] ...................2] ................... A>Z/2 [EC2 CLAUSE 6..2 APPROXIMATED METHOD ................................................................3.......3.... 6-40 SECTION 7........ 7-11 EXAMPLE 7.....3................3................ 7-5 EXAMPLE 7.6 – 11....... 3500 KN CONCENTRATED LOAD [EC2 CLAUSE 6...........1 [EC2 CLAUSE 11......... 6-28 EXAMPLE 6.......................5] ......5] ...............................................................................................................1 – 11.............1 – 11...5] .................. 7-13 EXAMPLE 7................. 7-8 EXAMPLE 7.................2 [EC2 CLAUSE 11...... 7-10 5B7...................9..........................1 – 6....... 6-38 EXAMPLE 6..3........... 6-24 EXAMPLE 6.............................. LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE – WORKED EXAMPLES......... 7-1 EXAMPLE 7.....................6 VERIFICATION OF LIMIT STATE OF DEFORMATION .........4 – 11.......................................10 THICK CANTILEVER BEAM.................. 6-32 EXAMPLE 6.........13 VARIABLE HEIGHT BEAM [EC2 CLAUSE 6...........2 – 7............11 GERBER BEAM [EC2 CLAUSE 6..............4.....................10 – 6....................................................12 PILE CAP [EC2 CLAUSE 6.........5] ..................4] .............. 6-18 EXAMPLE 6.....15 SLABS.........

2. Load combination for verification of bending moment in the BC span.4] A continuous beam on four bearings is subjected to the following loads: Self-weight Gk1 Permanent imposed load Gk2 Service imposed load Qk1 Note. respectively Gk1 and Gk2. ULS combinations of actions for a continuous beam [EC2 – clause 2. Table of Content . Load combination for verification of holding down devices at the end bearings. the partial safety factor for permanent loads in the verification of bending moment in the middle of the central span. a single characteristic value is taken for self-weight and permanent imposed load.1.1. EQU – Static equilibrium (Set A) Factors of Set A should be used in the verification of holding down devices for the uplift of bearings at end span.35 (Fig. 2.EC2 – worked examples 2-1 SECTION 2.1. STR – Bending moment verification at mid span (Set B) Unlike in the verification of static equilibrium. WORKED EXAMPLES – BASIS OF DESIGN EXAMPLE 2. Fig. In this example and in the following ones. as indicated in Fig. is the same for all spans: γG = 1. 2. because of their small variability. 2.2. Fig.2).

The variable imposed load is distributed over the full length of the canopy in the first case.2. STR – Verification of resistance of a column(Set B) The partial factor to be taken for permanent loads in the verification of maximum compression stresses and of bending with axial force in the column is the same (γG = 1. and only on half of it for the verification of bending with axial force. ULS combinations of actions for a canopy [EC2 – clause 2. 2. Load combination for verification of static equilibrium. as in Fig.4] The canopy is subjected to the following loads: Self-weight Gk1 Permanent imposed load Gk2 Snow imposed load Qk1 EQU – Static equilibrium (Set A) Factors to be taken for the verification of overturning are those of Set A.35) for all spans.3. Table of Content .EC2 – worked examples 2-2 EXAMPLE 2.3. Fig. 2.

Load combination for the compression stresses verification of the column. 2.4. Fig.EC2 – worked examples 2-3 Fig. Table of Content . 2.5. Load combination for the verification of bending with axial force of the column.

2.es + 0.0·Gk + 1.5· Fk.n 0. but they may be defined in the National Annex.w + 0.5·( Fk.3.5·Qk.es 0.STR (Set B) (eq.es + 0.1.35·Gk + 1. 6. c) Snow load predominant.6. The values of partial factors are those recommended by EN1990.w 0.w unfavourable vertical loads (fig.n + 0. Basic combinations for the verification of the superstructure . favourable vertical loads.w) = 1.es) = 1. 2. d) 1.n + 0.es Predominant action: snow (fig.6·Fk.n (for sites under 1000 m a.5·(Qk.5·Qk. unfavourable vertical loads.EC2 – worked examples 2-4 EXAMPLE 2.residential concrete framed building [EC2 – clause 2.5·Fk.35·Gk + 1.9·Fk.5·( Qk.5·Qk.es + 0.) wind Fk.n + 1.w + 0. Table 2.4] The permanent imposed load is indicated as Gk.6.6·Fk.1.Variable actions are listed in table 2.5·Qk. a) 1. 2.35·Gk + 1.75· Qk.9·Fk.B.10-EN1990) Predominant action: wind favourable vertical loads (fig.35·Gk + 1.35·Gk + 1.es Variable actions snow on roofing Qk.es + 0.w Predominant action: service load (fig. b) 1. d) service load predominant.6 Fk. Characteristic value Qk Combination value ψ0 Qk serviceability imposed load Qk.s. ULS combination of action .n + 1.l. b) Wind predominant.75·Qk.35·Gk + 1.6.05·Qk.w) = 1.w N.7·Qk.5 Qk.6. Basic combinations for the verification of the superstructure (Set B): a) Wind predominant. c) 1. 2.7·Qk.05·Qk.6.w Fig. Variable actions on a residential concrete building. 2. Table of Content .n + 0.7 Qk.n + 0.

0·Gk + 1.65· Qk. a) 1. unfavourable vertical loads. or on the structure.7.91·Qk.w Predominant action: service load (fig. Basic combinations for the verification of the foundations (Set C): a) Wind predominant. 6.0·Gk + 1. and by Set B for the verification of the concrete structural elements of the foundation. 2.78·Fk.7·Qk.es + 0. 2.3·0.es + 1.6·Fk.6·Fk. 2.n + 0. the approach to be used is chosen in the National Annex.es = 1. b) 1.n + 0.es + 1.7.5·Qk.es + 0.3· Fk. Set C (geotechnical verifications) Predominant action: wind (favourable vertical loads) (fig.w = 1.7.3·0. For completeness and in order to clarify what is indicated in Tables 2.0·Gk + 1.0·Gk + 1.3·Qk.0·Gk + 1.3· Fk.w + 1.n + 1.65·Qk.3·Qk.7.es Predominant action: snow (fig. the basic combinations of actions for all the three approaches provided by EN1990 are given below.7·Qk.0·Gk + 1.3·Qk. c) 1.0·Gk + 1. 2.w Predominant action: wind (unfavourable vertical loads) (fig.w = 1. d) 1.n + 0.3·0. d) service load predominant.3·0.7.78·Fk.EC2 – worked examples 2-5 Basic combinations for the verification of foundations and ground resistance – STR/GEO [eq. Table of Content .w + 0.n + 1.n + 1.16. b) Wind predominant.w Fig.3· Fk. c) Snow load predominant. Heavier values are usually given by Set C for the geotechnical verifications (ground resistance verification).91·Qk.3·0. are applied in separate calculations. favourable vertical loads.10-EN1990] EN1990 allows for three different approaches.5·Qk.15 and 2.3·0. 2. Approach 1 The design values of Set C and Set B of geotechnical actions and of all other actions from the structure.3·Qk.

5·Sk. ULS combinations of actions on a reinforced concrete retaining wall [EC2 – clause 2.05·Qk.9·Fk.n + 0. EXAMPLE 2.75·Qk.n + 1.35·Gk + 1.w 1.0·Gk + 1.4] Fig.5·Qk.es + 0.9·Fk.wall + Gk.w 1.1·Sk. This case.4.9. Actions for EQU ULS verification of a retaining wall in reinforced concrete Table of Content .sovr Fig.terr + 0. 1.75·Qk.05·Qk. Approach 3 Factors from Set C for geotechnical actions and from Set B for other actions are used in one calculation. can be referred to Set B. 2. as geotechnical actions are not present.(static equilibrium of rigid body: verification of global stability to heave and sliding) (Set A) Only that part of the embankment beyond the foundation footing is considered for the verification of global stability to heave and sliding (Fig.35·Gk + 1. 2. Set B) are used.9·(Gk.5·Qk.5·Qk. 2.es 1.n + 1.e.EC2 – worked examples 2-6 Set B (verification of concrete structural elements of foundations) 1. i.w + 0.terr) + 1. Actions on a retaining wall in reinforced concrete EQU .e.w Approach 2 The same combinations used for the superstructure (i.5· Fk. to approach 2.8.9).35·Gk + 1.es + 0.

sovr 1. Fig.sovr 1.0·Gk. The following figures show loads in relation to the combinations obtained with Set B partial safety factors. Possible load cases of surcharge on the embankment.35·Gk.35·Gk.sovr 1. or that it acts on the whole surface of the embankment (Fig.terr + 1.5·Sk.wall + 1.5·Qk.0·Gk.wall + 1.wall + 1.35·Sk. Set C 1.sovr + 1.35·Gk. Table of Content .5·Sk. 2.0·Gk.terr + 1.terr + 1.10b).35·Sk.10.5·Sk.e.10a).35·Sk.terr + 1.terr + 1.5·Qk. 2.sovr Note: For all the above-listed combinations.0·Gk.terr + 1.0·Sk.3·Sk. For brevity. 2. two possibilities must be considered: either that the surcharge concerns only the part of embankment beyond the foundation footing (Fig.5·Qk.5·Qk.terr + 1. only cases in relation with case b). i.0·Gk.sovr + 1.35·Gk.(ground pressure and verification of resistance of wall and footing) Approach 1 Design values from Set C and from Set B are applied in separate calculations to the geotechnical actions and to all other actions from the structure or on the structure.sovr + 1.EC2 – worked examples 2-7 STR/GEO .sovr + 1.0·Gk.terr + 1.wall + 1.sovr Set B 1.35·Sk. with surcharge acting on the whole surface of embankment.wall + 1.5·Sk.terr + 1.terr + 1. are given below.

11. Actions for GEO/STR ULS verification of a retaining wall in reinforced concrete. 2. Table of Content .EC2 – worked examples 2-8 Fig.

12.surch = 9.75 + 31.0·Sk.sovr 1. EXAMPLE 2.50 ⋅ 25 = 31.terr + 1.sovr + 1.foot = 18.3·Sk.terr + 1.surch =10 kN/m2 ground horizontal force: Sk.wall + 1.33 δ=0° Pk. active earth pressure: wall-ground interface friction angle: self-weight of wall: self-weight of footing: γ=18 kN/m3 φ=30° Ka = 0.3·Sk.25 = 50 kN/m self weight of ground above footing: Gk.0·Sk.3·Qk.ground = 26.wall + Pk.50 ⋅ 2.wall = 0. weight density: angle of shearing resistance: factor of horiz.0·Gk. Concrete retaining wall: global stability and ground resistance verifications [EC2 – clause 2.0·Sk.EC2 – worked examples 2-9 Approach 2 Set B is used.75 kN/m Pk.sovr 1.35·Gk.0·Gk.terr + 1.terr + 1. Fig.foot = 0. 2.sovr + 1.Wall dimensions and actions on the wall (surcharge outside the foundation footing).ground = 18 ⋅ 2.35·Gk.5 kN/m surcharge on embankment: Qk.wall = Pk.50 ⋅ 25 = 18.wall + 1.sovr + 1.terr + 1.70 = 76.0·Gk.0·Gk.3·Qk.sovr + 1. Approach 3 Factors from Set C for geotechnical actions and from Set B for other actions are used in one calculation.3·Qk.9 kN/m Table of Content .sovr A numeric example is given below.3·Sk.3·Qk.73 kN/m surcharge horizontal force: Sk.terr + 1.35·Gk.0·Sk.terr + 1.3·Sk.50 ⋅ 1.wall + 1.5.25 kN/m Gk.30 ⋅ 2.terr + 1. 1.4] The assumption is initially made that the surcharge acts only on the part of embankment beyond the foundation footing.35·Gk.wall + 1.sovr 1.

65) = 10.35·Gk.89 / 44.9⋅(0.ground = 1.9): Fstab.5·Sk.9⋅(18.68 = 3.73 kNm/m safety factor to global stability FS = Mstab/Mrib = 159.40 + 22.75⋅0.9⋅(31.50) = 22.90 ⋅ 1.5 ⋅ 9.62 + 16.16 kNm/m Mstab.5·Qk.09 Contact pressure on ground Approach 2.sovr third combination 1.25) = 16.24 kN/m ground self-weight (γG=0.35·Gk.sovr + 1.35·Sk.5) = 39.89 kN/m The safety factor for sliding is: FS = Fstab / Frib = 64.sovr second combination 1.57⋅31.sovr + 1.68 kNm/m stabilizing moment Mstab.16 + 113.25) = 35.e.9): stabilizing moment: Mstab = 10.466 Verification to Overturning overturning moment moment from ground lateral force (γG=1.5⋅1. i.03 + 39.wall + 1.0·Gk. is used.terr + 1.wall + 1.terr + 1. we obtain four different combinations as seen above: first combination 1.ground = 0.5): Ssur = 1.24 = 64.03 kNm/m Fstab.25 kN/m Resistant force (in the assumption of ground-flooring friction factor = 0.65) = 113.73= 29.5·Sk.ground = 0.73⋅3.00/3) = 29.60 kNm/m moment ground self-weight (γG=0.25 = 1.1⋅(26.surch = 1.35·Sk.terr + 1.5 ⋅ (9.9): Mstab.9⋅(0.57) wall self-weight (γG=0.75) = 9.sovr Table of Content .90 = 14.0·Gk.73/51.foot = 0.35·Gk.wall = 0.35·Sk.1): Sground = 1.1): MS.62 kN/m footing self-weight (γG=0.97 kNm/m moment wall self-weight (γG=0.40 + 14.5): MS.57⋅18.sovr + 1.35 as the partial factors for the self-weight of the wall and of the ground above the foundation footing respectively.97 + 35. Set B if partial factors.5·Sk.25⋅1.9): Fstab.terr + 1.5·Qk.85 = 44.9⋅(76. By taking 1.9): moment footing self-weight (γG=0.28 kNm/m overturning moment: Mrib = 29.foot = 0.60 = 159.0·Gk.wall = 0.1 ⋅ 26.85 kN/m Sliding force: Fslide = 29.terr + 1.40 kN/m Surcharge horizontal (γQ=1.wall + 1.40 kNm/m moment from surcharge lateral force (γQ=1.9⋅(0.5·Qk.terr + 1.9): resistant force: Fstab = 9.EC2 – worked examples 2-10 Verification to failure by sliding Slide force Ground horizontal force (γG=1.28 = 51.57⋅76.0 and 1.

75 ⋅ 0.502 = 88.sovr + 1.35⋅(26.25) =31.25 kNm/m Mfoot = 0 kNm/m Mground = . The maximal pressure on ground is achieved with the second combination.0): Pground = 1.2 are obtained by repeating the calculation for the three remaining combinations of partial factors.sovr the contact pressure on ground is calculated.31 m ≤ B/6 = 2. 2.5 = 126.28 kNm/m Mwall = 1.0): Pwall = 1.terr = 1.6 = 39.13).60) = 11.28 + 11.terr + 1.0 ⋅ (18.0): Ground self-weight (γG=1.75 + 31.50) = 22.73⋅3. centre of mass of the footing moment from ground lateral force (γG=1. For the verification of the contact pressure.30. as follows: moment vs.25 kNm/m Footing self-weight (γG=1.08 + 22.3 are obtained by repeating the calculation for this situation.0 ⋅ (31.1.05 kN/m2 = 0. Fig.sovr = 1.0): moment from footing self-weight (γG=1.088 MPa The results given at Table 2. Table of Content . (Fig.90⋅1.5⋅(9.5 kN/m Eccentricity e = Mtot / Ptot = 39.0): for the first of the fourth above-mentioned MS.75) = 18.67 cm Max pressure on ground σ = Ptot / 2.35·Sk.40) = .6 kNm/m Total moment Mtot = 36.5 = 0.wall + 1. the values given at Table 2.35): moment from surcharge lateral force (γQ=1. the possibility that the surcharge acts on the whole embankment surface must be also considered.0): moment from ground self-weight (γG=1.5·Sk.5·Qk.08 kNm/m MS.0⋅(76.e.01 kNm/m Vertical load Wall self-weight (γG=1.0⋅(18.01 / 126.50/6 = 41. for the one in which the wall self-weight and the self-weight of the ground above the footing are both multiplied by 1.EC2 – worked examples 2-11 fourth combination 1.50 + Mtot ⋅ 6 / 2.00/3)=36.0 ⋅ (76.0·Gk.25 – 30.13. Dimensions of the retaining wall of the numeric example with surcharge on the whole embankment.25 + 76. combinations. 2.75 kNm/m Pfoot = 1.5): moment from wall self-weight (γG=1.5) = 76.35·Gk. i.35.terr + 1.5 kNm/m Total load Ptot = 18.5⋅0.

25 (γG=1.19 (γG=1.28 (γQ=1.35) 42.46 22.75 (γG=1.surch (kNm/m) Mwall (kNm/m) Mground (kNm/m) Mtot (kNm/m) Pwall (kN/m) Pfoot (kN/m) Pground (kN/m) Ptot (kN/m) eccentricity (m) pressure on ground (kN/m2) (surcharge outside the foundation footing).35) 103.surch (kNm/m) Mwall (kNm/m) Mground (kNm/m) (surcharge on the whole foundation footing).81 18.0) 31.35) 22.35) 28.0) -30.35) 25.60 (γG=1.0) 42.31 -41.05 32.35) 42.28 (γQ=1.35) 22.95 25.0) -10.50 0.19 99.5) 11.25 15.28 (γG=1.28 22.5) (γQ=1.19 88.10 18.10 88.78 0.31 (γG=1.04 25.0) -41.5) (γQ=1.5) 15.35) (γQ=1.60 (γG=1.0) 126.5) 196.28 0.19 11.5) 11.75 (γG=1.20 -10.0) (γG=1.19 (γG=1.35) 25.28 22.5) 32.20 (γQ=1.35) 153.50 (γG=1.60 -41.01 18.0) 76.ground (kNm/m) MS.08 (γQ=1.5) 152. Max pressure on ground for four different combinations of partial factors of permanent loads Combination MS.0) (γG=1.28 0.31 (γG=1.28 (γQ=1.0) 31.75 25.35) 170.31 88.0) 25.60 -41.35) 76.35) -30. The max pressure on ground is achieved once again for the second combination and its value is here higher than the one calculated in the previous scheme.19 (γG=1. 5) 28.5) 15.25 (γG=1.0 0.5) 169.89 fourth 36.0) (γG=1.08 (γQ=1.31 (γG=1.18 88.24 Msurch (kNm/m) Mtot (kNm/m) Pwall (kN/m) Pfoot (kN/m) Pterr (kN/m) Psurch (kN/m) Ptot (kN/m) eccentricity (m) pressure on ground (kN/m2) The two additional lines.19 (γG=1.35) (γG=1.0) 25.35) 42.31 (γG=1.0) 144 0.5) (γQ=1.67 18.0) 103.31 (γG=1.19 (γG=1.28 (γG=1.35) 39.08 (γQ=1.28 (γG=1.2.48 fourth 36.78 0.50 (γQ=1.08 36.ground (kNm/m) MS.50 (γG=1.0) 103.19 (γG=1.50 (γG=1.08 36.50 (γQ=1.83 Table 2.35) (γQ=1.35) 42.35) 22.28 (γG=1.11 99.3.08 36.35) (γG=1. first second third 36.50 (γQ=1.50 (γG=1.35) -10.28 (γQ=1.24 25.31 (γG=1.25 (γG=1.35) 22. correspond to the moment and to the vertical load resulting from the surcharge above the footing.25 (γG=1.75 (γG=1.28 22.08 (γQ=1.30 18.35) 22.08 (γQ=1.28 (γQ=1.0) 31.5) 11.18 and here highlighted in bold.35) (γQ=1. Table of Content . 5) 178.20 (γQ=1.25 (γG=1.35) -30. 5) (γQ=1.50 0.25 (γG=1.35) 76.25 15.0) (γG=1.EC2 – worked examples 2-12 Table 2.0) 31. not present in Table 1.19 (γG=1.30 98. first second 36. Max pressure for four different combinations of partial factors of permanent loads Combination MS.50 (γQ=1.31 (γG=1.0) 76.35) -30.19 99.5) (γQ=1.26 third 36.75 (γG=1.20 -10.35) 103.

the stirrups are φ 8 at 100 mm. Bottom longitudinal bars are 5 φ 20.EC2: cmin.1 [EC2 clause 4.EC2 – worked examples 4-1 SECTION 4.add = 0 . Fig.Δcdur. 10 mm) = 15 mm Table of Content . Refer to figure 4.st = 0 . With: cmin.Δcdur. the reference (min.4N . From relation (3.b = 8 mm We obtain from table 4.add. Δcdur. cmin.EC2 we see that.dur + Δcdur. The max aggregate size is: dg = 20 mm (< 32 mm). 10 mm) = max (8.) concrete strength class for exposure class XC1 is C20/25. The structural class is S4.b.γ = 0 . WORKED EXAMPLES – DURABILITY EXAMPLE 4. First.st .γ . the resistance class adopted (C25/30) is suitable as it is higher than the reference strength class. The concrete in use has resistance class C25/30. in order to obtain an adequate concrete durability.1. The design working life of the structure is 50 years. Δcdur. 15 + 0 – 0 – 0.4] Design the concrete cover of a reinforced concrete beam with exposure class XC1. the concrete cover for the stirrups is calculated.dur = 15 mm Moreover: Δcdur. Normal quality control is put in place.1 From table E.1N . 4.2): cmin = max (cmin.

The concrete cover for the stirrups is “dominant”. γ = 0 . Moreover: Δcdev = 10 mm.add = 0 .st = 0 . we have: c min. Moreover: Δc dur. Δcdur. If we now calculate now the concrete cover for longitudinal reinforcement bars.1): c nom = c min + Δcdev = 15 + 10 = 25 mm .EC2: c min. We obtain from relation (3. From relation (3. 15 + 0 – 0 – 0.2): c min = max (20. Δcdur.b = 20 mm. We obtain from table 4. 10 mm) = 20 mm .1): c nom = 20 + 10 = 30 mm .EC2 – Worked examples 4-2 Moreover: Δcdev = 10 mm. In this case. Table of Content . We obtain from relation (3. the concrete cover for longitudinal bars is increased to: 25 + 8 = 33 mm .4N .dur = 15 mm .

Fig. even if the actions on concrete were compatible with strength class C25/30. A normal quality control is put in place.EC2 we find that. The exposure class is XS1. From table E. We originally assume concrete with strength class C25/30.2 In accordance with what has been stated in example 3. In this case. 4. Δcdev = 10 mm): for the stirrups: c nom = 45 mm .4] Design the concrete cover for a reinforced concrete beam placed outside a residential building situated close to the coast. the reference (min. the stirrups are φ 8 at 100 mm . The longitudinal reinforcement bars are 5 φ 20. The design working life of the structure is 50 years.1N . the concrete strength class must therefore be increased from the originally assumed C25/30 to C30/37. The maximal aggregate size is: dg = 20 mm (< 32 mm). The structural class is S4 We obtain ( c min.2. Table of Content . Refer to figure 3. we design the minimum concrete cover with reference to both the stirrups and the longitudinal bars.EC2 – worked examples 4-3 EXAMPLE 4.dur = 35 mm . The concrete cover for the stirrups is “dominant”.1. for the longitudinal bars: c nom = 45 mm .) concrete strength class for exposure class XS1 is C30/37. in order to obtain an adequate concrete durability.2 [EC2 clause 4. the concrete cover for longitudinal bars is increased to: 45 + 8 = 53 mm .

We use concrete with strength class C45/55. Δcdur. − φ 8 stirrups at 100 mm . γ = 0 .4N .add .st − Δc dur.b .EC2 – Worked examples 4-4 EXAMPLE 4. From relation (3.b = 8 mm . − strands φ 0. Δcdur.3.2): c min = max (c min. 25 + 0 – 0 – 0. The original structural class is S4. Moreover: Δc dur. placed outside an industrial building situated close to the coast. 10 mm) = 25 mm . In accordance with table 4. We have: c min. An accurate quality control of concrete production is put in place.add = 0 .dur + Δc dur. Calculating first the concrete cover for stirrups. The exposure class is XS1. We find out from table E. γ − Δc dur.3N: − the structural class is reduced by 1 as the concrete used (C45/55) is of strength class higher than C40/50.4] Calculate the concrete cover of a TT precast element. We obtain from table 4. made of prestressed reinforced concrete. − the structural class is reduced by 1 as special quality control of the concrete production is ensured We then refer to structural class S2. The maximal aggregate size is: dg = 16 mm.st = 0 . Refer to figure 3. the minimum concrete strength class is C30/37.dur = 25 mm .EC2: c min. 10 mm ) = = max (8.3 [EC2 clause 4.1N .EC2 that for exposure class XS1. c min. Table of Content . The design working life of the structure is 50 years. At the lower side of the two ribbings of the TT element we have: − longitudinal φ 12 reinforcement bars. strength class C45/55 is therefore adequate.5” .

add = 0 .3 Calculating now the concrete cover for strands. in which the concrete cover length is also assessed. the concrete cover for longitudinal bars is increased to: 30 + 8 = 38 mm . 4. Fig.st − Δc dur. γ − Δc dur.4N .EC2 – worked examples 4-5 Considering that the TT element is cast under procedures subjected to a highly efficient quality control. Δcdur.b = 12 mm . 10 mm) = 25 mm . We obtain from relation (3. Table of Content . the concrete cover for stirrups is “dominant”.dur = 25 mm .b . Δcdur.1): c nom = c min + Δcdev = 25 + 5 = 30 mm . Note that for the ordinary reinforcement bars.add . 10 mm ) = = max (12.2): c min = max (c min. We obtain from relation (3. From relation (3. γ = 0 . the value of Δcdev can be taken as 5 mm. c min.st = 0 . 25 + 0 – 0 – 0. In this case.1): c nom = c min + Δcdev = 25 + 5 = 30 mm . Calculating now the concrete cover for longitudinal bars.EC2: c min. We obtain from table 4. We have: c min.dur + Δc dur. Moreover: Δc dur.

From relation (3.1): c nom = 35 + 5 = 40 mm . From relation (3.EC2: c min. 10 mm) = 35 mm .EC2 – Worked examples 4-6 We have: c min.st = 0 .5 = 18.8 mm . Δcdur.2): c min = max (18. Δcdur.dur = 35 mm .5N . 35 + 0 – 0 – 0. Table of Content . We obtain from table 4.5 · 12.add = 0 . γ = 0 . The concrete cover for the lower strands of the TT element (one for each ribbing) is therefore equal to 43mm.b = 1. The first strand’s axis is placed at 50mm from the lower end of the ribbing of the TT element.8. Moreover: Δc dur. Moreover: Δcdev = 5 mm .

x2 values are shown in table 6.0 x2 (mm) 608.8·500·113.5 203.40 0.5 First the NRd values corresponding to the 4 configurations of the plane section are calculated.2 kNm goes alongside it. β1 and β2 factors and x1. Steel and concrete resistance. β2 is the “position factor”.80 0. h = 1000 mm.1] Geometrical data: b= 500 mm.1 Material data. WORKED EXAMPLES – ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES GENERAL NOTE: Eurocode 2 permits to use a various steel yielding grades ranging from 400 MPa to 600 MPa.max = 2821. NRd1 = 0.8·500·608. the ratio between the distance of the resultant of parabola – rectangle diagram at certain deformation εc from εc and the deformation εc itself.56 β2 0.5·17·10-3 = 772 kN NRd2 = 0. The maximum moment resistance MRd. Fig. In particular the examples are developed using S450 steel with ductility grade C. NRd3 = 0.0·17·10-3 = 4134 kN. which is used in southern Europe and generally in seismic areas. Basis: β1 means the ratio between the area of the parabola – rectangle diagram at certain deformation εc and the area of rectangle at the same deformation.1 Geometrical data and Possible strain distributions at the ultimate limit states Table 6.EC2 – worked examples 6-1 SECTION 6. Example 6. d = 950 mm.1 6. d' = 50 mm.1 (Concrete C30/37) [EC2 clause 6.8·500·1000·17·10-3 + 5000·391·10-3 = 8500 + 3910 = 12410 kN 6-1 .2 fyk (MPa) 450 450 fyd (MPa) 391 391 fck (MPa) 30 90 fcd (MPa) 17 51 β1 0.0 541. EXAMPLE 6.35 x1 (mm) 113.1. 6. Some example is developed using S500 too. β1 and β2 factors and neutral axis depth.8·500·950·17·10-3 + 5000·391·10-3 = 6460 + 1955 = 8415 kN NRd4 = 0.

2. eccentricity.10 As an example the calculation related to NEd = 5000 kN is shown. depth of neutral axis.52 0. 52m 5000 Table of Content . the neutral axis x.EC2 – worked examples 6-2 MRd3 must also be known.105 0. Example 1: values of axial force. NEd (kN) X (m) MRd (kNm) e (m) 600 2000 5000 10000 0.38 1.0035 ⋅ 200000 ⋅ 5000 ⎞ ⎛ 0. for a chosen value of NEd in each interval between two following values of NRd written above and one smaller than NRd1.666 virtual neutral axis 2031 2524 2606 1000 3.80·666·500·17·(500 – 0. Their values are shown in Table 6.80 ⋅ 500 ⋅ 17 0.0035 ⋅ 200000 ⋅ ⎜ − 1 ⎟ = 297N / mm 2 666 ⎠ ⎝ The moment resistance is: MRd = 5000·391·(500-50) + 5000·297·(500-50) + 0.294 0. it results: x2 + 66.0035 ⋅ 200000 ⋅ 5000 ⋅ 950 ⎞ x2 − ⎜ ⎟x −⎜ ⎟=0 0.2.91x – 488970 = 0 which is satisfied for x = 666 mm ⎛ 950 ⎞ The stress in the lower reinforcement is: σs = 0.40 666) = 2606·106 Nmm = 2606 kNm and the eccentricity e = 2606 = 0. The equation of equilibrium to shifting for determination of x is written: ⎛ 5000000 − 5000 ⋅ 391 − 5000 ⋅ 0. MRd. moment resistance. and the eccentricity M Rd e = N are calculated.80 ⋅ 500 ⋅ 17 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Developing.4·950) ·10-3 = 1655 kNm Subsequently. This results: MRd3 = 6460·(500 – 0. Ed Table 6.26 0.

1] For geometrical and mechanical data refer to example 6.50.0.2 (Concrete C90/105) [EC2 clause 6.80 1. MRd. eccentricity NEd (kN) 1500 5000 10000 19000 x (m) 0. MRd and the eccentricity e were calculated for the chosen values of NEd .35·0. Values of NRd corresponding to the 4 configurations of the plane section and of MRd3: NRd1 = 2899 kN NRd2 = 7732 kN.55 0.7 kNm is associated to it. depth of neutral axis.14 Table of Content .3 Values of axial load.142 0.619) + 3910·(0.3 Table 6. moment resistance. The results are shown in Table 6.5 – 0.1.619 virtual neutral axis MRd (kNm) 4194 5403 5514 2702 e (m) 2.EC2 – worked examples 6-3 EXAMPLE 6.05) = 4031 kNm Applying the explained procedure x.08 0.350 0.max = 6948. NRd3 = 13566 + 3910 = 17476 kN NRd4 = 14280 + 7820 = 22100 kN MRd3 = 13566 (0.

Design tensile resistance in accordance with: fctd = αct fctk.0 = 44.15.626 + 0. Average prestressing σcp = 5.66 ⋅ 106 500 ⋅ 10 3 VRd. 66 ⋅ 5.626 and k1 = 0.2] Rectangular section bw = 100 mm.66 MPa Cracked sections subjected to bending moment. Class C40 concrete. d = 175 mm.EC2 – worked examples 6-4 EXAMPLE 6.3 Calculation of VRd. It results: VRd. 0.c for a prestressed beam [EC2 clause 6.66 ⋅ 106 mm 4 12 S= 100 ⋅ 100 ⋅ 50 = 500 ⋅ 103 mm 3 100 ⋅ 66. No longitudinal or transverse reinforcement bars are present.c = (1.33 kN Table of Content .15⋅5.08 kN Non-cracked sections subjected to bending moment.0 MPa.c = (νmin + k1 σcp) bwd where νmin = 0.0)⋅100⋅175 = 24.5= 1. With αI = 1 it results 200 3 I = 100 ⋅ = 66. h = 200 mm.66 )2 + 1. VRd.c = (0.5/1.05/γC = 1· 2.

s = hence cotθ = 1. fyd = 391 MPa.29 A sw 226 ⋅ z ⋅ f ywd ⋅ cot θ = ⋅ 500 ⋅ 391 ⋅ 1. vertical stirrups diameter 12 mm. d = 550 mm. a) fck = 30 MPa .2] Rectangular or T-shaped beam.max 226 ⋅ 391 = 0. ν = 0. fcd = 51 MPa.38 150 ⋅ 150 ⋅ 0. ν = 0.90 A sw 226 ⋅ z ⋅ f ywd ⋅ cot θ = ⋅ 500 ⋅ 391 ⋅ 1.1504 hence cotθ = 2.616 ⋅ 17 it results: sin 2 θ = Then VRd.s = VRd.375 150 ⋅ 150 ⋅ 0.EC2 – worked examples 6-5 EXAMPLE 6.512 ⋅ 51 A sw 226 ⋅ z ⋅ f ywd ⋅ cot θ = ⋅ 500 ⋅ 391 ⋅ 2.616 A sw f ywd b w sνfcd = sin 2 θ obtained from VRd.s = 226 ⋅ 391 = 0.29 ⋅ 10 −3 = 380 kN s 150 b) For the same section and reinforcement. with fck = 90 MPa.38 ⋅ 10−3 = 701 kN s 150 Table of Content . fcd = 17 MPa . The example is developed for three classes of concrete.4 Determination of shear resistance given the section geometry and mechanics [EC2 clause 6. 2 legs (Asw = 226 mm2).90 ⋅ 10 −3 = 560 kN s 150 c) For the same section and reinforcement. with fck = 60 MPa. ν = 0. z = 500 mm. fcd = 34 MPa.2171 150 ⋅ 150 ⋅ 0.532 ⋅ 34 hence cotθ = 1.532.512. h = 600 mm. proceeding as above it results: sin 2 θ = VRd. s = 150 mm. with bw = 150 mm.s = 226 ⋅ 391 = 0. proceeding as above it results: sin 2 θ = VRd.

EC2 – worked examples

6-6

Determination of reinforcement (vertical stirrups) given the beam and shear action VEd

Rectangular beam bw = 200 mm, h = 800 mm, d = 750 mm, z = 675 mm; vertical stirrups fywd = 391 MPa. Three cases are shown, with varying values of VEd and of fck. •VEd = 600 kN; fck = 30 MPa ; fcd = 17 MPa ; ν = 0.616

1 2VEd 1 2 ⋅ 600000 Then θ = arcsin = arcsin = 29.0 o 2 ( α cw νfcd )b w z 2 (1 ⋅ 0.616 ⋅ 17) ⋅ 200 ⋅ 675

**hence cotθ = 1.80 It results:
**

A sw VEd 600000 = = = 1.263 mm 2 / mm s z ⋅ f ywd ⋅ cot θ 675 ⋅ 391 ⋅ 1.80

which is satisfied with 2-leg stirrups φ12/170 mm. The tensile force in the tensioned longitudinal reinforcement necessary for bending must be increased by ΔFtd = 0.5 VEd cot θ = 0.5·600000·1.80 = 540 kN •VEd = 900 kN; fck = 60 MPa ; fcd = 34 MPa ; ν = 0.532

1 2VEd 1 2 ⋅ 900000 θ = arcsin = arcsin = 23.74 o 2 ( α cw νfcd )b w z 2 (1 ⋅ 0.532 ⋅ 34) ⋅ 200 ⋅ 675

**hence cotθ = 2.27 Then with it results
**

A sw VEd 900000 = = = 1.50 mm 2 / mm s z ⋅ f ywd ⋅ cot θ 675 ⋅ 391 ⋅ 2.27

which is satisfied with 2-leg stirrups φ12/150 mm. The tensile force in the tensioned longitudinal reinforcement necessary for bending must be increased by ΔFtd = 0.5 VEd cot θ = 0.5·900000·2.27= 1021 kN • VEd = 1200 kN; fck = 90 MPa ; fcd = 51 MPa ; ν = 0.512

1 2VEd 1 2 ⋅ 1200000 θ = arcsin = arcsin = 21.45o 2 ( α cw νfcd )b w z 2 0.512 ⋅ 51 ⋅ 200 ⋅ 675

**As θ is smaller than 21.8o , cotθ = 2.50 Hence
**

A sw VEd 1200000 = = = 1.82 mm 2 / mm s z ⋅ f ywd ⋅ cot θ 675 ⋅ 391 ⋅ 2.50

which is satisfied with 2-leg stirrups φ12/120 mm. The tensile force in the tensioned longitudinal reinforcement necessary for bending must be increased by ΔFtd = 0.5 VEd cot θ = 0.5·1200000·2.50 = 1500 kN

Table of Content

EC2 – worked examples

6-7

EXAMPLE 6.4b – the same above, with steel S500C fyd = 435 MPa. [EC2 clause 6.2]

The example is developed for three classes of concrete. a) fck = 30 MPa ; fcd = 17 MPa ; ν = 0.616 A sw f ywd b w sνfcd = sin 2 θ obtained for VRd,s = VRd,max

226 ⋅ 435 = 0.417 150 ⋅ 150 ⋅ 0.616 ⋅ 17

it results: sin 2 θ = Then VRd,s =

hence cotθ = 1.18

A sw 226 ⋅ z ⋅ f ywd ⋅ cot θ = ⋅ 500 ⋅ 435 ⋅ 1.18 ⋅ 10 −3 = 387 kN s 150

b) For the same section and reinforcement, with fck = 60 MPa , fcd = 34 MPa; ν = 0.532, proceeding as above it results:

sin 2 θ = VRd,s = 226 ⋅ 435 = 0.242 150 ⋅ 150 ⋅ 0.532 ⋅ 34

hence cotθ = 1.77

A sw 226 ⋅ z ⋅ f ywd ⋅ cot θ = ⋅ 500 ⋅ 435 ⋅ 1.77 ⋅ 10 −3 = 580 kN s 150

c) For the same section and reinforcement, with fck = 90 MPa, fcd = 51 MPa; ν = 0.512, proceeding as above it results:

sin 2 θ = VRd,s = 226 ⋅ 435 = 0.167 150 ⋅ 150 ⋅ 0.512 ⋅ 51

hence cotθ = 2.23

A sw 226 ⋅ z ⋅ f ywd ⋅ cot θ = ⋅ 500 ⋅ 435 ⋅ 2.23 ⋅ 10 −3 = 731 kN s 150

Determination of reinforcement (vertical stirrups) given the beam and shear action VEd

Rectangular beam bw = 200 mm, h = 800 mm, d = 750 mm, z = 675 mm; vertical stirrups fywd = 391 MPa. Three cases are shown, with varying values of VEd and of fck. •VEd = 600 kN; fck = 30 MPa ; fcd = 17 MPa ; ν = 0.616 then

1 2VEd 1 2 ⋅ 600000 θ = arcsin = arcsin = 29.0 o hence cotθ = 1.80 2 ( α cw νfcd )b w z 2 (1 ⋅ 0.616 ⋅ 17) ⋅ 200 ⋅ 675

It results:

A sw VEd 600000 = = = 1.135 mm 2 / mm s z ⋅ f ywd ⋅ cot θ 675 ⋅ 435 ⋅ 1.80

which is satisfied with 2-leg stirrups φ12/190 mm. The tensile force in the tensioned longitudinal reinforcement necessary for bending must be increased by ΔFtd = 0.5 VEd cot θ = 0.5·600000·1.80 = 540 kN

Table of Content

EC2 – worked examples

6-8

**• VEd = 900 kN; fck = 60 MPa ; fcd = 34 MPa ; ν = 0.532
**

1 2VEd 1 2 ⋅ 900000 θ = arcsin = arcsin = 23.74 o hence cotθ = 2.27 2 ( α cw νfcd )b w z 2 (1 ⋅ 0.532 ⋅ 34) ⋅ 200 ⋅ 675

Then with it results

A sw VEd 900000 = = = 1.35 mm 2 / mm s z ⋅ f ywd ⋅ cot θ 675 ⋅ 435 ⋅ 2.27

which is satisfied with 2-leg stirrups φ12/160 mm. The tensile force in the tensioned longitudinal reinforcement necessary for bending must be increased by ΔFtd = 0.5 VEd cot θ = 0.5·900000·2.27 = 1021 kN • VEd = 1200 kN; fck = 90 MPa ; fcd = 51 MPa ; ν = 0.512

1 2VEd 1 2 ⋅ 1200000 θ = arcsin = arcsin = 21.45o 2 ( α cw νfcd )b w z 2 0.512 ⋅ 51 ⋅ 200 ⋅ 675

**As θ is smaller than 21.8o , cotθ = 2.50 Hence
**

A sw VEd 1200000 = = = 1.63 mm 2 / mm s z ⋅ f ywd ⋅ cot θ 675 ⋅ 435 ⋅ 2.50

which is satisfied with 2-leg stirrups φ12/130 mm. The tensile force in the tensioned longitudinal reinforcement necessary for bending must be increased by ΔFtd = 0.5 VEd cot θ = 0.5·1200000·2.50 = 1500 kN

Table of Content

5 VRd.5 [EC2 clause 6.4· (2. fck = 30 MPa .707 ⋅ 10 −3 = 605.2] Rectangular or T-shaped beam.s (cot θ − cot α) = 0.5 ⋅ 150 ⋅ 150 0. with bw = 150 mm h = 800 mm d = 750 mm z = 675 mm. ν = 0. replacing cot θ = c) Calculation of VRd 157 ⋅ 675 ⋅ 391 ⋅ (2.s = •Increase of tensile force the longitudinal bar (VEd =VRd. fcd = 17 MPa .10 -1. diameter 10 mm.707 •The angle θ of simultaneous concrete – reinforcement steel collapse It results cot θ = bsνfcd −1 A sw f ywd sin α 150 ⋅ 150 ⋅ 0.616 ⋅ 17 = 2.72 < 7. fyd = 391 MPa.10 157 ⋅ 391 ⋅ 0.max f ywd bw s ≤ 0.0) = 333 kN Table of Content . s = 150 mm.40 ≤ 0.0) ⋅ 0.616 Reinforcement: inclined stirrups 45o (cotα = 1.10 + 1.4 kN 150 It results: VRd.s) ΔFtd = 0.0) .707 and.616 ⋅ 17 − 1 = 2.5·605. Calculation of shear resistance •Ductility is first verified by And replacing A sw . 2 legs (Asw = 157 mm2).5 ⋅ α cw ν1fcd sin α 157 ⋅ 391 1 ⋅ 0.EC2 – worked examples 6-9 EXAMPLE 6.

with depth 1500 mm.EC2 – worked examples 6-10 EXAMPLE 6. Materials: fck = 30 MPa fyk = 500 MPa Results of actions: VEd = 1300 kN (force parallel to the larger side) TEd = 700 kNm Design resistances: fcd =0.2 Ring section subjected to torsion and shear The maximum equivalent shear in each of the vertical members is (z refers to the length of the vertical member): V*Ed = VEd / 2 + (TEd · z) / 2·Ak = [1300⋅103/2 + (700⋅106 ⋅1350)/(2⋅1.15 = 435 MPa Geometric elements: uk = 2(1500-150) + 2(1000-200) = 4300 mm Ak = 1350 · 800 = 1080000 mm2 Fig.85·(30/1. 6.616 ν fcd = 10.7[1-30/250] = 0.08⋅106)]⋅10-3 = 1087 kN Verification of compressed concrete with cot θ =1. 6.5) = 17. It results: VRd.0 MPa ν = 0.max = t z ν fcd sinθ cosθ = 200⋅1350⋅10. width 1000 mm.5⋅0. with 200 mm wide vertical members and 150 mm wide horizontal members. d = 1450 mm. Fig.3] Ring rectangular section.707 = 1417 k N > V*Ed Table of Content .707⋅0.2.5 MPa fyd = 500/1.6 [EC2 clause 6.

348 mm2 /mm which can be carried out with 8 mm wide.14/(2⋅435) = 3198 mm2 To be placed at the lower end.14) = 0.EC2 – worked examples 6-11 Determination of angle θ: * 1 2VEd 1 2 ⋅ 1087000 θ = arcsin = arcsin = 25. Reinforcement of horizontal members. with particular attention to the corner bars. subjected to torsion only: (Asw /s) = TEd /(2⋅Ak⋅fyd⋅cot θ) = 700⋅106 /(2⋅1.14/(2⋅1080000⋅435) = 6855 mm2 to be distributed on the section.5 ⋅ 200 ⋅ 1350 hence cotθ = 2. pitch 200 mm.865 mm2 /mm which can be carried out with 2-legs 12 mm bars. 2 legs stirrups. pitch is in accordance with [9.08⋅106 ⋅435⋅2. Longitudinal reinforcement for torsion: Asl = TEd ⋅ uk ⋅ cotθ /(2⋅Ak⋅fyd) = 700⋅106⋅4300⋅2. Longitudinal reinforcement for shear: Asl = VEd ⋅ cot θ / (2 ⋅ fyd ) = 1300000⋅2.03o 2 νfcd tz 2 10.14 Reinforcement of vertical members: (Asw /s) = V*Ed /(z fyd cot θ) = (1087⋅103 )/(1350⋅435⋅2.14) = 0.3(3)-EC2].2. Table of Content . pitch 200 mm.

3) Materials: fck = 30 MPa fcd = 0.max = αcw ⋅ bw⋅z⋅ν⋅fcd/ (cot θ+ tan θ) = 10.7 Shear – Torsion interaction diagrams [EC2 clause 6.3] resistant hollow section Fig.5⋅300⋅400/(2+0.5⋅83636⋅94⋅0.85·(30/1.3 Rectangular section subjected to shear and torsion Example: full rectangular section b = 300 mm .5) = 504 kN and for the taken z = 400 mm TRd. 6.EC2 – worked examples 6-12 EXAMPLE 6.7 ⋅ ⎜ 1 − ⎟ = 0.8945 = 66 kNm Table of Content . 6.56o (cotθ = 2.5 MPa ⎝ 250 ⎠ fyk = 450 MPa .4471⋅0.0 MPa 30 ⎞ ⎛ ν = 0. fyd = 391 MPa αcw = 1 Geometric elements A= 150000 mm2 u = 1600 mm t = A/u = 94 mm Ak = (500 – 94) ⋅ (300-94) = 83636 mm2 Assumption: θ = 26. h = 500 mm.5) = 17.0) It results: VRd. ν fcd = 10.max = 2⋅10. z =400 mm (Fig.616 .

3 MPa (fctk deducted from Table [3. For instance.4. It results therefore: TRd.c ⋅ k ⋅ (100ρl fck ) ⎤ ⋅ b w d ⎣ ⎦ [(6. moreover.5 = 0.EC2 – worked examples 6-13 Fig. 6. if VEd = 350 kN is taken. Points below the straight line that connects the resistance values on the two axis represent safety situations.5 = 1. Second case: light action effects Same section and materials as in the previous case.01. it results that the maximum compatible torsion moment is 20 kNm.c = fctd⋅ t⋅2Ak = 1.31)-EC2] In this expression.c + VEd /VRd. V-T interaction diagram for highly stressed section The diagram is shown in Fig.4 kNm 1/3 VRd.c = 0.63 500 1/3 (100ρlfck ) = (100 ⋅ 0.18/1.3⋅94⋅2⋅83636 = 20.c is the value of the torsion cracking moment: τ = fctd = fctk /γc = 2. ρ = 0.12 k = 1+ 200 = 1.4.c = ⎡CRd. it results: CRd. 6. The safety condition (absence of cracking) is expressed by: TEd /TRd.1-EC2]).01 ⋅ 30 ) 1/3 = ( 30 ) 1/3 Table of Content .c ≤ 1 where TRd.0/1. On the figure other diagrams in relation with different θ values are shown as dotted lines.

75⋅450 = 337 mm.6.bw = 2⋅28/(180⋅300) = 0. should have a minimal reinforcement in accordance with [9.c = 0. It results : Asw/s. Namely.63⋅ (30)1/3 ⋅ 300 ⋅ 450 = 82.0010 Fig.5 V-T interaction diagram for lightly stressed section Table of Content .12⋅1..2 (6)-EC2]. the minimal quantity of stirrups must be in accordance with [9.5N-EC2].010 with s not larger than 0. 6.75d = 0.0 kN The diagram is shown in Fig. 200 mm.08 ⋅ √30)/450 = 0. stirrups of 6 mm diameter with 180 mm pitch can be placed.2. For instance.2.2 (5)-EC2] and [9.5 The section. which prescribes for shear: (Asw / s⋅bw) min = (0.EC2 – worked examples 6-14 Taking d = 450 mm it results: VRd.e. i.08 ⋅ √fck)/fyk = (0. Because of the torsion. in the range of action effects defined by the interaction diagram. stirrups must be closed and their pitch must not be larger than u/8.

EC2 – worked examples

6-15

EXAMPLE 6.8. Wall beam [EC2 clause 6.5]

Geometry: 5400 x 3000 mm beam (depth b = 250 mm), 400 x 250 mm columns, columns reinforcement 6φ20 We state that the strut location C2 is 200 cm from the bottom reinforcement, so that the inner drive arm is equal to the elastic solution in the case of a wall beam with ratio 1/h=2, that is 0.67 h; it suggests to use the range (0.6 ÷ 0.7)·l as values for the lever arm, lower than the case of a slender beam with the same span.

Fig. 6.6 5400 x 3000 mm wall beam.

**Materials: concrete C25/30 fck = 25 MPa, steel B450C fyk = 450 MPa
**

f cd =

f yd =

0.85f ck 0.85 ⋅ 25 = = 14.17 N / mm 2 , 1.5 1.5

f yk 1.15 = 450 = 391.3 N / mm 2 1.15

**nodes compressive strength: compressed nodes
**

⎛ f ck ⎞ ⎜ 1⎟ 250 ⎠ ⎛ 25 ⎞ 2 = k1 ⎝ f cd = 1.18 ⎜1⎟ 14.17 = 15 N / mm 0.85 250 ⎠ ⎝

σ1Rd,max

nodes tensioned – compressed by anchor logs in a fixed direction

Table of Content

EC2 – worked examples

6-16

σ 2Rd,max

⎛ f ck ⎞ ⎜1⎟ 250 ⎠ ⎛ 25 ⎞ 2 = k2 ⎝ f cd = ⎜1⎟ 14.17 = 12.75 N / mm 0.85 ⎝ 250 ⎠ ⎛ f ck ⎞ ⎜1⎟ ⎝ 250 ⎠ f = 0.88 ⎛ 1- 25 ⎞ 14.17 = 11.22 N / mm 2 = k3 cd ⎜ ⎟ 0.85 ⎝ 250 ⎠

nodes tensioned – compressed by anchor logs in different directions

σ 3Rd,max

**Actions Distributed load: 150 kN/m upper surface and 150 kN/m lower surface
**

Columns reaction

**R = (150+150)⋅5.40/2 = 810 kN
**

Evaluation of stresses in lattice bars

Equilibrium node 1 Equilibrium node 3

C1 = C3 =

ql = 405 kN 2 R = 966 kN senα

(where α = arctg

2000 = 56.98° ) 1300

T1 = C 3 cosα = 526 kN

**Equilibrium node 2 Equilibrium node 4
**

Tension rods

C2 = C3cosα = T1 = 526 kN T2 = ql = 405 kN 2

**The tension rod T1 requires a steel area not lower than:
**

A s1 ≥ 526000 = 1344 mm 2 391.,3

we use 6φ18 = 1524 mm2,

the reinforcement of the lower tension rod are located at the height of 0,12 h = 360 mm The tension rod T2 requires a steel area not lower than:

A s1 ≥ 405000 = 1035 mm 2 391.3

We use 4φ20 = 1257 mm2

Table of Content

EC2 – worked examples

6-17

Nodes verification

Node 3 The node geometry is unambiguously defined by the column width, the wall depth (250 mm), the height of the side on which the lower bars are distributed and by the strut C3 fall (Fig. 6.7)

Fig. 6.7 Node 3, left support.

The node 3 is a compressed-stressed node by a single direction reinforcement anchor, then it is mandatory to verify that the maximal concrete compression is not higher than the value:

σ 2Rd,max = 12.75 N / mm 2

σ c1 =

810000 = 8.1 N / mm 2 ≤ σ 2Rd,max 400 ⋅ 250

Remark as the verification of the column contact pressure is satisfied even without taking into account the longitudinal reinforcement (6φ20) present in the column.

σ c2 =

966000 = 7.27 N / mm 2 ≤ σ 2Rd,max 531.6 ⋅ 250

Table of Content

steel B450C fyk = 450 MPa 0.EC2 – worked examples 6-18 EXAMPLE 6.83 = 20.83 N / mm 2 . 6.9.18 ⎜1⎟ 19.5] Geometry: 250 x 400 mm cantilever (width b = 400 mm).85 250 ⎠ ⎝ σ1Rd. 6. 1. Materials: concrete C35/45 fck = 35 MPa.85f ck 0.15 1. beam b x h = 400 x 400 mm Fig.9 Cantilever beam S&T model.3 N / mm 2 1.8 250 x 400 mm thick cantilever beam. 150 x 300 load plate. ac < hc/2 [EC2 clause 6.12 N / mm 0. Fig.5 1.max Table of Content .5 f 450 f yd = yk = = 391. Thick short corbel.15 f cd = nodes compressive strength: compressed nodes ⎛ f ck ⎞ ⎜1⎟ 250 ⎠ ⎛ 35 ⎞ 2 = k1 ⎝ f cd = 1.85 ⋅ 35 = = 19.

cosθ senθ ⎠ ⎝ Table of Content .8) The beam vertical strut width is evaluated by setting the compressive stress equal to σ1Rd.83 = 17.max = 20.max: x1 = FEd σ1Rd.8⋅360 = 288 mm): y1 = 0. then it is not possible to evaluate the stresses for each single bar by equilibrium equations only. but we need to know the stiffness of the two elementary beams shown in Fig.88 ⎛ 1.12 ⋅ 400 the node 1 is located x1/2 ≅ 44 mm from the outer column side (Fig. 6.14 N / mm 2 ≤ σ1Rd. 6.12 N / mm 2 b ( 2 y1 ) 400 ( 2 ⋅ 72 ) Ft 411000 = = 1050 mm 2 we use 8φ14 (As = 1232 mm2) f yd 391.EC2 – worked examples 6-19 nodes tensioned – compressed by anchor logs in a fixed direction ⎛ f ck ⎞ ⎜1⎟ 250 ⎠ ⎛ 35 ⎞ 2 = k2 ⎝ f cd = ⎜1⎟ 19. the distance y1 of the node 1 from the lower border is evaluated setting the internal drive arm z equal to 0.83 = 15 N / mm 2 = k3 ⎜ ⎟ cd 0.2·360 = 72 mm rotational equilibrium: FEd a = Fc z Fc = Ft = 700000 ⋅ (125 + 44) = Fc ⋅ 288 700000 ⋅ (125 + 44) = 410763 N ≅ 411 kN 288 node 1verification: σ= Fc 411000 = = 7.max b = 700000 ≅ 87 mm 20.8⋅d (z = 0.10 in order to make the partition of the diagonal stress F F ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ Fdiag = c = Ed ⎟ between them.85 ⎝ 250 ⎠ σ 2Rd.9) We state that the upper reinforcement is located 40 mm from the upper cantilever side.3 Main upper reinforcement design: As = Secondary upper reinforcement design: The beam proposed in EC2 is indeterminate.max nodes tensioned – compressed by anchor logs in different directions σ 3Rd.05 N / mm 0.85 ⎝ 250 ⎠ ⎛ f ck ⎞ ⎜1⎟ ⎝ 250 ⎠ f = 0.35 ⎞ 19.max Actions FEd = 700 kN Load eccentricity with respect to the column side: e = 125 mm (Fig.2d = 0. 6.

EC2 – worked examples 6-20 Fig. 6.10 S&T model resolution in two elementary beams and partition of the diagonal stress Fdiag.8.56 N / mm 2 ≤ σ 2Rd.3 A sw = we use 5 stirrups φ 10. below the load plate: The node 2 is a tied-compressed node.1): Fwd z 288 2 −1 2⋅ −1 a 125 + 44 = Fc = 411 ≅ 211 kN 3 + FEd / Fc 3 + 700 / 411 Fwd 211000 = ≅ 539 mm 2 ≥ k1 ⋅ A s = 0. the compressive stress below the load plate is: σ= FEd 700000 = = 15. double armed (Asw = 785 mm2) node 2 verification. and they have provided the following expression of stress in the secondary reinforcement (MC90 par.25 ⋅1232 = 308 mm 2 f yd 391.2. based on the trend of main compressive stresses resulting from linear elastic analysis at finite elements. where the main reinforcement is anchored.max = 17.2.05 N / mm 2 150 ⋅ 300 45000 Table of Content . some researcher of Stuttgart have determined the two rates in which Fdiag is divided. 6.

150 x 220 mm load plate. 6.11 325 x 300 mm cantilever. then as in the previous example one more boundary condition is needed to evaluate the stresses values in the rods. 6.5] Geometry: 325 x 300 mm cantilever beam (width b = 400 mm). in the range Fwd = 0 when a = z/2 and Fwd = FEd when a = 2⋅z.12 Cantilever S&T model. Fig. 6. This assumption corresponds to the statement that when a ≤ z/2 (a very thick cantilever).13b).EC2 – worked examples 6-21 EXAMPLE 6.13a) and when a ≥ 2⋅z the beam 2 only (Fig. 6. Table of Content . ac > hc/2 [EC2 clause 6. a) b) Fig.10 Thick cantilever beam. Elementary beams of the S&T model.13. the resistant beam is the beam 1 only (Fig. 6. 6. 400 x 400 mm column Fig. The stress Fwd in the vertical tension rod is evaluated assuming a linear relation between Fwd and the a value. The model proposed in EC2 (Fig.12) is indeterminate.

15 = 450 = 391.max: x1 = FEd σ1Rd.12 N / mm 2 tied-compressed nodes with tension rods in one direction σ 2Rd.12 ⋅ 400 node 1 is located x1/2 = 31 mm from the outer side of the column. the distance y1 of the node 1 from the lower border is calculated setting the internal drive arm z to be 0.05 N / mm 2 tied-compressed nodes with tension rods in different directions σ 3Rd. the expression for Fwd as a function of a is the following: Fwd = F 2 FEd 2a / z − 1 .2d = 0.8⋅260 = 208 mm): y1 = 0.85f ck 0. some trivial 2 algebra leads to: Fw1 = 2 FEd 3 z and Fw2 = − FEd .max = 17.5 1.5 f yk 1.83 N / mm 2 .max b = 500000 ≅ 62 mm 20.max = 15 N/mm 2 Actions: FEd = 500 kN Load eccentricity with respect to the column outer side: e = 200 mm The column vertical strut width is evaluated setting the compressive stress equal to σ1Rd. steel B450C fyk = 450 MPa f cd = f yd = 0.85 ⋅ 35 = = 19. a − Ed = FEd 3 z 3 3 Materials: concrete C35/45 fck = 35 MPa. the expression for Fwd is: Fwd = Fw1 a + Fw2 z when the two conditions Fwd (a = ) = 0 and Fwd (a = 2z) = FEd are imposed.2·260 = 52 mm Table of Content .8⋅d (z = 0. 3 in conclusion. the upper reinforcement is stated to be 40 mm from the cantilever outer side.max = 20.15 Nodes compression resistance (same values of the previous example): Compressed nodes σ1Rd.3 N / mm 2 1. 1.EC2 – worked examples 6-22 Assumed this statement.

3 Main upper reinforcement design: As = we use 8φ16 (As = 1608 mm2) Secondary reinforcement design: (the expression deduced at the beginning of this example is used) a 2 −1 Fw = z FEd ≅ 204 kN 3 Aw = Fw 204000 = = 521 mm 2 f yd 391.5 = 639 mm 2 f yd 391.3 FEd 500000 = 0. in which the main reinforcement is anchored.3 EC2 suggests a minimum secondary reinforcement of: Aw ≥ k2 we use 3 stirrups φ 12 (As = 678 mm2) node 2 verification.37 N / mm 2 ≤ σ1Rd.12 N / mm 2 b ( 2 y1 ) 400 ( 2 ⋅ 52 ) Ft 556000 = = 1421 mm 2 f yd 391. the compressive stress below the load plate is: σ= FEd 500000 = = 15.max = 20.max = 17.05 N / mm 2 150 ⋅ 220 33000 Table of Content . below the load plate: The node 2 is a compressed-stressed node.15 N / mm 2 ≤ σ 2Rd.EC2 – worked examples 6-23 rotational equilibrium: x ⎞ ⎛ FEd ⎜ a c + 1 ⎟ = Fc z 2⎠ ⎝ 500000 (200+31) = Fc . 208 Fc = Ft = 500000 ⋅ (200 + 31) = 555288 N ≅ 556 kN 208 node 1 verification σ= Fc 556000 = = 13.

Hereafter we report the partition of the support reaction between the two trusses.14).7 (4)-EC2] Actions: Distributed load: 250 kN/m Beam spam: 8000 mm RSdu = 1000 kN Bending moment in the beam mid-spam: MSdu = 2000 kNm Beam section: b x h = 800 x 1400 mm Bottom longitudinal reinforcement (As): 10φ24 = 4524 mm2 Table of Content . 6.15 = 450 = 391. It seems to be opportune to combine the type b) reinforcement with the type a) one. it is necessary to consider a longitudinal top reinforcement to anchor both the vertical stirrups and the confining reinforcement of the tilted strut C1. fyk = 450 MPa Es = 200000 MPa f cd = f yd = 0.EC2 – worked examples 6-24 EXAMPLE 6. Even if the EC2 allows the possibility to use only one strut and then only one reinforcement arrangement.14 Possible strut and tie models for a Gerber beam.5 f yk 1. Materials: concrete steel C25/30 B450C fck = 25 MPa.5] Two different strut-tie trusses can be considered for the design of a Gerber beam.3 N / mm 2 1. eventually in a combined configuration [EC2 (10.85 ⋅ 25 = = 14.9.5 1.17 N / mm 2 . and the latter will carry at least half of the beam reaction.6)].4. On the other hand. if only the scheme a) is used. we remark as the scheme b) results to be poor under load. because of the complete lack of reinforcement for the bottom border of the beam. (Fig.85f ck 0. 1.15 [(3.11 Gerber beam [EC2 clause 6. a) b) Fig. 6.2.

15 Truss a. as stated in the calculation.0035 ⋅ (x − d ') where d’ = 50 mm is the distance of the upper surface reinforcement x x − 50 A's = f yd A s x 0.00196 99 E s 200000 then the compressed steel strain results lower than the strain in the elastic limit.3 ⋅ ( 99 − 50 ) = 0. ' εs = 0.EC2 – worked examples 6-25 Top longitudinal reinforcement (As’): 8φ20 = 2513 mm2 Truss a) R = RSdu /2 = 500 kN Definition of the truss rods position The compressed longitudinal bar has a width equal to the depth x of the section neutral axis and then it is x/2 from the top border.0035 and then: x = 99 mm ' εs = f 0.00173·2513 Table of Content .8·800·99·14.17 (applied at 0.4⋅x ≅ 40 mm from the upper surface) while the top reinforcement stress is: C’ = Es ε’s A’s = 200000·0. the compressive stress in the concrete is C = 0.00173 ≤ yd = = 0. the depth of the neutral axis is evaluated from the section translation equilibrium: 0.8b x f cd + E s 0.8 b x fcd = 0.0035 391. 6.8 b x fcd + Es ε’s A’s = fyd As Fig.

then the horizontal strut has the axis at 675 – 50 . Calculation of the truss rods stresses Table of Content .16 Calculation scheme for the truss b bars stresses. 6.77° 425 C1 = R = 620 kN sinα T2 = C1 ⋅ cosα = 366 kN Node 2 equilibrium: β = arctg C 2 cosβ + C 3 cos45° = T2 C 2sinβ = C3sin45° 580 = 38.3 Fig. 66° 725 T2 = 260 kN sinβ + cosβ sinβ C3 = ⋅ C 2 = 230 kN sin45° C2 = ⇒ Node 3 equilibrium: T1 = C1 sin α + C2 sin β = 663 kN Tension rods design the tension rod T1 needs a steel area not lower than: A s1 ≥ we use 5 stirrups φ 16 double arm (Asl = 2000 mm2) the tension rod T2 needs a steel area not lower than: A s1 ≥ we use 5 φ 16 (Asl = 1000 mm2).EC2 – worked examples 6-26 (applied at 50 mm from the upper surface) the compression net force (C + C’) results to be applied at 45 mm from the beam upper surface.45 = 580 mm from the tension rod T2. Calculation of the truss rods stresses Node 1 equilibrium: α = arctg 580 = 53. Truss b) R = RSdu /2 = 500 kN 663000 = 1694 mm 2 391.3 366000 = 935 mm 2 391.

a lower reinforcement area would be sufficient for tension rod T’1 but for question of bar anchoring the same reinforcement as in T’2 is adopted.3 6φ24 = 2712 mm2 are adopted.EC2 – worked examples 6-27 node 1 equilibrium C’1 = 500 kN node 2 equilibrium C’2 = C’1 = 500 kN T'1 = 2 ⋅ C'1 = 707 kN node 3 equilibrium C’3 = T’1 = 707 kN T’2 = (T’1 + C’3)·cos 45° = 1000 kN Tension rods for tension rod T’2 it is necessary to adopt a steel area not lower than: 1000000 A s1 ≥ = 2556 mm 2 391. Table of Content .

85 ⋅ 25 f cd = = = 14.12 Pile cap [EC2 clause 6.8) Compressed nodes σ1Rd.5] Geometry: 4500 x 4500 mm plinth (thickness b=1500 mm). diameter 800 mm piles Fig.15 Nodes compression resistance (same values as in the example 6.75 N/mm2 tied-compressed nodes with tension rods in different directions σ3Rd.max = 11.max = 15 N/mm2 tied-compressed nodes with tension rods in one direction σ2Rd.85f ck 0. 1.22 N/mm2 Pedestal pile NSd = 2000 kN MSd = 4000 kNm Table of Content . steel B450C fyk = 450 MPa 0.max = 12.15 = 450 = 391.5 f yd = f yk 1.5 1. 2000 x 700 mm columns.EC2 – worked examples 6-28 EXAMPLE 6.17 Log plinth on pilings. 6. Materials: concrete C25/30 fck = 25 MPa.3 N / mm 2 1.17 N / mm 2 .

00 + 2000/2) = 2333 kN B’ = (MSd/3.17 = 3666062 N = 3666 kN (applied at 0. then in the second step the transfer is inside the planes π2 and π3 till to the piles.8 b x fcd – Fs ⇒ 2000000 = 0. 6.8·700·x·14.2000/2) = 333 kN A=A’/2 = 1167 kN B=B’/2 = 167 kN for each compressed pile: In the evaluation of stresses on piles. Table of Content .17 − 1662242 ⇒ x = 462 mm The compressive stress in the concrete is: C = 0.8·700·462·14. Fig.17) till to the orthogonal planes π2 and π3.4⋅x ≅ 185 mm from the upper surface) piles stress pile stresses are evaluated considering the column actions transfer in two steps: in the first step. 6. the transfer of the forces Fc e Fs happens in the plane π1 (Fig. the plinth own weight is considered negligible.EC2 – worked examples 6-29 Tied reinforcement in the pile: 8 φ 26 (As = 4248 mm2) The compressive stress Fc in the concrete and the steel tension Fs on the pedestal pile are evaluated from the ULS verification for normal stresses of the section itself: Fs = fyd As = 391.8 b x fcd = 0. 6.NSd/2) = (4000/3. the truss-tie beam in Fig.18 is relative to the transfer in the plane π1: compression: tension: for each tied pile: A’ = (MSd/3.00 . S&T model in the plane π1.18.00 .3·4248 = 1662242 N = 1662 kN NSd = 0.00 + NSd/2) = (4000/3.

2° = 154 kN Fig.5° T13 = A = 1167 kN T14 = A cot θ13 = 1167 cot 44.5° = 1188 kN T15 = B cot θ13 = 167 cot 44.5° θ12 = arctg (1300 / 600) = 65. θ13 = arctg (1300 / 1325) = 44.2° T10 = Fs = 1662 kN T11 = A’ cot θ11 = 2333 cot 26.3 Tension rod 10 (plinth tied reinforcement) 11 12 13 14 15 16 Force (kN) 1662 1544 154 1167 1188 170 167 Required reinforcement (mm2) 4248 3946 394 2982 3036 434 427 Bars 8φ26 9φ24 1φ12/20 (6φ12) stirrups 10φ20 7φ24 1φ12/20 (5φ12) Pile reinforcement Table of Content .5° = 170 kN T16 = B = 167 kN design of tension rods Table 6.19 Trusses in plan π2 and in plan π3.EC2 – worked examples 6-30 θ11 = arctg (1300 / 860) = 56.5° = 1544 kN T12 = B’ cot θ12 = 333 cot 65. 6.

20. the compressive stresses are very small as a consequence of the piles section large area. Nodes verification Concentrated nodes are only present at the pedestal pile and on the piles top. Schematic placement of reinforcements.64 N mm 2 2 2 π⋅r π ⋅ 400 Table of Content .: σc = A 2333000 = = 4. 6.EC2 – worked examples 6-31 Fig. In these latter.

65 N / mm 0.16 N / mm 2 = k3 cd ⎜ ⎟ 0.21 Variable height beam Materials: concrete C30/37 fck = 30 MPa.85 ⎝ 250 ⎠ σ1Rd. 6.30 ⎞ 17 = 13.5 f yk 1.96 N / mm 0.13 Variable height beam [EC2 clause 6.EC2 – worked examples 6-32 EXAMPLE 6.85 ⋅ 30 = = 17 N / mm 2 .5] Geometry: length 22500 mm.85 ⎝ 250 ⎠ ⎛ f ck ⎞ ⎜ 1⎟ ⎝ 250 ⎠ f = 0.5 1.max loads F = 1200 kN (the own weight of the beam is negligible) Table of Content .15 Nodes compressive resistance: compressed nodes (EC2 eq.85 250 ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ f ck ⎞ ⎜1⎟ 250 ⎠ ⎛ 30 ⎞ 2 = k2 ⎝ f cd = ⎜1⎟ 17 = 14. rectangular section 300 x 3500 mm and 300 x 2000 mm Fig.85f ck 0.3 N / mm 2 1. 6. 1.18 ⎜ 1⎟ 17 = 17.max tied-compressed nodes with tension rods in different directions σ 3Rd.60) ⎛ f ck ⎞ ⎜1⎟ 250 ⎠ ⎛ 30 ⎞ 2 = k1 ⎝ f cd = 1. steel B450C fyk = 450 MPa f cd = f yd = 0.max tied-compressed nodes with tension rods in one direction σ 2Rd.88 ⎛1.15 = 450 = 391.

23 Shear and bending moment diagrams.22 Identification of B and D regions.6⋅109 Nmm Fig.6·109 7752000·x – 1632·x2 = 3. rotational equilibrium: fcd 0.4 x) = 3.4 x) = 3.8·522·300 = 2129760 N = 2130 kN Table of Content .8·x·b·(d – 0. while the remaining part of the beam is composed of D type regions.EC2 – worked examples 6-33 strut&tie model identification Beam partitioning in two regions B and D The region standing on the middle section is a continuity region (B). 6. Stresses evaluation for the bars of the S&T model Tmax = 1200 kN Mmax = 1200 ⋅ 3. The boundary conditions for the stress in the region B.8·x·300·(1900 – 0. Fig.8·x·b = 17·0.00 = 3600 kNm = 3. 6.6 109 ⇒ x = 522 mm C = fcd 0.6·109 17·0. Calculation of stresses in the region B The stress-block diagram is used for the concrete compressive stresses distribution.

Strut and tie model.41° . 6. 6. 1500 Table of Content . Fig.26.25 shows the load paths characterized by Schlaich in the strut&tie model identification.26. The strut C2 tilting is 3190 θ = arctg = 46.76° 3000 while the strut C4 tilting is 1690 θ1 = arctg = 48.25 Load paths.EC2 – worked examples 6-34 Identification of boundary stresses in the region D Fig. shown in Fig. strut&tie model Fig. 6. 6. 6.24 Reactions and boundary stresses in the region D. Fig.

4 C1 T1 C2 T3 T2 C3 Floop C4 C5 See stresses evaluation in the region B T1=C1 C2 = F/sin θ (Node A vertical equilibrium) T3 = C2 cos θ (Node A horizontal equilibrium.50 = 3390 mm2) 10 φ 20 = 3142 mm2 Verification of nodes Node A (left support) Fig.3 = 2883 mm2 on 1.max = 14.) C3 = C2 cos θ = T3 (Node B horizontal equil.128·106/391. and not less than 150 mm2/m.13·10 /391.3 = 2883 mm2 on two layers 6 2 18 φ 20 = 5655 mm2 stirrups φ 12 / 10” 2 legs = 2260 mm2/m (2260 ⋅ 1.5 T1 T2 T3 As = 2.128·106/391.61)-EC2] σ2Rd.) T2 = T3.7 suggests that the minimum reinforcement for the wall beams is the 0. T2 and T3.96 N/mm2 Table of Content .10 % ⋅ 300 ⋅ 1000 = 300 mm2/m e di 150 mm2/m) are used.) 2130 kN 2130 kN 1647 kN 1128 kN 1128 kN 1128 kN 1002 kN 1509 kN 1595 kN Steel tension rods design EC2 point 9. The following table reports the evaluation for the reinforcement area required for the three tension bars T1. and it has to be disposed on both sides of the structural member and in both directions. Table 6.EC2 – worked examples 6-35 The following table reports the value for the stresses in the different beam elements.50 m length As = 1.10 % of the concrete area. tied-compressed nodes with tension rods in one direction [(6. Table 6. 6.3 = 5443 mm As = 1.) Floop = C1 – C3 C4 = Floop/cos θ C 5 = T2 ⋅ 2 ( Node C vertical equil. because C5 is 45° tilted (node C equil. Bars φ 12 / 20” (=565 mm2/m > 0.27 Node A.

65 N / mm 2 300 ⋅ 522 300 ⋅ 522 load plate dimensions: 1.max = 17.2 ⋅106 = 80214 mm 2 14.93 N / mm 2 ≤ 14.647 ⋅106 σ c2 = = 13.2 ⋅106 a* ≥ = 227 mm 300 ⋅17.65 a 300 x 300 mm plate is used Strut verification Table of Content .96 N / mm 2 300 ⋅ 394 Node B Compressed nodes σ1Rd.EC2 – worked examples 6-36 Loading plate area: A≥ Fc1 σ 2Rd.76° + 150 cos 46. this last choice is adopted.128 ⋅106 = = 7.647 ⋅106 σ c2 = = 17. a3 = 522 mm (coincident with the depth of the neutral axis in the region B) σ c3 = C3 1.96 a 300 x 300 mm plate (A = 90000 mm2) is used the reinforcement for the tension rod T3 is loaded on two layers (Fig. or an increase of the plate length).max = 1.28 Node B.05 N / mm 2 > 14.27): u = 150 mm a1 = 300 mm a2 = 300 sin 46.65 N/mm2 Fig.76° = 291 + 103 = 394 mm 1.2 N / mm 2 ≤ 17. and the length is increased from 300 to 400 mm: a2 = 400 sin 46. 6. 6.76° = 219 + 103 = 322 mm 1.76° + 150 cos 46.96 N / mm 2 300 ⋅ 322 u has to be higher (it is mandatory a reinforcement on more than two layers.

25·C2 = 0. in this way the maximal stresses are in the nodes. that is as = 1130 mm2/m) is enough to carry the transversal stresses. for the reinforcement required to carry this stress: As = 412000 = 1053 mm 2 .EC2 – worked examples 6-37 The compressive range for each strut (only exception. and then.25 1647 = 412 kN. Table of Content .3 then the minimum reinforcement (1 φ 12 / 20” on both sides and in both directions. The transversal stress for the split of the most stressed strut (C2) is: Ts ≤ 0. the strut C1. 391. which stress has been verified before in the forces evaluation for the region B) can spread between the two ends.

In this case there is a partial discontinuity. 1.85 ⋅ 30 = = 17 N / mm 2 .14.3 N / mm 2 .5] 3500 kN load on a 800x500 rectangular column by a 300x250 mm cushion Materials: concrete steel f cd = f yd = C30/37 B450C fck = 30 MPa.EC2 – worked examples 6-38 EXAMPLE 6.85f ck 0.0 f cd A c0 = 3. 1. fyk = 450 MPa Es = 200000 MPa 0. because the strut width (500 mm) is lower than the distribution height (600 mm). the 3500kN load results to be lower than FRdu .7(1)P-EC2] sends the reader to paragraph [(6.5 1. 3500 kN concentrated load [EC2 clause 6.0 ⋅17 ⋅ 75000 = 3.15 = 450 = 391.7(4)-EC2] recommends the use of a suitable reinforcement capable to sustain the transversal shrinkage stresses and point [6. then: a = 250 mm Table of Content . just as in this example.825 ⋅106 N It is worth to observe that the FRdu upper limit corresponds to the the maximal value Ac1 = 3 Ac0 for the load distribution area.5 f yk 1. Reinforcement design Point [6.5)EC2] to analyse this topic.15 loading area Ac0 = 300·250 = 75000 mm2 dimensions of the load distribution area d2 ≤ 3 d1 = 3·300 = 900 mm b2 ≤ 3 b1 = 3·250 = 750 mm maximal load distribution area Ac1 = 900·750 = 675000 mm2 load distribution height h ≥ (b 2 − b1 ) = 750 − 250 = 500 mm h ≥ (d 2 − d 1 ) = 900 − 300 = 600 mm ⇒ h = 600 mm Ultimate compressive stress FRdu = A c0 f cd A c1 / A c0 = 75000 ⋅17 ⋅ 675000 / 75000 = 3825 kN ≤ ≤ 3.

15 bars are required for a total area of: As = 15 ⋅ 78.3 T= the steel area required to carry T is: As ≥ using 10 mm diameter bars.EC2 – worked examples 6-39 b = 500 mm F b − a 3500 500 − 250 = = 437. Table of Content .5 kN 4 b 4 500 T 437500 = = 1118 mm 2 f yd 391.5 = 1178 mm2.

Member Design . table 4.1 – 6.118) for fatigue reasons.2 – 7.40 m width.29 and 6.29 Plan view of the structure and supports’ scheme 1 Example taken from example 7. Part 2.2 [EC2 clause 5.2 “slabs” by prof.0 m.2 – 7. “Structural Concrete Textbook on Behaviour. in the middle. The slab is designed in category A (see Eurocode 2. 6.3 – 7.10 – 6. bridge design. Mancini. See too EN 1992-2 Eurocode 2.30 represent the principal geometric dimension of the slab bridge and supports’ scheme.1 Description of the structure The design example proposed in this section is related to a railway bridge deck made up by a continuous slab on three spans with two orders of prestressing tendons (longitudinal and transverse prestressing).15 Slabs1.Maintenance.EC2 – worked examples 6-40 EXAMPLE 6. Assessment and Repair .0 m width. ISBN 9782-88394-043-7. Fig.60 m with two side-walks of 1. 3: Durability . Design and Performance Vol.s 6. December 1999). FIB Bullettin n°3. Fig. two track spacing of 5.6 m.4] As two dimensional member a prestressed concrete slab is analysed: the actual structure is described in the following point.Practical aspects” Manual .50 m for a central zone 7. two ballast retaining walls and. 6. The deck rests on abutments and circular piers and has a overall breadth of 13.Design for Fire Resistance . 2 Table of Content .textbook (292 pages. whilst is tapered towards the extremity with a final height of 0. The slab presents a constant thickness of 1.15.

1 MPa. fcd = 23.7·103 MPa.1% proofstress total elongation at maximum load: modulus of elasticity: − Reinforcing steel. Ec = 29. Es = 200.30 Geometric dimensions of bridge cross section Material properties The following materials properties have been considered: − Concrete Grade 35: compressive design strength: compressive resistance for uncracked zones: compressive resistance for cracked zones: mean value of tensile strength: modulus of elasticity: shear modulus: Poisson ratio: − Prestressing steel.23 MPa.1k = 1600 MPa εpu > 35‰ Ep = 195. G = 12.0 MPa. fyk = 500.3 MPa. Grade 500: design strength: modulus of elasticity: Concrete cover fck = 35. as a consequence the nominal value for concrete cover results: cnom = cmin + 10 = 25 + 10 = 35 mm adopted in the calculations.0 MPa. 6. fyd = 434.0·103 MPa. which should be added to the tolerance value of 10mm. fp0. As environmental condition an Exposure Class 2 may be considered (Humid environment with frost: exterior components exposed to frost). The minimum concrete cover for Class 2 is equal to 25 mm.4·103 MPa ν = 0.8 MPa.EC2 – worked examples 6-41 Fig. (strands φ 0.0·103 MPa.6”): 0. fctm = 3. fcd1 = 17. Table of Content .0 MPa.2 fptk = 1800 MPa. fcd2 = 12.

Fig. 6.2 Structural model To evaluate the internal actions on the structure a linear FEM analysis has been performed adopting shell elements to represent the reinforced slab.32 Plan of FEM model and considered elements The adopted shell elements are oriented with the following guidelines: − local axis 2 is oriented as global axis Y of the deck. − local axis 1 is oriented as global axis Z of the deck. Positive forces for FEM program output are reported in Fig. 6.15. 6.31 Transverse view of FEM model Fig.EC2 – worked examples 6-42 6.31 and 6. In Fig 6. The thickness of shell elements has been assumed constant for the inner zone of the slab and stepped to fashion the tapered extremity. this kind of element takes account of all the slab and plate components as well as the out-of-plane shear forces. − local axis 3 is oriented in the opposite direction of global axis X of the deck.33: Table of Content .32 the FEM model is sketched and the different thick of the element is reported too.

34 shows a symbolic notation for the external restraints with the nodes involved. or the abutment front wall. 6. 6.EC2 – worked examples 6-43 Fig. 6. it may be assumed that the pier.33 Positive actions for FEM elements Restraints The external restraints have been introduced in the FEM model considering their real geometric dimensions. For the x and y directions. Fig. few nodes have been restrained by means of spring elements in order to represent only an individual restraint or support. thus.34 External restraints on the FEM model The elastic constant of the spring restraining elements is calculated to have the same stiffness of the substructure (abutments or piers) on which the slab is rested. Fig. behaves like a Table of Content .

39 cm2.tot 10 kN/m 178.80 4. The initial tensile stress of tendon is: σpo.66 2.61 10. The number of tendons is 39 for the longitudinal direction and 64 for the transverse one.EC2 – worked examples 6-44 single column fixed at the base and free at his top. the intrinsic stiffness of pot-bearing is assumed. For the vertical direction.6” having an area of 1. so that the relevant Kx/y stiffness is valuable as: Kx / y = 3E I H3 where E is the Young modulus.1k = 0.74 2. Table of Content .85 fp 0.02 6 Table 6.6 by the number of element representing the restraint or the supports.61 11.55 6 Ky.6 .85 × 1600 = 1360 MPa. being symmetrically disposed.02 11.6 Stiffness for restraining elements It can be noticed that the previous values are referred to the overall stiffness of the restraint.tot 10 kN/m 10. Each tendon is built up with 19 strands φ 0. 6.78 6 Kz.max = 0. Location Abutment A Pier P1 Pier P2 Abutment B Kx. Fig. For the sake of simplicity the calculus of the relevant stiffness is omitted and the final values of the spring constants are reported in table 6.35 reports tendon’s layout for half deck. thus the elastic constant of any individual spring element may be obtained dividing the K values of table 6. considering the substructure vertical behaviour as rigid. I the inertia and H the height of the column. Prestressing forces Two orders of prestressing tendons are arranged (in longitudinal and transverse directions) in order to avoid any tensile stress in concrete at service (required by railway code).tot 10 kN/m 9.

19 k = 0. it is possible to introduce it by means of two inclined forces at anchorages (representing actions at the extremity) and of a system of equivalent loads along tendon’s profile (representing tendon curvature and losses due to friction): these actions per tendon. should be applied consistently at the nodes of FEM model. Considering prestressing as an external load. unintentional angular deviation. Prestressing has to be introduced in the FEM model in order to calculated the hyperstatic actions that arise in the structural scheme.max ⋅ e-μ(α + k x) with: μ = 0. Table of Content .EC2 – worked examples 6-45 Fig. The equivalent loads may be calculated subdividing the tendon profile into elementary segments and evaluating the internal action able to equilibrate the external one due to end actions deriving by the prestressing. 6.35 Plan and principal section of tendon layout Immediate losses of prestressing due to friction have been evaluated by means of the following expression: σpo (x) = σpo.01 rad/m coefficient of friction between the tendons and their sheathing.

shall be introduced in the FEM model. furthermore.37 may be followed. Finally. 6. depending on whether the right or the left segment is considered. these forces cancel out themselves with the exception at anchorages. the indications of Fig. in general. if the inclination of the cable changes from θ1 to θ2 while the prestress force changes from P1 to P2 due to friction. one has to consider the transverse position of the tendon that. If beam elements are used.36 Effect of prestressing on a segment and equivalent loads Fig. As a simple rule. consequently the segment extremities may be placed indifferently at nodes or at the middle of the element. do not coincide with a nodal alignment.EC2 – worked examples 6-46 Fig. the equilibrating vertical and horizontal forces in the i-segment result: Fv.i = P2 cos θ2 P1 cos θ1 Table of Content . Fh. It can be notice that the forces at the end of each segment extremity are the same with opposite signs.i = P2 sin θ2 P1 sin θ1 while the balancing moment turns out: Mi = (P2 cos θ2 e2 P1 cos θ1 e1 ) (P2 sin θ2 P1 sin θ1 ) a/2 The above procedure should be repeated for all the segments. due to the two-dimensional scheme. only nodal forces can be considered so that it is necessary to place segment extremities within two sequential nodes. the forces at the extremity of the cable plus the equilibrating system for each segment. The choice of the position of the elementary segments is relative to the kind of element adopted in the FEM model. 6.36 represents the forces acting on a segment of concrete due to a curved prestressing tendon. it is possible to introduce a point load (or moment) whether along the element body or at nodes. for each tendon. . With shell elements. 6.

8 φ ( t ∞ .: corresponding to a life-time of 70 years.t0) : shrinkage strain at time t∞ calculated from: εcs (t∞ . c + s + r = ε cs ( t ∞ .127 × 10-3 where: εcso = εs ( fcm) × βRH with: εs ( fcm) = [160 + 10 βsc (9 fcm /fcmo)] × 10-6 = 0.37 Transverse distribution of prestressing Time-dependent prestressing losses Time-dependent losses of prestress may be evaluated by means of the following equation: Δσ p .000395 fcm = mean compressive strenght of concrete at 28 days = fck + 8 MPa.EC2 – worked examples 6-47 Fig. t 0 ))⎥ ⎢⎜1 + A c ⎣⎝ Ic ⎠ ⎦ where: Δσp. βsc = 5 for rapid hardening cements. 6. fcmo = 10 MPa.t0) = 0. between time t0 and time t∞.t0) = εcs0 × βs (t∞ . age of concrete at prestressing time.55 ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = 1. εcs (t∞. ⎡ ⎛ RH ⎞ 3 ⎤ βRH = −1.035 ⋅ h 2 + t ∞ − t 0 Table of Content . t 0 ) Es + Δσ pr + α φ ( t ∞ .574 0.018.t0) = t∞ − t0 = 0. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ 100 ⎠ ⎦ RH = 70 % relative humidity of the ambient atmosphere.c+s+r : t0 = 28 days: loss of initial tendon stress due to creep and shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of steel. t 0 ) ( σ cg + σ cp 0 ) 1+ α ⎤ A p ⎡⎛ Ac 2 ⎞ zcp ⎟ (1 + 0. βs (t∞ . t∞ = 25550 ds.

38. u = 28640 mm perimeter of the member in contact with the atmosphere. t0) = 182.t0) = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ βH + t ∞ − t 0 ⎠ βH = 1.43×106 mm2 gross section of the beam. t0) and for φ(t∞ .598 with φRH = 1 + β( fcm) = β(t0) = 1 − RH 100 = 1. Δσpr : loss of prestressing due to relaxation of steel calculated for a reduced initial tensile stress of σp = σpgo 0. Ac = 17.281. φ (t∞. t0) = 1. at least for creep value. ρ1000h = is the relaxation after 1000 hours evaluated from Fig. φ (t∞ . = ρ1000h × 3.1 3 h 5.983 18 with [ ] h + 250 = 2155 > 1500 → 1500 .t0) = φ0 ×βc (t∞ . for t > 50 years ρt.62 × 10-6 in good aggrement with the previous one.19 = ρ1000h × 3 where ρt = is the relaxation after t hours. t0) may be evaluated: ε cs (t∞ .556.488 0. fcm fcmo 1 = 0. Table of Content .c+s+r (where σpgo is the effective initial stress in tendons due to dead load and prestressing) and evaluated as percentage by the following formula: ρt = ρ1000h ⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0 . the following values for εcs (t∞ .5 1 + (0.5754 If the improved prediction model of chapter 3 is used.3 Δσp.3 = 2.1 + t 0 0. 6.5708 where: φo = φRH × β( fcm) × β(t0) = 1.3 ⎛ t∞ − t0 ⎞ βc (t∞ .t0) : creep coefficient at time t∞ calculated from: φ (t∞.t0) = 1. 0.012 RH) = 0.2 0.EC2 – worked examples 6-48 h = (2Ac / u) = 1217 mm notional size of member.

EC2 – worked examples 6-49 Fig. As vertical train load the load model LM71 plus the load models SW (SW/0 and SW/2 respectively) have been adopted with an α coefficient of 1. stress on concrete at level of pretensioned steel due to prestressing. as percentage of initial steel tension. The effects of losses are taken into account with the same procedure used for the prestressing. inertia of concrete gross section. 6. : σcpo : α = Es/Ec: Ap : Ac : Ic : zcp : stress on concrete at level of pretensioned steel due to self weight and permanent load.1 may be obtained: Qvk = 1.6 = 199.15.2 Actions The external loads applied on the structure should be evaluated according to the provisions of Eurocode 1. turn out: longitudinal tendon: transverse tendon: 19% at anchorage and 14% at pier axis. area of prestressing steel at the considered level. lever arm between centroid of concrete gross section and prestressing steel. area of concrete gross section. 18% at anchorage and 12% at midspan. Time-dependent losses of prestressing should be calculated for each tendon along his profile so that a correct value may be used for each element.1.75 kN/m Table of Content . modulus of elasticity ratio.38 Relaxation losses in % at 1000 hours for Class 2 σc. the maximum value of prestressing losses. For the LM71. the 4 point loads have been reduced in an equivalent uniform load by smearing their characteristic value Qvk along the influence length so that a qvk.3 Traffic Load on Bridges. but as actions of opposite sign.6/1. As a reference.1 = 319.6 kN → qvk. 6.1×250×φdin = 319.

6. 6.41 Load model SW/2 The previous load model LM71.3 kN/m without any limitation in length.39 shows the LM71 arrangement adopted in the calculations. 6.1 × 80 × φdin → qvk. Fig. SW/0 and SW/2 have been introduced in the FEM analysis considering a spreading ratio of 4:1 in the ballast and of 1:1 in the concrete up to the middle plane of the slab.0 kN/m Fig. In the following as left track is denoted the track which has a positive value for the y co-ordinate. 6.40 and its characteristic value results: qvk = 1. 6.1 × 133 × φdin = 170.6.41 and its characteristic value results: qvk = 1. Fig.3 is: qvk = 1.162.3 kN/m Fig. The load model SW/0 is represented in Fig.39 Adopted load arrangement for LM71 load model The uniformly distributed load qvk according to Eurocode 1.1 × 150 × φdin = 174. Fig. being the dynamic factor equal to 1.EC2 – worked examples 6-50 where φdin . 6.2 = 102.42 shows which elements are involved by spreading effects. while right truck the other one.40 Load model SW/0 The load model SW/2 is represented in Fig. Table of Content . is evaluated below. therefore subjected to variable load.

should be considered in the analysis (as traction and braking. has been considered.5 = 136.5 m. an uniformly distributed load results: gballast = 0.162 L φ − 0. a limit value of tensile stress in tendon equal to 0. − STEP 5: Others permanent loads composed by. sleepers and ballast (waterproofing included) evaluated as a cover with a nominal height of 0. arising from variable loads. − STEP 4: Track load comprehensive of. centrifugal forces.8×1.04 m 3 3 Several other actions. in these calculations only the following actions have been considered (introduced in the mathematical model in different steps): − STEP 1: Self-weight of the structure: adopting a unit weight value of − STEP 2: Prestressing forces at time of tensioning.25 kN/m2 it turns out: = 25 kN/m3.) but. transverse gradient for drain water.33 + 27. assumed as a load of 1.16 + 0. rails.6×fptk after allowance for losses (t∞).3 = 27.8 kN/m. derailment. so that for a width of 9. differential temperature variation etc. for the sake of simplicity. 6. wind pressure.3 17.42 Spreading effects on FEM model and loaded elements The dynamic factor φ is calculated by means of the following expression (track with standard maintenance): φ3 = 2.8 m and a unit weight of γ = 18 kN/m3).73 = 1.3 as: Lφ = 1.EC2 – worked examples 6-51 Fig.8×9. Table of Content . − STEP 3: Prestressing forces after time-dependent losses: in the calculations.33 L1 + L2 + L3 = 1. according to the provisions of the applied Railway Code to avoid the risk of brittle failure due to stress corrosion.2 where Lφ is the determinant length defined in the Eurocode 1.75 + 17.

25 m2 and unit weight of 25 kN/m3) gwalls = 25×0. for each. 6.875 kN/m.44 SW/2 arrangement for Load Step 5 − STEP 7: Variable loads for minimum bending moment at pier P1 (x = 18.43 LM71 arrangement for Load Step 5 plus a SW/2 train on the right track with the following longitudinal arrangement: Fig. border curbs (with a cross section area of 0.43 m).25 = 6.25 kN/m ducts: gducts = 3 kN/m for each.25 kN/m noise barriers: gbarriers = 8. Fig. the applied load is a SW/0 model on the left track with the following longitudinal arrangement: Table of Content .25 = 6.EC2 – worked examples 6-52 gdrain = 1.00 kN/m for each. the applied load is a LM71 model on the left track with the following longitudinal arrangement: for each. 6.1 m2 and unit weight of 25 kN/m3): greinf beam = 25×0.5 = 11. − STEP 6: Variable loads for maximum bending moment on first span (x = 6. ballast retaining walls (with a cross section area of 0.25×9.18 m).

6. 6.47 LM71 arrangement for Load Step 7 plus a SW/2 train on the right track with the following longitudinal arrangement: Fig. 6. 6. the applied load is a LM71 model on the left track with the following longitudinal arrangement: Fig.EC2 – worked examples 6-53 Fig.305 m).45 SW/0 arrangement for Load Step 6 plus a SW/2 train on the right track with the following longitudinal arrangement: Fig.46 SW/2 arrangement for Load Step 6 − STEP 8: Variable loads for max bending moment on second span (x = 32.48 SW/2 arrangement for Load Step 7 Table of Content .

Table of Content .9 for favourable effect. ballast excluded. equal to 0. Qik γ1 γ2 γP γQ Ψ0i Ψ2i = characteristic value action due to of the other independent variable loads. = partial factor of variable loads equal to 1. = partial factor of self-weight and permanent loads.2 for unfavourable effect and 0.4 for unfavourable effect and 1.0 for favourable effect. = combination factor of variable loads for quasi-permanent combination at service.0 for favourable effect.5 for unfavourable effect and 0.0 for favourable effect.8. = combination factor of variable loads equal to 0. G2k = characteristic value of action due to ballast self-weight. equal to 1.3 Combinations of Actions The design values for the external actions have been calculated adopting the combinations of loads specified in the applied Code as follow indicated in the symbolic presentation: − Ultimate Limit State ⎧ ⎛ ⎞⎫ Sd = S ⎨γ G1 G1k + γ G 2 G 2 k + γ p Pk + γ Q ⎜ Q1k + ∑ Ψoi Q ik ⎟ ⎬ ⎝ ⎠⎭ i >1 ⎩ − Serviceability Limit State: rare combination ⎧ ⎫ Sd = S ⎨G1k + G 2 k + Pk + Q1k + ∑ Ψoi Q ik ⎬ i >1 ⎩ ⎭ − Serviceability Limit State: quasi-permanent combination ⎧ ⎫ Sd = S ⎨G1k + G 2 k + Pk + ∑ Ψ2 i Q ik ⎬ i >1 ⎩ ⎭ where: G1k = characteristic value of the action due to self-weight and permanent loads.15. = partial factor of ballast load equal to 1. Q1k = characteristic value of action due to the base variable action. Pk = characteristic value of action due to prestress. ballast excluded.8 for unfavourable effect and 1. = partial factor of prestress load equal to 1.6.EC2 – worked examples 6-54 6.

σ y. b = σ x. t / b = σ 22. m22 .32 one obtains: Table 6. m33 . b = σ 33. no tensile stress should be present in the extreme fibres of the slab and the maximum compressive stress should not exceed the limit value of 0. t = σ 23.5 1.5 0. t / b cos 2 (θ1 ) + σ 33. t / b sin ( 2 θ1 ) σ 2.963 1. For the sake of simplicity. b = where the subscripts t and b indicate respectively top and bottom fibre. t = σ 22. t = σ x. n23 . . t / b sin 2 (θ 2 ) + σ 23. n33 . .8 Table of Content .6. − stress limitation at service.6 × fck = 21 MPa.EC2 – worked examples 6-55 6. the value of n22 . The external actions are calculated adopting the rare combination with only the load steps 1 and 2. From FEM analysis. − deformation. 648 93 320 589 h [m] n 22 [kN/m] n 33 [kN/m] n 23 6 75 1 -67 m 22 -225 743 -45 653 m 33 -2176 456 -812 1945 m 23 0 -51 0 20 [kN/m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m] 1. as subjected to the higher stress level.7 Elem. t / b sin 2 ( θ1 ) + σ 23. b = n22 6 m22 + 2 h h n33 6 m33 + 2 h h n23 6 m23 + 2 h h σ xy. − crack widths. b = σ 22. m23 are evaluated so that it results: σ y. t / b = σ 22. θ2 = θ1 + 90° and the principal stresses result: σ1. Verification at tensioning At time of tensioning.4 Verification at Serviceability Limit State The verification at serviceability limit state is relative to the following conditions: − stress limitation at tensioning. t = n22 6 m22 − 2 h h n33 6 m33 − 2 h h n23 6 m23 − 2 h h . t / b sin ( 2 θ 2 ) Referring to the elements marked in Fig. The angles of principal directions (for which is σxy = 0) are: θ1 = ⎛ 2 σ 23 ⎞ 1 a tan ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ σ 22 − σ 33 ⎠ . t = σ xy. t / b cos 2 (θ 2 ) + σ 33. one reports the verification related to the four elements showed in fig ii.5 -3091 -7806 -3516 -4280 -13159 -8526 -10418 -10007 Table 6. b = σ 23. t = σ 33.15.

10 Elem.69 σ2.90 -9.t [°] σ1.86 -4.09 -2.23 σ2.00 MPa Compressive stress = 0.36 σ2.59 σ2. 6.5 -2238 -6284 -2604 -3791 -10270 -6033 -7479 -8243 Verification of Serviceability Limit State of Cracking The characteristic crack width should be calculated according to the provisions of Model Table of Content .b -8.b -10.32.41 -5.t -1.85 [Mpa] [Mpa] [Mpa] [Mpa] [Mpa] [Mpa] [Mpa] [Mpa] [Mpa] [Mpa] 0. One reports the results relative to the four elements indicated in Fig. under service load conditions.77 which not exceed the limit one.89 σ1.11 σ2.75 -0.86 -4.01 -0.89 -10.00 MPa Applying to the structural FEM model the variable loads and combining them according to the railway code provisions.57 -7.80 -4.b -2. 648 93 320 589 h [m] n 22 [kN/m] n 33 [kN/m] n 23 3 4 7 -55 m 22 -226 577 7 -689 m 33 -615 -133 1279 -1275 m 23 4 -62 -9 -26 σ1.29 88.99 90.t -5.25 0.b [°] 6-56 θ2.72 -4.00 0.15 0. one obtain the maxima stress values at top and bottom fibres that have to be lower than the corresponding limit.46 -1.05 -2.11 σ33.11 -1.t -0. The limit stresses for concrete are: Quasi-permanent combination: Rare combination: Compressive stress = 0.t [°] θ2.97 -11.66 -3.21 [kN/m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m] [Mpa] [Mpa] [Mpa] [Mpa] 1.76 -1.58 -8.58 -5.71 -0.78 -11. 648 93 320 589 h [m] n 22 [kN/m] n 33 [kN/m] n 23 4 50 2 -3 m 22 -236 589 81 -151 m 33 -1576 108 233 -396 m 23 4 -37 4 0 σ1.98 -10.00 -0.t -0.65 -2.b -14.10 1.00 0.83 -9.EC2 – worked examples σ22. concrete extreme stresses do not exceed the corresponding limit.66 -3.48 σ23.6 × fck = 21.09 [kN/m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m] [Mpa] [Mpa] [Mpa] [Mpa] 1.01 89.b [°] θ1.58 -1.b -2.00 0.30 -2. Quasi-Permanent Combination Table 6.98 0.5 0.86 σ23.02 -1.963 1.b -14.24 -2.5 0.62 -6.4 × fck = 14.48 -18.14 -2.58 -5.49 -7.t θ1.27 -2.b 0. Verification of limit state of stress limitation in concrete The serviceability limit states checked in this section are relative only to stress limitation.40 -2.32 σ1.48 σ1.11 -1.46 -13.02 89.22 -4.46 -1.5 -2420 -6233 -3539 -2736 -10152 -6347 -7855 -7900 Rare Combination Table 6. ensuring that.963 1.29 -1.9 Elem.48 95.42 σ2.21 -5.01 σ22. for the quasi-permanent and the rare combinations.97 -5.t -2.t -1.b -2.51 -8.b -2.15 -4.17 0.59 σ33.78 -11.5 1.85 108.17 89.22 -4.t -2.77 89.97 -12.91 -2.99 0.31 -2.46 -12.t -2.37 -5.5 1.

3 as a function of the span length and the train speed.1 for continuous structures. The limit values δ/L (deflection/span Length) are given by the Eurocode 1. the maximum stress results tensile.75 m (central span) and a train speed over 280 km/h. Table of Content . analysing the resistance of the critical regions. calculated by the FEM analysis. placed in the middle of the of the central span. the structure remains entirely compressed. the following limit may be achieved: δ lim 11 . i.5 Verification of Ultimate Limit State Verification at ULS should regard the structure as a whole and its component parts. it results: δ 1 = L 1600 that should be multiplied by a factor 1.e.EC2 – worked examples 6-57 Code 90. no specific reinforcement is required and it is sufficient to arrange the minimum amount of reinforcing steel. so that the elastic value.75 5045 and it results lower than the corresponding limit. calculated by the FEM model. It has be notice. Having loaded the right track with a LM71 load model plus dynamic allowance. is relative to the only live load. has to be considered.15. The limit value for maximum vertical deflection is calculated considering a span length of 27. − spalling force at anchorage of prestressing tendon. It can be notice that no further calculation is requested because. that from stress calculation neither for the quasipermanent combination nor in the rare one. 1 = = L 1600 1455 As a consequence of the transient nature of this event. due to prestressing effect. Therefore. Deformation Deformation limitation is carried out to control the maximum vertical deflection for passengers comfort. according to the provisions of the Code.: − bursting force at anchorage of prestressing tendon. 6.0055 1 = = L 27. reading the maximum deflection in correspondence of the track axis. In addition to the analysis of ULS of several shell element under the relevant combination of internal actions. however. in this example some case of detailing are investigated. − punching under support plate. the check shall be performed loading only one track. the elastic deflection. able to ensure a ductile behaviour in case of corrosion of prestressing steel. the obtained δ/L value is: δ effective 0. finally.

y = 22.y ( m 22 ) -239 499 38 -1950 m Sd.11 Elem.49): Table 6. 649 Internal actions at ULS in a shell elements Let us consider in this section only four elements on the whole (see Fig.y ( n 22 ) [kN/m] n Sd. Fig.x = As.32). In fact. turns out (on brackets the notation of Fig.07 m from the external face.EC2 – worked examples 6-58 Slab ultimate limit state Verification at ULS has been performed adopting the sandwich model for shell elements. specific shear reinforcement shall be arranged (vertical stirrups) and diagonal compressive forces in concrete shall be checked. If the is not satisfied. on the principal shear direction ϕo (such that tan ϕ 0 = v y v x ).xy ( m 23 ) -14 -75 -13 -41 v Sd.5 1.12 Table of Content .3 of MC 90 and ρ = ρx cos2ϕ o + ρ y sin 2ϕ o .49.4. For the investigated elements.963 1. one may design the inner layer checking if specific shear reinforcement is required or not. it is possible to calculate the principal shear vo2 = vx2 + vy2 .2.x ( n 33 ) [kN/m] n Sd.x ( m 33 ) 470 -671 3241 -4274 m Sd.5 0. and to check that it turn out: v0 < vRd1 = 012 ξ (100 ρ fck ) . The external actions are derived from FEM model using the load step for trains which leads to the maximum values and combining the results according to the relevant combination formula. and having set a minimum amount of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement in the bottom and top layer of As.6. 6.6 cm2/m placed at 0. The internal actions in a shell element at ULS are sketched in Fig. Table 6. h [m] n Sd. 13 d where vRd1 is specified in chapter 6. 6.5 -1779 -5746 -2130 -3865 -9096 -4610 -5922 -7748 5 -63 10 -54 -6 89 20 -1124 -5 -150 47 -1095 As first step.y ( v 13 ) [kN/m] v Sd. the following table may be calculated for the elements considered. According to CEB Bulletin 223.xy ( n 23 ) [kN/m] m Sd.x ( v 12 ) [kN/m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m] [kNm/m] 648 93 320 589 1.

43 1.00158 1569 26.07 = 0.56 3509 13860 763.00253 174 45. i = n xy ⎞ z − yi m xy ⎛ 1 v x v y + +⎜ cot θ⎟ z z ⎝ 2 v0 ⎠ where terms on brackets have be summed if shear reinforcement is required. 6.5 with variation of slab components due to vx and vy (i. 648 93 320 589 d [m] 6-59 ρo [-] ϕo [°] vo 7 51 v Rd1 417 327 417 417 θ [°] F Scw - F Rcw - As/s2 2 2 n xc 0.0 0.43 51.0 n xyc 0.0 0.00158 23. 6.0 0.s = n xy ⎞ z − ys m xy ⎛ 1 v x v y − +⎜ cot θ⎟ z z ⎝ 2 v0 ⎠ vSd .0 0.56 26.56 26.e.18 0. i = n x ⎞ z − yi m x ⎛ 1 v 2 x − +⎜ cot θ⎟ z z ⎝ 2 v0 ⎠ n Sdy.14 0.0 0.EC2 – worked examples Elem.0 0. nyc and nxyc ) only for element number 589. In the design Table of Content .50 Internal forces in the different layers n Sdx . The outer layers should be designed supposing an initial thickness for both layers not lesser than twice the concrete cover evaluated at the centroid of reinforcement.9 805.i 2 ⎞ z − yi m y ⎛ 1 v y = ny − +⎜ cot θ⎟ z z ⎝ 2 v0 ⎠ vSd .76 0.43 1. nxc . internal lever arm z and in plane actions may be evaluated for the outer layers of each element referring to Fig.56 14.50 and by means of the following equations: Fig.0 n yc 0.77 0.00158 26.s = n x ⎞ z − ys m x ⎛ 1 v 2 x + +⎜ cot θ⎟ z z ⎝ 2 v0 ⎠ n Sdx .14 m so that.893 -30.0 [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [cm /m ] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] 1.6 784.0 0. One assumes: ts = ti = 2×0.s 2 ⎞ z − ys m y ⎛ 1 v y = ny + +⎜ cot θ⎟ z z ⎝ 2 v0 ⎠ n Sdy.

the reinforcement areas may be calculated as: A sx = nRdx f yd .4 [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] 1.360 307.s vSd.8 -1037.8 59.9 At this stage each layer may be designed by applying the following equations (θ = 45°): σc t = v Sd ≤ fcd 2 t sin θ cos θ safety verification on concrete side required resistance along x direction required resistance along y direction nRdx = nSdx + vSd cot θ nRdy = nSdy + v Sd cot θ from which.i n Sdx.412 0. in this case the verification is performed along the principal compression direction in the concrete subjected to biaxial compression and the checking equation is: σc t = n Sdx + n Sdy 2 + (n Sdx − n Sdy 4 ) 2 + v 2 ≤ f cd1 t Sd For the considered elements.680 1. a compression force is present along that direction and no reinforcement is required.1 -4202.2 14.2 0. 648 93 320 589 h [m] ts [m] ti [m] tc [m] ys [m] yi [m] z [m] n Sdy.5 -122.7 -6252.412 0.680 0.6 -1489.3 13.i vSd.1 -5344. one obtains: Table 6.13 Elem.7 0.140 0.360 -1093.140 0. if both the nRdx and nRdy are negative it is possible to omit the reinforcement in both the directions but. A sy = nRdy f yd If concrete strength requirement is not satisfied.823 -3479.683 0.5 1.140 0.140 1.7 -4.3 -2266.680 1.s n Sdy.3 -577. an increase layer thickness shall be provided until verification is met. so that a value of 45° for θ angle may be adopted.0 32.5 1. It can be notice that if nRdx or nRdy value are negative.7 -3120. in this case new values for the layer action having changed z value.140 0. if result satisfied.9 0.s [kN/m] n Sdx.680 0.6 726.0 -1065.5 0.220 0.680 0.3 787.140 0.14 Table of Content .140 1.220 0.360 -713. For the chosen elements it turns out: Table 6.220 0.140 1.963 0.EC2 – worked examples 6-60 procedure is convenient to reach the minimum amount of reinforcement.680 1.5 -4893.i -7.8 -2560.

190 0.0 0.553 0.2 0.s [kN/m] n Sdx.6 f cd1/2 -17.0 0.1 -17.07 m from the external surface of the slab in an eccentric position with respect to middle plane of the layer.i n Sdx.680 0. minima values should be adopted for Asx and Asy if no reinforcement areas are required.0 0.7 -2962.0 0.8 -3144.0 It can be notice that verification for concrete in compression is not satisfied for any layers except for element 589 top layer and element 320 bottom layer.6 0.s n Sdy.930 0.1 -17.0 25.16 Top Layer Design Elem.1 -17.960 0.8 -16. 648 93 320 589 σc [MPa] Bottom Layer Design Asx 2 f cd1/2 -17.0 0.9 -16.300 0.3 -17.140 0. 6.630 1.EC2 – worked examples Top Layer Design Elem.0 Of course.8 -5768.020 0.0 0.8 -129.220 0.1 Asy 2 Asx 0.0 0.0 0.0 18.240 0.3 16. 648 93 320 589 σc [MPa] 6-61 Bottom Layer Design Asx 2 f cd1/2 -17.7 0.0 0.0 -11.1 -17.430 0.8 f cd1/2 -17.4 0.1 -17.0 38.0 -24.5 -1465.230 -716.4 794.8 14.260 -1179.1 -17.5 -2157.1 -17.3 0.0 0. For element 589. the amount of reinforcement provided has to be changed to restore equilibrium conditions.i -8.i vSd.9 0.5 1.8 -5. the Asx and Asy value are required at the centroid of the layer.5 -7090.0 0.4 -45.5 [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] [kN/m] 1.7 870.1 -17.1 -17.4 -7.372 0.0 0.0 [kN/m] [cm /m] [cm /m] [MPa] [kN/m] [cm /m] [cm2/m] -35. whereas they are arranged at 0.0 0.5 0.963 0.215 708.758 -3588.1 Asy 2 Asx 0.8 0.1 -12.140 1.3 0.0 720.0 0.5 1.6 -5040.387 0. 648 93 320 589 h [m] ts [m] ti [m] tc [m] ys [m] yi [m] z [m] n Sdy.0 0.0 0.0 -4054. This variation may be assessed with the aid of the mechanism pictured in Fig.535 1.0 0.1 -950.580 0. an increasing of layer thickness is required and new values of plate actions are obtained: Table 6.51: Table of Content .5 66.680 1.0 Asy 2 σc -16.0 0. so.0 Asy 2 σc -30.s vSd.6 -6.0 0.15 Elem.9 -38.1 -17.1 -1062.600 0.6 -153.0 34.340 0.2 -11.0 0.8 -16.0 0. Thus.1 -12.0 -22.0 which lead to the following values: Table 6.0 [kN/m] [cm /m] [cm /m] [MPa] [kN/m] [cm /m] [cm2/m] -16.

2 -956.8 -2287.0 0.i ns For the investigated elements.6 -1399.1 -2242. Verification to Bursting Force For the calculation of the bursting force the symmetric prism analogy is used. 648 93 320 589 n s.y [kN/m] n s.17 Forces referred to tension steel level Elem.6 -3274.EC2 – worked examples 6-62 Fig.0 The previous procedure should be repeated for all the elements of the structural model finding the amount of reinforcement to provide in the slab. 6.8 -4063.s + nSd.y [kN/m] Top layer reinf Asy [cm /m] 2 Bottom layer reinf Asy [cm /m] 2 n i.5 -1070.0 34.0 0. the following areas have been detected.0 0.3 0.0 0. For the sake of simplicity.0 0.6 0.5 -5026.3 -6370.51 Shell element equilibrium in one direction with two reinforcement layers only The new forces acting on the reinforcements become: t ⎞ ⎞ ⎛t ⎛ nSd .3 -159. it is useful.0 0.0 0. to control the structural behaviour and for a best fitted reinforcement layout.0 -1163. i ⎜ i − bi′⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝2 ⎝ 2 ns = z ni = nSd.5 -3522.x [kN/m] Asx [cm /m] 2 Asx [cm2/m] -702.0 0.0 38.8 1503.0 0. Table of Content . to summarise the results in a visual map.0 0. s ⎜ h − s − bi′⎟ + nSd .x [kN/m] n i.3 1664. but transverse force due to bursting effect should be also calculated in the horizontal plane and for transverse prestressing too.0 -5752. Table 6. evaluating the height of the prism so that his centroid results coincident with the centroid of prestressing tendons.0 0. only the longitudinal direction of prestressing tendon is considered with respect to the vertical plane.0 0.

The design force per tendon has been evaluated by means of the following expression: FSd = f ptk 1800 Asp = (139 × 19) × 10 −3 = 4134 kN 115 . considering the lower level of tendon (first tensioned) the height of the prism results: hbs = 2×0.300 m distance between the centroid of tendons above section A-A to the centroid of the prism.43 m. 115 .EC2 – worked examples 6-63 Fig. 6.52. for end anchored tendon.6 = 1.075 m t2 = 0.6 kN zbs where: t1 = 0.2 m and his length. 6. The bursting force follows from the moment equilibrium along section A-A: Nbs = 0. Table of Content .5 ( n1 + n 2 ) t 2 − n1 t1 γ 1 FSd = 852. is: lbs = hbs = 1. and the most unfavourable situation occurs when a single tendon is tensioned.52 Geometric dimension for bursting calculation Checking situation is represented in Fig.2 m while the width follows from the possible enlargement of the anchor plate that may be assumed equal to 0. distance between the centroid of concrete stress block above section A-A to the centroid of the prism. corresponding to the transverse spacing of longitudinal lower tendons.

43 × 1. the extreme stresses at the end of prism length are calculated by means of the beam theory.e. 53 Bursting reinforcement arrangement Verification to spalling force The spalling force may be calculated with the equivalent prism analogy.35 m.e.1 numbers of tendons above and below section A-A.43 m and a height of 1. The length of the prism for end anchored tendon.50 ⎠ ⎪ +2. n2 γ1 =1. supplementary partial safety factor against overstressing by overpumping. As.(i. a section with a breadth of 0. Considering an eccentricity for upper prestressing tendon of 0. Thus. lsl = 1. may be found by the following: A s.40 m to 1.EC2 – worked examples 6-64 n1 . i. Thus the effective area on a meter length. in fact φ22/25×25 corresponds to 60.43 × 1. is placed at 0. bs 19.50 0. spalling effects arise if upper tendon are tensioned firstly (the eccentricity leads to tension stresses).428 m from slab bottom fibre (see Fig 54) and the moment for equilibrium turns out: Table of Content . is equal to the overall height of the section.56 MPa σ bott om ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ The section along which no shear force results. for a prestressing force FSd = 4134. furthermore. As for bursting verification.4) s×s b × lbs 3 that may be provided with ties having diameter of 22 mm and spacing both transversally and longitudinally of 250 mm (see Fig.5 may be assumed.50 m has to be verified for one tendon tensioning. only the longitudinal direction is considered.61 cm2 Bursting force shall be resisted by an area of reinforcement steel of: distributed within lbs/3 to lbs .20 − 0.38 MPa ⎪ ⎪ ∓ =⎨ = FSd ⎜ − ⎬ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 0.20 m) from the anchor plate.0 cm2/m2 2 0.bs = Nbs / fyd = 19. respectively: considering the anchor plate as rigid a value of 0. bs A s.35 × 6 ⎞ ⎧−15. from 0.61 = = = 57.0 kN they result (negative if compressive): σ top ⎫ ⎛ 1 0. Fig.50 m. 53).43 (1.82 cm2/m2 .

5× lsl and bsl = 0.81 kN Disregarding any concrete tensile resistance.EC2 – worked examples 6-65 M sl = 2 σ bott om × 0. Table of Content .43 × 10 3 = 33. the amount of reinforcement is: As = Nsl / fyd = 1.031 cm2 placed parallel to the end face in its close vicinity.214 2 × 0. the maximum spalling force turns out: Nsl = Msl / zsl = 44.61 kNm 3 Fig.43 m. 54 Calculation scheme for spalling Assuming zsl = 0.

EC2 – worked examples 6-66 Table of Content .

respectively with constant normal force or constant bending. fyk = 450 MPa.65 mm.45 ⋅ 30 −88. 7.1. The following data are given: fck =30 MPa.96 ⋅ 106 mm 3 . linearly changing M N. M0 = 400 kNm. can be written as N( −600) = −0. keep the section to the ultimate tension state under load. that is yn = h. Finally. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES – WORKED EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 7.1. Rectangular section. Fig.45. that. 7. we have d = 550 mm. h = 600 mm As = 6 ⋅ 314= 1884 mm2. or M. N. For this value it results 400 ⋅ 600 12 + 400 ⋅ 600 ⋅ ( 300 ) + 15 ⋅ 1884 ⎡50 2 + 550 2 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ + 300 e= 2 −400 ⋅ 600 2 + 15 ⋅ 1884( −600) 2 3 and then e =-120. β = 1 The boundary conditions from the first exercise set the neutral axis on the border of the bottom section. Considering Fig. c 2 ck σ c ( y = 0) = k 1fck b) σ ( y = d) = k f s 3 sk Then. e) N = N0 = -800 kN. evaluate the materials strains from the stresses c) N0 = -800 kN.1 Evaluation of service stresses [EC2 clause 7.EC2 – worked examples 7-1 SECTION 7.1.5m. assuming k2 = 0. yn The second condition in the first exercise. N associated to the three paths d) M/N = -0. with the boundary conditions σc ( y = h) = 0.96 ⋅ 106 Table of content . S* = −88. αe = 15. calculate the couples M. calculation of service stresses.2] Evaluate the normal compressive force and of the associated bending moment in the section of Figure 7. d’ = 50 mm. a) σ ( y = 0) = k f . f) M = M0 = 400 kNm.

3 mm.096 M0 =438.8⋅450⋅1884⋅(1-0.7 N = -0.59σs d − yn 550 − 235.8⋅450⋅1884⋅(1-0.263 ⋅ 106 σs = ' σs = 16.59) ⋅10-3 = -570.5·106/570.48·103 = .096N0 = -876.7/3-300)+0. M=N⋅e=-2001.457.48 kN M = (-0.7/2⋅(235.16kN.65) ⋅10-3 = 241.801.18MPa 272. M = 1. If we consider to change M.4 kNm.8 ⋅ 450 1+ 15 ⋅ 0. the ultimate tension state corresponds to the maximal tension admitted for concrete.EC2 – worked examples 7-2 and then N=-2001.80 kN. the stress is N= 1. S* = −13263 ⋅ 10 3 mm 3 yn and then the tensional state is σc = − 800 ⋅ 103 ( −272.6fck = = = 1.95 mm Considering the third exercise 400 3 2 2 y n + 15 ⋅ 1884 ⎡( 550 − y n ) + ( 50 − y n ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 400 −3 3 + y n = −200 e=− ⋅ 10 = −500 mm and 400 2 800 − y n + 15 ⋅ 1884 [600 − 2 ⋅ y n ] 2 this equation is iteratively solved: yn = 272.096 .6⋅30⋅400⋅235. Table of Content .6⋅30⋅400⋅235.16⋅(-120.71mm 0.42 ⋅ (550 − 272.3) ⋅ 15 = −201.7 = σs = −0. The tension stress postulated by the second exercise gives the following expression for the neutral axis yn = 1+ d k 3f yk α e k 2fck = 550 = 235.6 ⋅ 30 and the compressed steel tension and the stress components are ' σs = σs d '− y n 50 − 235. the tensional state change proportionally and we can state N M 0.3 Because the condition e = -500 mm implies that the neutral axis position is lower than the one previously evaluated assuming the maximal stresses for both materials.3 16.7/2+0.3) ⋅ 15 = 251. N keeping constant the eccentricity.42MPa −13. N0 M 0 σc Once the concrete ultimate compressive limit state is reached.42 ⋅ (50 − 272.59) ⋅250) ⋅10-6 = 457.49 kNm.07MPa 272.3) = −16.5 kNm e = .

57) ⋅ 250 ⎥ ⋅ 10 −6 = 442.22 ⋅ 106 mm 3 0.56 ⋅ 10 e== −553.51) ⋅ 15 = −218. the limit state condition for the concrete stress is N( − y n ) = −0.6 ⋅ fck ⋅ S yn 2 As M0 400 ⋅ 106 = = 22.6 ⋅ 30 the previous numeric form becomes 400 3 2 2 y n + 15 ⋅ 1884 ⎡( 550 − y n ) + ( 50 − y n ) ⎤ − 22.6 ⋅ fck 0.57MPa 262.6 ⋅ 30 800 ⋅ 103 Solving with respect to yn 2 y n + 60y n − 84795 = 0 y n = −30.51mm (50 − 262.51 ' σs = 0.EC2 – worked examples 7-3 Working with constant normal force (N = N0) the ultimate limit state for the concrete tension leads to N0 ( − y n ) = −0.6fck S* yn and I* yn S * yn and then e= M0 M 0 (y n ) = N 0.69MPa 262.252 + 84795 = 262.6 ⋅ 30 ⋅ ⋅⎜ − 300 ⎟ + 1884 ⋅ (295.69 + 218.51 ⎛ 262.6fck ⋅ S* yn − M0( yn ) h + yn = * 0.25 + 30.6 ⋅ 30 ⋅ and then 400 ⋅ 262.2mm 800 ⋅ 103 Keeping constant the bending moment (M = M0).51 ⎡ ⎤ ⎞ M = ⎢ −0.6fck S* yn and then − 400 2 y n + 15 ⋅ 1884 [600 − 2 ⋅ y n ] 2 −y n = 0.51 (550 − 262.51) σs = 0.56kNm 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 6 442.22 ⋅ 106 ⋅ y n ⎣ ⎦ 3 + y n = 300 400 2 y n + 15 ⋅ 1884 [600 − 2 ⋅ y n ] − 2 and iteratively solving Table of Content .6 ⋅ 30 ⋅ ⋅ 15 = 295.

67 kN 2 ⎣ ⎦ 400 ⋅ 395 ⎛ 395 ⎡ ⎤ ⎞ M = ⎢ −0.6 ⋅ 30 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 395 ⎡ ⎤ N = ⎢ −0.82 MPa 395 (550 − 395) σs = 0.34 kNm 2 ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ e=-240 mm Figure 7. Fig.2.95 MPa 395 ' σs = 0.82) ⋅ 250 ⎥ ⋅ 10 −6 = 400. On the other hand. 2B Table of Content . 7.6 ⋅ 30 ⋅ ⋅⎜ − 300 ⎟ + 1884 ⋅ (105. Results for different limit distributions of stresses.2 reports the results obtained in the evaluation in terms of forces and stresses. As a remark.45) and the other cases b) d) e) f) (k1=0.6 ⋅ 30 ⋅ ⋅ 15 = 105.82)⎥ = −1666.EC2 – worked examples 7-4 y n = 395 mm (50 − 395) ⋅ 15 = −235.95 + 235.95 + 235. just in the case c) the concrete tension limit state under load is not reached while in the case a)(k1=0. the tension ultimate state under load for tied steel is got just in the case b).65) respectively reach the tension ultimate states under load associated to non linear viscosity phenomena and minimal tension in the presence of particular combinations.6 ⋅ 30 ⋅ + 1884 ⋅ (105.

eff = 3.925·106 mm2 .6945 0 ρs. design of minimum reinforcement.1667 − 0. r2 = I/A =39.82·1010 mm4.section.00208 1 − 0. yG =809 mm. Wi = 7.EC2 – worked examples 7-5 EXAMPLE 7.65 (hw > 1m) The given statements imply: α s = 2 5 0 / 1 8 0 0 = 0 . It results also 1 − αs − αf = 0.65 ⋅ 3.6945 − 2(1 − 0.min = 0. I = 71. Consider the following data: fck = 45 MPa.3 with the following geometry: A = 1.1667 − 0. k =0.1 3 8 8 α f = 3 0 0 / 1 8 0 0 = 0 .01235 Case a) The application of cracking moment is associated to the neutral axis position yn = yG.4 ⎢1 − ⎥ (1 − 0.25·108 mm3.4860 > ξ 2 and for the web ⎡ 3 0. applied in the point P at 250 mm from the bottom border of the corresponding cracking moment.4494 ⎣ 4 ⎦ Table of Content . σs = 200 MPa.8 MPa.3.8/ 200 = 0. 7.01235 ⋅ 0. fct.2] Let’s consider the section in Figure 7.min = 0.1 6 6 7 β = 1 − αs − αf = 0.35·104 mm2 Fig.3.4494 ) = 0.4494 ) ⎤ ρs. and then ξ = 809/1800 = 0.2 Design of minimum reinforcement [EC2 clause 7. Box . Evaluate the minimum reinforcement into the bottom slab in the following cases: •Application of the first cracking moment Mcr •Application of an axial compressive force N = -6000 kN.4494 .

min = 0.00943 1 − 0.eff ⎥ Wi Wi ⎠ ⎣ A⎝ ⎦ and then: ⎡ 6000 ⋅ 103 ⎛ 741 ⋅ 1.min = 0. case (a).812 > ξ and it follows: ρs.4494) − 0. Minimum reinforcement.EC2 – worked examples 7-6 A s.00943 ⋅ 300 ⋅ 1500 = 4243mm 2 We use (14+14)φ14 mm equivalent to 4312 mm2.825 ⋅ 10 ⎝ ⎦ the eccentricity of the normal force in the presence of Mcr is then: e = −9585 ⋅ 10 3 6000 + 741 = −856 mm and the neutral axis position results from the relation Table of Content .825 ⋅ 106 ⎞ ⎤ −6 8 M cr = ⎢ 1+ ⎟ + 3. Case b) The cracking moment associated to the axial force N = -6000 kN. 45 2(1 − 0.min = 0.25 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 10 = 9585 kNm 6 ⎜ 8 7.1667 = 0.8 ⎥ 7. with eccentricity eN=1800809-250 = 741 mm derives from the relation ⎡ N⎛ ⎤ A ⎞ M cr = ⎢ − ⎜ 1 + e N ⎟ + fct . 7.4 Fig.4.4494 A s.00208 ⋅ 300 ⋅ 1800 = 1123 mm 2 this reinforcement has to be put in the web tied area with height over the bottom slab a = 1800 – 809 – 300 = 691 mm. Referring to the bottom slab we get 1 − 9 8 αf = 0. We use (5+5)φ12 mm equivalent to 1130 mm2.25 ⋅ 10 ⎠ ⎣ 1.01235 ⋅ 0. The reinforcement scheme is report in Figure 7.

5 Fig.00046 3 ⋅ 1.6945 − 2(1 − 0.01235 ⋅ 0.01235 ⋅ 0.7050) ⎣ ⎦ A s.8 we deduce: h* ⎡ 0. Minimum reinforcement.min = 0.min = 0.4 ⎢1 − ⎥ (1 − 0. The bars have to be located in the tied part of the web for an extension a = 1800-1269-300 = 231 mm over the bottom slab In the bottom slab we have: 1 − 9 8 αf = 0.00797 1 − 0.EC2 – worked examples 7-7 yn = yG − r2 39. ξ = 0.00046 ⋅ 300 ⋅ 1800 = 248 mm 2 We use 4 φ10 equivalent to 314 mm2. 3B Table of Content . 7.8(1 − 0.min = 0. with h = 1.00797 ⋅ 300 ⋅ 1500 = 3586 mm 2 We use (12+12)φ14 mm equivalent to 3692 mm2.35 ⋅ 104 = 809 + = 1269 mm .7050 e 856 Considering the web.7050 ) = 0. 45 2(1 − 0. The reinforcement scheme is reported in Figure 7.1667 − 0.812 > ξ and it results ρs.1667 = 0.7050) ⎤ ρs.1667 − 0.705) − 0. case (b).705 A s.min = 0.5.

4) The (7.425 and considering the bending case (k2=0. k4=0.6).0113 s And the equation for the neutral axis yn is −400 2 y n + 15 ⋅ 2712 ⎡548 − y n + 0.4) can be immediately used as verification formula. b=400mm. fck=30MPa.1) σs. c=40mm.eff=fctm=2.5 (1 − δ ) .2) we get wk = σs Es ⎡ σs. As an example let’s consider the section in Figure 7.4 ⋅ c + 0.3 Evaluation of crack amplitude [EC2 clause 7.0767.cr ⎤ ⎡ φ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎥ ⋅ ⎢k 3 ⋅ c + k 1k 2 k 4 λ ⎥ Es ⎣ σs ⎦ ⎣ ρs ⎦ ρs ⎞ λ⎛ ⎜ 1 + αe ⎟ ρs ⎝ λ⎠ (7. It results then β=452/2712=0.6.2a) (7.5) with improved bound reinforcement (k1=0. d’=46.3) 1− ξ 1 ⎤ ⎡ λ = min ⎢ 2.913. 7. h=600mm. the (7. M=300kNm. fct.4] The crack width can be written as: wk = with σs ⎡ σs. d=548mm.cr ⎤ ⎡ φ ⎢1 − ⎥ ⋅ ⎢3.eff (7. cracks amplitude evaluation assuming αe =15. δ’=460/600=0.167 ( 46 − y n ) ⎤ = 0 ⎣ ⎦ 2 and then Table of Content .17 σs ⎦ ⎣ ρs ⎣ ⎤ λ⎥ ⎦ (7. Reinforced concrete section.0mm. ρ =2712/(400 ⋅ 600)=0.8). As=2712mm2 (6φ24). .167.EC2 – worked examples 7-8 EXAMPLE 7.cr = k t ⋅ fct . As’=452mm2 (4φ12).4.6 Fig.3.9MPa Referring to a short time action (kt=0. δ=548/600=0. 3 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Assuming the prescribed values k3=3.

6 ⋅ 2.8mm .2175.96 ⋅ 109 mm 4 ⎣ ⎦ 3 σs = 15 ⋅ 300 ⋅ 106 ⋅ ( 548 − 237.0113 ⎝ 0.8 ) + 0.83 + 15 ⋅ 2712 ⎡( 548 − 237.2012 ⎛ 0. 0.7 + 118.08MPa 0.2012 ⎠ 234 ⎡ 57.2012.184mm 2 ⋅ 10 ⎣ 234 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 4B Table of Content .0113 0.4 ⋅ 40 + 0.2012 ⎥ = 0.913)=0.167 ( 46 − 237. (1-0.5(1-0.08 ⎤ ⎡ 24 ⎤ wk = 1− 5 ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢3.8 = = 0.4y n − 113026 = 0 7-9 y n = −118. The second order moment results ξ= y n 237.3963 h 600 I*n = y 400 2 2 237.8 ) / 5.9 0.3963)/3=0.5.17 0.8 ) ⎤ = 5.0113 ⎞ ⎜ 1 + 15 ⎟ = 57.cr = 0.72 + 113026 = 237.EC2 – worked examples 2 y n + 237. Then λ=0. The adopted statements lead to σs.2012.96 ⋅ 109 = 234MPa and we deduce the λ value to be adopted is the lowest between 2.

12) Combining (7.17 φ⋅λ ρs + (7.9) (7.4] 7. b.6) we get ρs = ξ2 2α e ⎡ − (1 + β ) ξ + δ + βδ ' ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = 3ξ2 p δ + βδ '− (1 + β ) ξ (7. The adimensional calculus leads to 1 − ξ2 − α e ⋅ρs (1 + β ) ξ + α e ⋅ρs ( δ + β ⋅ δ ' ) = 0 2 σs = α e ν ( δ − ξ ) fctm k t 2 2 2 ⎡3n ⋅ρs ⎡( δ − ξ ) + β ( δ '− ξ ) ⎤ + ξ3 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (7. Design formulas derivation for the cracking limit state [EC2 clause 7.4 ⋅ c + 0. d’.4). and fixed M.4 ⋅ c ⋅ξ2 + 0. stated b.5) (7. d. we want to deduce the metal reinforcement amount As and its design tension σs in order to have a crack amplitude wk lower than the fixed value w k . In particular. where w = w k .11).9) is ⎡ ⎤ 2α ⋅λ w0 ⋅ξ2 k =⎢ + e2 ⎣δ+βδ '− (1 +β) ξ⎦ +αe ⎥ × ⎡ ⎤ ξ ⎡( δ−ξ)2 +β( δ '−ξ)2 ⎤ ⎢ 3. h.8) 2 2 ( δ − ξ ) + β ( δ '− ξ ) α e ν ( δ − ξ ) − 2ξ 3 p (7.4.4.10) with p=σs/(ktfctm) λ +n ρs From (7.6) setting ν= M = M0 cr M b ⋅ h2 k t fctm 6 (7.8) and (7.5) and with its substitution in the (7.7) Deducing ρs from (7.1 Exact method 8B It is interesting to develop the (7. after some calculations we deduce p= w0 k 3. the (7.EC2 – worked examples 7-10 EXAMPLE 7.4) to use it as a design formula.11) Es w k setting w 0k = k f t ctm (7.34αe ⋅φ⋅λ ⎡δ+βδ '− (1 +β) ξ⎤ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 3ξ2 2ξ3 ⎢ ⎥ × + ⎢ ⎡δ+βδ '− (1 +β) ξ⎤ ⎡( δ−ξ)2 +β( δ '−ξ)2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎦ ⎣⎣ αeν ( δ−ξ) Table of Content .

67) is easy to solve. The procedure. allows the determination of the neutral axis position and then. numerically solved. .5 practically impossible for bending problems.15) and (7.185ν/(pδ) the (7.18) the (11. and together with the (7.11).16) after some algebra has the form p2 + 5 ⋅ ν * ⎡3.4c + 0. being the value λ =0.4) written for w = w k immediately gives (7.9d=M and then ρs=0. . which assumes the form: φmax = 5B ρs λ ⎡ 5.11) solved with respect to φ.9. leads to the desred values ρs e σs.9). we have σsAs0.5(1-δ) and then re-evaluating ξ.13) the (7.18) with respect to φ leads to the relation Table of Content .15) wk = σs Es ⎡ λ ⎛ α e ⋅ρs ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ φ⋅λ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜1+ ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ 3. λ = 0.7) and the maximal diameter derives from (7.17 ⎢1 − λ ⎠⎦ ⎝ ρs ⎠ ⎣ ρs ⋅ p ⎝ (7. aimed to the determination of the reinforcement amount and its tension corresponding to fixed crack amplitude values and stress level.13) λ = 2.185ν ν u1 = c φ u2 = w 0k φ (7.11) (7. requires to set before the value of the bars diameter φ. let’s state δ=0.EC2 – worked examples 7-11 (7. ρs from (7. In this case too. the neutral axis is obtained from (7.20 ⎢ ⎣ αe ⎤ ν ⎥ p − ν * [17α e ⋅ u1 + 5u 2 ] = 0 ⎦ (7. if we set the value of σs.88ρs w ok ⎤ − 2c ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ (p − α e )ρs − λ ⎦ (7.4u1 ν ν * − 0. An alternative procedure.18 1− 1− 0. and to evaluate the corresponding reinforcement amount ρs and the maximal bars diameter.2 Approximated method The application of the procedure discussed above is quite laborious as it requires to iteratively solve the (7. it is possible to set the tensional level σs. as the parameter p is defined. the solution for (7.14) 7. the evaluation of the reinforcement tension and its amount.4. consist in the statement that the lever arm h0 is constant and independent from ξ and equivalent to 0. If it is not the case. easier to be applied.13). using the (7. for example coincident with the permissible one.8).17) the (7.243 and assuming by definition ν* = ν ν = δ⋅λ 1.16) aiming to a further simplification of the problem.9d. In this case. it is necessary to set in the (7. In this way.13). Alternatively.

19) that defines the maximal bars diameter. which.. allows to satisfy the cracking ultimate state corresponding to a fixed value of the steel tension.EC2 – worked examples 7-12 φmax ⎡17c( νp − α e ν * ) − 5ν * w ok ⎤ ⎦ =⎣ * αe ν ν p − p2 (7. associated to the reinforcement amount given by the (7.15). 6B Table of Content .

Reinforced concrete Section.7.30mm the maximal amplitude.62 As (2/3) = 0.77 0.3.77)=9.20 ⋅ 15 ⎤ ⎡ − p 2 + 5 ⋅ 9.332/3=3.874 Table of Content .185 ⋅ 7. p(1) = 156. reinforcement design for the cracking ultimate state. fck=33MPa.77/(1-1.4] Let’s use the described procedure to the section in Figure 7.086MPa ν=600/77.74 + 57067 k w Using the previous relation. Then in a general form w 0k = 0.(1000.6 · 3.01049 .01049·500·1000=5245 mm2 ρs (1) = 0. in the three cases under examination we can max set w k = w k ⋅ k w where kw = 1.EC2 – worked examples 7-13 EXAMPLE 7. design the section to have a crack amplitude w k = 0. 119.086.77 = 0. w k = 0.92 ⋅ p − 9. c=50mm. σs (1) = 0. p (2/3) = 119. 7.6 ⋅ 3.5 Application of the approximated method [EC2 clause 7. Assuming b=1000mm. 1/3.16 7.75 ⋅ 0.874 (see ex.965 + 18400.086 · 156.3 mm .1) u1=50/26=1. 7.874 w k = 0.10mm .10).3 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 105 ⋅ k w = 32404 ⋅ k w 0.3.6.77 δ=(500-63)/500=0.5002/6).15kNm ν*=7.75 As (1) = 0.01375 .77 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ and then p 2 + 235.16 ⋅ [17 ⋅ 15 ⋅ 1.16 max Defined w k = 0.2 mm .15=7.15) and (7. in the three cases here considered kw = 1.93 p − 4485 − 57067 k w = 0 and then p ( k w ) = −117.01375·500·1000=6875 mm2 ρs ( 2 3) = 0. w k = 0.7. It results fctm=0.10-6=77. 156. M=600kNm.92 M0cr=0. φ=26mm.185 ⋅ 7.92 + 5 ⋅ 1246 ⋅ k w ] = 0 9.77 = 0. h=500mm.16 ⋅ ⎢ 3.20mm.18/7.30mm.086 u2 = 32404 ⋅ k w = 1246 ⋅ k w 26 7. 2/3. Fig.75 = 290 MPa kw = 2/3.4 ⋅ 1. w k = 0.62 ⋅ 0. together with the (7.

01062 − 1000 2 y n + 15 ⋅ 5310 ⋅ ( 437 − y n ) = 0 2 2 y n + 159.185 ⋅ 7.48 ⋅ 0.086 · 75. Table of Content .02179 . Let’s verify the adopted design method in order to evaluated its precision. the metal areas are overestimated. w k = 0.3y n − 69614 = 0 y n = −79.086·119.77 = 0.9 ) = 7. and 26 mm diameter bars are used.3918 I ∗n = y 1000 ⋅ 195.48 ≅ 140 MPa The three sections are reported in Figure 7.48 As (1/3) = 0. p (1/3) = 75.13 ⋅ 109 mm 4 3 437 − 195.93 2 + 15 ⋅ 5310 ⋅ ( 437 − 195.7.62=221 Mpa kw = 1/3.2 mm σs= 221 MPa kw = 1/3 w k = 0.EC2 – worked examples 7-14 σs (2/3) = 0. 7.6 · 3.874 σs (1/3) = 0.8.6·3. Designed sections.13 ⋅ 109 σs = 15 ⋅ 600 ⋅ 106 kw = 1 w k = 0.65 + 79. The following results are obtained: kw = 1.3 mm σs= 290 MPa kw = 2/3 w k = 0.652 + 69614 = 195.1 mm σs = 140 MPa Fig.9 = 304 MPa 7. 75. ξ = 0.1 mm .02179·500·1000=10895 mm2 ρs (1 3) = 0. ρs = 5310/(500·1000) = 0.9 mm .

17 ⋅ 26 ⋅ 0.494 I ∗n = y 1000 ⋅ 247.06 ⋅ 109 σs = 15 ⋅ 600 ⋅ 106 λ = (1 – 0.01062 ⎝ 0.0223 − 1000 2 y n + 15 ⋅ ⎡9558 ⋅ ( 437 − y n ) + 1593 ⋅ ( 385 − y n ) ⎤ = 0 ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 y n + 334.1903 ⎞ ⎛ 53.213 mm 238 ⎠ ⎝ 0.2027 ⎛ 0.EC2 – worked examples 7-15 The lowest value for λ has to be chosen between λ = 2.17 ⋅ 26 ⋅ ⎟ = 0.5 (1 – 0.1903 ⎠ λ = (1 – 0.03 / (50 · 100) = 0.874) = 0.13 2 2 + 15 ⋅ 9558 ⋅ ( 437 − 247.41 ⋅ 109 0.2027 0.cr = 0.63 2 + 15 ⋅ 6903 ⋅ ( 437 − 214.1903 ⎛ 0.1 = 160 MPa 1. ξ = 0.306 mm 5 ⎜ 304 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⋅10 ⎝ ⎠ kw = 2/3 .6 ) = 8.4 ⋅50 + 0.1) = 1.2027 ⎠ 304 ⎛ 63.2027 ⎞ ⋅ 1− ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ 3.1903 σs.6 = 238 MPa 8.0138 ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ 1 + 15 ⋅ ⎟ = 53.4292) / 3 = 0.2 2 + 143704 = 247.6 ⋅ 3.01062 ⎟ = 0.4292 I ∗n = y 1000 ⋅ 214.0138 ⎠ ⎝ kw = 1/3. Then σs.1687 Table of Content .6 ⋅ 3.494) / 3 = 0.01062 ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ 1 + 15 ⋅ ⎟ = 63.51 / (50 · 100) = 0.0138 − 1000 2 y n + 15 ⋅ 6903 ⋅ ( 437 − y n ) = 0 2 2 y n + 207.6 mm .1) + 15 ⋅ 1593 ⋅ ( 385 − 247.06 ⋅ 109 mm 4 3 437 − 247. ξ = 0.52 + 90498 = 214.5 y n − 143704 = 0 y n = −167.41 ⋅ 109 mm 4 3 σs = 15 ⋅ 600 ⋅ 106 437 − 214.11⎞ ⎛ 0.086 ⋅ wk = 238 2 ⋅ 105 0.1 mm . ρs = 69. ρs = 111.315.2 + 167.31 ⎞ ⎛ ⋅⎜1− ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ 3.31 MPa 0.0138 ⎝ 0.4 ⋅ 50 + 0.3918) / 3 = 0.5 + 103.086 ⋅ wk = λ = (1 – 0.11 MPa 0.cr = 0.1 y n − 90498 = 0 y n = −103.

3 5310 190 2 h0/d 0.cr = 0.213 0.9 0.2.9d assumed in the approximated design procedure. Comparison between the exact and approximated methods.1 and 7.811 0.1 11151 140 0.0223 ⎠ The obtained values are in good agreement with those evaluated within the design.10 report numerical values and graphs for the maximal diameter and the required reinforcement expressed as a function of fixed values for σs.70 = 0. Approximated method.086 ⋅ wk = 0.78 ⎞ ⎛ 0.1687 ⎛ 0.792/18.9. in the three case we have kw = 1 kw = 2/3 kw = 1/3 h0/d = (43. wk (mm) As (mm ) σs (MPa) 0. Exact method.99 + 3·160·13.2 and they are shown in Figure 7.0223 ⎝ 0. Table of Content .306 σs (MPa) 160 238 304 h0/d 0.836 0. Table 7.9 As (mm ) 11151 6903 5310 2 wk (mm) 0.71] / 43.3 and Figure 7.17 ⋅ 26 ⋅ ⎟ = 0.12 mm 5 ⎜ 2 ⋅ 10 ⎝ 160 ⎠ ⎝ 0. The values from the verification are slightly larger because of the fact that in the considered section the internal drive lever arm is lower than the approximated value 0.14). 7.EC2 – worked examples 7-16 σs.85 Fig.1687 ⎞ ⋅ 1− ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ 3. Table 7. The obtained results are reported in the Tables 7.70 – 19. Table 7.6 ⋅ 3.99) + + 2/3·24.85 h0/d = (43.1.79/18.8 Let’s remark that the presence of a compressed reinforcement is highly recommended to make ductile the section in the ultimate limit state.70 = 0. Stating a suitable precision for the approximated method.46/3) / 43.120 0.59/3) / 43.9. The reinforcement increase the lever arm of the section reducing the difference between the approximated values and those coming from the verification.16) (7.836 h0/d = [(18·160·18. those values are evaluated using the (7.4 ⋅ 50 + 0.9 0.2 6903 221 0.1687 ⎠ 160 ⎛ 41.99) / (18·160 + 3·160·13. being h0/d the adimensional lever arm in units of effective height d.70 – 21.0223 ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ 1 + 15 ⋅ ⎟ = 41. In fact.78 MPa 0.70 ≅ 0. The approximated method previously discussed can be successfully applied in the design of the ultimate crack state.

10.3.1 mm (A) σs φmax As (mm2) (MPa) (mm) 137 30 11111 140 26 11151 145 20 10486 149 16 10205 156 10 9750 wk = 0.EC2 – worked examples 7-17 Table 7.3 mm (C) σs φmax As (mm2) (MPa) (mm) 280 30 5430 290 26 5310 309 20 4910 325 16 4672 355 10 4282 Fig.2 mm (B) σs φmax As (mm2) (MPa) (mm) 214 30 7001 221 26 6903 233 20 6508 243 16 6245 261 10 5816 wk = 0. Diagrams for Maximal diameter (φmax) – Metal area (As ) – Steel tension (σs). 7. wk = 0. Approximated method – Determination of maximum diameter. Table of Content .

as reported in Figure 7.13.6 In the stage II.6 Verification of limit state of deformation Evaluate the vertical displacement in the mid-spam of the beam in Figure 7. As=3164mm2 (7φ24) . stating αe = Es/Ec=15. 7.9 ⋅ 5. Table of Content . A * = 700 ⋅ 500 + 15 ⋅ 3164 = 397460mm 2 * yG = * I ( 700 ⋅ 500 ⋅ 350 + 15 ⋅ 3164 ⋅ 650 ) 397460 = 385.13. Referring to the stage I. Fig.745 ⋅ 107 mm 3 700 − 385. 7.13. l=10m. deflected beam. g+q=40kN/m.05 ⋅ 109 Wi* = = 5.8 From Table [3. as indicated in Figure 7.6kNm Considering the whole applied load then M max = 40 ⋅ 10 8 = 500kNm 2 λ= M max 500 = =3 M cr 166.9MPa M cr = fctm Wi* = 2. Transversal section.12.2-EC2] we get fctm = 0.05 ⋅ 109 mm 4 12 18.12 Fig.11 with constant transversal section represented in Figure 7.30 ⋅ 30 and then the cracking moment results 2 3 = 2.745 ⋅ 107 ⋅ 10 −6 = 166. g=2q.8mm 500 ⋅ 7003 2 I = + 500 ⋅ 700 ⋅ 35. Assume the following values for the main parameters Fig.11. and solve the problem firstly in a cumulative way. fck=30MPa. deformation limit state.8 ) = 18.EC2 – worked examples 7-18 EXAMPLE 7. 7. Section at stage I.8 2 + 15 ⋅ 3164 ⋅ ( 650 − 385.

22) Calculating the integrals on the right side of the equation we finally obtain 2 M 4 3 β ⎛ ⎞ ⎡5 ⎤ 4 Δv ⎜ ⎟ = ( c − 1) max ∗ ⎢ + ξ1 − ξ1 − 2 ln ⎡ 2 (1 − ξ1 ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Ec I I ⎣ 48 3 4λ ⎝2⎠ ⎦ (7.21) where Ec is assumed to be Ec =Es/15 in agreement with the introduced statement for the parameter αe.13=1.84y n − 123396 = 0 2 y n = −94. Defining the parameter λ=Mmax/Mcr and considering that fM(ξ) = ξ/2.23) The abscissa ξ1. The evaluation of the middle-spam displacement can be easily obtained using the relation (7.20) where vI is the displacement calculated in the first step and Δv(l/2) the increase of the displacement itself caused from the cracking.01 ⋅ 1010 mm 4 II 2 3 then c=18. that can be expressed for symmetry reason 1 2 ⎡ 1 M M2 f (ξ) ⎤ ⎛ ⎞ Δv ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ( c − 1) max ∗ ⎢ ∫ 2 f M ( ξ ) g ( ξ ) dξ − ∫ 2 β 2cr M dξ ⎥ .92 + 94.21) is written as 2 ⎡ 1 M β ⎛ ⎞ Δv ⎜ ⎟ = ( c − 1) max ∗ ⎢ ∫ 2 4 ( ξ2 − ξ3 ) dξ − 2 Ec I I ⎣ ξ1 4λ ⎝2⎠ ∫ 1 2 ξ1 dξ ⎤ ⎥ 1− ξ ⎦ (7.14.1) here expressed as ⎛ Δv ( l 2 ) ⎞ v ( l 2) = vI ( l 2) ⋅ ⎜1 + vI ( l 2) ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (7. 7. ξ1 E c I I ⎣ ξ1 M max g ( ξ ) ⎦ ⎝2⎠ ξ= z l (7. Section at stage II.92 2 + 123396 = 269mm I * = 500 ⋅ 269 3 + 15 ⋅ 3164 ⋅ ( 650 − 269 ) = 1. where the cracked part of the beam start.EC2 – worked examples 7-19 −500 ⋅ y n 2 + 15 ⋅ 3164 ⋅ ( 650 − y n ) = 0 2 y n + 189.78 Fig. g(ξ) = 4(ξ–ξ2). the equation (7. is given solving the equation 2 4 ( ξ1 − ξ1 ) = M cr 1 = M max λ (7.24) Table of Content . .05/10.

the displacement in case of concentrated load results to be lower because the linear trend of the relative bending moment is associated to a smaller region of the cracking beam with respect to the case of distributed load. Diagrams for v/v1 .15.λ.25) λ ⎦ 2⎣ 5 M max 2 48 Ec I ∗ I (7.EC2 – worked examples 7-20 and then ξ1 = 1⎡ λ −1⎤ ⎢1 − ⎥ (7.15. Furthermore. a concentrated load Q=200kN.29) (7. The same problems can be solved in a generalized form evaluating numerically the displacement following the procedure expressed in (11. for a distributed load Table of Content Fig. In this way.27) If the value of c previously calculated is inserted in the (7. that show as the increase of the ratio λ means a decrease for ξ1 and the increase of v(l/2) as a consequence of a larger cracked part of the beam. The result.15. ξ1 .88 of the displacement calculated in the stage II. for the same Mmax. 7.30) The corresponding curves are reported in Figure 7.27) stating β=1 and letting λ changing in the range 1≤λ≤∞. that is characterized by a parabolic diagram of the bending moments. In the same way. varying z .26) Finally. 12Ec I ∗ I (7.20) is expressed as 2 ⎡ 48 ⎛ 4 4 3 ⎞ 12 β ⎤⎫ ⎛ ⎞ 5 M max ⎧ v⎜ ⎟ = 1 + ( c − 1) ⎢1 + ⎜ ξ1 − ξ1 ⎟ − ln ⎡ 2 (1 − ξ1 ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ∗ ⎨ 2 5 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 5 λ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 48 Ec I I ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭ (7. we obtain the curves reported in Figure 7.93 and 0.28) in this case v 1 = M max ξ1=1/(2λ). it is possible the evaluation the deformation of the whole beam. producing the same maximal moment in the mid-spam section. We observe as the displacements in the two cases of distributed and concentrated load are respectively 0. considering that v I = The (7. . leads to the following expression for the section displacement 2 ⎛ ⎞ M l v ⎜ ⎟ = max * ⎝ 2 ⎠ 12Ec I I 3β ⎡ ⎡ ⎤⎤ 3 ⎢1 + ( c − 1) ⎢1 − 8ξ1 − λ 2 (1 − 2ξ1 ) ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎦ ⎣ 2 (7.51).

In particular. Remark as the committed error in the evaluation of the mid-spam deflection.15 and Figure 7. is about 4%.65 ⋅ 21.05 ⋅ 10 ⎛ ⎞ v ⎜ ⎟ = 1.25.71mm ⎝2⎠ a) Concentrated load 6 8 ⎛ ⎞ 1 500 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 15 = 17.64 = 35. as obtained comparing the values in Figure 7. where graphs refer to a 20 folders division for the cracking part of the beam. is reported in Figure 7.05 ⋅ 10 ⎛ ⎞ v ⎜ ⎟ = 1.EC2 – worked examples 7-21 and for λ=3.26) (7.16. 7.31mm v1 ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ 5 9 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 12 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 18.00mm ⎝2⎠ Fig. Table of Content .6.56 ⋅ 17.16.29) and using the results in Figure 11. we have for the mid-spam displacement: •Distributed load 6 8 ⎛ ⎞ 5 500 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 15 = 21. displacement increase caused by the cracking (b) And total deformation (c).64mm v1 ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ 5 9 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 48 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 18. Deformation in the stage I (a). introducing the numerical values in the (7.31 = 27.

EC2 – worked examples 7-22 Table of Content .

in accordance with the instructions of paragraphs 11.0.40+0.12 ln[1+(flcm/10)] η1 η1 = 0.3. 2 Table of Content .95 = 1.05 e 0.7 flctm fractile 95% : flctk.3.for concrete of class > LC 50/55 Where: flctm = 0. LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE – WORKED EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 11. flcm = value of the average cylindric compressive strength in MPa. flck = value of the characteristic cylindric compressive strength in MPa. which can be used as an indicative value for design of the deformability of structural members. the intersecting compressive elastic module at 28 days. Tensile strength The average value of simple (axial) tensile strength.1 [EC2 Clause 11.3 flctm Intersecting compressive elastic module In lack of direct experimentation. for the corresponding density class expressed in kg/m3.95. ⎛ ρ ⎞ • ηE = ⎜ ⎟ .30 flck2/3 η1 flctm = 2.3.The results of calculation of the two above-mentioned mechanical features are shown and compared in the following table.3 [MPa] •flcm = value of the cylindric average compressive strength in MPa.2] The criteria for design of the characteristic tensile strength (fractile 5% and 95%) and of the intersecting compressive elastic module for light concrete are shown below. The characteristic values of simple tensile strength. in lack of direct experimentation. ⎝ 2200 ⎠ ρ = upper limit value of the concrete density. can be estimated by the expression: ⎡f ⎤ E lcm = 22000 ⎢ lcm ⎥ ηE ⎣ 10 ⎦ where: 0.1 – 11.05 = 0.0. for two different types of light concretes and for the corresponding ordinary concretes belonging to the same strength classes.2 of Eurocode 2.EC2 – worked examples 11-1 SECTION 11.for concrete of class ≤ LC 50/55 . for corresponding density class in kg/m3.1 and 11.3. can be taken equal to: . corresponding to fractiles 0. can be taken equal to: fractile 5% : flctk.60 ρ/2200 ρ = upper limit value of the concrete density.

2 1.4 2.0.1 Concrete type 1 Light Ordinary 35 1650 2400 43 0.9 3.5 4.563 -2.7 33950 39100 11-2 flck [MPa] ρ [kg/m3] flcm [MPa] η1 ηE fctm [MPa] fctk.7 3.1 5.850 -0.95 [MPa] Elcm [MPa] Table of Content .05 [MPa] fctk.2 3.9 2.4 5.868 -4.2 4.2 19168 34077 Concrete type 2 Light Ordinary 60 2050 2400 68 0.EC2 – worked examples Table 11.0.959 -0.

11. from which the value of the moment resistance of the section can eventually be calculated as MRd = 1185 x 0. For the condition of equilibrium the resultant of compressions C is equal to the resultant of tractions T.3. ρ = 1650 kg/m3).1 Deformation and tension diagram of r.5η1 = 2. The compressive stress in it is constant and it is equal to flcd = 0. is εyd = fyd /(1.15 x 200000) = 1. to which corresponds a steel section As equal to As = T/fyd = 3030 mm2. which implies the simultaneous achievement of maximum contraction side concrete and of the strain corresponding to the design yield stress of the tensioned reinforcement steel. The dimensions of the section are: b=30 cm.365 = 432. the second remaining area is the one where compression on concrete linearly decreases from the value flcd to zero in correspondence of the neutral axis.5 cm from the compressed end of the section and is equal to C = 1185 kN. made of type 1 lightweight concrete. section.5 kNm. is able to withstand when the reinforcement steel achieves the design elastic limit. The distance of the neutral axis from the compressed upper edge is therefore x = 28.98‰.5 cm. 11. The section in question is shown in Fig. the limits of strain by compression have values εlc3 = 1.4 – 11.3.1 – 11.75‰. Fig.96‰.c. In case one chooses. like in the previous example.6] The maximum moment that the reinforced concrete section of given dimensions.5 cm = 36. h=50cm and d=47cm.1 together with the strain diagram related to the failure mode recalled.8 MPa.3 cm.85 flck/γc = 19. for collapse condition in which maximum resisting bending moment is reached with reinforcement at elastic design limit.5 – 11.EC2 – worked examples 11-3 EXAMPLE 11. The design strain corresponding to steel yielding.2 [EC2 Clause 11.75‰ and εlcu3 = 3. The resultant of compression forces is placed at a distance of around 10. described in the previous example. build up with lightweight concrete (flck = 35 MPa.6 – 11. Table of Content . to use the bilinear diagram to calculate the compressive strength on concrete.3. for fyk= 450 MPa. Two areas can be distinguished in the compressed zone: the first one is comprised between the upper edge and the chord placed at the level where the contraction is εlc3 = 1.15 x Es) = 450/(1. The arm of internal forces is h’ = d – 10.

EC2 – worked examples 11-4 Table of Content .

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