A Tough Life: Carnegie Makes Good with Steel By the late 1880s, Carnegie had established himself as the

world’s largest manufacturer of raw iron, steel-rails and coke. After purchasing rival Homestead Steel Works in 1888, Carnegie integrated his assets together under the Carnegie Steel Company. Worth an estimated $25 million, Carnegie became the proud owner of the world’s largest steel company. His estimation of the promising future of steel proved to be correct. Over its first ten years, the Carnegie Steel Company increased its profits from $2 million to $40 million. It was not smoothly sailing all the way, however. In 1892, Carnegie’s partner, Henry Frick decided to lower employee wages without the approval of Carnegie. Workers subsequently went on strike, which resulted in Frick calling in over 300 armed strikebreakers. After a daylong battle, which ended when the governor placed the plant under martial law, ten men had been killed and hundreds wounded. The strike was over, but Carnegie was furious with Frick. In 1899, after growing conflict with Frick, Carnegie finally decided to buy him out for $15 million. With his staunch belief in democratic principles, Carnegie organized his company along those same lines. He wanted his workers to have a stake in the company and thus created his unique vision of profit sharing. He also encouraged competition between pairs of workers, pushing them to outdo the other. In some instances, men who used to be friends stopped talking to each other for years. Carnegie incorporated his enterprises as limited partnerships, with himself as the controlling partner and he never once sold any stock publicly. While his staff began to see their interest in alignment with that of the company, Carnegie also fueled his company’s growth by introducing the tactic of counter-cyclical investment. Whereas his competitors liked reinvesting their profits in new capital during their good times, Carnegie shifted his purchasing to slump times, when prices were lower. Because he well understood the business cycles of boom and bust, Carnegie took advantage of this. Thus, after the economic slump between 1893 and 1897, Carnegie’s profits began to flood in. At the age of 65, Carnegie began considering retirement. He had changed his enterprises into standard joint stock entities and felt that the time had come for him to relinquish control. The question then became, to whom? On March 2, 1901, renowned American investment banker John Pierpont Morgan offered Carnegie the price he wanted and negotiations were concluded. In the country’s largest industrial takeover to day, the U.S. Steel Corporation was established, the first billion-dollar company in the world. Carnegie received almost $230,000,000 worth of bonds in the sale, and had a special vault built to house them in New Jersey. In addition to making a fortune in steel, Carnegie owned the Pittsburgh Locomotive and Car Works Company, as well as 18 English newspapers. Upon retirement, Carnegie began to disperse his enormous wealth towards the public interest and for social advancement. He established numerous public libraries throughout both the U.S. and U.K as well as throughout other English-speaking countries. He also created numerous foundations dedicated to the arts, science and patriotism. By the time he died in 1919, Carnegie had given away $350,695,653. The last $30,000,000 was given away after his death to similar charities.

would never come if he simply settled for good.” Well aware of the risks of going above the call of duty.” he said.” said Carnegie. Carnegie said that the secret of his early success was not in asking what “What must I do for my employer?” but. in which the young man of ability and willing disposition cannot readily and almost daily prove himself capable of greater trust and usefulness. he wanted to do the best and be the best that he could. what is equally important.” said Carnegie. “Do not think a man has done his full duty when he has performed the work assigned him. and find one capable of discerning genius.Lesson #1: Go Above and Beyond “If all you do is work faithfully and conscientiously. it is the first man. and whenever he sees his employer's interests suffer. push the boundaries and challenge authority. even at a present sacrifice. he believed. show his invincible determination to rise. Carnegie always subscribed in the belief that the company should be put first. “There is nothing he will like so well. If he is not. “A man will never rise if he does only this. . the verdict in such cases generally is that you perform your present duties so well that you had better continue to perform them. while the second man settles for the shell. “What can I do?” Never content to simply do what was expected of him and leave it at that. While both would achieved something of worth. and. Success. “There is no service so low and simple. A man must discover where his employer's interests can be served beyond the range of the special work allotted to him. It was in taking his actions to the next level that Carnegie gained not only the reputation but also the success that he did.” said Carnegie. “You may be right or you may be wrong.” Carnegie applied the same logic whether he was working for someone else or if he was his own boss. Leave him whenever you can.” Carnegie believed that it was the first man who gets the oyster. Carnegie believed in going above and beyond his own responsibilities and finding ways to improve the business whether or not it was his duty to do so.” said Carnegie. “You have attracted attention. if he is the right kind of boss. he is not the man for you to remain with. Promotion comes from exception work. who receives the bigger reward. neither any so high. Carnegie paid no matter. Your initiative might sometimes put you into conflict with your superiors. the one who is willing to take risks. but in either case you have gained the first condition of success.” “Boss your boss just as soon as you can. but that is a risk worth taking. tell him so. “Do your duty and a little more and the future will take care of itself. or wherever the latter's interests can be promoted. Carnegie thrived on exceeding both his own and others’ expectations.

” said Carnegie. honesty. but that he also carried himself in an upstanding way. “"A sunny disposition is worth more than fortune. Carnegie was able to gain the trust of those around him. he would not be able to seize those occasions.” Carnegie said. or the moral crime. which the medical faculty declares it does. which helped to propel his success. Carnegie believed it was the mind that would make the body rich. According to Carnegie.” Carnegie believed that in order to achieve great success in life. praiseworthy success in life if you are not honest. “The young man who never had a chance is the same young man who has been canvassed over and over again by his superiors…owing to some objectionable act." With a healthy state of mind. “His ability. associations. he had to ensure that he was not only in good health and good spirits. “This is simply nonsense. “There is no genuine. habits.” he said. disposition. Carnegie had no patience for those who gave excuses to explain their own failure. temper. particularly when they claimed their circumstances were out of their control.” he said. Carnegie believed that it was of the utmost importance to maintain a positive attitude. “I will not paint the evil of drunkenness. and a splendid chance.Lesson #2: Invest In Yourself The man who acquires the ability to take full possession of his own mind may take possession of anything else to which he is justly entitled. Young people should know that it can be cultivated. unworthy of any self-respecting man. whether you ever become a drunkard or not. No matter how difficult the circumstances. in order to succeed. truthful. “There is little success where there is little laughter. While he was a compassionate man. No young man ever lived who had not a chance. too. fair-dealing. The first and most important point for Carnegie lied in his ability to master his own mood. “not that it is morally wrong.” Carnegie believed in creating his own circumstances and so long as he could control his own thoughts and mind. all these are weighted and analyzed. habit. he could do just that. He was also against smoking. but I suggest to you that it is low and common to enter a bar-room. one had to cultivate within oneself a number of characteristics that would clear the mind so as to be able to focus on the end goal. believing that this would cloud his ability to think clearly and soak up the energy he would need to achieve his goals. He was staunchly opposed to drinking alcohol. opportunities would always present themselves and unless he was in a sound mental state. and sure to fasten upon you a taint which will operate to your disadvantage in life. according to their own story. “Some never had a chance. or association. Carnegie then set out to ensure his physical well being by refining his habits. except in so far as it is used in excess and injures health.” he said.” . that the mind like the body can be moved from the shade into sunshine. By operating under these principles.” he said.

” said Carnegie. rarely amounts to much. “He may be concerned in the management of more than one business enterprise. success at any task could be achieved. a line of street cars. and capital exclusively upon the business in which you are engaged. have the best machinery. unremitting attention to affairs can he earn his reward. it was the only option. ‘put all your eggs in one basket. Carnegie wanted to stick to what he knew best. Whereas many of his competitors wanted to diversify in order to minimize risk. I tell you. “The man who is director in a half dozen railroads and three or four manufacturing companies.” he said.” said Carnegie. the great secret.” Working towards just one goal at a time didn’t make Carnegie’s goals any less significant. He who carries three baskets must put one on his head.Lesson #3: Focus Your Sights Here is the prime condition of success. one company. which means that they have scattered their brains. and one industry at a time in order to be able to fully concentrate all his resources and energy on the task at hand. “The men who have succeeded are men who have chosen one line and stuck to it. “Concentrate your energy. he knew he could reach the end. thought. and know the most about it. “I believe that the true road to preeminent success in any line is to make yourself master of that line. There is always room at the top in every pursuit. a factory. which he understands. to lead in it. For him. Carnegie believed that with the right amount of dedication and a single-minded view. “Success can be attained in any branch of human labour. a political party and a store. It is trying to carry too many baskets that breaks most eggs in this country. and by sticking to it no matter what.” said Carnegie. but they should all be of the one kind. resolve to fight it out on that line.’ Look round you and take notice. Regardless of circumstances. Carnegie believed that it was those very businessmen who tried to accomplish many goals at once who fell off the path to success quickest.” Carnegie did not make his millions by spreading his risk. and then watch that basket. “The concern which fail are those which have scattered their capital. which is apt to tumble and trip him up” Indeed.” . but of well-devised means for the attainment of ends. men who do that do not often fail. Having begun in one line. it simply meant that he felt each was important enough to devote himself to 100%.” Carnegie believed that the road to success was a straight one with a single lane. “The man of business knows that only by years of patient.” said Carnegie. by learning all there was to know about that road. By having patience. adopt every improvement. not of chance. or who tries at one and the same time to work a farm. It is easy to watch and carry the one basket. “‘Don't put all your eggs in one basket’ is all wrong. He focused on one job. which is the result. it was not a risk.

saw the potential for opportunities. It was only in aiming high that Carnegie was able to work out a path to get there. “Think of yourself as on the threshold of unparalleled success. “No man will make a great leader who wants to do it all himself.” he said.” Carnegie believed that every act you have ever performed since the day you were born was performed because you wanted something. No matter how well you can do something. and decided he would lead the way.Aim for the highest. honestly conducted. A whole. Rockefeller. but usefulness. no matter how impressive their other talents. who was never averse to either delegating or working with others to achieve a common goal. Over the course of his career.” said Carnegie. “I would not give a fig for the young man who does not already see himself the partner or the head of an important firm.” . or to get all the credit for doing it. Carnegie had his eye on the top and indeed. “Do not make riches. “Immense power is acquired by assuring yourself in your secret reveries that you were born to control affairs. or general manager in any concern. “Make your vow that you will reach that position. Whether it was in the railroad. and as such ennobling to your life. unless your aim is to do it better than anyone else. with untarnished reputation. Say each to yourself.’” Because Carnegie believed that anything was possible if he set his mind on it. in whatever capacity it may be. “When I did big things. Carnegie set his sights high and settled for nothing less. no matter how extensive. I must push inordinately. Achieve! Achieve!” Nothing about Carnegie was small. He was the father of the world’s first-ever billion-dollar company. that your work.” he said. Carnegie advises against setting that as the marker of success. At his peak.” he said. some large corporation like the Pennsylvania Railroad Company was behind me and the responsible party. glorious life lies before you. Despite his immense wealth. or foreman. your first aim. Were you aiming for the best or settling for less? “People who are unable to motivate themselves must be content with mediocrity. the quality of your life just depended on what those things were that you wanted. He looked into the future. “Let your chief pride be that your daily occupation is in the line of progress and development.” Carnegie was a man who was not afraid to dream big dreams for himself and for his country. you will never reach great heights of success. ‘My place is at the top. iron or steel industry. that was where he wound up. clear. however. “Whatever I engage in. did not mean being arrogant or foolish enough to think that you could walk the road to success alone. Aiming high.” he said. “Do not rest content for a moment in your thoughts as head clerk. is useful work. he decided from his very early days to set his mind on becoming something great. second only to John D. “Be king in your dreams.” he said in an address to college students in Pittsburgh in 1885.” said Carnegie. he was one of the world’s richest men. and make no other vow to distract your attention.” said Carnegie.

you have a duty to better mankind. Carnegie had funded over 3. and Fiji. DC. He also paid for the construction of 7." In the June. Carnegie also gave $2 million to create the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh.” It is towards this end that Carnegie spent the last of his years devoted to.” said Carnegie. In addition to establishing public libraries in every U. Until he died. he claimed that the duty of the man of wealth was. unostentatious living.Lesson #4: Aim High couldn't imagine. New Zealand. He established generous pension funds for his former workers as well as for American college professors." Carnegie said upon his retirement. From Carnegie Hall in New York City to the Peace Palace at The Hague. as well as an equal sum towards the launch of the Carnegie Institution in Washington. “Surplus wealth is a sacred trust which its possessor is bound to administer in his lifetime for the good of the community. Carnegie dedicated himself to giving away nearly all of the wealth he had worked so hard to amass. to set an example of modest. and other schools. in Canada.000 church organs.. after doing so. “You're achieving God's mission for humanity and country through capitalism.” Carnegie took great care and interest in deciding exactly how to then administer those funds. and.S. Carnegie also created libraries throughout the U. but by Christianity and your own sense of patriotism. Carnegie published an article entitled the “Gospel of Wealth” in which he argued that it was the duty of all rich men and women to use their wealth to benefit the welfare of the community. he would continue funding these.K. In total. “No man can become rich without himself enriching others.000 libraries.” he said. to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds. Carnegie’s donations continued to flow well after his death. "what I could ever do with so much money. He agreed to build and equip the facilities so long as the local authorities agree to maintain them. state except for Alaska and Delaware. for one of the serious obstacles to the improvement of our race is indiscriminate charity. shunning display or extravagance. . “The man who dies rich dies disgraced. indeed. be wise. “First.” he said. Between 1901-1915. to provide moderately for the legitimate wants of those dependent upon him.” It was in creating a fortune and subsequently being so eager and willing to disperse that fortune for the public good that Carnegie earned his legacy as one of the most successful entrepreneurs in history. the West Indies. Indeed. Australia. “Those who would administer wisely must. “It was from my own early experience that I decided there was no use to which money could be applied so productive of good to boys and girls who have good within them and ability and ambition to develop it.” Carnegie recognized that it was his duty to give back to the communities who had helped him acquire his wealth. 1889 issue of the North American Review.

He Was Generous: Carnegie understood the inequality that inevitably came along with capitalism and. How did this one time casualty of war go on to become one of the most memorable figures in the world? He Went Above the Call of Duty: “We make Clerks. Bookkeepers. never say. Rather. and stands on its head for those few and far between souls who devote 100%. 87 years after his death. and beyond the range of his special department. “Having entered upon work. he was doing to do something great. and there they remain to the end of the chapter. Both in terms of his financial success and philanthropy. By creating the world’s first billion-dollar company. Carnegie ensured that he would be able to seize the right opportunities as they presented themselves. while he believed this was beneficial to the human race in the long run. By looking within himself and putting his energy into his own state of mind and health. Treasurers. timeless. his name conjures up images of success as strong as they were in his own time. ‘I can't. Upon retiring.” Despite all his accomplishments.” said Carnegie.” Carnegie never envisioned himself as the owner of a small business. If he was going to do anything. “I resolved to stop accumulating and begin the infinitely more serious and difficult task of wise distribution. continue in that line of work.” said Carnegie. he believed it was also the duty of those who had more to give to the less fortunate. but I tried to understand that much more complicated mechanism – man. “The world takes off its hat to those who put in more than 50% of their capacity. He Took Care of Himself: “I did not understand steam machinery. he pictured himself at the top of the top. He Was Focused: “The great success of life are made by concentration. Carnegie cemented his legacy in history. Bank Tellers of this class. his accomplishments. He Was Ambitious: The average person puts only 25% of his energy and ability into his work.’ he said.” said Carnegie. He must attract attention. Carnegie said.” It was in being willing to act beyond his assigned responsibilities and never settling for mediocre that Carnegie was able to become a success. for it matters little what avenue a young man finds first. His innovations were revolutionary. . “The rising man must do something exceptional. and then proceeding to give most of his profits away. Fight it out on that line (except in extreme cases). America would never be able to repay the contribution this Scotsman would make to their homeland. it was in setting and achieving one goal at a time that Carnegie was able to achieve them all. Carnegie continues to set the standard for entrepreneurs today. “When it is a question of God's almighty Spirit.” said Carnegie.” Carnegie made his fortune in the steel industry and his legacy by giving away his fortune.Lesson #5: Give Back He was a poor immigrant whose name would soon be unforgettable in his adopted country.

the great secret: concentrate your energy.. to lead in it. A whole. There is always room at the top in every pursuit. I pay less attention to what men say. No man can become rich without himself enriching others. And then and there came the resolve that I would cure that when I got to be a man. No man will make a great leader who wants to do it all himself. Think of yourself as on the threshold of unparalleled success. that the mind like the body can be moved from the shade into sunshine.man. no matter how impressive their other talents. The world takes off its hat to those who put in more than 50% of their capacity. Success can be attained in any branch of human labor.. thought. and stands on its head for those few and far between souls who devote 100%. Immense power is acquired by assuring yourself in your secret reveries that you were born to control affairs. and know the most about it. A sunny disposition is worth more than fortune. I just watch what they do. have the best machinery. Achieve! Achieve! Concentrate your energies. and capital exclusively upon the business in which you are engaged. There is little success where there is little laughter. but I tried to understand that much more complicated mechanism .. And here is the prime condition of success. I did not understand steam machinery. The wise man puts all his eggs in one basket and watches the basket. People who are unable to motivate themselves must be content with mediocrity. Concentrate all your thought and energy upon the performance of your duties. adopt every improvement. Having begun in one line. When I did big things. your thoughts and your capital.The First Billion-Dollar Success Story: How Carnegie Did It began to learn what poverty meant. The average person puts only 25% of his energy and ability into his work. resolve to fight it out on that line. As I grow older. Young people should know that it can be cultivated. or to get all the credit for doing it. It was burnt into my heart then that my father had to beg for work. clear. . The man who acquires the ability to take full possession of his own mind may take possession of anything else to which he is justly entitled. some large corporation like the Pennsylvania Railroad Company was behind me and the responsible party. glorious life lies before you.

and know the most about it. the second man gets the shell. And while the law (of competition) may be sometimes hard for the individual. The man who dies rich dies disgraced. The secret of success lies not in doing your own work. like the price it pays for cheap comforts and luxuries. whether the law be benign or not. You cannot push anyone up the ladder unless he is willing to climb. He that dare not is a slave. know when to compromise and that all principles can be compromised to serve a greater principle. But. Having begun on one line. is great. The 'morality of compromise' sounds contradictory. and while the law may be sometimes hard for the individual. Do not look for approval except for the consciousness of doing your best. Compromise is usually a sign of weakness. but the advantages of this law are also greater still than its cost / for it is to this law that we owe our wonderful material development. we cannot evade it. The first man gets the oyster. Surplus wealth is a sacred trust which its possessor is bound to administer in his lifetime for the good of the community. no substitutes for it have been found. Strong men don't compromise. have the best machinery. He that cannot reason is a fool. All honor's wounds are self-inflicted. or an admission of defeat. I shall argue that strong men. The way to become rich is to put all your eggs in one basket and then watch that basket. Do your duty and a little more and the future will take care of itself. we must say of it: It is here. Here is the prime condition of success: Concentrate your energy. adopt every improvement. but in recognizing the right man to do it. resolve to fight it out on that line. it is best for the . to lead in it. because it ensures the survival of the fittest in every department. conversely. which brings improved conditions in its train.I believe that the true road to preeminent success in any line is to make yourself master of that line. He that will not is a bigot. it is said. The price which society pays for the law of competition. it is best for the race. No amount of ability is of the slightest avail without honor. thought and capital exclusively upon the business in which you are engaged. and principles should never be compromised. You must capture and keep the heart of the original and supremely able man before his brain can do its best.

This. indeed. It is the mind that makes the body rich. The men who have succeeded are men who have chosen one line and stuck to it. Concentration is my motto -. so that the ties of brotherhood may still bind together the rich and poor in harmonious relationship. to provide moderately for the legitimate wants of those dependent upon him. "I can't. then concentration. Those who would administer wisely must. I must push inordinately. bringing to their service his superior wisdom. and the law of competition between these. to consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply as trust funds.. which he is called upon to administer. then industry.race. in his judgment. There is no use whatever trying to help people who do not help themselves. When it is a question of God's almighty Spirit. never say. and strictly bound as a matter of duty to administer in the manner which. and. Whatever I engage in. I must push inordinately. Every act you have ever performed since the day you were born was performed because you wanted something. shunning display or extravagance. because it ensures the survival of the fittest in every department. great inequality of environment. you have a duty to better mankind. . The problem of our age is the proper administration of wealth. We accept and welcome. then. You cannot push anyone up a ladder unless he be willing to climb himself. the concentration of business. to set an example of modest. is held to be the duty of the man of wealth: First. experience and ability to administer. but by Christianity and your own sense of patriotism." Whatever I engage in. unostentatious living. after doing so. as being not only beneficial. You're achieving God's mission for humanity and country through capitalism. but essential for the future progress of the race. be wise. as conditions to which we must accommodate ourselves. is best calculated to produce the most beneficial results for the community /the man of wealth thus becoming the mere trustee and agent for his poorer brethren. Andrew Carnegie Quotes It was from my own early experience that I decided there was no use to which money could be applied so productive of good to boys and girls who have good within them and ability and ambition to develop it as the founding of a public library. for one of the serious obstacles to the improvement of our race is indiscriminate charity. Aim for the highest..first honesty. industrial and commercial. in the hands of a few. doing for them better than they would or could do for themselves.

” By highlighting the importance of constant self-improvement through education. Part business advice and part memoir. From the important lessons he learned as a child in a “poor but honest” family to setting up pension funds for his steel workers. the biography of Andrew Carnegie as written by the man himself was published. For instance. Thus. there is no shortage of information on the biography of Andrew Carnegie. From then on. Morgan for $480 million. and later railroads. he tells the story of his life as if he were recounting it to family and friends. and later. but both men knew the deal had already been done. he was the son of a weaver whose family immigrated to America when he was just 13 years old. Steel. knowing your strengths and weaknesses. As one reader comments this story is “practically written for the ambitious young man. In 1865. It was a time when reputation and honesty were of extreme significance in the business world. the Scot would devote his life to more philanthropic efforts and would be single-handedly responsible for the creation of 1. and indeed in understanding the state of the nation today. Andrew Carnegie Biography When he was alive. creating U. The contract was written up after the fact.679 libraries in 49 states throughout America.S. The age of 30 would mark a pivotal turning point in his life. 1835. the most powerful corporation of its time. In “Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie”. first in Pittsburgh. and treating people with the same kindness and respect you would expect in return. The biography of Andrew Carnegie is a must-read for anyone interested in the 19th century history of America. and was soon moving his way through a series of other jobs that dealt with telegraphs. from his humble beginnings in Scotland to his rise to the top of the industrial world in the United States. Immediately upon arrival. I would as soon leave my son a curse as the almighty dollar. Born on November 25. Carnegie is outlining the steps that must be taken in order to achieve a level of success similar to what he reached in his own time. Thirty years later. which effectively launched the steel industry. he began working as a bobbin boy in a cotton mill. the sale of Carnegie Steel to J. throughout the nation. challenges. which would go on to lay the foundation for his philosophy of individual responsibility.P. another benchmark in his life would come when he sold his company to financier J. One year after his death in 1919. . This particularly story is also telling of the society and the time in which he lived.P. and achievements.I resolved to stop accumulating and begin the infinitely more serious and difficult task of wise distribution. Andrew Carnegie takes an in-depth look back on his own beginnings. Morgan – a billion dollar deal – was completed on a mere handshake. this biography serves as a detailed examination into one of greatest success stories in American history. he created the Carnegie Steel Company. Andrew Carnegie was the second richest man and the founder of the most powerful corporation in the world.

Andrew Carnegie had been instrumental in the rise of big business and the establishment of the foundations of American economic power that continue to exist today. However. His first job was at a textile mill. From the textile industry.. the merger of Carnegie’s operations with Morgan’s holdings in the Federal Steel Company. Each position would serve its own vital role in altering the way the budding entrepreneur would think about business. operations remained largely rural and very small scale. by 1889. giving away almost all of the profits he had accumulated over his career. When he retired. Andrew Carnegie came to the United States at a time that would prove to be rife with opportunity for the ambitious young entrepreneur. Born in Scotland when the United Kingdom was in the early phase of its own industrialization. Steel was the largest corporation in the world. but the U. his role in the rise of big business was not yet over. They introduced him to ever-changing forms of communication and technology. and he was able to witness the beginning of the expansion of scale of industry. The formation of Carnegie Steel in the late 1880s came to symbolize the rise of big business. For his role in the rise of big business in the U. thanks in large part to the work of Andrew Carnegie. Soon. It would be here that he would make his fortune.Andrew Carnegie and the Rise of Big Business Perhaps more than any other entrepreneur. the young Scot moved to the telegraph office and later to the railroads.S. In 1901. He had created his empire and was now considering retirement. but he was by no means down and out. At the time. In fact. Andrew Carnegie would be the one to help change all of that. he might have left the business world. Rockefeller. becoming one of the richest men in the world.S. Indeed. the one that has come to most symbolize the process of industrialization and the rise of big business in America is none other than Andrew Carnegie. output of steel from the United States exceeded that of the United Kingdom. Andrew Carnegie would soon be playing a significant role in the industrial growth of his new country. In March of that year. American banker John Pierpont Morgan had long admired the success of the steel magnate and wanted to get a piece of the action. Morgan and Carnegie finalized negotiations for the creation of the United States Steel Corporation. . he turned 65.S. was still in the very early stages of industrialization at the time. second only to John D. the newly founded U. Andrew Carnegie would spend his time right up until his death in 1919 becoming one of the most famous and generous philanthropists. Andrew Carnegie became the second richest person in the world at the time. Andrew Carnegie was applying everything he had learned in his early years about communications and transportation to the steel industry.

a book club has been formed at the museum. Located at 4400 Forbes Avenue in Pittsburgh. posters and other gifts. the Carnegie Art Museum has a growing international reputation as one of the foremost leaders for the presentation of contemporary art. with a newly renovated laboratory to restore artwork. Today. Annual memberships can also be purchased at a discounted rate. $7 for seniors. Most other art museums of the time focused on collections of great painters from years past. students. In recent times. Carnegie was relatively alone in his vision. and one of the three largest in the world. in addition to its European and American art from the late 17th century to the present. and remains as innovative as the day it first opened. It is also currently expanding its range of educational program for the likes of teachers. General admission tickets cost $10. From lectures and workshops to gallery guides and performances. and $6 for students and children. the Carnegie Art Museum is attempting to broaden its appeal and inspire a new generation of art lovers. An updated schedule of the museum’s lectures can be found on the official website of the Carnegie Art Museum. Conservation is an extremely important aspect of its operations. the Heinz Architectural Center was opened as an addition to the original project. creating a space for the discussion of books related to the museum’s collection. It also focuses heavily on publications and audio-visual materials that document the history of the museum itself and many of its featured works. At the turn of the century. he envisioned creating a haven for “the old masters of tomorrow. . as well as the Carnegie Museum of Art Store.” In 1895. that very Carnegie Art Museum remains one of the four pillars of the Carnegie Institute. and 12pm – 5pm on Sunday. the museum has also expanded its collection of Japanese prints and African art. and the Carnegie Science Center. and youth groups. Today. Located in Pittsburgh. Early purchases of artists including the likes of Winslow Homer and Camille Pissarro established the museum as what it has become today – the distinguished home of mid-19th century to contemporary American art. the Hall of Architecture contains the nation’s largest collection of plaster casts of great architectural works. the Andy Warhol Museum. Inside the Carnegie Art Museum can also be found the Museum of Art Café and the Fossil Fuels Café. the Carnegie Art Museum is open from 10am – 5pm Tuesday through Saturday. More recently. In any given year. featuring work from its permanent collection as well as new items. In 1993. that vision was realized with the founding of the Carnegie Art Museum. he wanted to create a collection for the great artists of tomorrow. where visitors can purchase exhibitrelated posters.Carnegie Art Museum When Andrew Carnegie thought about a museum collection. With this project. along with the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. the Carnegie Art Museum will run an approximated 15 exhibitions.

and began dispensing his money in the form of endowments to libraries and other public institutions. he created a set of architectural guidelines that focused on simple and functional structures. however.695. The Gospel of Wealth received much praise. but unsurprisingly not as many followers. As he writes in his essay. even as capitalism could indeed hurt some while benefiting others. The central thesis of the essay focused on the dangers of wealthy entrepreneurs simply passing on their fortune to their children. steel magnate and self-made millionaire Andrew Carnegie wrote an essay that would go on to change the way many of the world’s richest thought about their wealth and the responsibility that came along with it.653 to be exact. he had been a shrewd businessman. The Gospel of Wealth was not an attack by Andrew Carnegie on the laissez-faire system of capitalism. Giving away his wealth was not something he took lightly. he believed that the corporation should be allowed to act as it pleased with little to no government interference. Thus. There was still an additional $30.000. To counter the imbalance. While he acknowledged the unequal effects of the system. Instead of wasting money on frivolous expenses and using it inefficiently. it was exactly the opposite. In fact. “The Gospel of Wealth” was Andrew Carnegie’s attempt to infuse the business world – especially the upper class of self-made millionaires – with a new sense of philanthropy. money should not be squandered on frivolous expenditure. enjoying a life of luxury instead of investing it wisely and productively for the future or for the public good. poverty could in fact be tackled and solved by the very wealthy businessmen that had contributed to the problem. . Today. but he spent his last years paying back what he had taken. the Scot outlined this very ideology. All his life. Why did he not believe in simply leaving money to his children? As he writes in his essay. Andrew Carnegie proved to be a unique species of entrepreneur for the ease with which he gave away his vast fortune. or other persons and organizations that were not qualified to handle it. Andrew Carnegie suggested that the responsibility falls squarely on the individual wealthy entrepreneur. In writing this essay. It was precisely in accordance with this philosophy that he created the Carnegie Foundation in 1903.Andrew Carnegie Gospel of Wealth In 1889. When several institutions spent the gifts they had received from him on extravagant buildings. Indeed. but all of it was earmarked for various foundations and charities. Andrew Carnegie’s Gospel of Wealth stands out as a revolutionary theory of altruism – the likes of which remain rare even today. By the time he died in 1919. he had given away most of his fortune.000 remaining. $350. history proves that most heirs to large fortunes use their inheritance foolishly. Carnegie argued that such money should be put towards the public good.

the Carnegie Science Center is the most visited museum in Pittsburgh. while watching an Omnimax show costs $8. It is home to UPMC SportsWorks. However. the largest science and sport exhibition in the world as well as a four-story Rangos Omnimax Theatre. 1991. Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American entrepreneur who became famous for not only founding one of the most powerful corporations in American history. including the Carnegie Museum of Art. these institutions date back over 110 years. General admission tickets to the Carnegie Science Center cost $14. Steel. Together. while others take part in live fantasies of full-dome laser graphics set to their favourite music. the Carnegie Science Center is dedicated to reaching out to and inspiring a new generation to understand the world around them. but also for giving away most of his significant wealth upon his retirement. In 1987. which later became U. You can also take a tour aboard a submarine. The idea behind it came from steel magnate Andrew Carnegie’s desire to bring science and technology to the masses. and science education programs. or interact with the over 300 other hands-on exhibits. The Carnegie . it has a long and rich history as one of the four distinctive museums that make up the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh. it became apparent that what the institute needed was not just a new building. There are also discounts for seniors. which would require significant development in terms of staffing. much like the ones used during World War II. The Center is located on Pittsburgh’s North Short. families or the individual. which was to be called the Carnegie Science Center. In the 1980s. it stands out as one of the most popular explorations into the world of science in the state. on the Ohio River. and the Andy Warhol Museum. Soon. the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. the Buhl Planetarium remains another one of its more popular attraction. It needed to keep up with the changing times. the building that housed Pittsburgh’s popular Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science was showing signs of aging. Today. By presenting science in an entertaining way. allowing free admission to all of the Center’s exhibits. services. Carried over from its previous location. The founder of Carnegie Steel Company.Carnegie Science Center Opened on October 5. 1989 and it officially opened its doors to the public exactly two years later. Ground for the new center was broken on October 5. the boards of the Buhl Planetarium and the Carnegie Institute approved a merger and the creation of a new joint institution. Various memberships can be purchased for groups.S. A miniature railroad and village can distract visitors for hours. It was at that point that the 1901-founded Carnegie Institute expressed an interest in launching a new initiative – what would later become the Center.

Science Center is open from 10 am – 5 pm Sunday through Friday. and 10 am – 7pm on Saturday. To call for inquiries. the Center can be reached at 412-237-3400. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful