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Smart Card Computing
John Xavier ( Y2M016 ) S4 MCA
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
National Institute of Technology
Calicut – 673601
CERTIFICATE This is to certify that this report titled ‘SMART CARD COMPUTING’ is a bonafide record of the seminar presented by John Xavier (Y2M016) fourth semester MCA student. National Institute of Technology Calicut. Coordinator Professor and Head Place Date 1 .
who helped me in preparing for this seminar. Miss Nisha K.K Govindan. Computer Science and Engineering. All my friends whose wholehearted support helped me at all stages of the preparation of this seminar 2 . Priya Chandran. Head of the Department. Assistant Professor. my guide for this seminar. for all the guidance I have received.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to put on records my sincere thanks to: Dr V.K. Mrs.
cost. etc. These early smart cards were disposable. and even provide loyalty benefits. This document summarises the current java Card technology also with the existing standards.) successful smart card programs must provide benefits to the consumer greater than the consumer-perceived effort in adapting the smart card behavior. like any new product. For example. The public demands that smart cards. the greater the benefit must be.handling cost is decreased. Regardless of the benefits to the proprietor. hold large quantities of data. smart cards were introduced in Europe in the early 1980’s as stored value cards for payphones. The consumer makes the final decision.ABSTRACT The origin of smart cards began when consumer requirements for convenience and security outpaced the capabilities of magnetic stripe cards. identify the cardholder. And this is only the beginning of the age of smart cards. Today’s smart cards are re-usable. speed transaction times. bring obvious benefit to the existing process. Providing increased data storage and added security. It is not enough that the proprietor’s cash. savings. The more challenging it is to understand and use the card. and were an effective means to reduce losses. consider the replacement of coins with smart cards in making small retail purchases. The public will accept this substitution only if smart card use derives a perceived benefit. (accuracy. 3 .
REFERENCES…………………………………………….3 OPTICAL MEMORY CARDS 3.TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.2 BENEFITS OF JAVA CARD TECHNOLOGY 4.1 ICMEMORY CARDS 2. SMART CARD FILE SYSTEM……………………………7 4.15 7.6 2.9 4. SMART CARD TYPES…………………………………. CARD APPLICATION INSTALLATION……………….…. SUMMARY…………………………………………………16 8.17 8...3 COMPONENTS OF JAVA CARD TECHNOLOGY 5.2 IC MICROPROCESSOR CARDS 2. INTRODUCTION TO JAVA CARDS……………………. INTRODUCTION AND SHORT HISTORY………………5 2.14 6. SMART CARD COMMUNICATION MODEL………….2 INTERNET REFERENCES 4 .1 JAVA CARD Vs CONVENTIONAL CARD 4.1 PRINTED REFERENCES 8.
the same certificate can be used everywhere that identification is required. and securing satellite and cable transmissions in TV set-top boxes 5 . INTRODUCTION AND SHORT HISTORY Smart cards and hardware tokens provide both greater mobility and enhanced security by allowing users to carry their digital certificates with them. 95% of these cards are issued in Europe. and Asia. almost 1 billion smart cards will be produced worldwide by several large manufacturers. which could be different on every site that you visit. Major uses will include providing enhanced financial services. Currently. and detect message tampering. By the year 2003. identify themselves to other people and web sites. South America. By way of comparison. The first smart card was developed in 1974. by independent inventor Roland Moreno.with over 15% of the total in use in the United States and Canada. increasing the security and flexibility of cellular phones. And certificates allow users to establish confidential communications. there are over 900 million credit cards in circulation today. Unlike passwords. A digital certificate is like a driver's license for the Internet. This year. Data Monitor predicts that over 3 billion cards will be in circulation worldwide .1.
Thus. disposable-card applications like pre-paid phone cards. These cards are used for a variety application. chip cards have been the main platform for cards that hold a secure digital identity. 2. Thus. all of which are evolving rapidly into new markets and applications: 2.2.2 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (IC) MICROPROCESSOR CARDS Microprocessor cards (also generally referred to by the industry as "chip cards") offer greater memory storage and security of data than a traditional magnetic stripe card. but have no processor on the card with which to manipulate that data. Memory cards are popular as high-security alternatives to magnetic stripe cards. 6 . Chip cards also can process data on the card. Memory cards represent the bulk of the 600 million smart cards sold last year. primarily for pre-paid.1 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (IC) MEMORY CARDS IC memory cards can hold up to 1-4 KB of data. and 512 bytes of random-access memory. they are dependent on the card reader (also known as the card-accepting device) for their processing and are suitable for uses where the card performs a fixed operation. The current generation of chip cards has an eight-bit processor. especially those that have cryptography built in. which requires manipulation of large numbers. albeit with slightly less memory capacity. 16KB read-only memory. SMART CARD TYPES Today there are three categories of smart cards. This gives them the equivalent processing power of the original IBM-XT computer.
or travel histories. Today.for example medical files.2.3 OPTICAL MEMORY CARDS Optical memory cards look like a card with a piece of a CD glued on top - which is basically what they are. Thus. these cards have no processor in them (although this is coming in the near future). SMART CARD FILE SYSTEM MF DF DF EF EF DF EF EF EF EF File System is similar to a typical UNIX/WINDOWS file system as we see here. While the cards are comparable in price to chip cards. this type of card is ideal for record keeping . the data cannot be changed or removed. But once written. 3. Optical memory cards can store up to 4 MB of data. the card readers use non-standard protocols and are expensive. driving records. 7 .
An EF component may contain only records. The DF component is essentially a container for EF components. The file system defined is a relatively straightforward hierarchical structure comprising three basic elements: • A master file (MF) component • A dedicated file (DF) component • An elementary file (EF) component The MF component is the root of the file hierarchy. disk based) file systems. as elements. generally EEPROM. a DF may contain zero to many EFs. The following are the smart card file access commands CREATE FILE DELETE FILE create a file delete a file 8 . and it may contain zero to many EFs. These differences are almost exclusively due to the physical characteristics of the EEPROM memory system. An MF may contain. The first of these characteristics resulted in the definition of a rather unique file structure called a cyclic file.A central application for smart cards defined by the ISO/IEC 7816-4 standard is a file system. specifically the facts that EEPROM memory can be subjected to only a modest number of erase and write cycles and that it is significantly faster to write to EEPROM memory in a cumulative fashion than in a pure erase and then write fashion. a DF. there is only one MF on a smart card. The second characteristic resulted in rather unique definitions of the various file write commands. The file system is actually applied to the nonvolatile memory on the smart card. or even many DFs. Several characteristics of the smart card file system are significantly different from typical (that is.
READ / SEEK WRITE / UPDATE ERASE APPEND INCREASE / DECREASE INVALIDATE REHABILITATE LOCK read from a file / search in a file write to a file set bytes to a predefined pattern append to a file increase / decrease a counter apply reversible lock remove reversible lock apply irreversible lock 4. INTRODUCTION TO JAVA CARDS The Java Card specifications enable Java technology to run on smart cards and other devices with limited memory. • Multi-Application Capable 9 .allowing developers to use the same Java Card applet to run on different vendors' cards. The Java Card API allows applications written for one Java Card-enabled smart card platform. such as • Platform Independent Java Card applets that comply with the Java Card API specification will run on cards developed using the JCAE . to run on any other Java Card-enabled platform. There are several unique benefits of the Java Card technology.
In the Java programming language. such as. the inherent design around small. such as. 10 . the card issuer can make this change. For example. if a customer decides to change the frequent flyer program associated with the card. • Post-Issuance of Applications The installation of applications. ISO7816. without having to issue a new card. Europay/Master Card/Visa (EMV). downloadable code elements makes it easy to securely run multiple applications on a single card. and industry-specific standards. provides card issuers with the ability to dynamically respond to their customer's changing needs. after the card has been issued.Multiple applications can run on a single card. • Flexible The Object-Oriented methodology of the Java Card technology provides flexibility in programming smart cards. • Compatible with Existing Smart Card Standards The Java Card API is compatible with formal international standards.
2 BENEFITS OF JAVA CARD TECHNOLOGY 1.Because of this irrespective of the OS the applications can be handled 4. Hardware independence 3.4. in a Java Card along with Card OS there is Java Interpreter and Java Card API’s . Security 11 .1 JAVA CARD VS CONVENTIONAL CARD As we can see from this diagram. Multiple applications 4. Ease of application development 2.
2. Java Card Virtual Machine (JCVM) The Java Card Virtual Machine (JVM) Specification defines the features. services. It contains the class definitions required to support the Java Card VM and the Java Card RE.3 COMPONENTS OF JAVA CARD TECHNOLOGY 1.5. Compatibility with existing smart card standards 4. the supported subset of the Java language. and behavior required of an implementation of the Java Card technology. like smart cards. 12 . Java Card Application Programming Interface (API) The Java Card API is compatible with formal international standards and industry-specific standards. and the file formats used for installing applets and libraries into devices. which implement Java Card technology. It includes the instruction set of a Java Card Virtual Machine.
Java Card consists of the following hardware 1. and pre. Java Card Runtime Environment (JCRE) The Java Card Runtime Environment (JRE) Specification complements the Java Card API Specification and defines the necessary behavior of the runtime environment in any implementation of the Java Card technology. and runtime support services such as the selection and deselection of applets. Such an implementation includes an implementation of the Java Card Virtual Machine. EEPROM for persistent data.3. for objects and their fields (i. API. heap) and code of downloaded applets 13 .installed applets 2. the Java Card Application Programming Interface (API) classes.e. ROM for program code of VM.
5 CARD APPLICATION INSTALLATION 14 . and EEPROM lifetime limited to certain number of writes. for stack and specially allocated scratchpad arrays Writing to EEPROM is slower & consumes more power than writing to RAM. RAM for transient data.3.
6 SMART CARD COMMUNICATION MODEL 15 .As we see here the compiled class files are combined together to form a CAP (Combined Applet file). This CAP file is finally transferred to smart card for its implementation.
P2: Parameters Lc: Length data block Le: Expected length response Response APDU Components SW1: Status Word 1 SW2: Status Word 2 16 .Communication with smartcard via byte array buffer APDU.Terminal sends card a command APDU and smart card sends a response APDU in response Terminal APDU Components CLA: Class byte INS: Instruction byte P1. following ISO7816.
flexibility. card issuers have access to a powerful tool to win consumer smart card acceptance and. 17 . But technological advances alone will not ensure the long-term success of smart cards. the benefits of adopting this new technology must greatly outweigh the effort required to alter long-standing habits. and capacity of contactless microprocessors. in the process. From the consumer perspective. enhance customer relationships.7 SUMMARY Smart cards have evolved in the past two decades from plastic cards with simple contact-based memory chips to the ultimate flexibility of contactless microprocessors in a wide array of smart objects. With the strength.
com/cs/smartcard http://developer.com http://www.1 PRINTED REFERENCES • Mike Hendry.edu/technology/smartcard 18 .wisc. Smart Card Security and Applications .com/technology/smartcard http://cs.berkley.smartchip.2 INTERNET REFERENCES • • • • • http://www. 8. 1994.sun.8.cs.edu/smartchip http://www.ibm. REFERENCES 8.
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