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WikiLeaks 1

WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks

URL [1][2] [3]


wikileaks.ch
[Note]
wikileaks.org (originally)
[4]
Official mirrors list

Slogan We open governments.

Commercial? No

Type of site Document archive & disclosure

Owner The Sunshine Press

Created by Julian Assange

Launched [5]
4 October 2006

Alexa rank [6]


861 (December 2010)

Current status Active

WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that


publishes submissions of private, secret, and classified
media from anonymous news sources and news leaks. Its
website, launched in 2006 under The Sunshine Press[7]
organisation,[8] claimed a database of more than 1.2 million
documents within a year of its launch.[9] WikiLeaks
describes its founders as a mix of Chinese dissidents,
journalists, mathematicians, and start-up company
technologists from the United States, Taiwan, Europe,
Australia, and South Africa.[10] Julian Assange, an
Australian Internet activist, is generally described as its
director.[11] The site was originally launched as a Julian Assange, the main spokesperson and editor-in-chief for
user-editable wiki, but has progressively moved towards a WikiLeaks

more traditional publication model and no longer accepts


either user comments or edits.

In April 2010, WikiLeaks posted video from a 2007 incident in which Iraqi civilians and journalists were killed by
US forces, on a website called Collateral Murder. In July of the same year, WikiLeaks released Afghan War Diary, a
compilation of more than 76,900 documents about the War in Afghanistan not previously available for public
review.[12] In October 2010, the group released a package of almost 400,000 documents called the Iraq War Logs in
coordination with major commercial media organisations. This allowed every death in Iraq, and across the border in
WikiLeaks 2

Iran, to be mapped.[13] In November 2010, WikiLeaks began releasing U.S. State department diplomatic cables.
WikiLeaks has received praise as well as criticism. The organisation has won a number of awards, including The
Economist's New Media Award in 2008[14] and Amnesty International's UK Media Award in 2009.[15] [16] In 2010,
the New York City Daily News listed WikiLeaks first among websites "that could totally change the news",[17] and
Julian Assange was named the Readers' Choice for TIME's Person of the Year in 2010.[18] The UK Information
Commissioner has stated that "WikiLeaks is part of the phenomenon of the online, empowered citizen".[19] In its first
days, an Internet petition calling for the cessation of extra-judicial intimidation of WikiLeaks attracted over six
hundred thousand signatures.[20] Supporters of WikiLeaks in the media and academia have commended it for
exposing state and corporate secrets, increasing transparency, supporting freedom of the press, and enhancing
democratic discourse while challenging powerful institutions.[21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]
At the same time, several U.S. government officials have criticized WikiLeaks for exposing classified information
and claimed that the leaks harm national security and compromise international diplomacy.[28] [29] [30] [31] [32]
Several human rights organisations requested with respect to earlier document releases that WikiLeaks adequately
redact the names of civilians working with international forces, in order to prevent repercussions.[33] Some
journalists have likewise criticised a perceived lack of editorial discretion when releasing thousands of documents at
once and without sufficient analysis.[34] In response to some of the negative reaction, the UN High Commissioner for
Human Rights has expressed her concern over the "cyber war" against WikiLeaks,[35] and in a joint statement with
the Organization of American States the UN Special Rapporteur has called on states and other actors to keep
international legal principles in mind.[36]

History

Founding
The wikileaks.org domain name was registered on 4 October 2006.[5] The website was unveiled, and published its
first document in December 2006.[37] [38] The site claims to have been "founded by Chinese dissidents, journalists,
mathematicians and start-up company technologists, from the US, Taiwan, Europe, Australia and South Africa".[10]
The creators of WikiLeaks have not been formally identified.[39] It has been represented in public since January 2007
by Julian Assange and others. Assange describes himself as a member of WikiLeaks' advisory board.[40] News
reports in The Australian have called Assange the "founder of WikiLeaks".[41] According to Wired magazine, a
volunteer said that Assange described himself in a private conversation as "the heart and soul of this organisation, its
founder, philosopher, spokesperson, original coder, organiser, financier, and all the rest".[42] As of June 2009, the
site had over 1,200 registered volunteers[10] and listed an advisory board comprising Assange and eight other
people.[43]

Purpose
WikiLeaks states that its "primary interest is in exposing oppressive regimes in Asia, the former Soviet bloc,
Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, but we also expect to be of assistance to people of all regions who wish to
reveal unethical behaviour in their governments and corporations."[10] [40]
In January 2007, the website stated that it had over 1.2 million leaked documents that it was preparing to publish.[44]
An article in The New Yorker said:
One of the WikiLeaks activists owned a server that was being used as a node for the Tor network.
Millions of secret transmissions passed through it. The activist noticed that hackers from China were
using the network to gather foreign governments’ information, and began to record this traffic. Only a
small fraction has ever been posted on WikiLeaks, but the initial tranche served as the site’s foundation,
and Assange was able to say, "[w]e have received over one million documents from thirteen
countries."[38] [45]
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Assange responded to the suggestion that eavesdropping on Chinese hackers played a crucial part in the early days of
WikiLeaks by saying "the imputation is incorrect. The facts concern a 2006 investigation into Chinese espionage one
of our contacts was involved in. Somewhere between none and handful of those documents were ever released on
WikiLeaks. Non-government targets of the Chinese espionage, such as Tibetan associations were informed (by
us)".[46] The group has subsequently released a number of other significant documents which have become
front-page news items, ranging from documentation of equipment expenditures and holdings in the Afghanistan war
to corruption in Kenya.[47]
The organisation's stated goal is to ensure that whistleblowers and journalists are not jailed for emailing sensitive or
classified documents, as happened to Chinese journalist Shi Tao, who was sentenced to 10 years in 2005 after
publicising an email from Chinese officials about the anniversary of the Tiananmen Square massacre.[39]
In an interview on The Colbert Report, Assange explained about the limit to the freedom of speech, saying, "[it is]
not an ultimate freedom, however free speech is what regulates government and regulates law. That is why in the US
constitution the bill of rights says that congress is to make no such law abridging the freedom of the press. It is to
take the rights of the press outside the rights of the law because those rights are superior to the law because in fact
they create the law. Every constitution, every bit of legislation is derived from the flow of information. Similarly
every government is elected as a result of people understanding things".[48]
The project has drawn comparisons to Daniel Ellsberg's leaking of the Pentagon Papers in 1971.[49] In the United
States, the leaking of some documents may be legally protected. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that the
Constitution guarantees anonymity, at least in the area of political discourse.[49] Author and journalist Whitley
Strieber has spoken about the benefits of the WikiLeaks project, noting that "Leaking a government document can
mean jail, but jail sentences for this can be fairly short. However, there are many places where it means long
incarceration or even death, such as China and parts of Africa and the Middle East."[50]

Funding
On 24 December 2009, WikiLeaks announced that it was experiencing a shortage of funds[51] and suspended all
access to its website except for a form to submit new material.[52] Material that was previously published was no
longer available, although some could still be accessed on unofficial mirrors.[53] WikiLeaks stated on its website that
it would resume full operation once the operational costs were covered.[52] WikiLeaks saw this as a kind of strike "to
ensure that everyone who is involved stops normal work and actually spends time raising revenue".[54] While the
organisation initially planned for funds to be secured by 6 January 2010,[55] it was not until 3 February 2010 that
WikiLeaks announced that its minimum fundraising goal had been achieved.[56]
On 22 January 2010, PayPal suspended WikiLeaks' donation account and froze its assets. WikiLeaks said that this
had happened before, and was done for "no obvious reason".[57] The account was restored on 25 January 2010.[58]
On 18 May 2010, WikiLeaks announced that its website and archive were back up.[59]
As of June 2010, WikiLeaks was a finalist for a grant of more than half a million dollars from the John S. and James
L. Knight Foundation,[38] but did not make the cut.[60] WikiLeaks commented via Twitter, "WikiLeaks was highest
rated project in the Knight challenge, strongly recommended to the board but gets no funding. Go figure."[61]
WikiLeaks said that the Knight foundation announced the award to "'12 Grantees who will impact future of news' –
but not WikiLeaks" and questioned whether Knight foundation was "really looking for impact".[60] A spokesman of
the Knight Foundation disputed parts of WikiLeaks' statement, saying "WikiLeaks was not recommended by Knight
staff to the board."[61] However, he declined to say whether WikiLeaks was the project rated highest by the Knight
advisory panel, which consists of non-staffers, among them journalist Jennifer 8. Lee, who has done PR work for
WikiLeaks with the press and on social networking sites.[61]
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Operational challenges
On 17 July, Jacob Appelbaum spoke on behalf of WikiLeaks at the 2010 Hackers on Planet Earth conference in New
York City, replacing Assange because of the presence of federal agents at the conference.[62] [63] He announced that
the WikiLeaks submission system was again up and running, after it had been temporarily suspended.[62] [64] [65]
Assange was a surprise speaker at a TED conference on 19 July 2010 in Oxford, and confirmed that the site had
begun accepting submissions again.[66]
Upon returning to the US from the Netherlands, on 29 July, Appelbaum was detained for three hours at the airport by
US agents, according to anonymous sources.[67] The sources told Cnet that Appelbaum's bag was searched, receipts
from his bag were photocopied, his laptop was inspected, although in what manner was unclear.[67] Appelbaum
reportedly refused to answer questions without a lawyer present, and was not allowed to make a phone call. His three
mobile phones were reportedly taken and not returned.[67] On 31 July, he spoke at a Defcon conference and
mentioned his phone being "seized". After speaking, he was approached by two FBI agents and questioned.[67]
Assange has acknowledged that the practice of posting largely unfiltered classified information online could one day
lead the Web site to have "blood on our hands."[68] [69] He expressed the view that the potential to save lives,
however, outweighs the danger to innocents.[70] Furthermore, WikiLeaks has highlighted independent investigations
which have failed to find any evidence of civilians harmed as a result of WikiLeaks' activities.[71] [72]
On 25 September 2010, after being suspended by Assange for "suspended for disloyalty, insubordination and
destabilization", Daniel Domscheit-Berg, the German spokesman for Wikileaks, told Der Spiegel that he was
resigning, saying "WikiLeaks has a structural problem. I no longer want to take responsibility for it, and that's why I
am leaving the project".[73] [74] [75] Assange accused Domscheit-Berg of leaking information to Newsweek claiming
the Wikileaks team was unhappy with Assange's leadership and handling of the Afghan war document releases.[75]
Domscheit-Berg left with a small group to start OpenLeaks.com, a new leak organisation and website with a
different management and distribution philosophy.[76] [77] Herbert Snorrason, also a 25-year old Icelandic university
student, resigned after he challenged Assange on his decision to suspend Domscheit-Berg and was bluntly
rebuked.[75] Iceland MP Birgitta Jonsdottir also left Wikileaks citing lack of transparency, lack of structure, and poor
communication flow in the organisation.[78] According to The Independent, at least a dozen key supporters of
WikiLeaks left the website in 2010.[79]

Administration
According to a January 2010 interview, the WikiLeaks team then consisted of five people working full-time and
about 800 people who worked occasionally, none of whom were compensated.[54] WikiLeaks has no official
headquarters. The expenses per year are about €200,000, mainly for servers and bureaucracy, but would reach
€600,000 if work currently done by volunteers were paid for.[54] WikiLeaks does not pay for lawyers, as hundreds of
thousands of dollars in legal support have been donated by media organisations such as the Associated Press, Los
Angeles Times, and the National Newspaper Publishers Association.[54] Its only revenue stream is donations, but
WikiLeaks has planned to add an auction model to sell early access to documents.[54] The Wau Holland Foundation
helps to process donations to WikiLeaks. In July 2010, the Foundation stated that WikiLeaks was receiving no
money for personnel costs, only for hardware, travelling and bandwidth.[80] An article in TechEye wrote:
As a charity accountable under German law, donations for WikiLeaks can be made to the foundation. Funds
are held in escrow and are given to WikiLeaks after the whistleblower website files an application containing a
statement with proof of payment. The foundation does not pay any sort of salary nor give any renumeration
[sic] to WikiLeaks' personnel, corroborating the statement of the site's former German representative Daniel
Schmitt [real name Daniel Domscheit-Berg][81] on national television that all personnel works voluntarily,
even its speakers.[80]
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However, in December 2010 the Wau Holland Foundation stated that 4 permanent employees, including Julian
Assange, had begun to receive salaries.[82]

Site management issues


Within WikiLeaks, there has been public disagreement between founder and spokesperson Julian Assange and
Daniel Domscheit-Berg, the site's former German representative who was suspended by Assange. Domscheit-Berg
announced on 28 September 2010 that he was leaving the organisation due to internal conflicts over management of
the site.[81] [83] [84]

Hosting
WikiLeaks describes itself as "an uncensorable system for untraceable mass document leaking".[85] The site is
available on multiple servers and different domain names following a number of denial-of-service attacks and its
severance from different Domain Name System (DNS) providers.[86] [87]
Until August 2010, WikiLeaks was hosted by PRQ, a Sweden-based company providing "highly secure,
no-questions-asked hosting services". PRQ is said to have "almost no information about its clientele and maintains
few if any of its own logs".[88] Currently, WikiLeaks is mainly hosted by Bahnhof in a facility that used to be a
nuclear bunker.[89] [90] Other servers are spread around the world with the central server located in Sweden.[91] Julian
Assange has said that the servers are located in Sweden (and the other countries) "specifically because those nations
offer legal protection to the disclosures made on the site". He talks about the Swedish constitution, which gives the
information providers total legal protection.[91] It is forbidden according to Swedish law for any administrative
authority to make inquiries about the sources of any type of newspaper.[92] These laws, and the hosting by PRQ,
make it difficult to take WikiLeaks offline; such laws place an onus of proof upon any complainant whose suit would
circumscribe WikiLeaks’ liberty, e.g., its rights, of exercising free speech online. Furthermore, "WikiLeaks maintains
its own servers at undisclosed locations, keeps no logs and uses military-grade encryption to protect sources and
other confidential information." Such arrangements have been called "bulletproof hosting."[88] [93]
On 17 August 2010, it was announced that the Swedish Pirate Party will be hosting and managing many of
WikiLeaks' new servers. The party donates servers and bandwidth to WikiLeaks without charge. Technicians of the
party will make sure that the servers are maintained and working.[94] [95]
After the site became the target of a denial-of-service attack from a hacker on its old servers, WikiLeaks moved its
site to Amazon's servers.[96] Later, however, the website was "ousted" from the Amazon servers.[96] In a public
statement, Amazon said that WikiLeaks was not following its terms of service. The company further explained,
"There were several parts they were violating. For example, our terms of service state that 'you represent and warrant
that you own or otherwise control all of the rights to the content... that use of the content you supply does not violate
this policy and will not cause injury to any person or entity.' It's clear that WikiLeaks doesn't own or otherwise
control all the rights to this classified content."[97] WikiLeaks then decided to install itself on the servers of OVH in
France.[98] After criticism from the French government, the company sought two court rulings about the legality of
hosting WikiLeaks. While the court in Lille immediately declined to force OVH to shut down the WikiLeaks site,
the court in Paris stated it would need more time to examine the highly technical issue.[99] [100]
WikiLeaks is based on several software packages, including MediaWiki, Freenet, Tor, and PGP.[101] WikiLeaks
strongly encouraged postings via Tor because of the strong privacy needs of its users.[102]
On 4 November 2010, Julian Assange told Swiss public television TSR that he is seriously considering seeking
political asylum in neutral Switzerland and setting up a WikiLeaks foundation in the country to move the operation
there.[103] [104] According to Assange, Switzerland and Iceland are the only countries where WikiLeaks would feel
safe to operate.[105] [106]
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Financing
WikiLeaks is a non-profit organisation, and it is dependent on public donations. Its main financing methods include
conventional bank transfers and online payment systems. Wau Holland Foundation, one of the WikiLeaks' main
funding channels, stated that they received more than €900,000 (US$1.2 million) in public donations between
October 2009 and December 2010, out of which €370,000 has been passed on to WikiLeaks. Hendrik Fulda, vice
president of the Wau Holland Foundation, mentioned that the Foundation had been receiving twice as many
donations through PayPal as through normal banks, before PayPal's decision to suspend WikiLeaks' account. He also
noted that every new WikiLeaks publication brought "a wave of support", and that donations were strongest in the
weeks after WikiLeaks started publishing leaked diplomatic cables.[107] [108]

Name servers
WikiLeaks had been using EveryDNS's services, which led to DDoS attacks on the host. The attacks affected the
quality of service at EveryDNS, so the company withdrew their service from WikiLeaks. Pro-WikiLeaks supporters
retaliated by launching a DDoS attack against EveryDNS. Due to mistakes in the blogosphere, some supporters
accidentally mistook EasyDNS for EveryDNS and attacked it. The attacks caused both EveryDNS and EasyDNS to
experience outages. Afterwards EasyDNS decided to provide WikiLeaks its name server service.[109]

Name and policies


Despite using the name "WikiLeaks", the website is no longer wiki-based as of December 2010. Also, despite some
popular confusion[110] due to both having the term "wiki" in their names, WikiLeaks and Wikipedia have no
affiliation with each other;[111] [112] i.e. "wiki" is not a brand name. Wikia, a for-profit corporation loosely affiliated
with the Wikimedia Foundation, did however purchase several WikiLeaks-related domain names (including
wikileaks.com and wikileaks.net) as a "protective brand measure" in 2007.[113]
The "about" page originally read:[114]
To the user, WikiLeaks will look very much like Wikipedia. Anybody can post to it, anybody can edit it.
No technical knowledge is required. Leakers can post documents anonymously and untraceably. Users
can publicly discuss documents and analyze their credibility and veracity. Users can discuss
interpretations and context and collaboratively formulate collective publications. Users can read and
write explanatory articles on leaks along with background material and context. The political relevance
of documents and their verisimilitude will be revealed by a cast of thousands.
However, WikiLeaks established an editorial policy that accepted only documents that were "of political, diplomatic,
historical or ethical interest" (and excluded "material that is already publicly available").[115] This coincided with
early criticism that having no editorial policy would drive out good material with spam and promote "automated or
indiscriminate publication of confidential records."[116] It is no longer possible for anybody to post to it or edit it, as
the original FAQ promised. Instead, submissions are regulated by an internal review process and some are published,
while documents not fitting the editorial criteria are rejected by anonymous WikiLeaks reviewers. By 2008, the
revised FAQ stated that "Anybody can post comments to it. [...] Users can publicly discuss documents and analyse
their credibility and veracity."[117] After the 2010 relaunch, posting new comments to leaks was no longer
possible.[118]
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Verification of submissions
WikiLeaks states that it has never released a misattributed document. Documents are assessed before release. In
response to concerns about the possibility of misleading or fraudulent leaks, WikiLeaks has stated that misleading
leaks "are already well-placed in the mainstream media. WikiLeaks is of no additional assistance."[119] The FAQ
states that: "The simplest and most effective countermeasure is a worldwide community of informed users and
editors who can scrutinise and discuss leaked documents."[120]
According to statements by Assange in 2010, submitted documents are vetted by a group of five reviewers, with
expertise in different fields such as language or programming, who also investigate the background of the leaker if
his or her identity is known.[121] In that group, Assange has the final decision about the assessment of a
document.[121]

Legal status

Legal background
The legal status of WikiLeaks is complex. Assange considers WikiLeaks a whistleblower protection intermediary.
Rather than leaking directly to the press, and fearing exposure and retribution, whistleblowers can leak to
WikiLeaks, which then leaks to the press for them.[122] Its servers are located throughout Europe and are accessible
from any uncensored web connection. The group located its headquarters in Sweden because it has one of the
world’s strongest shield laws to protect confidential source-journalist relationships.[123] [124] WikiLeaks has stated
that they "do not solicit any information".[123] However, Assange used his speech during the Hack In The Box
conference in Malaysia to ask the crowd of hackers and security researchers to help find documents on its "Most
Wanted Leaks of 2009" list.[125]

Potential criminal prosecution


The U.S. Justice Department opened a criminal probe of WikiLeaks and founder Julian Assange shortly after the
leak of diplomatic cables began.[126] [127] Attorney General Eric Holder affirmed the probe was“not sabre-rattling”,
but was "an active, ongoing criminal investigation."[127] The The Washington Post reported that the department was
considering charges under the Espionage Act, a move which former prosecutors characterised as "difficult" because
of First Amendment protections for the press.[126] [128] Several Supreme Court cases have previously established that
the American constitution protects the re-publication of illegally gained information provided the publishers did not
themselves break any laws in acquiring it.[129] Federal prosecutors have also considered prosecuting Assange for
trafficking in stolen government property, but since the diplomatic cables are intellectual rather than physical
property, that approach also faces hurdles.[130] Any prosecution of Assange would require extraditing him to the
United States, a step made more complicated and potentially delayed by any preceding extradition to Sweden.[131]
One of Assange's lawyers, however, says they are fighting extradition to Sweden because it might lead to his
extradition to the United States.[132] Assange's attorney, Mark Stephens, has "heard from Swedish authorities there
has been a secretly empaneled grand jury in Alexandria [Virginia]" meeting to consider criminal charges in the
WikiLeaks case.[133]
In Australia, the government and the Australian Federal Police have not stated what Australian laws may have been
broken by WikiLeaks, but Julia Gillard has stated that the foundation of WikiLeaks and the stealing of classified
documents from the US administration is illegal in foreign countries.[134] Gillard later clarified her statement as
referring to "the original theft of the material by a junior US serviceman rather than any action by Mr Assange."[135]
Spencer Zifcak, President of Liberty Victoria, an Australian civil liberties group, notes that with no charge, and no
trial completed, it is inappropriate to state that WikiLeaks is guilty of illegal activities.[136]
On threats by various governments toward Assange, legal expert Ben Saul argues that founder Julian Assange is the
target of a global smear campaign to demonise him as a criminal or as a terrorist, without any legal basis.[137] The
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Center for Constitutional Rights has issued a statement highlighting its alarm at the "multiple examples of legal
overreach and irregularities" in his arrest.[138]

Insurance file
On 29 July 2010, WikiLeaks added a 1.4 GB "Insurance File" to the Afghan War Diary page. The file is AES
encrypted and has been speculated to serve as insurance in case the WikiLeaks website or its spokesman Julian
Assange are incapacitated, upon which the passphrase could be published, similar to the concept of a dead man's
switch.[139] [140] Following the first few days' release of the US diplomatic cables starting 28 November 2010, the
US television broadcaster CBS predicted that "If anything happens to Assange or the website, a key will go out to
unlock the files. There would then be no way to stop the information from spreading like wildfire because so many
people already have copies."[141] CBS correspondent Declan McCullagh stated, "What most folks are speculating is
that the insurance file contains unreleased information that would be especially embarrassing to the US government
if it were released."[141]

Leaks

2006–08
WikiLeaks posted its first document in December 2006, a decision to assassinate government officials signed by
Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys."[38] In August 2007, The Guardian published a story about corruption by the family of
the former Kenyan leader Daniel arap Moi based on information provided via WikiLeaks.[142] In November 2007, a
March 2003 copy of Standard Operating Procedures for Camp Delta detailing the protocol of the U.S. Army at the
Guantanamo Bay detention camp was released.[143] The document revealed that some prisoners were off-limits to
the International Committee of the Red Cross, something that the U.S. military had in the past repeatedly denied.[144]
In February 2008, WikiLeaks released allegations of illegal activities at the Cayman Islands branch of the Swiss
Bank Julius Baer which led to the bank suing WikiLeaks and obtaining an injunction which temporarily shut down
wikileaks.org.[145] The site was instantly mirrored by supporters and later that month the judge overturned his
previous decision citing First Amendment concerns and questions about legal jurisdiction.[146] [147] In March 2008,
WikiLeaks published what they referred to as "the collected secret 'bibles' of Scientology," and three days later
received letters threatening to sue them for breach of copyright.[148] In September 2008, during the 2008 United
States presidential election campaigns, the contents of a Yahoo account belonging to Sarah Palin (the running mate
of Republican presidential nominee John McCain) were posted on WikiLeaks after being hacked into by members of
Anonymous.[149] In November 2008, the membership list of the far-right British National Party was posted to
WikiLeaks, after briefly appearing on a blog.[150] A year later, on October 2009, another list of BNP members was
leaked.[151]

2009
In January 2009, WikiLeaks released 86 telephone intercept recordings of Peruvian politicians and businessmen
involved in the 2008 Peru oil scandal.[152] In February, WikiLeaks released 6,780 Congressional Research Service
reports[153] followed in March, by a list of contributors to the Norm Coleman senatorial campaign[154] [155] and a set
of documents belonging to Barclays Bank that had been ordered removed from the website of The Guardian.[156] In
July, they released a report relating to a serious nuclear accident that had occurred at the Iranian Natanz nuclear
facility in 2009.[157] Later media reports have suggested that the accident was related to the Stuxnet computer
worm.[158] [159] In September, internal documents from Kaupthing Bank were leaked, from shortly before the
collapse of Iceland's banking sector, which led to the 2008–2010 Icelandic financial crisis. The document shows that
suspiciously large sums of money were loaned to various owners of the bank, and large debts written off.[160] In
October, Joint Services Protocol 440, a British document advising the security services on how to avoid documents
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being leaked was published by WikiLeaks.[161] Later that month, they announced that a super-injunction was being
used by the commodities company, Trafigura to gag The Guardian newspaper from reporting on a leaked internal
document regarding a toxic dumping incident in the Ivory Coast.[162] [163] In November, they hosted copies of e-mail
correspondence between climate scientists, although they were not originally leaked to WikiLeaks.[164] [165] They
also released 570,000 intercepts of pager messages sent on the day of the 11 September attacks.[166] During 2008 and
2009, WikiLeaks published the alleged lists of forbidden or illegal web addresses for Australia, Denmark and
Thailand. These were originally created to prevent access to child pornography and terrorism, but the leaks revealed
that other sites covering unrelated subjects were also listed.[167] [168] [169]

2010
In March 2010, WikiLeaks released a secret 32-page U.S. Department of Defense Counterintelligence Analysis
Report written in March 2008 discussing the leaking of material by WikiLeaks and how it could be deterred.[170]
[171]
In April, a classified video of the 12 July 2007 Baghdad airstrike was released, showing two Reuters employees
being fired at, after the pilots mistakenly thought the men were carrying weapons, which were in fact cameras.[172] In
the week following the release, "wikileaks" was the search term with the most significant growth worldwide in the
last seven days as measured by Google Insights.[173] In January 2010, WikiLeaks received the first test cable[174] A
22-year-old US Army intelligence analyst, PFC (formerly SPC) Bradley Manning, a US embassy cable relating
about IceSave, thereafter referred as "Reykjavik 13". In June 2010, he was arrested after alleged chat logs were
turned in to the authorities by former hacker Adrian Lamo, in whom he had confided. Manning reportedly told Lamo
he had leaked the "Collateral Murder" video, in addition to a video of the Granai airstrike and around 260,000
diplomatic cables, to WikiLeaks.[175] In July, WikiLeaks released 92,000 documents related to the war in
Afghanistan between 2004 and the end of 2009 to The Guardian, The New York Times and Der Spiegel. The
documents detail individual incidents including friendly fire and civilian casualties.[176] At the end of July, a 1.4 GB
"insurance file" was added to the Afghan War Diary page, whose decryption details would be released if WikiLeaks
or Assange were harmed.[139] About 15,000 of the 92,000 documents have not yet been released on WikiLeaks, as
the group is currently reviewing the documents to remove some of the sources of the information. WikiLeaks asked
the Pentagon and human-rights groups to help remove names from the documents to reduce the potential harm
caused by their release, but did not receive assistance.[177] Following the Love Parade stampede in Duisburg,
Germany on 24 July 2010, a local published internal documents of the city administration regarding the planning of
Love Parade. The city government reacted by acquiring a court order on 16 August forcing the removal of the
documents from the site on which it was hosted.[178] On 20 August WikiLeaks released a publication titled
Loveparade 2010 Duisburg planning documents, 2007–2010, which comprised 43 internal documents regarding the
Love Parade 2010.[179] [180] Following on from the leak of information from the Afghan War, in October 2010,
around 400,000 documents relating to the Iraq War were released in October. The BBC quoted The Pentagon
referring to the Iraq War Logs as "the largest leak of classified documents in its history." Media coverage of the
leaked documents focused on claims that the U.S. government had ignored reports of torture by the Iraqi authorities
during the period after the 2003 war.[181]

Diplomatic cables release


On 28 November 2010, WikiLeaks and five major newspapers from Spain (El País), France (Le Monde), Germany
(Der Spiegel), the United Kingdom (The Guardian), and the United States (The New York Times) started to
simultaneously publish the first 220 of 251,287 leaked confidential—but not top secret—diplomatic cables from 274
US embassies around the world, dated from 28 December 1966 to 28 February 2010.[182] [183] WikiLeaks plans to
release the entirety of the cables in phases over several months.[183]
The contents of the diplomatic cables include numerous unguarded comments and revelations regarding: critiques
and praises about the host countries of various US embassies; political manoeuvring regarding climate change;
discussion and resolutions towards ending ongoing tension in the Middle East; efforts and resistance towards nuclear
WikiLeaks 10

disarmament; actions in the War on Terror; assessments of other threats around the world; dealings between various
countries; US intelligence and counterintelligence efforts; and other diplomatic actions. Reactions to the United
States diplomatic cables leak include stark criticism, anticipation, commendation, and quiescence. Consequent
reactions to the US government include sympathy, bewilderment and dismay. On 14 December 2010 the United
States Department of Justice issued a subpoena directing Twitter to provide information for accounts registered to or
associated with WikiLeaks.[184] Twitter decided to notify its users.[185] The overthrow of the presidency in Tunisia
has been attributed in part to reaction against the corruption revealed by leaked cables.[186] [187] [188]

Upcoming leaks
In May 2010, WikiLeaks said they had video footage of a massacre of civilians in Afghanistan by the US military
which they were preparing to release.[189] [190]
In an interview with Chris Anderson on 19 July 2010, Assange showed a document WikiLeaks had on an Albanian
oil well blowout, and said they also had material from inside BP,[191] and that they were "getting enormous quantity
of whistle-blower disclosures of a very high calibre" but added that they have not been able to verify and release the
material because they do not have enough volunteer journalists.[192]
In October 2010, Assange told a leading Moscow newspaper that "The Kremlin had better brace itself for a coming
wave of WikiLeaks disclosures about Russia."[193] [194] Assange later clarified: "we have material on many
businesses and governments, including in Russia. It’s not right to say there’s going to be a particular focus on
Russia".[195]
In a 2009 Computer World interview, Assange claimed to be in possession of "5GB from Bank of America". In 2010
he told Forbes magazine that WikiLeaks was planning another "megaleak" early in 2011, from inside the private
sector, involving "a big U.S. bank" and revealing an "ecosystem of corruption". Bank of America's stock price fell by
3% as a result of this announcement.[196] [197] Assange commented on the possible impact of the release that ”it
could take down a bank or two.”[198] [199]
In December 2010, Assange's lawyer, Mark Stephens, told The Andrew Marr Show on the BBC, that WikiLeaks had
information it considers to be a "thermo-nuclear device" which it would release if the organisation needs to defend
itself.[200]
In January 2011, Rudolf Elmer, a former Swiss banker, passed on data containing account details of 2,000 prominent
people to Assange, who stated that the information will be vetted before being made publicly available at a later
date.[201]

Backlash and pressure

Governments

Germany
The home of Theodor Reppe, registrant of the German WikiLeaks domain name, wikileaks.de, was raided on 24
March 2009 after WikiLeaks released the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) censorship
blacklist.[202] The site was not affected.[203] [204]

People's Republic of China


The WikiLeaks website claims that the government of the People's Republic of China has attempted to block all
traffic to web sites with "wikileaks" in the URL since 2007, but that this can be bypassed through encrypted
connections or by using one of WikiLeaks' many covert URLs.[205]
WikiLeaks 11

Australia
On 16 March 2009, the Australian Communications and Media Authority added WikiLeaks to their proposed
blacklist of sites that will be blocked for all Australians if the mandatory internet filtering censorship scheme is
implemented as planned.[206] [207] The blacklisting was removed 30 November 2010.[208]

Thailand
The Centre for the Resolution of the Emergency Situation (CRES) is currently censoring the website WikiLeaks in
Thailand[209] and more than 40,000 other webpages[210] because of the emergency decree in Thailand imposed as a
result of political instabilities (Emergency decree declared beginning of April 2010[211] ).

United States
Access to WikiLeaks is currently blocked in the United States Library of Congress.[212] On 3 December 2010 the
White House Office of Management and Budget sent a memo forbidding all unauthorised federal government
employees and contractors from accessing classified documents publicly available on WikiLeaks and other
websites.[213] The U.S. Army, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Justice Department are considering
criminally prosecuting WikiLeaks and Assange "on grounds they encouraged the theft of government property",[214]
although former prosecutors say doing so would be difficult.[128] According to a report on the Daily Beast website,
the Obama administration asked Britain, Germany and Australia among others to also consider bringing criminal
charges against Assange for the Afghan war leaks and to help limit Assange's travels across international
borders.[215] Columbia University students have been warned by their Office of Career Services that the U.S. State
Department had contacted the office in an email saying that the diplomatic cables which were released by WikiLeaks
were "still considered classified." and that "online discourse about the documents 'would call into question your
ability to deal with confidential information.'"[216]
All U.S. federal government staff have been blocked from viewing WikiLeaks.[217] Some Department of Homeland
Security staff say the ban on accessing WikiLeaks on government computers and other government devices is
hampering their work; "More damage will be done by keeping the federal workforce largely in the dark about what
other interested parties worldwide are going to be reading and analysing." One official says that the ban apparently
covers personal computers also.[218]

Iceland
After the release of the 2007 airstrikes video and as they prepared to release film of the Granai airstrike, Julian
Assange has said that his group of volunteers came under intense surveillance. In an interview and Twitter posts he
said that a restaurant in Reykjavík where his group of volunteers met came under surveillance in March; there was
"covert following and hidden photography" by police and foreign intelligence services; that an apparent British
intelligence agent made thinly veiled threats in a Luxembourg car park; and that one of the volunteers was detained
by police for 21 hours. Another volunteer posted that computers were seized, saying "If anything happens to us, you
know why ... and you know who is responsible."[219] According to the Columbia Journalism Review, "the Icelandic
press took a look at Assange’s charges of being surveilled in Iceland [...] and, at best, have found nothing to
substantiate them."[220]
In August 2009, Kaupthing Bank succeeded in obtaining a court order gagging Iceland’s national broadcaster, RÚV,
from broadcasting a risk analysis report showing the bank's substantial exposure to debt default risk. This
information had been leaked by a whistleblower to WikiLeaks and remained available on the WikiLeaks site; faced
with an injunction minutes before broadcast the channel ran with a screen grab of the WikiLeaks site instead of the
scheduled piece on the bank. Citizens of Iceland felt outraged that RÚV was prevented from broadcasting news of
relevance.[221] Therefore, WikiLeaks has been credited with inspiring the Icelandic Modern Media Initiative, a bill
meant to reclaim Iceland's 2007 Reporters Without Borders (Reporters sans frontières) ranking as first in the world
for free speech. It aims to enact a range of protections for sources, journalists, and publishers.[222] [223] Birgitta
WikiLeaks 12

Jónsdóttir, a former volunteer for WikiLeaks and member of the Icelandic parliament, is the chief sponsor of the
proposal.

Organisations and companies

Facebook
WikiLeaks claimed in April 2010 that Facebook deleted their fan page, which had 30,000 fans.[224] [225] [226]
However, as of 7 December 2010 the group's Facebook fan page was available and had grown by 100,000 fans daily
since 1 December,[227] to more than 1.5 million fans. It is also the largest growth of the week.[228] Regarding the
presence of WikiLeaks on Facebook, Andrew Noyes, the company's D.C. based Manager of Public Policy
Communications has stated "the Wikileaks Facebook Page does not violate our content standards nor have we
encountered any material posted on the page that violates our policies."[229]

Moneybookers
In October 2010, it was reported that Moneybookers, which collected donations for WikiLeaks, had ended its
relationship with the site. Moneybookers stated that its decision had been made "to comply with money laundering
or other investigations conducted by government authorities, agencies or commissions."[230]

U.S. diplomatic cables leak responses


According to The Times, WikiLeaks and its members have complained about continuing harassment and surveillance
by law enforcement and intelligence organisations, including extended detention, seizure of computers, veiled
threats, “covert following and hidden photography.”[189] Two lawyers for Julian Assange in the United Kingdom told
The Guardian that they believed they were being watched by the security services after the U.S. cables leak, which
started on 28 November 2010.[231]
Furthermore, several companies severed ties with WikiLeaks. After providing 24-hour notification, American owned
EveryDNS dropped WikiLeaks from its entries on 2 December 2010, citing DDoS attacks that "threatened the
stability of its infrastructure".[86] [232] The site's 'info' DNS lookup remained operational at alternative addresses for
direct access respectively to the WikiLeaks and Cablegate websites.[233] On the same day, Amazon.com severed its
ties with WikiLeaks, to which it was providing infrastructure services, after an intervention by an aide of U.S.
Senator Joe Lieberman.[234] [235] [236] Amazon denied acting under political pressure citing a violation of its terms of
service.[237] Citing indirect pressure from the U.S. Government, Tableau Software also dropped WikiLeaks' data
from its site for people to use for data visualisation.[238] [239]
In the days following, hundreds of (and eventually more than a thousand[240] ) mirrors of the WikiLeaks site
appeared and the Anonymous group of internet activists, called on supporters to attack the websites of companies
which do not support WikiLeaks,[241] under the banner of Operation Payback, previously aimed at anti-piracy
organisations.[242] AFP reported that attempts to shut down the wikileaks.org address had led to the site surviving via
the so-called Streisand effect, whereby attempts to censor information online leads to it being replicated in many
places.[243]
On 3 December, PayPal, the payment processor owned by eBay, permanently cut off the account of the Wau Holland
Foundation that had been redirecting donations to WikiLeaks. PayPal alleged that the account violated its
"Acceptable Use Policy", specifically that it was used for "activities that encourage, promote, facilitate or instruct
others to engage in illegal activity."[244] [245] The Vice President of PayPal later stated that they stopped accepting
payments after the “State Department told us these were illegal activities. It was straightforward.” Later the same
day, he said that his previous statement was incorrect, and that it was in fact based on a letter from the State
Department to WikiLeaks.[246] On 8 December 2010, the Wau Holland Foundation released a press statement,
saying it has filed a legal action against PayPal for blocking its account used for WikiLeaks payments and for libel
due to PayPal's allegations of "illegal activity".[247]
WikiLeaks 13

On 6 December, the Swiss bank, PostFinance, announced that it had frozen the assets of Assange that it holds,
totalling 31,000 euros. In a statement on their website, they stated that this was because Assange "provided false
information regarding his place of residence" when opening the account.[248] WikiLeaks released a statement saying
this was due to that Assange, "as a homeless refugee attempting to gain residency in Switzerland, had used his
lawyer's address in Geneva for the bank's correspondence".[249] On the same day, MasterCard announced that it "is
taking action to ensure that WikiLeaks can no longer accept MasterCard-branded products", adding "MasterCard
rules prohibit customers from directly or indirectly engaging in or facilitating any action that is illegal."[250] The next
day, Visa Inc. announced it was suspending payments to WikiLeaks, pending "further investigations".[251] In a move
of support for WikiLeaks, XIPWIRE established a way to donate to WikiLeaks, and waived their fees.[252] Datacell,
the Swiss-based IT company that enabled WikiLeaks to accept credit card donations, announced that it will take
legal action against Visa Europe and Mastercard, in order to resume allowing payments to the website.[253] On 18
December, Bank of America announced it would "not process transactions of any type that we have reason to believe
are intended for Wikileaks" citing "Wikileaks may be engaged in activities that are... inconsistent with our internal
policies for processing payments". WikiLeaks responded in a tweet by encouraging their supporters who were BoA
customer to close their accounts. Bank of America has long been believed to be the target of WikiLeaks' next major
release.[254]
On 7 December, The Guardian stated that people can still donate to WikiLeaks via Commerzbank Kassel in
Germany or Landsbanki in Iceland or by post to a post office box at the University of Melbourne or at the
wikileaks.ch domain.[255]
The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay has stated that Visa, Mastercard and Amazon may be
'violating WikiLeaks' e pluribus unum right to freedom of expression' by withdrawing their services.[256]
On 21 December, media reported that Apple had removed an application from its App Store, which provided access
to the embassy cable leaks.[257]
As part of its 'Initial Assessments Pursuant to ... WikiLeaks', the US Presidential Executive Office has issued a
memorandum to the heads of Executive Departments and Agencies asking whether they have an 'insider threat
program'.[258] [259]

Spin-offs
Releases of US diplomatic cables inspired the creation of a number of other organisations based on the WikiLeaks
model.[260]
• OpenLeaks was created by the former deputy to Assange. Daniel Domscheit-Berg said the intention was to be
more transparent than WikiLeaks as "In these last months, the organisation has not been open any more. It lost its
open-source promise." It planned to start in early 2011.
• Brussels Leaks [261] was focused on the European Union as a collaborative effort of media professionals and
activists that sought to "pull the shady inner workings of the EU system out into the public domain. This is about
getting important information out there, not about Brusselsleaks [or any other 'leaks' for that matter]."
• TradeLeaks [262] was created to "do to trade and commerce what WikiLeaks has done to politics." It was founded
by Australian Ruslan Kogan. Its goal is to ensure ""individuals and businesses should attain values from others
through mutually beneficial and fully consensual trade, rather than force, fraud or deception."
• Balkan Leaks [263] was founded by Bulgarain Atanas Chobanov in order to make the Balkans more transparent
and to fight corruption as "There are plenty of people out there that want to change the Balkans for good and are
ready to take on the challenge. We're offering them a hand."
• Indoleaks [264] is an Indonesian site that seeks to publish classified documents primarily from the Indonesian
government.
• RuLeaks [265] is aimed at being a Russian equivalent to WikiLeaks. It was originally launched to provide
translated versions of the WikiLeaks cables but the Moscow Times reports it has started to publish its own content
WikiLeaks 14

as well.[266]

Footnotes
Notes
1. The wikileaks.org domain currently redirects to mirror.wikileaks.info, a domain which is not included in the
official list of mirrors.
References
[1] http:/ / wikileaks. ch/
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[3] "Twitter / WikiLeaks: Cablegate" (http:/ / twitter. com/ wikileaks/ statuses/ 13275437891321856#). Twitter. 10 December 2010. . Retrieved
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[4] http:/ / wikileaks. ch/ Mirrors. html
[5] "Whois Search Results: wikileaks.org" (http:/ / who. godaddy. com/ WhoIs. aspx?domain=wikileaks. org& isc=ALEXADOM).
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Further reading
• Ampie, Guillermo Fernandez (20 October 2010). "Wikileaks and Freedom of the Press" (http://www.
havanatimes.org/?p=31387). Havana Times. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
• Assange, Julian (et al). (18 April 2010) (MP4). Logan Symposium: The New Initiatives (http://fora.tv/2010/04/
18/Logan_Symposium_The_New_Initiatives). [Video]. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley
Graduate School of Journalism. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
• Conway, Drew (17 August 2010). "Animated Heatmap of WikiLeaks Report Intensity in Afghanistan" (http://
www.r-bloggers.com/animated-heatmap-of-wikileaks-report-intensity-in-afghanistan/). R-bloggers.com.
Retrieved 18 December 2010.
• Garfield, Bob (13 March 2009). "Transcript of 'Leak Proof'" (http://www.onthemedia.org/transcripts/2009/03/
13/04/). On The Media (WNYC). Retrieved 18 December 2010.
WikiLeaks 24

• Sifry, Micah L.. WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency (http://www.orbooks.com/our-books/wikileaks/).


OR Books.
• "Special Reports: WikiLeaks Revelations" (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-11863274). BBC News
Online. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
• "Specials: WikiLeaks" (http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/0,28757,2034088,00.html). TIME.
Retrieved 19 December 2010.
• "Topics: WikiLeaks" (http://www.reuters.com/subjects/wikileaks). Reuters. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
• Wikileaks. (30 December 2008) (M4V). Wikileaks vs. the World (http://chaosradio.ccc.de/25c3_m4v_2916.
html). [Video]. Berlin: 25th Chaos Communication Congress. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
• "WikiLeaks, the Internet and Democracy" (http://www.therealnews.com/t2/index.php?option=com_content&
task=view&id=31&Itemid=74&jumival=6124). The Real News. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
• "Daniel Ellsberg: We Need Whistleblowers to Stop Murder" (http://therealnews.com/t2/index.
php?option=com_content&task=view&id=31&Itemid=74&jumival=6132). The Real News. 24 January 2011.

External links
• Official website (http://http://www.wikileaks.ch/) (active from 15 December 2010)
• WikiLeaks (http://www.facebook.com/wikileaks) on Facebook
• WikiLeaks (http://twitter.com/wikileaks) on Twitter
Article Sources and Contributors 25

Article Sources and Contributors


WikiLeaks  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=414384069  Contributors: 33 Degrees, 84user, A Nobody, A little insignificant, ACSE, AEMoreira042281, AMIGA dUDE,
AOC25, Aa42john, Aaron Brenneman, Abhishikt, Absolutely Trustworthy, Acather96, Achangeisasgoodasa, Aetheling, Afkatk, Aguiville10, Aknorals, Akrasiac, Alam82, Alarichall, Alerante,
Alexcalamaro, Alexh19740110, Alias777, Alison, Amckern, Amire80, Amog, Amrush, Amuletxheart, Andjam, AndrewHowse, Andrewlp1991, Andryono, Andy Marchbanks, AndyTheGrump,
Angel ivanov angelov, AnimeJanai, AnonMoos, Anonymous Dissident, Apple62, Arif Zaman, Armbrust, ArnoldReinhold, Asantool, Ashirgo, Asportspro, Asteriks, Astronomyinertia,
Athomic69, Athuljayaram, Atlantia, Audacity, Auntof6, Auric, AussieBoy, Australian Matt, Averater, Avoided, Awesomebitch, Awiseman, AxelBoldt, Axeman89, Axsuul, Ayeowch, AzaToth,
AzureCitizen, B8ee1, BD2412, Back ache, Badagnani, Balloonman, Bamtelim, Banana04131, Barrylb, Barticus88, Bdell555, Bearplay, Beeblebrox, Belekvor, Beltrame-kr, Bender235, Bensin,
Bevinbell, Bfigura, Bjorn I. Clever, Blatand, BlazerKnight, Blue Mirage, Bonni, BorgQueen, Boud, Boyd Reimer, BrekekekexKoaxKoax, BrettAllen, Brewcrewer, Bringa, Bryan Derksen,
BryanFrazar, Btnheazy03, Bubba73, Bukharin, BullRangifer, Bulp, Burningview, ButOnMethItIs, Bwaldher, Bwileyr, C0mmandh4acker4, C628, CMBJ, Calaka, Calestyo, Callidior, Camilo
Sanchez, CanadianLinuxUser, Canley, Cannibaloki, Captain panda, Catskul, Catslash, Cb6, Cenarium, Cerian, Cffrost, Cfust, Chaojoker, Charleswj, CharlieEchoTango, Chase me ladies, I'm the
Cavalry, Chaser, Chaser (away), Chechtal, CheesyBiscuit, Chemicalinterest, Chip Zero, Chopz, Chris the speller, Chrishmt0423, ChrissyTorve, ChristianLAX, Christopher Connor,
Christopherbrian, Cirt, Claviola, Clayhalliwell, Cobaltbluetony, Cojoco, ColdWind, CommonsDelinker, CompuHacker, Congruence, Conti, Copypoc, Cosmic Latte, Count Iblis, Counteraction,
Courcelles, Creatcher, Credema, Croos, Cumulus Clouds, Cybercobra, Cymbelmineer, D-Notice, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DAVilla, DC, Dabrosch, Daenakrys, Dailyinfoperson, Danielspencer2,
DannyDaWriter, Dario D., Dark Mage, Darrenslivetv, Davemck, Daveswagon, David Chouinard, David Gerard, David Levy, David in DC, David spector, Dbachmann, Dcoetzee, DeansFA, Deer
Assassin, Demiurge1000, DerVoland, Dfrg.msc, Dinomite, Diving2010, Dkusic1, Dmarquard, DocWatson42, Doczilla, Dodiad, Dolenzter, Douglasr007, Dougweller, Dqd, DragonFire1024,
DragonflySixtyseven, Drlight11, Drmies, Drum guy, Duff06, Dvmedis, Dxco, Dylan Flaherty, E2eamon, EBusiness, Eamo-ie, Eastlaw, Ebraminio, Echofloripa, Edcolins, EditorInTheRye,
Edkollin, Edward, Efitu, Eik Corell, ElPipita, Eleassar, Elektrik Shoos, Eleland, Emedia10, Emerson7, Emijrp, Emma li mk, Emptytalk, Emurphy42, Enemenemu, Engelberg, EoGuy, Ericoides,
Erkcan, Ernstk, ErrantX, Erxnmedia, Esanchez7587, Escape Orbit, Espoo, Ethyr, Eurobas, Eurodollers, Evert:Meulie, Everyme, Everything counts, F.F.McGurk, FCYTravis, FT2, Fanatix, Father
Goose, Fearofreprisal, Felixhonecker, Fences and windows, Fij, Filmested, Fiskbil, Flatterworld, FormerIP, Fradeve11, Fram, Fran Rogers, Frankatca, Frap, Frasor, Freakshownerd,
Frontlinewest, Frór, Funandtrvl, Fæ, GDallimore, Gabrielross, Galatee, Galoubet, Gargabook, Gargantu, Gary King, Gavia immer, Gekritzl, Geniac, Geoff B, GeorgeLouis, Ghostofnemo,
Giachen, Gil Gamesh, Girlscoutcookiesz, Glachlan, Goethean, Gonzalo84, Grantor, Graymornings, Great2bnaustin, Green Cardamom, Greg Comlish, Gregcaletta, GregorB, Grenavitar,
Gringoguapo, Gripen-delta, Groasvans, Grosscha, Grotte, Grover cleveland, Gulmammad, Gurch, Gwern, Gwynand, H2g2bob, HJ Mitchell, HaeB, Hailey C. Shannon, HamburgerRadio,
Hamiltondaniel, Hammersbach, Hankybro21, Happyisenough, Harel, Harryzilber, HavokCR, HelgeStenstrom, Helohe, Hemidemisemiquaver, Henrychesthalf, Heroeswithmetaphors, Hersfold,
Hervegirod, Hgrosser, Hippychickali, Hispanosuiza, HkCaGu, Hoary, Hunter Kahn, Huntster, Hurley124, Hvn0413, I dream of horses, IRWolfie-, Ianmacm, Ignorance is strength,
Indextookviewsgoals, Inertia Tensor, Infoboj, Int21h, InternetMeme, Intgr, InverseHypercube, Invincible, Iqinn, Iracarmel, Ivanlul, Ixfd64, Izno, J Milburn, J.smith, J4V4, JForget, JJ Harrison,
JJTsai, JPLeonard, JRBC1, JWaters, Jack Offenbach, Jack who built the house, Jack14112, James Hardine, James Russiello, JamesHenstridge, JamesMLane, JanDeFietser, Jandalhandler,
Janegca, Jaque Didolet, Jasontable, Jcriddle4, Jdhunt, Jeannedeba, Jeffq, Jenkinslane, Jenks24, Jerome Charles Potts, JettaMann, Jhartmann, Jinlye, Jnc, JoThousand, John, John Hyams, John
Vandenberg, John0101ddd, JohnLloydScharf, Johnuniq, Joker264, JonDePlume, Jonik, Jonsafari, Josegiraffio, JoshBosh, Joshdboz, Joshua Issac, JoshuaZ, Joshuaterrill, Jovianeye, Jpatokal,
Jrtayloriv, Jrun, Julesd, JureLc, Jverkoey, KTo288, Kai-Hendrik, Kaihsu, Kajervi, Kansan, KarlM, Kasyapa, Kathleen.wright5, Katimawan2005, Keimzelle, Kencf0618, Kendrick7,
Kevinredmon, Keys767, Khukri, KimDabelsteinPetersen, KirkCliff2, Kissekatt, Kkm010, Kmhkmh, Kmw2700, Koavf, Korg, Kshannon, L Kensington, LMB, LPedroMachado, Lamp25, LarRan,
Larry.europe, Laualoha, Levin2007, Lewiscb, Lexicografía, Lib3rtine, Lihaas, LilHelpa, Lilac Soul, Lingust, Lithistman, Lkstrand, Logan, Logical2u, Lonelydarksky, Lookhot, LordThoru, Luk,
Lumos3, Lurker, Lwc, Lykantrop, M.nelson, Mac, Mackensen, Maelwys, Maged123, Magioladitis, Mahir78, Mahmoudalrawi, Maire, MajorVariola, Male1979, Mantisia, Maproom, Marainlaw,
Marco Guzman, Jr, Marcosdsanchez, Marcus Qwertyus, Mark, Markchew2010, Markhurd, Martarius, Martinaharis, Martymay, MastCell, Master z0b, Materialscientist, Matt Crypto, Matt Deres,
MattWright, Mattgirling, MattisManzel, Maurice Carbonaro, Maxigas, Maximumrebel1, Mbumburu, Mcculley, Mcdonnap, Mebden, Meco, Meitme, Merrill Stubing, Mersperto, Mervyn, Michael
C Price, Michaeldsuarez, Micro360, Mike R, Mimihitam, Mindmatrix, Mitch Ames, Mjsa, Mokgen, Motorizer, Mporter, Mr. Granger, Mr.grantevans2, MrBosnia, MrTux, Mramz88, Mrtea,
Mrwho00tm, Mu301, Muhends, Multipole, Musan, Muzz3256, Mx3, Mysid, Mystery250, NYCJosh, Nascar1996, NawlinWiki, Nayak52, Ne0Freedom, Neo139, Neofelis Nebulosa, Nhantdn,
Nick.pippin, Nicolasmontoya, Nihiltres, Nohomers48, Nopetro, Nricardo, Nthep, NuclearWarfare, Numen, Nunquam Dormio, Nymf, Ocaasi, Odder, Ohconfucius, Ok!, Omegatron, Ominae,
Onlinereal, Orange Suede Sofa, Oren0, Orphan Wiki, Otto Knell, Oyoyoy, P. S. Burton, PIL1987, PLehany, Palthrow, Parsecboy, PatrikR, Patroiz, PaulxSA, Peanut4, Pedant, Peepeedia,
PerryTachett, Peter Isotalo, Peterdoggy, Peterlewis, Petrb, Pgolobish, Phearson, Philip Cross, Phocks, Physics16, Piano non troppo, Picaroon, Pioneeranomoly, Planetary, Plasmide69, Pmsyyz,
Pnd, Polylerus, Pondwater, Postdlf, Poxnar, Prathfig, Pratyeka, Puranjan Dev, Purpleturple, Pxma, Q Chris, Qnonsense, Quangbao, Quantumelfmage, Quebec99, Quigley, Qwyrxian, R.Schuster,
RIPGC, RadioBroadcast, Rajah, Rama, Ravensfire, Rebarbel, Redthoreau, RegentsPark, Reinoutr, Reisio, RekishiEJ, RenniePet, Reston29, Retran, Rich Farmbrough, Rickard5, Riffraffselbow,
Rightisright4250, Rincorn, Rjwilmsi, Rkmlai, Rl, Rmosler2100, Rob T Firefly, Robofish, RockMFR, Rocutus, Rodhullandemu, Roger.Dudley, Rollins83, Ronaldc0224, Rossen4, RoyBoy,
Rumping, Runnable, Rworsnop, Ryulong, S!lver NL, SE7, SF007, Saddhiyama, Sade, Saeed.Veradi, Salazasu, Salsapica, Salvio giuliano, Sameera, Sampadakudu, Sapdutta, SasiSasi,
Sasquatch5000, Sastrawan, Sburke, Scapler, Sceptre, Schnitzi, Scipius, Searcher 1990, Segagman, Selbs101, Seldonquin, Senor Freebie, Seren-dipper, Sfan00 IMG, Shadowjams, Sharonmil,
Shaundakulbara, Shii, Shimgray, Shirt58, Shoeofdeath, Simetrical, Sj, Skakkle, Skenmy, Skizzik, Skomorokh, Skysmith, Sladen, Slarre, Slatedorg, SlimVirgin, Smallman12q, Smartse, Sonia,
Sonicsuns, Sonjaaa, Sonodo, Soothtruth, Sp33dyphil, Sparco138, Sparkygravity, Spencer1157, Spitzl, Splette, Squiddy, Srich32977, Stefanc1982, Stemonitis, Stepopen, Steve pd, SteveSims,
Steven J. Anderson, Steven Walling, Stevenfruitsmaak, Storvallis, Stricken83, Strolls, Stuart P. Bentley, Stumps, Stybn, Subsolar, Sugar-Baby-Love, Sultanselim, Sumbuddi,
SummerWithMorons, Sunflower at Dawn, Superm401, Surtsicna, Suruena, Sven Manguard, T g7, T-y-g3, TAG.Odessa, TFOWR, Tabletop, Tagishsimon, TakuyaMurata, Talgalili, Tasty
monster, Tbhotch, Tcb1992, Teinesavaii, Templar98, Tequendamia, Termagent, Terramoto, Terrillja, Th1rt3en, Thaek, The Fwanksta, The Magnificent Clean-keeper, The Thing That Should Not
Be, The silent gnome, TheCoffee, TheIguana, TheSix, Theleftorium, Thelen Shar, Themania, Threeafterthree, Thumperward, ThurnerRupert, Tijfo098, Timc, Timeshifter, Timrollpickering,
Timwi, Tisane, Tktru, Toa Nidhiki05, Toadstuhl, Tomchen1989, Tomhannen, Tony Myers, Tony Sidaway, Tony1, Torinir, Tpbradbury, Trangdoannguyen, TraumaPony, Trivialist, TrulyBlue,
Trycatch, Trödel, TucsonDavid, Twilsonb, TylerGaRyan, Tyrol5, UBeR, Ultra megatron, Ultramarine, Umanskaya, Underpants, Unibrow1994, Universalcosmos, Utcursch, VEO15, Venomviper,
Veritysense, Vicharam, Victor Greenstreet, Victor falk, Viriditas, Voidxor, WLRoss, WVRMad, Wackywace, Wafulz, WakiMiko, Waldir, Walks on Water, Waterfox, WayCon, Wayne Slam,
Wayne shoter, WebHamster, Weedbag, Whiner01, WhisperToMe, WhisperingWisdom, Wideangle, Wiggles007, Wiki Fox, WikiSkeptic, Wikiacc, Wikidemon, Wikileaks, Wikky Horse,
Williamsburgland, Winnetoucan, Wknight94, Wkurzius, Wnt, WolfRisingSun, Wookie needs cookie, Wordwright, Wouterstomp, WrenandStimpy, Wtfk, Ww, Wwwwolf, XP1, Xandi,
Xavexgoem, Xiong Chiamiov, Yellowdesk, Yug, Zagalejo, Zanimum, Zenmasterj, Zidane2k1, Ziga, Zinneke, Zntrip, 568 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Wikileaks logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wikileaks_logo.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Wikileaks ,
Nowikileaks
File:Julian Assange (Norway, March 2010).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Julian_Assange_(Norway,_March_2010).jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution
2.0  Contributors: Espen Moe

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/