A Thirteenth Century Tibetan Hymn to the Siddha Tilopa

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The name of the 10th century Bengali siddha Tillopada, variouslY'passing through the idioms of Northern India into Tibetan, is attested in the Tibetan hagiology (rnam thar) as Tillopa, Tillipa, Tellipa, Tilopa, Telopa, Tailopa or Tailikapada. All of these forms are derived from the Sanskrit tila (Tib. til), "sesame," and refer to his work as an extractor of sesame seed oil. We are informed by Mar pa (1012-97) in his Te 10 pa'i 10 rgyus (foIAbA) that, since he worked in thrashing sesame grains (til 'bru ba'i las byas), Indians called him Tilopa, and Tibetans the Sesame-watcher (til bsrungs

zhabs).
Being the first human guru of all bKa' -brgyud-pa traditions, the narrative of Tilopa's life usually opens the collections of hagiographies, or "golden rosaries" (gser 'phreng) of the masters prominent in those lineages. From the literary point of view, one of the oldest and most charming of these accounts is the rle btsun chen po Tilli pa'i rnam par thar pa by rGyal thang pa bDe chen rdo rje. According to the English "Preface" to the photostat reproduction, the author was a disciple of the better known rGod tshang pa mGon po rdo rje (1189-1258), "the last guru whose biography appears in this collection." As for the manuscript, on the basis of a list (p.619) of those who had it copied, the style of the miniatures, and the dbu med script, it was probably composed in the decades spanning the 15th and the 16th century. As we read at fol.1b.1-2, the rnam thar is divided into two sections: 1. fols. lb.3-2b.l-rtsa ba'i tshig stan pa, the "original words," i.e. a hymn of 13 verses of praise, in which all the circumstances and events constituting the traditional material of the hagiographies of Tilopa are summarized; 2. fols. 2b.1-22a.3-rtsa ba'i tshig 'grel pa stan pa, the "comment upon the original words," arranged in 13 explanatory chapters, each headed by one verse of the hymn. May these verses be an occasion to catch a new glimpse of the life of that great siddha.
•• I wish to thank my British friends Aidan Lalor and Abigail Griffiths for their precious help in revising the archaistic style of the translation of the hymn.

Furthermore (foI.2-3).2bA-5) recalls the authority of the I)iika1'1Javamahiiyoginftantrarajavahikatika (mKha' 'gro rgya mtsho'i rgyud 'grel.5): nga ni sangs rgyas rang ngo yin II nga ni 'gro ba'i mgon po yin II rGyal thang pa (fols. 2b. She addresses Tilopa as the actual essence of past. future and present Buddhas.lb.2b. Nirvikalpavajra (rTog med rdo rje). 1419). as the actual essence of Vajrasattva (rdo ri! sems dpa'i ngo bo nyid).2 : rje filii fol.3 : rje btsun fol. and Tilopa. 0 Lord Tilopa All Buddhas of the three times. a song of realization (rtogs pa'i mgur) ascribed to Tilopa himself with an akin autocelebration is quoted (fo1.ll'l~J~'Sl"~'(1'~'~ Homage to the Glorious Guru Prajnabhadra! In the opening invocation rGyal thang pa addresses Tilopa as Prajnabhadra (Shes rab bzang po). Jagannatha). Sukhacakra (hOe ba'i 'khor 10). therefore.) in his Te 10 pa'i rnam thar (folA3b.3a. Tilopa himself.J·z::Jf~l1 ') la) tilli fol.7-3a-1) first refers to the words of the queen of I. which is one his names. Being one [with Thee] in Body Speech and Mind. rGyal thang pa (fo1.J·Sz:tl·~tia.j~'rJ~l lal·3J·S~·a. Protector of beings. Other mystic appellations (gsang mtshan) of him have been registered by rOo rje mdzes 'od (13th cent.2b.z:tl~3J'~~~'$~'£13J~'~~'~1 1~·z:tl~~·~z:tl~·~~·~9~ '. VajravarahI (rOo rje phag mo).2b. while speaking to King . where the thrasher of sesame Prajftabhadra is hailed by Vajrayana yogins as a protector of beings proceeded from the very being of Buddhas (sangs rgyas nyid lJyon 'gro ba'i mgon).3 I 0 Buddha. I devoutly praise Thee! As to the title "Protector of beings" ('Gro ba'i mgon.1-2). 1~a. or Oharmakaya-jftanagakinI (Chos sku Ye shes mkha ' gro ma). Then. Kalapa.)akinls. o Guru.J·~·~~~·$~'~~z::J~'3J~~1 1~~. the consort of Cakrasaqwara here called Bhagavati VajrayoginI (hCom ldan 'das ma rOo rje mal'byor ma).1b. T6hoku no. they are Mahasukhavajra (hOe chen rdo rje).3 Id) bla 1TIJl fol.

is pointed out as one without human teachers. by the scriptural (lung rigs) and oral (man ngag) traditions. oral instructions and reasoning. being Cakrasarpvara. in the context of oral tradition.3-4) runs as follows. praise unto Thee! The identification of Tilopa with Cakrasarpvara (bOe mchog 'khor 10) as "particular existent" (dllgos) is proved. according to rGyal thang pa.3a. he would not have been able to lead all the inhabitants of Zahor-as it has been reported-to the Oakinis' land of the Great Bliss (rnklta' spyod bde c1lengyi sa). Tilopa himself professed to a self-originated (svayambhu) Buddha. to the self-liberation of the Sublime Bliss (bde ba mc1log = bOe mchog). rGyal thang pa mentions the words of Oharmakayajnana4akini: she is said to have confessed to her retinue on Tilopa's arrival to U44iyaQa that. in which Tilopa.11·s~·l'13·~f~l ~ 1 2 0 Tilopa. l~e:-~' ~~'~l'13'~l'13'aJ'Ql $~' ~ l~~·Q~·~~·~l'~·~rr~·af ~~l ~ l~e:-'~~~'~~'e:-~' tI.l). since he was Cakrasarpvara.~'~~'~~1 l~l'13·Q~·!~·~l'l.3b.3b.6).2-3): nga ni rang byung sangs rgyas yin II nga yis mlchyen pa mll slabs te II sgra tshad rig pa rang rdol yin II nga ni bde md/og 'Ichor 10 dngos II From the reasoning point of view.e. and Cakrasarpvara as particular existent (foI.1-2). A quotation from the siddha Lavapa follows as well (foI. l~l'13'Q~'!~'~ l'lIl'~l'13'aJ'Ql l~e:-'~~~'~~~'if~~'~~'~~l . the Sambarodbhava-tantratflca (sdom pa 'byung ba'i rgyud kyi rgya 'grel) is cited. [Thou art] in particular Cakrasarpvara himself: Perfect on the basis of scriptures. father of all Buddhas of the three times. o Sublime Incarnation. Then (foI.3b. even thunder from the sky had no power on him.7-b. as an absolute manifestation of the Buddhas.Sirphacandra (Seng ge zla ba). claimed to be one with the Body. as well as by reasoning (tshad ma). Speech and Mind of all Buddhas of the three times. rGyal thang pa's argument (foI. As for the scriptures (fol. i. spontaneously learned without any training. Had Tilopa not been Cakrasarpvara (hOe rnchog).3a. Again.

of Cakrasaq\Vara.~'r". Dza ko. A region occupied by the Brahmaputra: Being born in that sublime place. in particular. Jambudvipa. which is to be identified with the modem Chittagong. 0 Lord. or 'Jha go) is obscure.t~·~OJl ~ l~~~·~r~·~~·r".4 4 Sahalokadhatu. All sentient beings of this world. as a sublime incarnation.. Dza go.lZ"4~'~~'~~~'[' ~~'?fw~l lf~'. i3ut he resolved. otherwise written Dza ko.1b. t~·r. or Catigharo. Tilopa chose this universe. Are assisted.1-3)that the spiritual mansion of Tilopa was Akani~tha ('Og min). The region where the Brahmaputra runs its course would have been. The toponym Jago (Tib. ko fo1.a family and. praise unto Thee! Tilopa being an absolute manifestation of the Buddhas and. praise unto Thee! As for the field of experience (zhing khams) and the place (gnas) to appear for the benefit of beings.4a. he was .t~· $'~~'e:'~'~~~1 lSl~' a'~~~. the Bengali district of Zahor (Torricelli & Naga 1995: 64-65). rGyal thang pa comments (f()l~i'l. and the continent of Jambudvipa (Dzam bu'i gling) where India is. on account of the photic phenomena following his birth. the SahaIokadhatu (Mi mjed 'jig rten). India in particular.2a.4 4c) bram ze gtsang mas fo1. By Thy great compassion [yielding] benefit and bliss.l : bram ze dbang mas fo1.~~·~~·e:~·~~·~~·1 H5~·r. We know from all rnam thars that Tilopa was born in a brahmaIJ. to establish all beings in a state of great benefit and sublime bliss (phan pa chen po clang bde ba mchog): that is why he acted as one able to assist (skyob pa'i nus pa clang lclan pa).3E!~'['~~~'S~'ar~f~l1 ~ 3 0 Tilopa.4a. as confirmed by almost all the hagiographic sources. out of compassion (snying rje).7 : dzii. Jago is the place. 1~·~~~·r".t§~~·s~·OJ·~f~l 1 dI 4b) dza go fol. According to Taranatha (bKa'babs bdun lclan: 45) Tilopa was from Catighabo.

2 : tsos fol. VoI. Although the latter did not mention any date in his Ti 10 pa'i rnam thar. "Radiance. l~~~·ar~~~·ar~·&JF~ '~~&J~l l~~' C3~~'z::rSJ~'&J'r~l ~. a Oakinl commanded: "Herd cows and buffalo!" Parents. o Incarnated Lord. In any case. 928 and 988 are both feasible.2a. Further instructions from the Oakinl were yet to come. btsos fol.Sa.l : lung stan fol.3-4) tells that a Oakinl. country. lHa btsun Rin chen mam rgyal (foI. Wylie 1982) or 1016-1100 (Guenther 1963: viii-ix).7 5 When you were but one year old.7 Sb) lung bstan fol. and so forth were revealed. the problem is to ascertain whether Naropa's life-span was 956-1040 (RP.II: 90. praise unto Thee! rGyal thang pa (foI. study and herd buffalo. According to the Tibetan computation of time and general historical considerations. in order to dissuade the parents from uselessly attempting to protect him from danger and death. she ordered that he be allowed to go out into the world. . both disciples of gTsang smyon He ru ka (1452-1507). since the dating of Tilopa's time hinges mainly on that of his disciple Naropa.7. appeared first to Tilopa's mother while she was with him. in the form of a woman with the 32 marks of ugliness (bud med mi sdug pa'i mtshan sum bcu rtsa gnyis dang ldan pa).1 : bzhes fol. After his birth. we are informed by two later hagiographers.Sa.Sa. brahmat:\a sooth-sayers (bram ze mtshan mkhas) and skilled astrologers (rtsi mkhan mkhas) emphasized the spiritual dignity of the infant and.C3 lWC3'~&J'~aJ' ~~~'[~' ~'~~~'l l~aJ:t:Ja'['C3~~'~~'aJ'C3f~l Y 1 Sa) Ion fol. Then.7a). most probably they relied on their guru's authority in dating the birth of Tilopa to 'the Earth-Male-Mouse year (sa phD byi ba'i 10). If we accept. Tilopa should have been born in 928.2a.2a." Regarding the year of his birth.5b. his parents resolved to seclude him from the outer world.given the name Prabhasvara (gSal 'op). Singh 1967. Snellgrove-Skoropski 1979-80. as I do. the former hypothesis. analogous with the Lives of Buddha.3b) and dBang phyug rgyal mtshan (foI.

To heavenly UQQiyana.l). Once in the presence of Bhagavati. But Bhagavatt Dharmakaya-jfianaQakini soothed them. once commanded by the Oakini. the Oakini appeared again. Accordingly. Sambhoga (longs sku Jig rten pa'i mkha' 'gro ma) and Dharmakaya (chossku ye sheskyi mkha' 'gro ma) respectively. ~~.~~·S~·t::I~t::I~·~l l. and passed three barriers guarded by three hierarchies of Oakinis corresponding to the experience structures (sku.l) that the Oakini appeared a third time. his father was Cakrasatpvara.6aA-5)would come: byang chub shing gi nags tshal du II nyams myong ma he legs par skyongs If snyan brgyud yi ge med pa'i don II ye shes mkha' 'gros ston par 'gyur II sprul pa'i skyes mchog e ma ho II .she identified him as the father of the Buddhas of the three times. 6a. He entered it. She then typified his herd of buffalo as the "buffalo of experience" in the forest of the Bodhi-tree. thus provoking the anger of the Oakinis' retinue (fol. a jewel bridge (rin po che'i zam pa) to pass pa) over its moat.6-7b. Heruka (fol.Jf~ 'f~'~' $~'~~~'.7b. He had also to be provided with three magical objects (rdzas) by his father: a crystal ladder (shel gyi Teras to ascend the manor. She imparted to him the consecration (abhi$eka)and the sustaining grace (adhi$tiina) for such a deed. he reached the matl~la-like sacred realm of UQQiyana.~~l l~t::I~·~".Ji'~'~'" 1 l~·~~aJ·~~·Q~·~~~~·aJ·t::If~l 1 -S 6 Then. in UQQiyana. his mother was Vajravarahi. So magically armed (rdzu 'phrul dang ldan pa).Jf~'~ ~~. . when the young PrabhasvaraITilopa was herding buffalo. As rGyal thang pa has already told us (fo1.7bA-5): . The Oakini also revealed that his true name was Paftcapat)i (pan tsa ka). mother of the Buddhas of the three times. she was his sister Sukhada (hDe ster ma).23). and a stem of burdock (bye bzungs) to open the door. as Cakrasaqwara i.~~. She revealed to him that his spiritual fatherland was UQQiyana (Ur gyan).7-b. sublime place: there Thou went thanks to magic powers.3a. Bestowed with her consecration and sustaining grace. kiiya) of Nirmat)a (sprul sku za byed kyi mkha' 'gro ma). Praise be! We are told by rGyal thang pa (fols. the ]f\anaQaldni's oral transmission (kan:zatantra) beyond words (fo1.e. impelling PrabhasvaraITilopa to go to the mansion of the Oakinis. l~'"'L\J~'. PrabhasvaraITilopa showed no respect to her.Some time later. ~~.

The sacred image would have been that of a copulating CakrasaIJ\vara. he was looking for a Doctrine. Maturihg Path (vipakamarga). These three are better depict('d in other hagiographies. action (spyod pa. rGyal thang pa relates (fo1. on the condition that Tilopa recognize three symbols (brdil). granted with the doctrine.8a. dhanna).li gcig dang I gsung rdo rje chos byung la bai du rya'i yi ge bdun ba bris pa gcig dang I thUgs bai du rya'i rdb rje rtse lnga pa gcig roams bstan I rGyal thang pa (fo1. since even a correct view (Ita ba. and Liberation Path (muktimarga): .4)tells that.4). But.4) describes them as the drawing of a sacred image for the Body (sku tsa ka 10.12a. he requested the Wish-Fulfilling Gems (cintama1. r~· ~3J ~ ~'~~Z:-'1 lr~· ~3J~·~~·$·C3')~·rr:l\·~:I\ 1 l~{~·3J~~·~~z:-~·~')·a. Thou became master of all teaching.)l v 1 7 Lady BhagavatI Yogini Showed three symbols and. and a sacred attribute for the Mind (thugs phyag mtshan). the script.rC3~3J'~~' ~a. BhagavatI agreed to grant such a Doctrine. and the sacred attribute. Praise unto Thee! In the explanatory chapter of this cardinal verse of the hymn. IHa btsun pa (fo1. Mar pa (fo1. Speech and Mind.t·~9:1\·3J~1 lC3~' ~3J'~~. bhavand).12b. a script for the Speech (gsung yig 'bru). carya) and fruition ('bras bu.6) and dBan~ phyug rgyal mtshan (fol. since Tilopa claimed to know the three symbols for Body. a five-pointed vajra: sku bde mchog than skyes yab yum gyi rtsa ko. meditative attention to it (sgom pa.8a.4).yin no II 'di la dus gsum sangs rgyas kyi II rdo rje'i ser ba phab kyang gzhom mi nus II 1~~.~~.2) that Prabhiisvara/filopa wanted the Doctrine (chos. More detailed is the description in gTsangsmyon He ru ka (fol. And sang an adamantine song.9a.6b. phala) are vain in themselves.t·C3f. the mere hearing of which could open the doors of the Buddha experience (thos pa tsam gyis sangs rgya ba'i chos). the seven-syllable mantra of Cakrasatl\vara.O of tantric transmission.'di ni dus gsum sangs rgyas kyi II p1u:zb yur bde mchog 'khor 10 yin II 'di la mkha' g la rdo rje yi II ser ba phab kyang gzhom mi nus II ces gsung nas I nga ni dus gsum sangs rgyas thams cad kyi II yum gyur beam ldan 'd/ls ma yin II 'di ni dus gsum sangs rgyas thams cad kyi II yab tu gyur pa he TUko. dr$tz).

5): nga ni mkha la bya bzhin du II thogs med shes rab bzang po 'gro II When the I)akinis begged him to remain with them. referring to himself as Prajnabhadra.8b.7 8b. sal1Ulya).sku lealing lea'ikor mdzod nas II rgyud pa yid bzhin nor bu zhu II gsung yig 'bru'i kor mdzod nas II smin lam yid bzhin nor bu zhu II phyag mtshlln thugs kyi kor mdzod nas II grol lam yid bzhin nor bu zhu II At the I)akinis' objection that no transmission was possible without any previous ritual commitment (dam tshig. the Doctrines contained in the oral transmission (snyan rgyud kyi chos).8b. and gave him the threefold cinta11Ultli. is worth rendering in full (fo1. cleared of the least particle of the dust of recollection (smrtz). rGyal thang pa (fo1.2): "The secret word of the I)akini. Le. the light of transcending awareness (jfiana).8a. the mind pledge (sambara). Cakrasaqwara. self-originated. selfirradiating: such is the key of the self-Originated commitment I have!" mkha' 'gro'i gsang tshig thugs kyi sdom II ma rig mun sel ye shes sgron II rang rig rang byung rang gsal gyi II dam tshig rang byung lde mig yod II "Nothing is conceived any longer. like a bird in the sky. selforiginated.8b. for its philosophical relevance.6-7) that there was a connection with three disciples he had to take care of: . svasa1]'lvedanli). the Great Seal (11Ulhlimudra) is the precept: such is the key of the spontaneous realization I have!" gang yang skye ba med pa yi II sems kyi skye med chos sku ru II lung stan phyag rgya chen po yi II lhun grUb nyams kyi lde mig yod II "A mind where there is no mental elaboration (a11Ulnasiklira). in the innate Dharmakaya of the being of thinking activity (citta). he replied (fo1. but Tilopa disproved this and uttered a song which. when about to leave UQQiyana. Sublime Bliss and Protector of Beings. self-irradiating: such is the key of the spontaneous realization I have!" dmigs med yid la mi byed cing II dran pa rdul tsam med pa yi II rang nyid rang byung rang gsal gyi II lhun grub nyams kyi lde mig yod II Since the truth of such words could not have been inspired by Mara. Prajnabhadra am going!" (fo1. They stated he had been deceived by Mara (bDud). what dispels the darkness of nescience (avidya). but only by a I)akini (bdud min mkha' 'gro 11UlTU bden). self-awareness. Eventually. Tilopa protested that he had been fully instructed by the I)akini Sukhada before coming to UQQiyana.34) tells that Vajravarahi's retinue acclaimed Tilopa as their father Bhagavan. self-awareness (svasa1]'lvitti. he sang "1.

4: kyi ri me spung fo1. a ninefold teaching (chosskor dgu) was granted to ~m by the voices of invisible J.2-3): "(1) Commitments: look at the mirror of your own thinking activity (svacitta). and the noble (rje rigs) Kasoripa. (5) Intrinsic awareness (vidyii): look at the torch of transcending awareness.4: byon fo1.c:. (2) Action: strike the water with a sword.)akinls: once a seal of words beyond expression has been put upon it. such is the secret breath of formless J.)akinls floating in the space (foI. (3) Maturing and Liberation [Paths): loosen the knots of thinking activity. listen! Naropa.' 1~9~'it~'~~'Q's~'aJ'z::1f~1 L 1 Ba) ke ri me dpung fol. Riripa and Kasoripa: for the benefit of these sons. I am going to the monastery of SiromaQi. the brahmat:\a (bram ze'i rigs) Riripa. (9) Great Bliss (mahasukha): hold the jewel of the Speech. (8) Self-originated: keep the Great Seal. Then he sang "0 multitude of J.9a.5 .9a.they were the well-known Naropa of a royal family (rgyal rigs). Tilopa sang the following adamantine song (rdo rje'i mgur) (foI.9a.9aA): "In the temple of the illusory body.li) and winds (vayu) [through their) eyelets. as a yogin.9a. sgyu ma Ius kyi 'gan rdo lar II Ius med mk1ul' 'gro'i gsang dbugs te II rjod med ngag gi lcags bcug nas II 'od gsal sems ni bya 'phur 'gro II 1.'~'it' ~~c:.1b.'~ z::1'Wl z::1~' l~~'fQ~' ~~'~'~~~'~~'z::1~~~l 1~['~ ~c:. (6) Circumambulate the wheels (cakra) of the [coiling) energy channels (nal. the bird of luminous thinking activity would flyaway!" .1): mk1ul' 'gro'i tshogs nmms gsan II nil ro I ri ri I leaso ri II bu nmms don du rnaI 'byor bdag II gtsug gi nor bu'i dgon par 'gro II While on his way back. (4) The substance of commitments is to be warmed by the sun of clear cognition. (7) Sameness of taste (samarasa):look at the outer mirror.aJ' ~~1 a." dam tshig rang sems me long !tos II spyod pa chu la ral gri brgyob II smin grol sems 1cyirgya mdud ching II dam rdZllS rtogs pa'i nyi ma 'de II rig pa ye shessgron ma !tos II rtsa rlung dra mig 'khor 10 skor II ro snyoms phyi'i me long !tos II rang byung phyag rgya chen po chongs II bde chen gsung gi rin chen bzung II In response." (foI.'~ar~e.5 Bb) bzhugs fol.)akinls.1b.

9b.5: ma tang gi fols.7-10a.5: bkha' bzhin fo1. .r". I<an:taripa. foI.1b. Oeti.l 9d) b1cha'bzhi fo1.1b. 2. MatailgI and Lavapa: Thou relied on the[se] gurus of.5: 'ang fo1.9b.5: dkar rrm ba fo1.~~·~~~·~~·f~~~·5:1\ 1 l~~'i'l:J'~~''''~'l:Jl l33'i~'i'~~'ar~'CJl l~".2a. According to the teachings of supreme tantras (anuttarayoga-tantra. Sumati Samantabhadn (Su ma ti Kun tu bzang mo) -+ Thang 10 pa -+ Shing 10 pa -+ Kart)aripa. and became one with him. gNyis med rdo rje. Praise unto thee! The verse alludes to the meditation process during which. Ratnamati (Blo gros rin chen) -+ Nagarjuna (KIu sgrub. 4.4: mjal fo1. 9b. lr".the actual being (jfltInasattva. Tilopa generated himself into the samayasattva of Vajradhara. yi dJ:zm). alias Advayavajra. karrm pa fo1. VajrapiiJ)i (Phyag na rdo rje) -+ Saraha -+ Lllipa -+ Darikapa -+ Oengipa. 3.2a. ye shes kyi sems dpa) merges with it (Tucd 1949: 107-110). Thou became one with him. Praise be! rGyal thang pa (fols.Four Lores.7-13b.r~f~l ca 1 9b) dang fo1.9a.Bc) 'cfumg fol.7 9c) ma tang ki fo1. oneself in the visualized form of the commitment being (samayasattva.·~~·§J·33·~~·a.12b.4: om fo1. Then. Once in the presence of Vajradhara.4) -+ MatailgIpa.7.gipa.9a.9b. having projected.2a.2a. he was pervaded by the timeless essence of that being of awareness. dJ:zmtshig gi sems dpa) of a deity (i~tadevattI. mal 'byor bla med kyi rgyud). which is possible to schematize as follows: 1.l 9 For the joy of other beings.10a.6 8 Burning-Pyres Hill: Dwelling in that great charnel ground. VajrapiiJ)i -+ Oombi Heruka -+ Lavapa.6.4) gives a detailed report of these four transmission lineages (blea' babs bzhl). 'ial fol.

2. in his rnam thar (fols. Hevajra (dGes pa rdo rje). Mahamiiya..1. 3. sampannakrama) Stages of the tantric practice: 1.• Indrabhuti: advaita-tantra and prabhdsvara.2.2. the Great Seal and the Union of the Two into One (zung jug. sarrzkrantz) and the Entering Corpses (grong jug. CQtzt. Torricelli 1993). where the former (thun mongs kyi bka' babs) are relevant with rGyal thang pa's account: 1. 1.n)aripa: matr-tantra. Viriipa (Bhir wa pa) ~ I. parakiiyapraveda). utpannakrama) and (2) the Fulfilment (rdzogs rim. 2.1. at least in terms of lineages. 4. the Transference ('pho ba. mayiiJalya). Sumati Samantabhadn ~ Shing 10 pa ~ Thang 10 pa ~ l<a. Such distinction could suggest tlle ordinary transmissions to have been the "historical" ones.The instructions relevant to each lineage are connected with (I) the Developing (skyed rim. Catu/. If~·q~·~~~·~~·3Je:~·q~·5~ 1 1~OJ'~9~'q'~~'~'~~~'ql . 4.I-16b).1. with dBang phyug rgyal mtshan. Cakrasarrtvara(bDe mchog).:>engipa:mahiimudra. svapna) and the Illusory Body (sgyu Ius.Tilopan hagiology is fairly incoherent regarding these four lineages and their content. while the latter were received by Tilopa "spiritually." whether by deeper insight or because of an acquired esoteric connection. 3. prabhasvara) and the Mystic Heat (gtum mo. 16a. 2. Vajrapat:li ~ Saraha ~ Luipa ~ Darikapa ~ I. yuganaddha). 3. the Dream (rmi lam. the Radiant Light ('od gsal. but we will find a valuable hint to reconcile some of the discrepancies.liili). In fact.1.:>ombiHeruka ~ Bhi na sa ~ Lavapa . As already observed (NaIanda Translation Committee 1986: xxxii-xxxiii. 4. ordinary and extraordinary ones.2. two different lines of transmission are outlined. Ratnamati ~ Nagarjuna ~ Matailgipa: pitr-tantra. 2.lpitha (rDo rje gdan bzllz).

4635.18a. Praise unto Thee! l~·W·C3'''t·Q·~·l'~~·''t~·l 1~·r. However. Each confrontation ends with Tilopa's triumph and the conversion of the other. and a powerful sorcerer (foI. under the title Acintyamahdmudra (Phyag rgya chen po bsam gyis mi khyab pa): Vol. a Lokayatika (rGyang phan pa) denying any empirical basis to the law of karman (fols. Otani no. and Vol. Thou revealed.l.7-b.319a. and a barmaid (foI.19a.7. 15a. a singer.2) and Peking (fols. not mentioned in the verse (fols.pu of the sNar thang (fols. [To Thee] Lord praise be! Verses 10 and 11 refer to the conversion of eight people-seven men and one woman-owing to their meeting with Tilopa: a yogin (fols.7) in the former. 245b.l~·~·~f~·"t~·Ifl~·r. . rGyal thang pa's and the other rnam thars usually preserve only few lines of those instructions.5) editions. each episode develops itself into a confrontation. 18b. The law of cause and effect. 145aA-155a.7.6-15a. a butcher (foI. virtue and sin. The magician and the barmaid: Thy power brought them to discipline. a tfrthika (fols.38-42) editions.5).5-b. pp.6).5.514b. 14b.3-253a.3253a. 139b.zhi of the sDe dge (fols. The yogin and the heretic. TT Vo1.~C3a·~~·~e:"t·{·OJ·C3f"tl ?? 11 In Thy many guises.82.16a. 13b. Tl'lhoku nos.3).7-16a. a full record of them can be found in the tantric section (rgyud 'grel) of the bsTati 'gyur. Working for the benefit of the world. 17a.1-148b.l). 2305-2312) and Co ne (245b.4-18aA).l) in the latter.7.5!~·"t~·~~·"t~~·~·~~1 l. Each conversion is followed by the bestowal of instructions to the new disciple. Thou converted the butcher and the sorcerer.l'~·~l l~~'Q~'C3~OJ'C3's"t'OJ'C3f"tl1 ?o 10 For others' benefit. a maker of illusions (fols. Apart from the hagiography composed by IHa btsun Rin chen mam rgyal which is interspersed with some long songs by Tilopa (rnam mgur).l-b. According to the stereotypes of the hagiographic anecdotic.7).t1~·Q·~~·~f~· r~·OJ·C3'''t 1 lr.

during the day. Lines 12b c allude to three episodes where the other main dramatis persona is a King Sirphacandra (Seng ge zla ba). U. Knowing grammar and logic without any study Thou converted and liberated the King and his retinue. or Pa1J. thrashing sesame grains."iyana.. In the second (foI. Tilopa went to many countries: among them. Consistent with Mar pa.7-b. ]. ?~ l~CJ'Qa'l'l:3~~'~'t'CJ'l:3~'tl 12 1 Sometimes thou appeared as a monk. writing of the great PilJ. it is worth mentioning what P. modem Chittagong) in Bhatpgala.5-bA). . Mahamaya for the Mind.IV) informs us that Tilopa joined the daughter of a sesame trasher and gave up his monastic life. was associated with this vihara. 20bA-21a. inviting and accompanying men to the prostitute Bharima's and.4b. a contemporary of Mahipala I of Bengal [.".Tl·Q·~·~l:3~·~~~l l$CJ' ar~rr~ ~l::. ~lJ. Mar pa goes on to depict Tilopa's new life (fo1. In the first (fols. Hevajra for the Speech. These episodes mark Tilopa's progressive transfiguration. There a Oakini instructed and exhorted him to go out into the world.5).3-20a.. he appears as Cakrasatpvara himself (bde mchog 'khor 10 dngos su bstan pa). Vajrabhairava (rDo rje 'jigs byed) for the subtler parts of the body. he reveals himself as an emanation of Cakrasarpvara at the physical level (bde mchog 'khor lo'i sprul par bstan pa). praise unto Thee! Some rnam thars put the monastic experience of Tilopa even before his journey to U. "in the city of Catighabo (i..4) that Tilopa was dwelling by a templtl (lha khang) where an uncle of his was accustomed to lecture the Prajnaparamitii. Guhyasamaja (gSang ba ' dus pa) for the senses.where he received instructions from the Oilinis.l""l:3~·~·~l:3·~l::.. simultaneously taking many divine aspects: Cakrasatpvara for the Body.2)." that "Tillopada. a siddha. In the third which usually closes the rnam thars (fols."iyana." We are told by Mar pa (foIAa. Tilopa shows himself as the synthesis of the bodies of all Buddhas of the three times (dus gsum gyi sangs rgyas thams cadkyi sku 'dus pa).. o Incarnated Lord. Taranatha's bKa' babs bdun ldan (chap..".20a.ayamari (sGra rgyud nag po) for the limbs.. Niyogi (1980: 68-69).4):at night."avihara. As a sesame trasher himself..·~e: 'to~CJ'l:3'1f~l ltr ~'t·~t..."ita vihara.'~CJl 'l:3o~'~~. 19b.e.As for the monastery.

p. London. fols. in rle btsun Ti 10pa dang Nil ro pa'i rnam thar rin po che.53-86. V. K.16-57. 1963. Kha: brGyud pa yid bzhin nor bu'i rnam par thar pa.l~'CJ~~' i~'~OJ'QJ'Q~l l~e:~'Q~'~~'il:l\' tt~'il~'~~l lQ. Having shown Thy complete liberation to be immeasurable. Photostat: Bka'-brgyud kyi rnam-thar chen-mo rin-po-che'i gter-mdzod dgos-'dod 'byun-gnas. English translation: Gyaltsen & Huckenpahler 1990. rDo rje mdzes 'od. 1973. ~9r::. New Delhi.ttOJ·CJf~l .~·~· ~l ~'~:I\' ~~~ l~e:~·Q·1'~~·OJ·5~·Q. in dKar brgyud gser 'phreng. la-24a. Tashijong. H. Ti 10 pa'i 10 rgyus. 27a-43b. reproduced from prints from ancient western Tibetan blocks by Urgyan Dorje. in bKa' brgyud kyi rnam thar chen mo rin po che'i gter mdzod dgos 'dod 'byung gnas. The Golden Lineage Treasury. reproduced from a rare manuscript from the library of the Hemis Monastery by the 8th Khams-sprul Don-brgyud-fli-ma.9-97. 1990. A collection of lives of the successive masters in the transmission lineage of the 'Bri-gun Bka'-brgyud-pa tradition in the Nepal-Tibet borderlands by Rdo-rje-mdzes-'od. fols. fols. fols. A reproduction of an incomplete manuscript of a collection of the lives of the sua:essive masters· of the 'Brug-pa Dkar-brgyud-pa tradition reflecting the tradition of Rdzon-khul in zails-dkar established by Grub-dban Nag-dban-tshe-rin. K. Thou departed into space. in bDe mchog mkha' 'gro snyan rgyud. pp. K. fols. pp. The Life and Teachings of Nilropa. Photostat: Bde- . A thirteenth century collection of verse hagiographies of the sua:esSion of eminent masters of the 'Brug-pa Dkar-brgyud-pa tradition by Rgyal-than-pa Bde-chen-rdo-rje. Guenther. rle btsun Ti lo'i rnam par thar pa. Huckenpahler. 1b-11b. 1a-22a. Darjeeling 1982. Mar pa Chos kyi Blo gras. Sangs rgyas thams cad kyi rnam 'phrul rje btsun Ti 10 pa'i rnam mgur.·~ ~~. New York. reproduced from a manuscript preserved in zans-dkar. Palampur. reproduced from a rare manuscript from Limi Dzing Pegyeling. For [these] deeds. L. rle btsun chen po Tilli pa'i rnam thar. I devoutly give praise unto Thee! References dBang phyug rgyal mtshan.~ 13 0 Great Lord Tilopa. pp. Gyaltsen. 1976.. The Great Kagyu Masters. n. rle Te 10 pa'i rnam thar. 1985.37-83.Q. Photostat: Dkar-brgyud gser-'phren. Photostat: Bka' brgyud gser 'phren rgyas pa. As a Rainbow Body. Photostat: Rare Dkar-brgyud-pa texts from Himachal Pradesh. VoU. 1b-68a. A collection of biographical works and philosophical treatises. IHa btsun Rin chen rnam rgyal.E.. pp. rGyal thang pa bDe chen rdo rje.

. gTsang smyon He ru ka Sangs rgyas rgyal mtshan. T. B. Kyoto. Dharamsala. Skorupski. fols. Ti 10pa'i rnam thar. Kanakura. The Life of the Mahiisiddha Tilopa by Mar-pa Chos-TcyiBIo-gros. The Cultural Heritage of Ladakh.V. The Life of Marpa the Translator. 9b-20a. representing the yig-cha compiled by Byan-chub-bzan-po. D. Peking Edition. bKa'-babs bdun-ldan. Otani = A Comparative Analytical Catalogue of the Kanjur Division of the Tibetan Tripitaka. XLIII. 1993. Sendai. pp...ed.. Wylie. Singh. Tada eds.T.W. Tohoku = A Complete Catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist Canons (Bka1J-1.. Volume in Honour of Prof J. Ga: bDe mchog mkha' 'gro snyan rgyud Tcyigzhung 'breI sa gcad dang sbrags pa. 1955-61.. Seeing Accomplishes All by Tsang Nyiin Heruka. Sakurabe ed.mchog mkJUJ'-'grosfll1n-rgyud (Ras-chun sfll1n-rgyud). 1995. 1967. Leh 1971. The Seven Instruction Lineages by Jo-nang-Tiiraniitha. pp. A manuscript collection of orally transmitted precepts focussing upon the tutelaries Cakrasamvara and VajraviiriJhf.T. "Naropa.. Suzuki. Teoria e pratica del mandala.117-129. Torrieelli. Photostat: bDe-mchog mkha'~'gro snyan-rgyud (Ras- chung snyan-rgyud). Canberra. G. Templeman.L. Taranatha..185-198.The Bya-btang 'Phrin-las-dpal. pp. Dharamsala.. Y. T. pp. T. reproduced from a rare manuscript in the library of Apho Rimpoche. 1986. Calcutta. 8-28. Milan 1949. VoU.gyur nd Bstana 1.1983. Suzuki ed. 1934. "Chos drug and bKa'-babs bzhi. S. Rome." in Indological and Buddhist Studies." East and West." Journal of the Bihar Research Society. F. Tiiraniitha's bKa'-babs-bdun-ldan. P. English translation: D. Vi. Two manuscript collections of texts from the yig-cha of Gtsang-smyon He-ru-ka. Material for a Biography of the Siddha Tilopa. 1973. con particolare riguardo alIa psicologia del profondo. Warminster. F. 1979-80. his Life and Activities. Torricelli. de Jong on His Sixtieth Birthday.. D. Tokyo. n. New Delhi. in bDe mchog mkha' 'gro snyan rgyud. Nalanda Translation Committee. Reproduced from 16th and 17th century manuscripts belonging to the Venerable Dookpa Thosay Rinpoche. 1930-32. 1969. English translation: Torricelli & Naga 1995.'bar Manuscript. VoU-The Biography of Gtsang-smyon by Lha-btsun Rin-chen-rnam-rgyal. "Dating the Death of Naropa. H.. . Naga. Tued. TT = The Tibetan Tripitaka.gyur). Snellgrove. UH. Boston.22-43.687-692. Niyogi. pp.P. 1982. 2 vols. Buddhism in Ancient Bengal. M. 1980.

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