An Introduction to HYSYS

The purpose of this and the following pages is to introduce you to the primary tool that you will be using in the design classes, HYSYS. Now HYSYS comes with a number of excellent reference and tutorial manuals. The Design Lab should be equipped with two complete sets of the manuals. Each set contains the following books: Getting Started, Quick Reference, Tutorials, Applications, Reference Volume 1, and Reference Volume 2. PLEASE do not remove these from the room. The same six volumes may be accessed electronically in Adobe Acrobat format either from the start menu as shown below or via the World Wide Web.

Getting Started and Tutorials are available at The Applications book is available at It is far easier to look at the actual books than to worry through the Acrobat Reader, so, again, please don't take them from the room. Note that all referals to manuals are in yellow and if the manual in question is on the HYSYS web page, like the Tutorials Book, then the reference will also be a link. Because I don't believe in duplication of effort (especially my own), this web page is intended to be complimentary to those manuals. Here on the web page, I hope to fill in the blanks left by the books, serve as a quick reference for some items, and give pointers and links as to the places in the manuals to look immediately for the answers to your questions. Most importantly, however, these pages will provide you with the tips you will need to get your specific tasks done on the specific computer system you will be working with and with this specific version of HYSYS. These tips will include information for both CENG403, where you learn to design individual units, and CENG404, where you will design an entire plant (in fact, this is the only place that you will find many tips for 404, so don't forget to come back and read them again when you start needing them). HYSYS is not the best program for group work (Aspen isn't any better believe me), therefore an entire section has been devoted towards teaching you the best way to work in groups. By the way, NT will allow two different users to edit the same file at the same time. This is bad. If you do this, only one person's work will get saved.

A Little About HYSYS

The goal of programs like HYSYS and Aspen is, of course, to provide you with the capability to design an entire process as completely and accurately as possible. Most (though not all) of the differences between the two lie in their user interfaces. Having gone through the design class with Aspen, I am of the personal opinion that HYSYS has a much better and intuitive interface than Aspen. You have the option of using either simulation package, but I recommend using HYSYS unless you run against something that only Aspen will do. I will try to warn you of all the limitations of HYSYS that you might encounter in advance. Unlike Aspen, HYSYS does not wait until you've entered everything before beginning calculations. It always calculates as much as it can at all times and results are always available, even during calculations. Any changes that you make to the data are automatically propagated throughout the program to anywhere that entry appears and all necessary recalculations are instantly carried out. It tends to be a lot easier to catch errors this way as you build your simulation. However, there are times when you will not want HYSYS calculating the entire flowsheet over again every time you make a small change. Hence, the existence of the environments. While you are in one environment, calculations in the other environments are placed on hold. Every case (as HYSYS calls each individual simulation file) has two or more environments. The one that contains all the items you expect to see, the streams, unit operations such as reactors, separators, columns, mixers, etc., and various utilities, is the simulation environment. At the top of that environmental hierarchy (and the only one required) is the Case environment and the Main flowsheet. (Aside: both the name "Case" and the tag "Main" are defaults and can be changed in the "Main Properties" view under the Simulation menu). Though the entire simulation may be placed in the Main flowsheet, columns and templates are automatically brought in as Sub-flowsheets. Sub-flowsheets can be thought of as modular programs. You can have as many as you like, nested as deep as you like (though you tend to not need to put additional sub-flowsheets under a column flowsheet). The other environment, and the one you actually have to deal with first when you start a case, is the basis environment. The basis environment is the place that you define the thermodynamic package you wish to use (Peng-Robinson, Margules, etc.), the components that will be used in your simulation and any reactions that may occur. If dealing with a Petrochemical application, there is also an oil environment that may be reached only from the basis environment. There are two files that HYSYS reads whenever you start HYSYS. One of these is the Preferences File, the other is the workbook format file. The preferences file tells HYSYS many important things like which units you want to use, where to look first for your stored files etc. You can have multiple preference files saved (or you can just build up various unit sets, etc., in one file you alter upon need), but the one that is loaded upon startup is the file named hysys.prf in the directory from which HYSYS is started. If you launch HYSYS from your start menu, your user's profile has been configured with Y:\Hysys as the start directory (note that if you are not in a design class group, you won't have a Y drive, because the purpose of theY drive is to save group work). If you look at the contents of that directory you will see, in addition to some other stuff, that I have placed a hysys.prf file in there for you. That is the file that must be overwritten if you want to make changes to your default preferences (though changes are automatically saved to the

Moreover. At that point you may or may not need to import your workbook format. What ever you are trying to do. HYSYS will also fall back on that file if you do not have a Y drive. Energy Streams.preference file when you save your simulation.. Now.. the only way you'll be able to see Hartsook (where all the sample files are located). It is not configured for you and you cannot save changes to it.prf file under your cases directory. so overwriting should not often be necessary). is to double-click on one of your own files (causing HYSYS to "start in" a directory on Hartsook). then choose Import under the Workbook Menu and import the file hysys. . The file I provided restores these other pages. HYSYS will not open with the correct Preference File. without a hysys. My preference file uses a deep purple as the background color. An automatic way of telling if your preference file is based on the one I started you with or if it is HYSYS' default is the color of the background. HYSYS will use the default file located on the NTserver called Hartsook. If you do need to. hysys. Note that HYSYS' examples are located in \\Hartsook\Hysys\SAMPLES. The workbook shows you the contents of every stream in your process and the connections of every unit (if you really wanted to you could make your entire simulation using the Workbook and never even look at the PFD). if you used one of the above methods. but again it is only automatically loaded if the Start Menu was used to launch HYSYS. Compositions.wrk. Then. because of a failure of HYSYS to handle links or networks well. Then press Load Preference Set. unless the file has undergone changes to its workbook which got saved with that particular case. then turn right around and close that file.wrk under Y:\Hysys. Without the hysys. If you start a file by double clicking it (your simulations should all be stored under Y:\Hysys\Cases). and that my examples are located in \\Hartsook\Hysys\SAMP403. as you will not be able to get to the example files on Hartsook with it there. Load Y:\Hysys\Hysys. You may have noticed the other file I put there. not in CASES as the manuals say. you may Open the example file. Return to the HYSYS Page | Return to the CENG 403 homepage .prf. the default is for the workbook to only show two pages: Streams and Unit Ops. Push the Workbook button .prf file present. any time you want to run one of HYSYS' or my example files. DELETE or move it. Note: Should you somehow create a Hysys. if you've done any reading of the manuals or working of the tutorials you were propably expecting four pages: Material Sreams. That file is responsible for the appearance of your workbook. and Unit Ops. on the toolbar to find out. The first thing you should do once HYSYS opens is open Preferences under the Tools Menu. HYSYS' preference file makes the background the same brown color as your desktop. Why am I telling you all this? Because there are a number of cases where you will not be able to use the start menu to do what you want.wrk file. The Workbook is much harder to work with without the extra info these pages provide.

T (as suggested in the note above and from which HYSYS fits the above equation) Have HYSYS determine Keq from the Ideal Gas Gibbs Free Energy Coefficients. In general. they should only be used in Conversion Reactors. Reactions may also be used in Columns and Separators (though there are some limitations on the phases that may be used by the reactions in those cases). I actually did not see any means by which reactions might be designated sequential and suspect an error in the reference manuals in stating that it could be so. Lowest ranking occurs first (may start with either 0 or 1). equilibrium reactions may be calculated either sequentially or simultaneously. An essentially ideal thermo package like Antoine would give almost exactly the same results for the two different methods. The five reaction types are as follows: Conversion This reaction type does not require any thermodynamic knowledge. however. However. also be used in the special Gibbs Reactor. This is similar to. When a reaction set is . Keq. Equilibrium reactions also cannot be used with Plug Flow Reactors or CSTRs. y y y As tabular data of Keq vs. they may be grouped with other conversion reactions and ranked to operate either sequentially or simultaneously.Reactions in HYSYS There are currently five different types of reaction that may be simulated in HYSYS and a number of reactor types that they may be used with (and one special reactor that does not require any equations). like Conversion reactions. simultaneous reactions cannot total over 100% conversion of the same basis. You must input the stoichiometry and the conversion of the basis reactant. they should only be used in Equilibrium Reactors or General Reactors. You specify A-D in the equation below Ln(Keq) = A + B/T + C*Ln(T) + D*T o IMPORTANT: No matter what the units in your preferences. You may specify Keq in a number of ways: y y As a constant. You may also search for the reaction among the pre-defined reactions in the HYSYS library (reached from the Library Page of the Equilibrium Reaction window) Supposedly. the T's used for this equation are in Kelvin and thus your coefficients A-D must be adjusted accordingly if the T's for the information you have are not also in Kelvin. The specified conversion cannot exceed 100%. They can. Equilibrium Equilibrium reactions require that you know some sort of relation between the reaction's equilibrium constant. Enter either Keq or Ln(Keq) As a function of Temperature. but not exactly like what you get by attaching any equilibrium reaction to a Gibbs Reactor (which just takes the stoichiometry). In general. and temperature. Conversion reactions may not be grouped with any other form of reaction in a reaction set. Just as with single reactions. If it becomes complicated to do so. Conversion reactions cannot be used with Plug Flow Reactors or CSTRs. The difference depends on the property package because the Gibbs reactor will take into account any non-ideal behavior predicted by a thermo package such as Peng-Robinson. you might choose to generate a table of K vs. T and enter that as tabular data. The reaction will proceed until either the specified conversion has been reached or a limiting reagent has been exhausted.

you might. don't despair.attached to a Gibbs reactor. the stoichiometry involved in the reactions is used in its calculations. As long as you did not enter a value for the reverse E and A. in doing so we have implicitly assumed an elementary reaction as that is inherent in the definition of Keq. A and A' (which are basically all of the constants lumped out front). . The basis functions are not just functions of the Base Component (which you set on the Basis Page -. The difference is that instead of getting information about the reverse rate constant. Differentiating between the three becomes simply a matter of formulation. and the pre-exponential factors. no reverse reaction would take place. etc. E and E'. Therefore for this reaction you would leave the forward order of CO at 1 and enter 1. but are the products of the concentrations (or partial pressures. Though it is assumed there is no reverse reaction. Kinetic All three of the remaining reaction types can be considered kinetic. if that's not what you have. leave a 1 for the reverse order of the COCl2. Therefore there is no place to enter reaction orders. except that this time you are forced to enter the data in the Ln(K') format (again. Try creating an equilibrium reaction. if you chose. it just so happens that for the reaction CO + Cl2 --> COCl2 the rate law might be rCO = k[CO][Cl2]3/2 You actually enter the form of the basis functions on the first page. the second term to the optional backward reaction. you must enter the forward and reverse order. the rate equation is the one to the left (this picture is taken from the Parameters Page of the Kinetics Reaction window). of the reaction window.) of any of the reactants or products to whatever power (negative numbers and decimals are fine). The first term on the right hand side refers to the forward reaction. The Chemicals Tutorial in the Tutorials Book will take you through an example of the use of a Kinetics reaction in a CSTR. In the columns to the right of the one in which you enter the stoichiometric coefficients. kreverse = kforward/Keq Of course. The k's are the reaction constants for which you must enter on the Parameters Page the activation energies. in that they deal with an expression for the rate of the reaction. For example. Keq is determined by HYSYS in the same it was done for the equilibrium reaction above.5 for the forward order of Cl2.see Chapter 11 of RV1 for an explanation of the Base Component or anything else having to do with reactions). we use the relation: Keq = kforward/kreverse or. Kinetic (Rev Eqm) This form of the rate equation is fairly similar to the standard kinetic form. The HYSYS default is to assume an elementary reaction the stoichiometry parallels the order. In this first and simplest form. as is actually substituted into the standard form. Stoichiometry.

You can create or change reactions in the simulation environment using the Reactions Package under the Flowsheet menu. 2. to the standard rate equation is added a denominator (this is almost exactly like the form for enzyme catalysis for those of you who have had Biochemistry). 1. see my Plug Flow Example. some of which may become blocked to reaction by the products being formed. I go through all of this in detail in the Plug Flow Example. Hence. Langmuir-Hinshelwood This is the most complicated of all the reaction forms and is therefore the one that is not even mentioned in any of the manuals (either on-line or off). import or export reactions except from the basis environment. The components you have in a reaction need not have been previously included in the fluid packages' component list. This is a short coming of HYSYS and will be fixed in future versions. The extra unseen digits are used in the calculations. Modifications can be made to reactions on a specific reactor's property view pages that are local only and do not apply globally. 4. (Not an option in PFR). only 2 sig. 3. You cannot.13 of RV2. or work through the Chemicals Tutorial in the Tutorials Book.defining it how you are able and then copy over the constants that HYSYS generates). Langmuir-Hinshelwood is mainly used to model heterogeneous catalysis. Gibbs and Equilibrium Reactors. The rate of reaction is slowed when you have a finite number of active sites on the catalyst. For an example of the use of this type of reaction. but the only way to see them is to export them to a Spreadsheet (using the secondary mouse button. See Section 13. When you finally associate a reaction set with the fluid package. you won't find it here. whichever of its reaction's components are not already there will be added then to the fluid package. figs will be displayed. simply drag the number from . General Information on Reactions If you are looking for a step by step instruction on every stage of the creation of a reaction and the use of reaction sets. Conversion Reactor). There are places (such as when entering the kinetics parameters) where you shall find that no matter how many significant digits you enter in. or you may look in Chapter 11 of Reference Volume 1 (does an excellent job with this kind of stuff). however. Local changes always take precedence over the global settings. You will find explanations of that stuff in any of my reactor examples (Plug Flow Example. so if you decide you do need to use this form. What I am going to list here are the little pearls of wisdom I picked up while working through the reactions myself and that may or may not be mentioned in the manuals. Therefore it falls to me to explain it. I recommend you work through that. You do not need to go back to the basis environment every time you want to edit reactions.

The Pre-exponential factor has the same units as Reaction rate (the units set on the basis page. the property views of the various reactors are essentially the same. Kinetics (Rev.the reaction window to a cell of the Spreadsheet Page of the Spreadsheet). except for plug flow which has one and only one product stream). There you may make changes to the reactions that only take effect in that particular reactor. An excellent description of each of the PFR's inputs can be found in Section 13. Quirks of the PFR: HYSYS "integrates" over the length of the reactor by dividing it into a number of sub-volumes (like a series of CSTRS). Reaction rate does have its own category. The various characteristics are given as values vs reactor length. that T is in Kelvin. NOT necessarily the units set in the preferences which seem to only be for reporting purposes) divided by the Basis Units. you must go into your preferences set and set the units of Molar Enthalpy to the units you would like Activation Energy displayed in. If you would like to display it in the same units you entered. pay special attention to the info on the Plug Flow and Gibbs Reactors. You can also get a good idea of the way to go about setting up a PFR in your simulation by working through my Plug Flow Example. Eqm. 7. the item called "Reaction Heat" is not the Heat of Reaction as we know it. as Activation Energy does not have its own category. The lengths listed are the midpoimts of the . The most noticeble effect of this to the user is in the reactor profiles. You must specify a liquid and/or vapour product stream for all reactors (again. Appearance in PFD / Object Palette Button Description The Plug Flow Reactor can be used with Kinetics.With the exception of the Plug Flow Reactor and the Gibbs Reactor.). Local changes always take priority over global changes (so make sure you are aware of whether the change you are making is local or global).10 of RV 2. 6. 5. Reactors Though I plan to tell you about all of the reactors. HYSYS does not show you the units of the Activation Energy it displays. The default is 20 sub-volumes. all of the reactors also have a number of pages in their property views related to the reactions in them. Remember whenever defining an Equilibrium constant using Ln(Keq) = A + B/T + C*Ln(T) + D*T. as they are the ones you will likely use the most. they have opposite signs (an exothermic reaction has a positive Reaction Heat). or Langmuir-Hinshelwood reactions (any number and combination of the three types can be used in the reaction set). Under the Stoichiometric Page of a reaction window. All reactors are assumed adiabatic until an energy stream is attached (at which point some further specification such as outlet temp or energy input is required). In fact. With the exception of the Plug Flow Reactor.

25 and 9. where I build on the tutorial by adding a case study. To fix the problem. In addition you might want to take a look at my Case Studies Example. Not to worry. you would not pick this option as it takes the longest time to run. whether or not any liquid is actually present in the stream). Not realizing this at first I was irritated that the profiles were not showing me the entering and exiting values (0 and 10 m). For example.5 m (the size of a subdivision). in fact. Eqm. You can also get a good idea of the way to go about setting up a CSTR in your simulation by working through the Chemicals Tutorial in the Tutorials Book. For details on how HYSYS handles the three options see Section 13.75 m values are. but HYSYS will conduct the gaseous reactions as well.). Everything within a subvolume is the same (like a CSTR).75 m. An excellent description of each of the CSTR's inputs can be found in Section 13. the more of the total volume available for the vapour phase reactions (i. On the Composition page you can set the production of components or set any of them . Kinetics (Rev. Normally. It's nice because you do not need to know anything about the individual equilibrium constants. It appears to be akin to finding all the possible equilibrium reactions and allowing them all to equilibrate. Another quirk of PFR is that on very rare occasions (see the note in the gibbs reactor example). or Langmuir-Hinshelwood reactions (any number and combination of the three types can be used in the reaction set). The less the "liquid" volume. The Gibbs reactor works by finding the equilibrium state with the lowest Gibbs Free Energy. Quirks of the CSTR: CSTR is primarily for liquid reactions. the same as 0 and 10 m.13.e. Under "Initialize segment reactions from:" make sure the re-init radio button is chosen. the . The Gibbs Reactor (like the one in Aspen) is unique among the reactors in that you are not required to enter a reaction set for it to work. The integration mechanism gets confused. a 10 m length reactor with 20 subdivisions would give profiles starting at . 464). The CSTR can be used with Kinetics. I use the Spreadsheet feature to access the actual conversion % of the CSTR in the tutorial.10 of RV2 (p. HYSYS uses the total volume minus the volume you set for the liquid to calculate the volume of the gas. try looking at the Reactions page of the reactor property view.subvolumes. finishing with 9. of course.25 m and incrementing by .3 of RV 2.

on the Reactions page. Quirks of the Gibbs Reactor: There is something very important to note when attaching equilibrium reactions to the Gibbs reactor. Thus if you need to simulate a reactor in which you want certain reactions be inert. however. the matrix remained blank. If you would like to experiment with the similarities and . or like a separator (no reaction). but not aiding any other reaction) and yet have no or untrustworthy data on the equilibrium constants. but not others (for instance. Two postscripts on this: 1) If you use the above technique. the Equilibrium Reactor. The Gibbs reactor takes only the stoichiometry of the attached reactions and applies its own free energy minimization technique to it. reaction extent. One last note. Only components listed as reacting in the reaction set undergo any reaction. See the example which will teach you about the Gibbs reactor. 2) Before using the above technique. You may also set. check the equilibrium reaction library. even when the Gibbs Reactor had completed its calculations. The one you need may already be there. the Gibbs way may still be better). because a certain catalyst is employed allowing those particular reactions to equilibrate quickly. you are better off using the Gibbs reactor set on "Specify Equilibrium Reaction" than using the Equilibrium Reactor. Unfortunately. in the temperature range you desire (even then. etc. a button appears that would show you the % conversion. and my "switch" technique. when operating the Gibbs Reactor in Equilibrium Reactor mode. the Gibbs reactor to behave like an equilibrium reactor (you must then attach an equilibrium reaction set. opens then. it doesn't matter what you set the equilibrium constant. there appears to be a minor bug in HYSYS. while not making use of any data on Keq. The "switch" is also mentioned on my tools and tricks page. in that. because you only need the stoichiometry. also see quirks below). a fixed constant of 1 is fine. The part of this that is important to you in the design classes is that the results of the Gibbs calculations come extremely close to the values obtained in the equilibrium reactor using correct data. Note that HYSYS will not allow you to attach a reaction set which would include all of the possible independent reactions as that would simply duplicate the effect of setting the reactor to full Gibbs reactions.

You can also see the example in which I compare it to a Gibbs Reactor. The conversion could thus be much greater than 100%. of course). You use it when you know how much of the reactants will be converted into products. conversion reactions. see the example for a good way to go about it. You can see this in my opens . In general. there may be more available than was originally there. if that base component is the product of a lower ranked (meaning reacts first) reaction.differences between the Gibbs reactor and the Equilibrium Reactor yourself. As mentioned in the section on conversion reactions.13. Reactions with the same ranking are simultaneous and the total conversion of the same reactant can not exceed 100% (all subject to limiting reagents. The Equilibrium Reactor uses reaction sets with only. opens then. it can handle multiple reactions which may be ranked to occur simultaneously or sequentially. This is because the actual conversion is the percentage conversion over the original amount of base component present. so don't panic). Quirks of the Conversion Reactor: Though the specified conversion cannot exceed 100%. I recommend making use of the Gibbs Reactor over the Equilibrium Reactor. surprise. However. The product of one reaction can be the reactant of another reaction. This allows the actual conversion to exceed the specified conversion (it's still behaving correctly. yep. The Conversion Reactor deals with. equilibrium reactions in it.4 of RV 2. you guessed it. You can read more about it in Section 13. the actual conversion can.

That way. Return to the HYSYS Page | Return to the CENG 403 homepage . That set will then be a mixed type and can be attached to the general reactor. I leave it to you to investigate this. it acts like a CSTR. verifying the accuracy and method is somewhat involved (though not necessarily difficult). If you put in all equilibrium reactions. If none of the base component was initially present. If something like this happens to you click off then back on again the Act as a Separator when cannot solve button and it should solve. the second reaction would not convert any of the component produced by the first reaction. but would only convert the specified percentage of the original amount present. Rather than create an example for you. You can combine kinetic and equilibrium reactions into one reaction set (you still cannot combine conversion reactions with any other type. The General Reactor is like a combination of the CSTR and the Equilibrium Reactor. unlike any other type of reactor available to you. an Operation" under the Flowsheet Menu. if the base component of a reaction is a reactant in an earlier occuring reaction. "Add \\Hartsook\Hysys\SAMP403.hsc and it is located under View (obtainable by pressing <F12>. it acts like an Equilibrium Reactor. It fails to find a solution even if it had done so before. or from the Unit Ops Page of the Quirks of the General Reactor: A strange problem. If the reaction producing the base component of another reaction is ranked equally with it. The Can only be reached via the Unit Ops name of the file is AllReactors. you may use all the reactions and reaction sets that were created for the other examples as a way of Not Accessible from the Object Palette. This time I simply added the General Reactor to my file comparing all the other reactors. the actual conversion will be less than the specified conversion. results if you try to attach an equilibrium set immediately after a conversion set. the actual conversion field will remain blank. though you can attach a conversion reaction set to the general reactor as well). conversion example.then. It may only be altered in the reaction set on the global level. or if there are limiting reagents. The same quirks of the CSTR apply when using any kinetic reactions in your reaction set. exploring the results that the General Reactor gives you. Unfortunately. will also allow you to mix equation types. Workbook. Conversely. Ranking cannot be changed locally in the reactor. somehow tied into the number of product streams attached. If you put in all kinetic style reactions. The General Reactor.

the menu of objects will include objects that you cannot actually use that way. RECYCLE. . you could use the SET to set one material streams temperature to always be 20 degrees hotter than another material stream's temperature. if the target is known and not the source. b. you might as well just import the source variable. For example.Logicals There are four logical unit ops that are used primarily in steady-state mode. The SET Operation SET is used to set the value of a specific process variable (PV in the manuals) in relation to another PV. As a small aside. The Gas Processing Example in the Tutorials Book uses an ADJUST to vary one stream's temperature until another stream's dew point equals a specified value. One irritating little feature is that if you are using another object as the source of the target value. ADJUST. These are SET. The Chapeter in the Reference Volumes which covers all of logical ops is Chapter 14 in RV2. SET may work both ways (i. I tried to connect the results of a spreadsheet that way. if you're going to invoke the Spreadsheet anyway. You can see an example on SET's use that includes an example of the Spreadsheet in my Set Example. You can use the Spreadsheet to set the multiplier. and the Spreadsheet. The ADJUST Operation Use the ADJUST operation when you want HYSYS to adjust one variable until a target variable reaches a user specified value or matches a specification. The relation must be of the form Y = mX + b and the process variables must be of the same type. That source of that specification can be yet a third variable (of the same type as the target and offset by a constant if you so wish). Much of what is said here may also be found there. do your necessary calculations. The rest of the logical unit operations are used primarily in Dynamic Mode and will not be discussed here.e. You may also read more about it in Section 14. BALANCE. the target will "set" the source). as well as a more thorough explanation of each option available. or increment. m. since. But I don't see much point. but it did not work. and export the result directly to the target without ever bothering with SET.7 in RV2. of the SET operation (similar to what I mention with the ADJUST below).

since it greatly increses the power and flexibility of ADJUST).I mentioned this one already. Well. Actually. Before installing the ADJUST module. they are: y Mole and Heat Balance . energy. on the PDF.choose which streams are inlet and which streams are outlet from the direction of the arrows.(or worse.something you are more likely to see with energy than with material streams -. into or out of the system. the number will appear in the user specified box (the radio button must therefore be set to that). Though you know the composition and the temperature of the stream both before the first cooler and after the second cooler. (Note: when setting up balances. which thus has one material inlet stream. For a description of the rest of the items on the Parameters Page. Note that too small a step size and you may not bracket the solution before exceeding the maximum number of iterations (you may change that number as well though). and two outlet heat streams. You tell it what streams of material and/or heat are crossing the imaginary boundary into your system of interest and what streams are exiting. over-) specified. even when the flow is negative -. Though it does not conduct individual component balances like the General Balance. see Section 14. It must be done by exporting the variables from the Spreadsheet itself to the ADJUST. If you export to the target value. Then self-adjust the independent variable and make sure that the dependent variable is actually affected by it. which gives us enough information to figure out the unknowns. one material outlet stream. It seems to be able to handle more than . The material balance is conducted first and will complete even if the energy balance is under. You had to do Mass and Energy Balances over sections of or entire plants to solve for unknowns in composition. allow the flowsheet to solve. flow.1 of RV2. It is the most commonly used and is good for calculating ONE unknown based on the total material balance and ONE unknown based on a total energy balance. The step size is set on the Parameters Page and is the initial step size employed until the solution is bracketed.2 of RV2 shows a single stream passed through two coolers in series. This should also give you an idea of the step size you will require. or whatever. HYSYS will handle the signs correctly then. Remember way back when you took CENG 301. you do not know the flowrate or the temperature in between. The balance is set up so that the two coolers are the system. The Mole and Heat Balance example in Section 14. You can export to the target value or to the offset used whenthe target value is another object. You do. It should not be used in conjunction with a reactor as the balance is on a molar basis. however (which is good. You know that HYSYS shares information both forward and backward throughout the PFD at all times. you may leave the composition of one stream empty and HYSYS will know how to fill it. The BALANCE Operation This is one of the most interesting and deceptively useful of the logical units. I am not absolutely sure about this type's limitations. that is what this operation will do for you. know the duties of the two coolers.You can use the results of Spreadsheets. and note the value on the dependent variable. another example. it is often a good practice to inialtize the independent variable. however. However that is not always enough for HYSYS to know when the situation is entirely specified but in a more unorthodox manner.) There are a total of 5 different types of Balance available to you. and a discussion on the use of multiple ADJUSTs simultaneously (involves a change in the Solving Method).

I can't do all your thinking for you. Temperature. and HYSYS will gleefully pass the sum of the mass flowrates of the nitrogen to the CO2. That means there need to be values for both the assumed stream and the calculated stream. The compositions of all streams must be specified and all but one flowrate. As with the Mole and Heat Balance. You could have five streams of pure nitrogen as inlets and one stream of CO2 as the outlet. the balance will not start to calculate until the Auto Calculation box is checked. if you are not watching for that possibility when inputting data. In addition to conducting individual component balances. . Either balance may surprise you by making the other balance overspecified. I'll be honest. Once the Recycle is attached and running.y y y y the manuals say it should (I suspect that it really does do some sort of individual component balance). Before you can install the RECYCLE the flowsheet must have completed. this was a little tricky though.The Reference Manual says that this is good for non-stoichiometric reactors like alkylation units and hydrotreaters. little example and you'll see what I mean. HYSYS assumes you want saturated vapor or liquid and solves for the corresponding temperature or pressure). You can use the balance to create new streams with characteristics of streams in your process. when you specify vapor fraction of 1 or 0. HYSYS repeats this process until the two streams match within specified tolerances.01 degrees (note that is in Kelvin. you can specify ratios between components within a stream (unfortunately not between streams). The "system" for which you have inlets and outlets need not be part of the process at all.There is another way to use the Balance Operation. In the HYSYS' Gas Processing Tutorial. Be aware that the only thing this balance passes is a Mass Flowrate. It could even handle inputing flowrates for some of the components but leaving the rest of the composition <empty>. Pressure. A warning. General Balance . So.(or worse. For all Balances. they use the Mole Balance to create a stream with the same composition and flow as a process stream. Flow. but then they give the new stream a different pressure and a vapor fraction of 1 to see what the stream's dew point would be (remember. For example. but instead should be the best place in the loop to make the break for convergence purposes). The tolerances you enter are not absolute. The logical block connects the two streams around the tear (remember the tear does not have to be the official "recycle" stream itself. and thus being able to solve a greater variety of problems that way. I cannot think of a good use for this one. so a multiplier of ten means the two streams must be within a tenth of a degree of each other. Enthalpy. Those tolerances are set on the Parameters Page. There are tolerances for Vapour Fraction. It was able to handle the example I made up for the General Balance below. the internal value for Temperature is . over-) specified. but hey. Mole Balance . because HYSYS does all of its calculations in an internal unit set). but it couldn't handle the example for the General Balance contained in the Reference Manuals. The RECYCLE Operation Use this operation every time you need to recycle a stream. They are actually multipliers for HYSYS' internal convergence tolerances. the material balance is conducted independently of the energy balance and will complete even if the energy balance is under. be careful with this one. and runs the flowsheet again. Heat Balance . Note that there is no sort of elemental balance.This is the really good one. Take a look at my neat. though. and Composition. Mass Balance . HYSYS compares the two values. but don't check it until all is ready.You know. adjusts the assumed stream.

8 in RV2 and looking at their example which shows how you may use the Spreadsheet to calculate the pressure drop across a heat exchanger (at least they calculate the Reynolds Number). I cannot really do it justice. In the second example. I have made two different examples showing further uses for the Spreadsheet. The Spreadsheet You must have noticed me raving about this operation on occaision. no surprise. One example was mentioned earlier in this page.On the Numerical Page. then statements). Besides reading about in Section 14. The other example shows how the Spreadsheet may be used to calculate reaction conversion for use with a Case Study. and then export results to any specifiable field in your simulation. it's a heck of a lot more user friendly an interface.. you may set the RECYCLE to either Nested (the Op is called whenever it is encountered in the flowsheet) or Simultaneous (all of the RECYCLEs are invoked at the same time -. See Section 14.. I import and export via the Connections Page. In the first example. but again. This is by far one of the most powerful and flexible of the tools available to you. among other things. Return to the HYSYS Page | Return to the CENG 403 homepage . I do it by directly dragging the variables into and out of the spreadsheet. There is far more to this Operation. It serves the same basic Function as the FORTRAN blocks do in Aspen.5 in RV2 for much more information on the options available to you as well as two excellent examples which include strategies on reducing the number of recycles and convergence time. do a variety of calculations there (including boolean logical operations like if . You may import almost any variable to the Spreadsheet. SetEx.use with multiple inter-connected recycles).

That leaves three pages. and.. and my process "switch". It is especially useful for fine tuning individual units and for optimizing your entire plant. to add a new variable to the list (the new variable will be added above the selected variable). The DataBook has 5 pages. the first of which is the Variables Page. You can choose any process variable to add to the list (see my Case Study Example to see one of the few exceptions I have found). to. This Page will cover the DataBook.. Use Insert. and Delete should be obvious. The DataBook The DataBook is a tool that lets you record and explore the effects of changing parameters in your flowsheet. Edit. The Variables Page Before you can use any of the tools in the DataBook. three tools. the Data Recorder. edit the selected variable's name or the very choice of process variable itself. that you will not need unless you enter dynamic mode (which you won't need for 403 or 404)..Tools and Tricks On this page I will introduce you to the various tools and tricks that exist to help you make important decisions about your plant and to help you work as a team. There is another page.. called Strip Charts. Pressing Edit or Insert. well. will cause the Variable Naviagator to . I think the most important one. and therefore will not be discussed here. where you will define the variables to make available to the other pages. These are the Process Data Tables. the use of template subflowsheets. you must first establish here which process variables you intend to observe or vary. the Case Studies.

Thus. Important: At the time of this writing. but it should be fixed in the next upgrade.11) has a bug in the Process Data Tables. delete its title. as well as giving you a record of which combination of parameter values gave which results. Essentially. easy to view.appear. HYSYS is actually displaying the variables in its internal units. place.2. The purpose of the Data Recorder is to provide you with a way to keep a record of your values even after you have changed your simulation. the Data Recorder make work with any of the Variables that have been defined on the Variables Page. 1. All of the tutorials in the Tutorials Book show examples of its use. you just tell the DataBook which of the Variables defined on the Variable Page you wish to show in the Tables and the Process Data Tables will always show the current values of those variables. The Process Data Tables If the process variables in your simulation are like all the various goods in a grocery store. than the Process Data Tables are like your grocery basket in which you pile only those variables from around the store that you wish to monitor. it will delete the whole Scenario and there is no way of getting it back without repeating the whole chart all over . at the moment the Tables are not really of much use. much like taking a snapshot. Choose the process variable you want from there. If you press the Delete button at the bottom. the version of HYSYS we are using (ver. No matter what units it says it is displaying. It is good for making a benchmark and watching your progress. If you wish to delete an individual entry. It's a good way of assembling information from all over the flowsheet into one. The Data Recorder Like with the Process Data Tables.

you don't get any division of labor that way. A template is created just like any other case (in fact. This will be especially true when you get to CENG 404 where you will be designing an entire plant. While you may choose any number of independent and dependent variables for the Case Study. You will find. it is far too much work for any one or two people to do. which does have a slightly different form of environment). but it requires a little forethought. They are the templates that you import in and the subflowsheets that you create in-situ. Now.again. If two people do want to work on the simulation at the same time. and heat exchangers (as well as all the other ops you will use) back in 403. You've seen how when you open the Property View of a Column. you have to use Save As to make a copy and then there is no way to recombine the work. Should more dependent variables be included than the one or two allowed for plotting. you must find ways of either sharing the work or splitting up the flowsheet. Once they are installed there is absolutely no difference between them (unlike with the column. especially in 403 that it is far too easy too let one or two people in the group do all the simulation work. However. the Case Study allows you to quickly vary key process variables across a range and observe the effect on other key process variables. Therein you see the column has its own PFD with streams and units that may be hidden from the main flowsheet. HYSYS will only plot a maximum of three variables at a time. . There is another option. you have the option of entering its Column Environment. Templates and Sub-Flowsheets Templates and their use as Sub-flowsheets are going to be the key to your group working as a team on design. Don't be tempted. There are two other kinds of sub-flowheet besides that of the Column. One independent variable and one or two dependent variables make a 2D graph and two independent and one dependent variable make a 3D graph. so one person's changes must all be scrapped or laboriously transferred over to the other file at the end. The only difference is that a little more information is needed to guide HYSYS in transfering info between the main simulation and the "black box" that is the Sub-flowsheet. Check out my example where I show you in greater depth the uses and limitations of the Case Study. You will be glad if everyone in your group got good practice simulating reactors. because when you get to 404. because he or she did so much work on it that he or she is the only one who knows enough about what is going on to work on it. Case Studies I think the most useful of the DataBook tools. any simulation can be converted to a template to be used in another simulation). columns. You will find examples of its use in any of the tutorials in the Tutorials Book. HYSYS will use for the graph the first one or two dependent variables that are checkmarked Active on the Display Properties Page of the Case Studies Setup. you could just agree to only work on the flowsheet when everyone is present and hover over one computer (which might actually work well for 403 if your schedules match well enough). since it is so easy for one person to claim a flowsheet. Of course.

Even if you don't need to reuse a section of plant or use it another simulation. Not as many as you might think. I have made a quick demonstration of splitting a heatexchanger between to sub-flowsheets. For instance you might want to use an EOS for a Natural Gas Reforming Section and a thermodynamic package more suited for VLE or . Thus. The best part.3. there could in fact many streams exchanging energy with each other between flowsheets and it does not clutter the main flowsheet up (but you might consider making adding text beside each such heat exchagner to remind you what the other half is without having to open a property view everytime). working PFD would doubtless have other units on the main flowsheet and at least a few few more and possibly many more energy streams connecting sub-regions. however. The above PFD is only an illustration to give you an idea of how you might split up a plant.It is a very modular way of doing things. There are some other issues that must be dealt with when using sub-flowsheets. the templates are a great way of breaking a complicated flowsheet down into more manageable chunks. One scenario could be to assign a section of plant to each person or a pair of people and then set someone to coordinate them and put together the main flowsheet (this means a lot of deleting old templates and then reloading and reconnecting the updated templates. is that templates are separate files and thus solve your problem of working as a group. but it is still the easiest way of putting people's work together). A real.4 of RV2. One of the biggest demands for cross-regional interaction is for heat exchangers and HYSYS already has taken care of that. HYSYS allows you to place the tube side of a heat exchanger in one sub-flowsheet and the shell side in another. One of the best features that the separate environments have is the ability for you to use different fluid packages in each subflowsheet or column flowsheet from the one used for the main flowsheet. of course. There is also an excellent example showing how it can be done between the main flowsheet and a subflowsheet with a refrigeration loop in Section 15.

next to each stream. on the other hand. On the Transfer Basis Page of the sub-flowsheet Property View. the problem of passing information from one region pops up. When you actually are working on your projects. I had you create blank sub-flowsheets to build on within your cases. Of course. Even if you started by placing everything in the main flowsheet. Normally used for energy streams. So if you need to pass a stream from a flowsheet using PR to one using Antoine or vice versa. If. you were smart and divided your plant up into pieces early on. Just removing components from a fluid package in areas they are not needed will reduce HYSYS' convergence time. the means by which you should actually go about making a template. essentially the None Req'd when actually intended for use with material streams) I have prepared an example demonstrating the importance of choosing the correct Transfer Basis. will still pass composition (though suprisingly not flow) User Specs . Pressure.Vapour Fraction and Pressure Passes None Required .Nothing passed.Pressure and Enthalpy Passed (Not Recommended) T-P Flash . you are still good because you can save the file under a new name then delete everything but what you want to put into a sub-flowsheet and then convert the case to a template. You've probably noted that I have yet to discuss or include in my examples. You know that any two of Vapour Fraction. That's what the Transfer Basis is for. Temperature.Vapour Fraction and Temperature Passed VF-P Flash . I am putting a short example right here. and Enthalpy. To show you how this may be done.User Specified (to the best of my knowledge.LLE in the Separations Section or Columns. you may pick one of the following choices for a transfer basis: y y y y y y P-H Flash . you could build the pieces separately as templates or as separate cases (which may be converted into templates) right from the beginning. TEMPLATE EXAMPLE . plus the Composition of the Stream is enough information for HYSYS to flash the stream and find the rest of the information. it becomes important to decide which pair of parameters should be used to flash the stream on the other side. though if used for material streams. In my examples. this is NOT the way you want to do things. You should expect that the same two parameters in Peng-Robinson will give different results for the rest of the variables then if the thermo package were Antoine (an essentially ideal package). If you start with a blank sub-flowsheet there is no simple way to turn it into a template (there is a work-around which I will discuss later but it is not pleasant either to do or work with later).Temperature and Pressure Passed VF-T Flash . with the ability to use different property packages in different sections of the plant.

However. We'd like to convert this case into a template.Start with ChemicalsEx. It was the one that looked like this The first thing you must do is save the file under a new name (you shouldn't be able to write to either directory anyway).hsc in HYSYS' sample directory (they are the same thing). we are here for the button at the bottom. or. go to the Simulation Menu and choose Main Properties. To do that. Now. . let us pretend that this flowsheet represents not an entire process. on the Notes Page. Here you can change the name of the case or its tag. but merely a section of the plant we wish to model. you can write the description that appears next to the file name in the Open dialog window.hsc in my sample directory or TUTOR3.

HYSYS will close the case you were working on (it will ask if you want to save it first) and leave open the newly created template. The None Req'd type is fine for our energy streams. After HYSYS asks for confirmation and you approve it. of course. The two material feed streams were defined by specifying their . You can also affect the name of the streams as they will appear on the sub-flowsheet's Property View to be connected with streams on the main flowsheet and the transfer basis of each stream. At the top you may choose the tag it will receive in the new flowsheet and whether the default property package should be that of the template or that of the simulation it is imported to.Press Convert to Template. The template. You can. you have a number of options for the default values connected with the template when you import it as a sub-flowsheet. On the Exported Connections Page. of course. change the property package of any sub-flowsheet after it has been imported from the simulation basis manager. looks the same as the case except that the file name at the top shows the extension .tpl instead of .hsc and some new pages have been added to the Main Properties window we have been working with. Let us put to use the concepts I taught in my transfer basis example and pick the transfer bases for these streams. but you'll remember that P-H Flash is definitely not good for the material streams.

they should be set to VF-P Flash. You are now ready to install the template as a sub-flowsheet in another simulation case. Oh. Note that the choice of T or P is much less important than the choice of Vapour Fraction as the other passed parameter in these cases. This process adds another level of depth (and irritation) between the areas you want to work with. it had its temperature set directly (via the stream Reactor Prods) and so should be set to VF-T Flash. If it should happen that you created a subflowsheet from scratch that you really want to turn into a template. the work around is to save the file under a new name. . but it does work. eliminate everything from the flowsheet except the sub-flowsheet and the streams directly connected to it. all direct product streams from a column should be set to either VF-P or VF-T Flash. so they should probably be set to T-P Flash. Moreover. Then. The last product stream. the vent from the reactor is also the result of a flash separation.temperature and pressure. I hope the information I have imparted to you makes it easier to turn your projects into real team efforts. In general. one last thing on this. The three streams exiting the column are all from the condenser or reboiler and are saturated vapours or liquids. turn this into a template. Therefore.

Essentially there is a way in HYSYS to choose one or another "path" for a flow. In the picture the Equilibrium reactor is active and the Gibbs reactor is Ignored. but it works regardless. you can send a stream to more than one unit operation or section of the plant to evaluate how they compare to each other and then merge the "tracks" on the other side to see the effect downstream in the plant of using the one over the other. You see how the stream appears to diverge then reconnect. It must go one way or another.The Process "Switch" This is one trick that is not mentioned anywhere in the HYSYS manuals. Return to the HYSYS Page | Return to the CENG 403 homepag . Somewhat like a switch in a railroad track that sends the train to another destination. but it can be switched easily. This is the picture from the example I mention above. To see the process of setting up a switch. If you've gone through my Gibbs/Equilibrium Reactor Example than you've already seen what it can do. The stream is not actually splitting and mixing. see my example.

must double click once to outline the entire graph then single click on the item to be moved and drag (a double click will call up the graph controls). . SOLUTION: Don't work on the same file at the same time! 2. UNIT OPS on workbook cannot be deleted. you can add to the web pages. One way of creating images (perhaps there is a better way) is to print the screen to the clipboard (press <SHIFT+Print Screen>). 6. 8. 9. I would remove that item from the list (unless it was something particularly usefull but short). If part of the text or numbers on the graph are cut off. 3. Only saved changes from the first opened appear in the second when it is opened and only the changes made to the last one saved remain (the other changes are lost). You may add a copy of your PFD to your workspace. Go to the Utility tab and choose "Copy Stream Specs From «". so better put them in the right order to start. When setting compositions by flows instead of fractions. you cannot reorder the tabs in workbook. Note. Crop it down to the image you want then save it as a jpeg or GIF (change the file type it is to save to). To move things on a 2D graph. giving you the chance to rearrange the view. 7. then paste it in a blank slide in PowerPoint.Assorted Tips As I was learning Hysys myself. Below are the remaining items that I didn't find a good home for in the pages I had time to write. changed. click on the label then either press <L> or choose "move label" from the menu appearing with the right mouse button. not just on that view. Unfortunately cannot move text around on the display. When editing your workbook format. As I incorporated what I learned into the web pages. 4. the normalize button simply sets empty cells to zero. this will also fix the problem. Note that two different users CAN open the same file on two different computers at the same time. Holding down the <Ctrl> button automatically places one temporarily in Attach Mode. if you find the answers. Perhaps. To change fonts on the 3D graph must change fonts for all graphs in the preference file. 5. 10. 11. however. though. or duplicated. General Notes 1. Some of them mention things I wanted to explore and questions I had left that I did not get the time to deal with. Can Duplicate Streams Within a flowsheet by going to the property view of the stream to which you want the properties copied. that removing an object from any PFD removes it globally. I made a number of notes along the way. If you want to move just a label.

Note that for all properties except K factors.275 of Reference Volume 1 for a good explanation of assay %.Fluid Package Notes 1. If you want to use an oil in more than one file. the tabular must be used for all components in the case. 4. Look in Chapter 8 and Appendix A of the Reference Volume 1 for more information on the choosing of the thermo package. 2. otherwise you cannot introduce the oil as a stream. This is useful if you want to use. When experimenting with the Refining Tutorial components in the fluid package were changed without my knowledge or approval. 5. Save the assay. an EOS model in the main flowsheet containing a reactor but an activity coefficient model in a column subflowsheet. 2. To have slightly different fluid packages within the same file (say you want the same compounds but a different thermo package) the Copy button may be employed to copy an existing package under a new name for editing. if you used the Save As command to start the second file it will automatically have the same fluid packages of course). Might have been the result of changing the property package and then changing it back since hypotheticals are tied into the property package. and then choose from the drop down menu the preferred "vapour model". The only way to get the original library values back is to change then re-select the property package. 3. Hypotheticals acted weird. you may transfer fluid packages between files. Oil Notes (for petrochemical work) 1. 4. You can choose thermo packages to be both an activity coefficient model for the liquid and EOS for the vapor. In the tabular. then importing. See p. 3. Binary Coefficients are library values unless instructed to calculate new ones by the user. In refining example Standard Density NOT requested as API . for example. not the fluid package. By exporting. The file gave even more different results from the tutorial than the file with the correct fluid package. Seems as if the only way to get a totally ideal property package is to use either a vapour pressure model like Antoine or an activity model like Margules with the vapour model set to Ideal and all the binary coefficients deleted (make sure to get both Aij's and Bij's). etc. Must choose the activity model first. (Alternatively.

can apparently only use energy streams for the heating or cooling. Change in all pertinent locations (not just HYSYS). those for side strippers too). HYSYS requires for equilibrium reactions that you either provide info about the constant or provide a table of T vs. K values. 2. it can be done now. Be Careful when looking at graphs of results for columns (check out the table as well to make sure that the entries and order are what you think they are). 4. On column condensers and reboilers. Figure out which changes are acceptable. it talks about being unable to do a 3-phase condenser in the column while claiming total reflux. Under "Reaction Heat" a positive # indicates an exothermic reaction (it is not the delta H of reaction). 2. What does Aspen do for equilibrium reactors? 3. On page 131 of tutorial. Example: The refining example in the tutorial has 40 total stages in four total tray sections. This is no longer the case. . Find out if Aspen "integrates" the same way and if so.e. 3. not material streams. Find out if they are the same apart from the sign. how to affect the number of its divisions. So will have to include some sort of temperature cross check. 4. Databook Notes Data Recorder does not allow some variable changes between recordings.Reaction Section Notes 1. Note that the Absorption Parameter in Seth's Example of Plug Flow seems to have the wrong units. Column Notes 1. When reporting the total number of theoretical stages one needs to include all the main column trays as well as all side stripper trays and all condensers and reboilers (i.

HYSYS does not have the capability to do multistage compressors (i. How does the sign work on energy streams? If you set up a cooler but make the temperature of the stream rise. In general.e. if you actually want realistic compression of liquids (say near their critical point). what happens? Get negative energy streams (can also get negative material streams if work at it) Return to the HYSYS Page | Return to the CENG 403 homepage .424 of RV2. COMPRESSOR on p. But. Compressors are for gases and pumps are for liquids (the liquids are assumed incompressible). no equivalent to Aspen's MCOMPR). go ahead and use the compressor. 2. Interesting note about the use of PUMP vs.Unsorted Notes 1. 3.

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