I. Composing a short argument: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Distinguishes premises and conclusion. Present your ideas in a natural order.

Start from reliable premises. Be concrete and concise. Avoid loaded language. Use consistent terms. Stick to one meaning for each term.

II. Arguments by example. 8. Give more than one example. 9. Use representative examples. 10.Background information is crucial. 11.Consider counterexamples. III. Arguments by analogy. 12. Analogy requires a (one) relevantly similar example. IV. Arguments !om authority. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Sources should be cited. Seek informed sources. Seek impartial sources. Cross-check sources. Personal attacks do not disqualify a source.

V. Arguments about causes. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Explain how cause leads to effect. Propose most likely cause. Correlated events are not necessarily related. Correlated events may have a common cause. Either of the two correlated events may cause the other. Causes may be complex.

VI. Deductive arguments. 24. Modus Ponens. If p then q. p. Then q.

Consider alternatives. Develop your arguments fully. Argue that from the assumption we’d have to conclude: q. 27. Disjunctive syllogism. 26. To prove: p. If p then q. If q then r. B2. A. p or q. B5. Therefore. Deductive arguments in several steps. silly. Make a definite claim or proposal. Conclude: p must be true for all. Assume the opposite: Not-p. Therefore. If p then r. Not -q. Dilemma. B4. if p then r. VII. If q then s. Reductio at absurdum. 29. Explain the question. A1. Explore the arguments on all sides of the issue. Not -p. . 30. B. Therefore.25. Main points of the essay. A3. q. A2. If p then q. Exploring the issue. Therefore. Show that q is false (contradictory. Hypothetical syllogism. B3. “absurd”). B1. not-p. 28. p or q. r or s. Question and defend each argument’s premises. Modus To#ens. Consider objections. Composing an argumentative essay. Revise and rethink arguments as they emerge.

Don’t expect the definitions do the work of the arguments. C4. Support objections with arguments. Follow your outline. Excludes all the things that the term clearly does not fit. D1. clarify. and 3. When terms are contested. C3. 2. Definition. Writing. . clarify. C1. C2. When terms are unclear. Don’t claim more than you have shown. D. get specific. and explains why the line belongs there and not somewhere else. C6. D3. C5. D2. Keep the introduction brief.C. work from the clear cases: 1. Clarify. Give your arguments one at a time. Draws from the plainest possible line somewhere in between. Includes all the things that the term clearly fits.

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