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Name: ___________________ Class (Index No.): _____ ( ) Date: ________________
Cells & Nutrients
SUMMARY Nucleus -Surrounded by nuclear membrane (separates nucleus from surrounding cytoplasm). Cytoplasm -Forms larger part of the cell Cell Surface/Plasma Membrane -Partially/Selectively permeable -controls substances leaving and entering the cell. Contains: a) Mitochondria (rod shaped structures) [in charge of releasing energy from cell respiration: Look at chapter on Respiration. Energy used for growth and reproduction b) Vacuoles (fluid filled space enclosed by a membrane). Contain water and food substances. ** Cells without nucleus eg red blood cells have a short life span ** Animal cells have many small temporary vacuoles. Plant cells have 1 big permanent vacuole **May surround vacuoles in the cell: Tonoplast Contains: Proteins and lipids that control movement of substances in and out of the cell
Contains: a) CHROMATIN (contains DNA and proteins). Chromatin controls cell division, cell repair and cell activities b) Spherical structures called nucleoli (in charge of building proteins)
Differentiation in cells Differentiated cell Root hair cell Adaptations to function Long and narrow (increase surface area to volume ratio for absorption of water and mineral salts from the soil) Concentrated cell sap: encourages absorption of water from the soil by osmosis Large central vacuole: Holds more cell sap which in turn encourages absorption of water.
Red blood cell
-Cytoplasm contains haemoglobin (red pigment) that is used to transport oxygen -Flat and biconcave shape (increase surface area to volume ratio for oxygen to diffuse in and out of the cell quickly) -Absence of nucleus: More space to carry haemoglobin to transport oxygen
Xylem vessels ** Narrow and cylindrical tube (like a straw) ** Empty space inside the xylem is called LUMEN, No protoplasm DEAD structure - Aids water movement by capillary action - No cross walls and protoplasm (Hollow lumen). This allows water and mineral salts to move quickly and easily through the lumen. - Lignin makes walls strong. This prevents collapse of the vessel. It supports the plant. -
** Contains lignin ** Join many xylem vessels together Wood is formed.
(A) Carbohydrates Composition Examples C, H, O (Ratio is 1:2:1) Sugars (GGFMLS, starch, cellulose, Glycogen) Sugars ( 2 types) a)Simple sugars (monosaccharides) GGF Examples: glucose (found in animals), galactose (milk sugar. Common in mammals only), fructose (found in plants, uncommon in animals) *** Saccharides refer to sugar b) Complex sugars (dissacharides and polysaccharides). Disaccharides: MLS Sucrose: Glucose + Fructose Lactose: Glucose + Galactose Maltose: Glucose + Glucose *** Glycogen, Starch and cellulose are polysaccharides *** Glycogen is known as animal starch. It is found in animals and fungi. Stored mainly in the liver and muscles. Functions -Source of energy -Form supporting structures eg cellulose cell wall -Can be converted into other organic compounds like amino acids, fats -Needed to form nucleic acids like DNA -Synthesize lubricants eg mucus that traps in the trachea -Produce nectar Test for reducing sugar (GGFML) Test for starch Benedicts’s Test: Brick Red Precipitate is formed. Iodine test: Starch turns iodine solution from brown to blue black.
(B) Fats Composition Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (NO fixed proportion) Examples Saturated Animal fat (butter, cheese, fatty meat, liver of fish like shark and cod, salmon and Unsaturated vegetable fat (palm oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, corn oil) -Energy store -Insulating material (prevent excessive heat loss) Example: Whales have a thick layer of blubber (fat) underneath the skin to retain body heat. -Solvent for fat-soluble vitamins and other important substances -Constituent of protoplasm (Cell surface membrane) -Restrict (slow down) water loss from the skin. This slows down rate of heat loss from the skin. Test for fat Ethanol emulsion test: White ppt is formed, Test Tube feels warm. Produce MORE energy than carbohydrates Broken down to form 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
(C) Proteins Composition Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. NITROGEN Broken down to form amino acids Proteins polypeptides (peptones) amino acids
Sulphur and phosphorus may be present also
AA- Amino Acid
Meat, fish, chicken, duck, peas beans, nuts, eggs -Synthesize protoplasm (for growth and repair of worn out cells) -Synthesize enzymes and hormones -Source of energy -Formation of antibodies
Test for proteins (D) Water 1 2 3 4 5 6
Biuret Test: Violet solution is formed.
Medium for building of cellular structures Good solvent for many salts and organic compounds Solvent in which many important reactions in the body take place (eg: solvent for the lubricant found in the joints) Involved in transport of materials like digested food substances, excretory products, hormones Needed for hydrolysis reactions and photosynthesis (for GREEN PLANTS ONLY) Regulate body temperature (Excess heat is removed by the evaporation of sweat from the skin using latent heat)
Revision Questions 1) The nucleus of a unicellular organism e.g. amoeba was removed carefully in a laboratory. The cell survived and was watched carefully for a few days. Which one of the following activities of the organism will cease due to the nucleus being removed? (A) (B) (C) (D) Excretion Locomotion Respiration Reproduction
2) ‘K’ is the region of a matured plant cell between cell surface membrane and nucleus. Which one of the following best describes ‘K’?
(A) (B) (C) (D)
Its content is non-protoplasmic. It is involved in cell division. It is a colloidal and can exist in two states. It is spherical and contains chromatin.
3) Which of the following are present in animal cells only? (A) (B) (C) (D) Chloroplasts Centrioles Ribosomes Cell surface membrane
4) Sickle cell anaemia is a genetic condition in which the red blood cells of the patient are abnormally shaped. This is shown in the diagram below.
Suggest one effect of this condition on the patient. ________________________________________________________________
Explain the effect stated on (a). ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________
table below shows an experiment carried out by a student. 6
Step 1 2 3 4
Food substance under test X X X Z
Substance added Iodine solution Benedict’s solution Y Benedict’s solution
Observations Iodine solution turns blueblack. Solution remains blue. Z is formed. A brick-red precipitate is formed.
(a) Identify X, Y and Z. X: ___________________________ Y: ___________________________ Z: ___________________________ (b) The table below shows the mean daily intake of some food substances in the human diet and the mean daily loss of substances in the faeces. Food substances Starch Protein Fat Cellulose Mean daily intake /gram per day 300 100 100 250 Mean daily loss /gram per day 4 6 5 250
(i) It is suggested that humans should derive less than 30% fat requirement from their food intake. Suggest why the fat content of the diet should be controlled. ________________________________________________________________ (ii) With reference to the process involved in carbohydrate digestion, explain the difference in starch content and cellulose content in the faeces. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ (iii) State one function of cellulose in plants. ________________________________________________________________ 6) Differentiate tonoplast from middle lamella ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________
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