PUSAT PENGAJIAN SISWAZAH (Centre For Graduate Studies) Universiti Utara Malaysia

PERAKUAN KERJA KERTAS PROJEK (Certificate of Project Paper)

Saya, yang bertandatangan, memperakukan bahawa (1, the undersigned, certify that)


cal on untuk Ijazah

(candidate for the degree oj) MSc. (ICT)

telah mengemukakan kertas projek yang bertajuk

(has presented his/ her project paper of the following title)


seperti yang tercatat di muka surat tajuk dan kulit kertas projek (as it appears on the title page and front cover of project paper)

bahawa kertas projek tersebut boleh diterima dari segi bentuk serta kandungan dan meliputi bidang ilmu dengan memuaskan.

(that the project paper acceptable in form. and content, and that a satisfactory knowledge of the field is covered by the project paper).

Nama Penyelia Utama

(Name of Main Superoisor): MR. ABDUL RAZAK RAHMAT


Tandatangan (Signature)

Tarikh (Date)


In presenting this thesis of the requirements for a Master of Science in Information and Communication Technology (MSc. IT) from Universiti Utara Malaysia, I agree that the University library may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that permission for copying of this thesis in any manner, in whole or in part, for scholarly purposes may be granted by my supervisor or in their absence, by the Dean of Graduate School. It is understood that any copying or publication or use of this thesis or parts thereof for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. It is also understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to Universiti Utara Malaysia for any scholarly use which may be made of any material from my thesis.

Request for permission to copy or make other use of materials in this thesis, in whole or in part, should be addressed to:

Dean of Graduate School Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010 Sintok Kedah Darul Aman Malaysia


Shopping is very important in our daily life. Whenever we need, we usually move to shopping complex. Day by day, a large amount of consumers are increased in shopping area. As a result, to provide better consumer services and satisfaction JUSCO proposed online shopping system. Thus, consumers are not required to physically visit to shops to make a purchase including spend to find out specific products, wait for a long queue for payment. The purpose of this research is to design an interactive online shopping system that can satisfy consumers to buy products and which system will save cost, fewer employees, reduce administration work and less time.



Praise be to Allah S.W.T, Most Gracious, Most Merciful whose blessing and guidance have helped me through entire project works. Peace be upon our prophet Muhammad S.A.W, who has given light to mankind. My most sincere appreciation goes to my beloved parents and all of my friends who always there to giving me love and encourages me along the way.

Firstly, special thanks to my supervisor, Mr. Abdal Razaq Rahmat for his idea, suggestion, support, important additions of material and supervision during the project development and in the preparation of this research.

To all my reviews thanks to all lecturers, thanks for the guidance and advice that you have given. These include Assoc. Prof Fadzilah Bt Siraj, Mr. Azizi Bin Aziz, Prof Wan Russian Bin Wan Ishak and others.

I also with to thanks to all ofICT staffs for their understanding and encouragement.

Finally, to my beloved all of best friends and all of the individuals with share my laughter and sadness.




1.1 Background
1.2 Motivation 2
1.3 Problem statement 3
1.4 Research objective 3
1.5 Research scope 4
1.6 Research significance 4
1.7 Research outcome 4
1.8 Organization of the Thesis 5


History of web-base technology



2.Ll Web-base: concept and definition 7
2.1.2 Origins of the web 8
2.1.3 Basic web architecture 8
2.2 Web-based application 10
2.3 Web database application 10
2.4 Application & tools used to build a web 11
2.4.1 Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) 11
2.4.2 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 12
2.4.3 MySQL 12
2.4.4 PHP scripting language 12
2.4.5 Apache web server 13
2.5 Previous studies and related work 13
2.6 Usability testing 14

3.1 Introduction 17
3.2 System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) 18
3.2.1 Project identification and selection 19
3.2.2 Project initiation & planning 20 System request 21 The project sponsor 21 The business needs 21 The functionality 21 v The expected value 21 Identifying business value 22
3.3 System requirements analysis 22
3.3.1 Interview: requirements gathering techniques 22
3.4 System design 23
3.4.l Logical design 23
3.4.2 Physical design 24
3.5 System implementation 25
3.6 System testing 25
3.7 System evaluation 26
3.8 System documentation 27

4.1 Introduction 30
4.2 Web site design issues 30
4.2.1 Requirements for design web prototype 32 Macromedia Dreamweaver 10 32 Macromedia Flash 10 33 Adobe Photoshop 11 33 Microsoft Access Database 20007 33 Rational Rose 2000 33 UML 34 Use Case Diagram 34 VI

4.3 Design a Use Case Diagram 34
4.4 Design sequence diagram 36
4.4.1 Register as a new user 36
4.4.2 View products 37
4.4.3 Buy products 38
4.4.4 View shopping cart 39
4.4.5 Make payment 40
4.6 Guidelines to design a web site 40
4.7 Design prototype 41
4.7.1 Welcome menu 41
4.7.2 Main menu 42
4.7.3 Hot sales 43
4.7.4 Ladies comer 44
4.7.5 Gents comer 45
4.7.6 Children comer 46
4.7.7 Special offers 47
4.7.8 Register new member 48
4.7.9 View location map 49
4.8 Sununary 49 CHAPTER 5: EV ALVA TION

5.0 5.1


Evaluation techniques 5.1.1 User involvement

50 51 51


5.2 Features of the system

5.3 Summary

53 53


6.0 Introduction

6.1 Problems and limitations

6.2 Conclusion

54 54 55





Figure 3.1: Object-oriented System Analysis and Design (OOSAD) Methodology Figure 4.1: Use case diagram

Figure 4.2: Sequence diagram for register as a new user Figure 4.3: Sequence diagram for view products

Figure 4.4: Sequence diagram for buy product

Figure 4.5: Sequence diagram for view shopping cart Figure 4.6: Sequence diagram for make payment Figure 4.7: Welcome interface

Figure 4.8: Main menu interface

Figure 4.9: Hot sales interface

Figure 4.10: Ladies clothes interface

Figure 4.11: Gents shoes interface

Figure 4.12: Children toys interface

Figure 4.13: Special offers interface

Figure 4.14: Register new member interface Figure 4.15: View location map interface



Table 5.1: Users working experience

Table 5.2: User's first spontaneous impression and positive experiences




Point of Sale

Business to Business Business to Consumer

Advance Research Projects Agency World Wide Web

Application Programming Interface

Java Database Connectivity

HyperText Terminal Protocol HyperTextMarkup Language

Structure Query Language

Technology Acceptance Model

Software Development Life Cycle Object-oriented System Analysis and Design Cascading Style Sheets

Unified modeling Language

Object Management Group





JUSCO is the acronym for Japan United Stores Company, a chain of general merchandise stores and largest of its type in Japan. The ]uSCO name was adopted in 1970 by a company originally founded as a kimono silk trader in 1758. It operates stores throughout Japan under ]uSCO and other names, and also has a presence in Malaysia, Hong Kong, China, Taiwan and Thailand (

In 1985, the first ]uSCO overseas store was opened, in Plaza Dayabumi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia as a jointly-owned company with cold storage and three other local companies. It was first time that a Japanese company had entered into a significant joint venture in the Malaysian retail industry. Currently 18 JUSCO stores and supermarkets nationwide are in operation with another 4 confirmed opening and 3 planned stores by 2010. Approximately 4,000 stores worldwide. Under the AEON corporate umbrella are 460 JUSCO superstores, 2,600 Mini Stop convenience stores, 665 supermarket stores, and 1,900 AEON Welcia drug stores (www.wikipedia).



Jusco made great progress in the area of Point of Sale (POS) systems. POS systems automate the management of inventory, making it possible to fine-tune the reordering process and minimize the amount of money tied up in stock. POS also allows detailed analysis of turnover at each outlet, so that stocking policy can be attuned to local tastes. JUSCO had Fashion POS installed at all its outlets by 1990 and showed a marked improvement in turnover rates and profitability as a result. It rapidly extending POS coverage non-fashion lines (AEON, 2007).

According to Dennis (2002), online shopping is the process consumers go through to purchase products or services over the Internet. An online shop, e-shop, e-store, internet shop, web shop or online store evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a bricks-and-mortar retailer or in a shopping mall. It is an electronic commerce application used for business-to-business electronic commerce (B2B) or business-to-consumer electronic commerce (B2C). Online shopping is popular mainly because of its speed and ease of use. Some issues of concern can include fluctuating exchange rates for foreign currencies, local and international laws and delivery methods (Dennis, 2002).

Day by day, JUSCO is becoming more popular with a large amount of customers. Customers prefer to shop at because they believe there is no better source for their daily necessities that so thoroughly addresses very real concerns for product reliability and food safety. This afforded JUSCO a number of advantages, including cheaper advertising in local media and better levels of cooperation with suppliers.


But as rapid growth of consumer, to purchase a product they have to wait for a long queue for payment, searching a product, comparison and physically visit. It difficult for JUSCO to hold this situation. Therefore, JUSCO are looking for alternative way for consumer satisfaction to do the shopping from any where, any time without physically visit (JUS CO, 2007).


Web-based system is which application is on the web. It's also known as web application. Web-based systems that can satisfy consumers to buy products from anywhere and will save cost and time.

Traditional commercial transaction, people are required to visit shops to make a purchase. It's quite difficult to find out the specific products with less time. Also as rapid growth of consumer, to purchase a product they have to wait for a long queue for payment, searching a product, comparison and physically visit. It difficult for JUSCO to hold this situation. Therefore, JUSCO are looking for alternative way for consumer satisfaction to do the shopping from any where, any time without physically visit.


The main objectives of this research are:

1. To identify the requirements for web-based online shopping system for JUSCO in Libya for the purpose of consumer satisfaction.


2. To provide a design of the web-base online shopping system.

3. To develop a simple prototype that supports the online shopping system.


The research scopes of this research of online shopping system are:

1. To provide online shopping products details.

2. Provide update and current inventory information.

3. Enable user to access online system to buy products at any time, from anywhere.


The purpose of the design of online shopping system is to design an interactive webbased system that can satisfy consumers to buy products and which system will save cost, fewer employees, reduce administration work and less time. However, online shopping cannot be sure getting good price, quality/ design of the product. So consumers can be face with dilemmas.


Prototype of web-based shopping system for JUSCO in Libya.



• Chapter one: This chapter is to gives a background, necessary for the

• understanding of concept used in later chapters and overview of the research.

• Chapter two: This chapter discusses about literature reviews, previous related work and challenges, and more information to understanding the research.

• Chapter three: This chapter discusses the methodology that has been used in this project.

• Chapter four: This chapter discusses analysis design and develop prototype.

• Chapter five: This chapter this chapter discusses the evaluation of the prototype system

• Chapter six this chapter discusses conclusion and recommendations else future works


Shopping stores has been recognized in academic research and practitioner literature. The concept of satisfaction in online shopping can benefit by examining satisfaction literature from different disciplines, for example, user satisfaction from information systems, job satisfaction from organizational behavior, and consumer satisfaction from marketing. Prior research on online shopping has not considered all the relevant attitudinal components, which may be suggested by these different sources.


Web-based online shopping system is designed to help JUSCO to get consumers satisfaction, more business improvement, increase sells productivity, reduce consumers physically visit at shop. As technology improvement the outcome of the idea will take advantage. The design of this system is a good start and it is hoped that this study will be the ignition of better research and finding on this matter in the future.





2.1.1 Web-Base: Concept and Definition

Information or application made available via the World Wide Web is WEB. In addition, called internet based.

Web is a computer programming system created by Donald Knuth as the first implementation of what he called "literate programming": the idea that one could create software as works of literature, by embedding source code inside descriptive text, rather than the reverse.

In the early day of web has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before. The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio and computer set the stage for this unprecedented integration of capabilities. The web is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information dissemination, medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers without regard frogeographic location.


The Internet today is a widespread information infrastructure, the initial prototype of what is often called the National (Global or Galactic) Information Infrastructure. Its history is complex and involves many aspects technological, organizational, and community. And its influence reaches not only to the technical fields of computer communications but throughout society as we move toward increasing use of online tools to accomplish electronic commerce, information acquisition, and community operations.

2.1.2 Origins of the WEB

To get to the origins of the web, we have to go back in 1957. Probably have no cause to remember, but it was international Geophysical Year, a year dedicated to gathering information about the upper atmosphere during a period of intense solar activity. USA lunch a small earth orbiting satellite, creation by NASA in October 1958. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) became the technological thinktank of the American defense effort. Later on, ARPA rolled out the blueprints for networking the main computer systems of about a dozen ARPA funded universities and institutes. They were to be connected with communications lines 56KB, at a time when most people were connecting over telephone lines. This grandparent of today's internet or WEB.

2.1.3 Basic Web Architecture

The World Wide Web has succeeded in large part because its software architecture has been designed to meet the needs of an Internet-scale distributed hypermedia system. The modem Web architecture emphasizes scalability of component interactions, generality of interfaces, independent deployment of components, and


intermediary components to reduce interaction latency, e-nforce security, and encapsulate legacy systems.

The main pieces of the Internet from a User's pc. .. are extending all the way through to the online content. Each section mentions the most significant parts of the web's architecture. The main sections are:

• User PC - Multi-Media PCs equipped to send and receive all variety of audio and video. Example: sound card, web cam, microphone.

• User Communication Equipment - Connects the Users' PC(s) to the "Local Loop". Example: modem, phone line, Lan card, Routers, Firewalls.

• Local Loop Carrier - Connects the User location to the ISP's Point of Presence. Example: Cables, Satellite, power line, Wireless, communication lines.

• ISP's POP - Connections from the user are accepted and authenticated here.

• User Services - Used by the User for access (DNS, EMAIL, etc).

• ISP Backbone - Interconnects the ISP's POPs, AND interconnects the ISP to Other ISP's and online content.

• Online Content - These are the host sites that the user interacts with.

• Origins Of Online Content - This is the original "real-world" sources for the online information.



Web application is an application that is accessed via web over a network such as the Internet or an intranet. Web applications are popular due to the ubiquity of a client, sometimes called a thin client. The ability to update and maintain web applications without distributing and installing software on potentially thousands of client computers is a key reason for their popularity. Web applications are used to implement Webmail, online retail sales, online auctions, wikis, discussion boards, Weblogs, MMORPGs and many other functions.

According to Nijaz (2000), web based application technologies are increasing dayby-day with real time data accessibility. In his research he mentioned two perspectives end-user's perspectives with the main objective and developing web enabled computer software application with the primary aim of providing 'thinner' client side.

In this project, the web application's user able to access the web site and do online shopping.


Databases are used in many applications, spanning virtually the entire range of computer software. Databases are the preferred method of storage for large multi user applications, where coordination between many users is needed. Even individual users find them convenient, and many electronic mail programs and


personal organizers are based on standard database technology. Software database drivers are available for most database platforms so that application software can use a common Application Programming Interface (API) to retrieve the information stored in a database. To commonly used database are JDBC and ODBC.


The web IS consists of several applications and tools. e.g. HyperText Terminal Protocol, (HTTP), HyperText Markup Language (HTML), several protocols (TCPIIP), MySQL, PHP, Apache web server, Adobe Photoshop, Micro media Dream waver etc. the following section will elaborate these.

2.4.1 HyperText Markup Language (HTML)

The common representation language for hypertext documents on the web. HTML had a fIrst public release as HTML 0.0 in 1990, was Internet draft HTML 1.0 in 1993, and HTML 2.0 in 1994. The September 22 1995 draft of the HTML 2.0 specification has been approved as a standard by the IETF Application Area HTML Working Group. HTML 3.0 and Netscape HTML are competing next generations of HTML 2.0. Proposed features in HTML 3.0 include: forms, style sheets, mathematical markup, and text flow around Figures. Many HTML documents are the result of manual authoring or word processing HTML converters, but now several WYSIWYG editors support HTML styles


2.4.2 HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

Tim Berners-Lee, father of the web, describes it as a "generic stateless objectoriented protocol." Statelessness is a scalability property but is not necessarily efficient since HTTP sets up a new connection for each request, which is not desirable for situations requiring sessions or transactions.

2.4.3 MySQL

This project used MySQL relation database management system to implement the web-based database model for developing, the MySQL is very fast multi-threaded, and robust structured query language (SQL) database server.

MySQL has a well-deserved reputation for being A very fast database server that is also quite as to set up and use, with it s growing popularity as a back-end database for website, its visibility has increased dramatically in the year 2002. It supports interactive and non-interactive use. Besides that, MySQL is free open source software and functions as a client! server system that support different back ends, several different client programs and libraries, administrative tools and programming interface.

2.4.4 PHP Scripting Language

There are several popular server-side scripting language available today an increasingly popular solution is the open source PHP. PHP is server-side cross platform scripting language similar to APS; it is designed for developers with programming experience but has the advantage of being free and platform


independent (Antelman & Mendlzon, 1998). PHP allows for rapid development of dynamic, database-driven application.

2.4.5 Apache web server

Apache server is one of the web servers other then Microsoft internet information server (ISS), Netscape enterprise server and web logic server. The apache server is powerful, flexible, httpll.l compliant web server with highly configurable and extensible with third-party modules, which can be customized by writing 'modules' using the apache module. This server can runs on Windows NT/9x and above, OS /2 and most version of UNIX, as well as several other operating systems.


The development of the internet has greatly changed people's shopping patterns. In the traditional transaction, people are required to visit shops to make a purchase. Now, thanks to the internet, consumers can choose to use the internet shopping instead of physically visiting stores. In addition, comparison-shopping agents reduce search costs of consumer's online Kushmerich et al., (2000). Comparison-shopping helps consumes make wiser purchase decisions (Yuan, 2002) and reduces search costs (Crowston et al., 2004).

Brody et al., (2001), is a research on the world where consumer visits the physical store to confirm the product and then tum to on-line to find the best price and transaction conditions. This enables the consumer to browse in the physical store and then buy from the retailer of cyberspace. Pocket Bargain Finder consists of a barcode


scanner and the portability of a PDA. Those can bring a convergence of physical and cyber commerce called' augmented commerce'. The authors claim that the result that consumers become able to search the best price and transaction conditions lets the physical retailer left at a disadvantage.

Galletta et aI., (2004), asserted that website interfaces will be a dominant component of general satisfaction attitude and that physical aesthetic properties of web sites can be compared with atmospheric features of traditional shopping stores. Previous studies have identified web interface features as either website factors or information system factors.

Shih (2005), Wixdom and Todd (2006) examined factors such as 'ease of use' and 'usefulness' as determinants of satisfaction in the context of online shopping based on the technology acceptance model (TAM). However, in these studies, the term use has been employed inconsistently, in some cases use refers to the online channel and in some cases it refers to a specific online store.


In accordance to Jokela et aI., (2000) usability can be defined as a software quality attributes. Similarly, usability is also defined as an extent to which the product can be used by the user to achieve specified goals. Ravden and Johnson (1989), defined usability as the extent to which an end-user is able to carry out required tasks successfully, and without difficulty, usmg the computer application system. Usability, ill tum can be decomposed into a number of attributes. According to


Nielsen (1993), usability is a multidimensional concept that is traditionally associated with five attributes: leamability, memorability, efficiency, errors, and subjective satisfaction.

According to Nielsen (1998) the dimensions of usability are:

• Effectiveness: the accuracy and completeness with which users achieve specified goals.

• Efficiency: the resources expended in relation to the accuracy and completeness with which users achieve goals.

• Satisfaction: the comfort and acceptability of use.

However, the generally accepted meaning is that a usability attribute is a precise and measurable component of the abstract concept that is usability. To achieve user's satisfaction, the provider should improve accessibility property (Nielsen, 1993; and Holcomb et a1., 1991).

Many usability problems resemble issues identified during the early stage of web site development for PC computers (Ramsay and Nielsen, 2000). However, good user interface design can alleviate some of the usability problems for users. Drawing from their experience in developing Web access to an information system for web-based application, Colafigi et a1. (2001) recommended several design guidelines for web application, including:

• Use short links (hyper links).

• Include backward navigation.

• Minimize the level of menu hierarchy.

• Include headlines for each web page.



This chapter has discussed concept and definition of web, web-base, History, web application architecture, tools to build web and database. Finally, this chapter has outlined the perception and previous related work, which eventually help to this research. The next chapters will discuss on research methodology.





Research methodology is more than just collections of method to perform a research; it is a systematic way to solve the research problem (Kothari, 1985). The research methods refer to the methods and techniques used by the researcher in performing the research, for example data collection techniques, data processing techniques, and instruments. This chapter discusses the methodology that was used in this project to achieve the project's objectives. As stated earlier of these researches are:

• To identify the user requirements.

• To design a prototype for online shopping system for Libya.

• To evaluate the proposed model in term of usage.

Thus, the third chapter will explains on the methodology applied for this project. Basically, this chapter gives an overview and a little bit more details of the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC), which is the main methodology adapted for the development of the prototype. In the following subtopics, all phases in SDLC will be discussed accordingly with reference to the case of study.



According to Valacich et al. (2004), Systems Development Life Cycle or SDLC is the traditional methodology applied in the development of an information system. The methodology also includes the processes of maintaining or any means of replacing a system. Hoffer et a1. (1999) wrote in his book that SDLC is a common methodology used by organizations to develop systems which consists of several phases. But there are several slightly different models referred by different organization and every textbook author. However, Hoffer et al. refers to the one that comprises of six phases that are dependent with each other (Figure 3.1).

In this research we will follow Object-oriented system analysis and design approach in order to design and build the system. The steps are as follows:

Figure 3.1: Object-oriented System Analysis and Design (OOSAD) Methodology


As we can see from the above figure, the SDLC framework proposed by Hoffer et al. (1999) have six interconnected phases which include identification and selection of project, project initiation and planning, analysis, design, implementation and maintenance. In the next subtopics, we will discuss on the essence of each of the phases accordingly.

3.2.1 Project identification and selection

According to Hoffer et al. (1999) in their writings, the need to apply or develop an information system in an organization or any particular situation is depend on several conditions as follows:

• The requests to deal with problems occurred in current procedures practiced by the organization or any situation that gives problem to the social environment.

• The desire to gain better solution by performing probable additional tasks.

• The realization of the capability of an information system to capitalize on an existing opportunity.

As far as this study is concerned, the idea of developing an online shopping system for JUSCO in Libya was ignited from the realization of the benefits that people would have by implementing information system specifically a web-based application into their life and also to the environment. It would create a technologyoriented environment to spread out the advantages of information technology into the social life particularly in the field of shopping as the main focus in this study.


The elaboration of problem statement in the introduction chapter has already explained on the situation that derived the idea to develop a online shopping system for JUSCO in Libya. With the purpose of making the nature of information gathering become easier, the development of the shopping system is actually a fulfilment of the desire to perform additional tasks for better solution.

3.2.2 Project Initiation & Planning

After the project was identified and the area of research was selected, the second phase in SDLC was then carried which is the project initiation and planning. Initiating the project involved two major activities as proposed by Hoffer et al. (1999) that are:

• Detail investigation of the problem or opportunity that derives the system development.

• Determination of reasons why the system should or should not be developed.

After the problems and opportunity exist have been identified and investigated thoroughly, the next critical step taken was determining the scope of the proposed system. This is the most important phase in this study. The failure of doing a good plan is a hazard to the whole process of implementing the project. For the beginning, a comprehensive study has to be in order to get the clear idea of what will be achieved at the end of the project. Literature review will be done for getting the ideas, information, issues, and problems related to the study conducted. Planning is needed for project initialization. Planning for project or Project initialization begins when some one in the organization identifies the business value that can be gained


by IT. The proposed project is described very briefly using a technique called system request. System request

Most system requests include four elements. They are Project sponsor, business need, functionality and expected value. The project sponsor

The project sponsor is the person who has an interest in seeing the system succeed or someone who will work throughout the SDLC to make sure that the project is moving in the right direction from perspective of the business. The business need

The business need describes why the information system should be built and why the organization will fund the project. The business need should be clear and concise. The functionality

The functionality of the system will be depicted highly so that the approval committee and the project team can understand business unit expects from the final product. Functionality includes the business features and capabilities. The expected value

The expected value to be gained from the system includes both the tangible and intangible value. Tangible value can be quantified and measured and the in tangible value is the results from an intuitive belief.

21 Identifying Business Value

All system has to address business needs or they will fail. Most organizations have a process for ensuring that business value has been identified before a development project can begin. Every organization has its own way of initiating a system. A system requests to provide reason for building the project. When the project is initiated, business users complete the formal system approval process within the organization.


The analysis, system concept process model and data model are combined into a document. It is called system proposal. The system proposal is the initial deliverable and it describes the system look. It is the first step in the design of the new system. In this phase, the aim is to identify the requirements from the users towards the application of web-based shopping system. It is important to know what criteria and functions that has to be applied in the application considering the requirement from the target users prior to developing it. This stage we should to know how the current system works, determine & analyzed facts and document fully how the system should work better to support, develop a proposed system.

3.3.1 Interview: Requirements Gathering Techniques

The interview is the most commonly used information-gathering technique. In generally, interviews are conducted one-on-one. But sometimes, owing to time constraints, several people are interviewed at the same time. There are five basic steps to the interview process:


1) Selecting interviewees

2) Designing interview questions

3) Preparing for the interview

4) Conducting the interview

5) Follow- up


The system design is for making decision for the system operation for the software, hardware and for network infrastructure. The first step in the design phase is to develop the design strategy. The interface design specifies how the user will move through the system. The database and file specifications defme what data will be stored and developed. The collection of deliverables is the system specification. System designers take care of it for implementation. After all requirements needed to be fulfilled in the project are identified, it will then be translated into a more understandable format for the purpose of well implementation. In other words, the possible interactions among the system components and functionalities will be identified and visualized. In the case of this study, object oriented approach will be implemented in the system's requirement design by the representation of class diagram.

3.4.1 Logical Design

Hoffer et a1. (1999) explained that logical design is the phase where all functional features that has been chosen for the development of the system are described without regard of any computer platform. Assuming that the developed system could


be implemented on any hardware or systems software, the aim of this phase is actually to make sure that the system can really functions as it should be. This also involved the representation of functional requirements of the system in the form of notation which in the case of this study, the Object Oriented approach was adopted by the researcher. The adoption of this approach is in line with the needs to produce more details design besides the increasingly complex system requirements (Bahrami,


Object oriented offers conceptual structures of the system to assist in understanding the whole system's functions especially during implementation or writing programs. The researcher had produced use case diagram to represent the whole functions available in the mobile. Other than that, sequence diagram was also generated to visualize the structure of the system's flows. All of these diagrams were produced using the Rational Rose 2000 Enterprise Edition's software. It is a simple, easy yet the best tools for structuring system's requirements.

3.4.2 Physical Design

Meanwhile, physical design deals with the process of converting the logical design into a more technical specification of the system development. In designing the physical part of the system, all diagrams of data sources, data flows and data processing that was produced in the logical design was turned into a structured systems design. During physical design, the researcher determined which programming language and database system will be used as well as the determination of which hardware platform, operating system and network environment the system will run under.


• Windows PC 32bit Operating System (Win95, Win98, WinXP, Win2000)

• RAM- Minimum 256MB.

• Disk space- 1 GB


This is the critical phase in research. The success in this phase will be the backbone of the project. During this stage, the system is physically created. In the early part of implementation, the first thing done was converting the physical system's specifications produced in the previous phase into the form of programming codes. Among others, the implementation of a system development includes coding, testing and installation (Kendall, 1996).

As proposed by Hoffer et al. (1999), the implementation phase consists of all those process stated by Kendall (1996). However, Hoffer and his friend did cite some other relevant processes which are documentation, training and support.


Implementation will be ended with a formal system test. The test data are crucial to this process. Testing is one of the most critical steps in implementation because the cost of bugs can be reduced. Once the system has passed a series of tests, it is installed. Installation is the process by which the old system is turned off and new one is turned on. Once the system has been installed, the analyst establishes a support plan for the system. The plan usually include the formal or informal post


implementation review as well as a systemic way for identifying major and minor changes needed for the system


The new website will be evaluated using a usability test. Questionnaire will be distributed for the users for the evaluation. According to Rubin (2004), the operational definition of usability includes one or more of the following factors:

1. Usefulness

ll. Effectiveness

lll. Learnability

IV. Attitude

However, in this research, the usability requirements are concerned with the effectiveness of the system and users attitude towards the product. To measure the performance of the elements mentioned above, the usability metrics are specified as follows:

1. Effectiveness: Each function available in the system should be able to provide ease of to the user. All actions must be taken by user must be simple. Any terminology used in the system must be understandable by novice users as well as expert users.

11. Attitude: No specific instrument is used for this element. However, users perception, feelings and opinion of the product will be used to gather relevant information regarding the concept of the system.


The effort of building a prototype is used to demonstrate the feasibility of the design and the usability of the system. In this phase, this project used usability testing to evaluate the system. The following sub-phases were carried out:

l. Thinking: Aloud: Data collection using users thought throughout the session.

11. Observation: Data collection by observing the user behavior throughout the testing session.

Ill. Interview: Data collection by users verbal that address information and attitude about usability of software after completing the testing



Generating relevant documents for the system actually began from the early stages of SOLe. Besides producing manual user guide which done at the end of the system development, the process also include generating documents for analysis and design phase. Formally, it is also called external documentation which consists of the outcomes of structured diagramming techniques such as the data flow diagram. Apart from that, information system documentation also involves internal documentation which contains part of the program source code. Among others, the user documentation is written or visual information on how to use the system.



For the development of the web-based online msco shopping system for Libya. This study has applied the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) from Hoffer et al. (1999) which has been adapted as a guide throughout the project. SDLC is the most common structured systems development phases being used in many project and organizations. As proposed by Hoffer et al. (1999), the life cycle consist of six phases as follows:

Project Identification and Selection

The identification of project deals with determining which area of research to be done according to the problems studied and selection were made upon that.

Project Initiation and Planning

As the problem encountered identified, the project was initiated by having a more detailed study on the research area and began planning for the next steps.


At this stage, all requirements for the online shopping was thoroughly defined as to make sure that the system meets the needs of the end user.


The outcomes from analysis phase were then used to design the online shopping. Designing was separated into two steps which are logical design and physical design. Basically, it deals with system functionalities and interactions.


System testing phase

The web-based online JUSCO shopping system for Libya will be tested and the problem encountered will be analyzed to ensure it will provide correct services.

Evaluation Phase

The usability testing was conducted to evaluate the web-based online JUSCO shopping system for Libya and to capture the likeability of the towards the system.


Phase, write details description of the system such as user manual.

The research methodology consists of system planning & selections, analysis, develop a prototype and usability testing. This research employed SDLC methodology as guidelines for the whole research process. Next chapter will discuss analysis design and develop prototype.





This chapter discussed analysis and designs a prototype for online shopping in Libya to reduce customer long queue for payment, searching a product, comparison and physically visit. Thus, the study intends to design a web-based online shopping that allows consumers to buy their products from anywhere, anytime.


Web-based prototype has been design to demonstrate the identified features of the "Online shopping". Due to the limitation, several guidelines must be followed when designing a web site. There are several factors have been identified to design a website such as:

1. Simple Interface

Standard screen size, cramping too many design elements (text, images, button, icons tables) on one page will make the reading and navigating process difficult.


11. Concise and short text

Reading from a large amount of writing is difficult, user needs to scroll down extensively if the page if too long and furthermore unlike the computer that has a mouse cursor to indicate the current location of the text, user might be lost and tired of scrolling.

Ill. Format text using CSS

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) are the way to go - use one style sheet and control how text looks on entire site. Make a change to the style sheet and whole site is updated. It makes life a lot simpler.

IV. Keep data entry to a minimum

Data entry performed by keyboard. Therefore, should to use minimum data entry will defmitely ease the process.

v. Use image sparingly

If images are big and tend slow down the downloading process; furthermore support for images is depend heavily for web browser itself.

VI. Make the text contrast with its background

The more contrast, the better. Black-on-white or white-on-black IS example of the highest contrast can get.

Vll. Break text up into chunks.

Users do not want to read endless pages of text. Break it up by using headlines that reflect the subject of the paragraph(s) to follow so users can scan down to the parts that really interest them, or use bulleted lists to change the pace of the writing and slow down the scanning.


4.2.1 Requirements for design web prototype

This project prototype was developed using several tools and techniques. As shown Table 4.1 described the requirements for design prototype.

Table 4.1: List of software

Software Utilization
Macromedia Dreamweaver 10 Develop PHP files
Macromedia Flash 10 Develop graphics animation
Adobe Photoshop CS Create and modify GIF and JPEG files
Rational Rose 2000' Create use case, sequence diagram
Microsoft Access 2007 Create database and relationship
Plug-ins Add more specific features Macromedia Dreamweaver 10

Dreamweaver is used to create and edit web pages. It is good web development tool originally owned by Macromedia. It supports CSS, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and a number of web related technologies.

In this project used PHP technology to design online shopping in Libya. PHP is stands for HyperText Preprocessor, is a server-side scripting language for creating dynamic web pages. PHP is Open Source and cross-platform. When a visitor opens the page, the server processes the PHP commands and then sends the results to the visitor's browser, just as with ASP or ColdFusion. PHP's language syntax is similar to C's and Perl's (Kerner, 2006).

32 Macromedia Flash 10

Macromedia Flash used to create high-impact, rich web content. Designs, animation, and application user interfaces are deployed immediately across all browsers and platforms, attracting and engaging users with a rich web experience. Macromedia owns it (Schmitt, 2006). Adobe Photoshop 11

Adobe Photoshop is graphics editor developed by Adobe System. It is professional graphics editor and amateur. The most common type is filter plug-ins that provide various image effects. They are located in the 'Filter' menu: pre-installed plug-ins comes first, and third-party plug-ins is placed below the separator (Reiven, 2006). Microsoft Access database 20007

Microsoft access is tools in office 2007 suite, which enables the user to tum data into answers and share up-to-date information with others. Access is a 32-bit program which enables the user to create a complete front-end user application. MS Access database are designed to offer an organized mechanism for storing, managing and retrieving information. Data from access databases can be published on the web in PHP format. Rational Rose 2000

Rational Rose is a designed to provide the software developer with a complete set of visual modeling tools and automates parts of the software development process with the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Models are useful for understanding problems, communicating & understanding of requirements, cleaner designs and


more maintainable system. The UML provides a very robust notation, which grows from analysis into design. The output from Rational Rose 2000 case tools are use case diagram, sequence diagram, class diagram etc. UML

Unified Modeling Language (UML) is an Object Management Group (OMG) standard for specifying, visualizing, constructing and documenting the artifacts of software system. The UML represents a collection of best engineering practices that have proven successful in the modeling of large and complex systems. The UML is a very important part of developing objects oriented software and the software development process. The UML uses mostly graphical notations to express the design of software projects. Use case diagram

A use case is a set of scenarios that describing an interaction between a user and a system. A use case diagram displays the relationship among actors and use cases. There are two main actors identified in the system consumers and database. The following section 4.3 will draw and discuss more about use case diagram for online shopping system.


As shown Figure 4.1 is use case diagram of online shopping system. There are two actors (consumers and database). Consumers will involve with several use cases such


as login, buy products, view products, add shopping cart, VIew shopping cart, make

payment, register new user.


('- .. ,-----

'<. .J


.,.--- ~-.- ...

; )

- .... - .... ~--~

View Ladies Clothes




View Ladies Shoes

:.::.~/ ~------'~ ..... ) /

. ---

._}!,iew Ladies Jewelary

~ .. -~"""""-"'"

( "

..... -_-.

View Ladies Cosmetic


Add product

View Gents Belli Bags





... ..__,___ ..

View Gents Care

Figure 4.1: Use case diagram



4.4.1 Register Free Membership

! Entity


- --

: Consumer

MainMenu I

; Panel

L. __ -~

! FreeMembersbi

i Panel

, freemembershi 1 Controller


Pre .«Free membership» utton

I ;~: l DisplayRegister 0 '.


Enter u er details '. '.' A -1: Res;;t' J

r,------ --- --'11 .

'---.J .. ----- -- IE -1: Invalid b:

[data :

r',-------I ,~.:;:-------' .---' - _I

. U _~,./

isend reglsterReq-u;;t 01

LI - -"~I geliD 0

W --COC1rJ

l~~nfy ID~)

Display succes ully mgs 0 .

-11 11


Figure 4.2: Sequence diagram for Register Free Membership


tress «Ladies» butt.?nJ j 1

I_I ':{::nd viewProduct R~~ est () .

II ~ Display '-""'~r nel I]

4.4.2 View Ladies Products


i MamMenu

~ Controller

: Consumer

: MainMenu I U.anel

Select «La ies Clothe
Select «Lac ies Shoes
Select «Lad es Jewelry
,. .-
Select «Lad es cosmeu
(l Select «Lac es Care»

s> button

» button

» button

ic> button

I View ladies I LProducts panel

1_ E~tity I ..

getLadiesShoes 0


getLadiesShoes p

c ~ .""''''Jewel" J

, . l

·~I J

. getLadiesCosmeti~ )

r ··1


_.I..,! ---11

~C getLadiesCare ()


Figure 4.3: Sequence diagram for View Ladies Products


4.4.3 View Gents Products

: Consumer

, MainMenu l 1_, _ P~fJE)1 ,

: MainMenu 1 Controller

-:,-.-;;~ ======---.;

View Gents I Products pa~ElI

~ress «Gents» button j I

lJ >2 Send vlewProduct R~est ()

Ii 1 Display vlewProductP nel ()

[ ~

Select «Ge ts Clothes» button '

Select «Ge ts Shoes» button

getGentShoes (L

, J


Select «Gen s BeIUbags» button

Select «Ge ts cosmetic» button

Figure 4.4: Sequence diagram for View Gents Products


4.4.4 View Shopping cart & Make payment

t ...... l


/ "

: Consumer

, _j


I ShoppingCart !


[_ MalnMenu ! _panel __ !

P~ss «Shopping cart~~ Button I ~'1: Invalid LI

L I Send CartRequest 0 f /~;

I -"'r- Identify UJ6/

IA-1:Delete Lcr --~~

tA -2: Close ~I Display ShOPPing_~_t 0

", . ~ II

Press «~ore ShOPPing>;butt~;ln I , I, 'I'

[' I


----- ---ge-t-P-ayment (J·cI

makePayment 0

Figure 4.5: Sequence diagram for view shopping cart & payment



According to Patrick, L. (2004), to design a web page should follow the color scheme, templates, navigation system, special effects, background, hyperlinks, contents etc. Web site should have a logo and preferred color in its stationery will be good start. Choose two or three complementary colors & stick and avoid changing color on every page. The most common color schemes include red, yellow, grey, orange and white. There are many templates or pre-set designs.



4.7.1 Welcome Menu

As shown Figure 4.7 "Welcome" IS the first interface of the system. To enter the

system user should to click on "Shop Online Now" button on the welcome page.

System will allow user to enter the system's main menu and do shopping as shown

Figure 4.8.

Shop for the voucher online and make a surprtse delivery to your loved ones 80. friends through the internetl _ Your recipient has Oller 30 merchants .. to choose 'from!!

Shop Onllne Now!!

~, Vol:! cheese 0 Cift V:r~ .. chcr t.m'ount ~l1d peraonafize t1~GHt VOUGh~( wnn yOU! rnessace,

1. We "end the Gill. Vo-UCI1el"!O your recipient ..ra e-<n-ail.

Figure 4.7: Welcome Interface


4.7.2 Main Menu

As shown Figure 4.8 is the main menu of the system. This page allows user to get all

of the facilities of the system such as hot sales as shown Figure 4.9, Ladies shown

Figure 4.10, Gents shown Figure 4.11, Children shown Figure 4.12, view Shopping

cart shown Figure 4.13, Membership shown Figure 4.l4, and location map interface

shown Figure 4.15. User needs to click on the thumbnails icon to enter the specific





• •

Figure 4.8: Main Menu Interface


4.7.3 Hot sales

The following Figure 4.9 IS the hot sales interface of the system. This interface

shows the discount products including price. User can add the following products to

shopping cart simply click on the image. The system will keep update his! her

shopping cart account.

Property @

spectat c tre r s

Check Shopping ean

~'":",,:~.';) 1 tnso Lf1t)Wt' 'U.I ).4998,


'~'P' Gr; S!!.l.kb (l,b RI.\9~S9

,-&;t,w.1I~>:'i.'11 ~t.GmetP! ij!J~~ CO

i:~n lDCO

h~:"n:jfj IW JMO.OO

:~1a~nlt! ' tt~'.J.ij Rt'at~

Figure 4.9: Hot Sales Interface


':...tlruJlt.:Jr h-~ wn,·c

4.7.4 Ladies Corner

As shown Figure 4.10 is the ladies interface of the system. User can enter this page

and purse their goods. As shown the following Figure 4.10 include ladies clothes,

shoes, jewelry, cosmetic, ladies care etc.

Main Menu

HOT Sales

t.adte s Clothes

ladies Shoes


1[Al ~


". ~

- -----."",.,._-~-


c o smeuc

Ladies Care

Check Shopging Cart

Contract & Location

Figure 4.10: Ladies Clothes Interface


4.7.5 Gents Corner

As shown Figure 4.11 is the gent's interface of the system. User can enter this page

and purse their goods. As shown the following Figure 4.10 include gent's clothes,

shoes, gent's bag/ wallet, cosmetic, gent's belt etc.

Mainl Menu

HOT Sales

! G-eo~s ctcroe s

Gents Shoes

Gents watetr bag s

Genu belt

Gents c o smeuc

Check Sho,ping Can

Contract & location


....._..""............. -~-~ .

~, Property @

T,mberl.nd cnoc RI,\ 2S9 .'91

Dress Sf-oes

Dr. IA.rten. Cap RP11'S~;9

Sper~l Top-sider RP 25£;

Sneakers Rf.1 lS.SD

Ount'am Cantors

Figure 4.11: Gents Shoes Interface


crocs sandals

Athletic Sh!.)-es

Brikel)~tPck Boston ~M25;.~C

!,1'a~lnurn perctston I~J.· L2~· ~·c

S~edeo Moth:!; Se Ri~

4.7.6 Children Corner

As shown Figure 4.12 is the children interface of the system. User can enter this

page and purse their products. As shown the following Figure 4.10 include children

clothes, shoes, baby essential, baby toys, baby care etc.

r_'a n ~.1enu

HOT Sales


Baby Shoes

Baby :ssen~ial

Bahy Toy.


I.:!hec'k. Shopp n~ Cur

Contract & t ccanon


I ~, -1 r-. n .. ·U·l .... t

tEl prolo<sloMl

So;!'~(''Ih<I1 Pwno R}2 as so

i..,lflauniie=rr Je-.,.r Rt,~ ~,C :0

Bu,y,,,&tCUIlP Rl! 5,~,%'

Figure 4.12: Children Toys Interface


RU lS',::C

~ Tlu1-:~ ~'il'" ><>il,,,


4.7.7 Special Offers

As shown Figure 4.13 is the special offer interface of the system. User can enter this

page and purse their goods within special discount.

c:ul t\ ~ ['\Eul.lI:j.IIl,.t.I ' RH3Am,g.s

Chec~; S-10PPIJlQ Can:

~lI"~J>~TVon.Pt' EU lC,CO


Toa ~e ~J~:Q, n.s "J.!sq>;

Figure 4.13: Special Offers Interface


~~-,:,~. !!~I'1.' !W lZ.OD

C~-;-~,d-$1i;.r ;-:E-bl-' Rr.;li 2.-5~-O

NIrutl Spffi>~r.o k_f} 11~d::d)

4.7.8 Register new member

As shown Figure 4.14 is register user interface. In order to purchase product by

online user have to be a member or have a valid user account to access the shopping


Enter Your Address

Post Code



~.~~One- v,

1- S~I(K:t One -"" i~le-ciM~~~

[. __ m _j


Dete of Bir.h

User 10

Pas svsord

Figure 4.14: Register new member Interface


4.7.10 View location map

As shown Figure 4.15 is the location map of the Sasi shopping mall in Libya. If user would like to visit shop physically, they can determine and easily find out the location of the mall.

Figure: location Map of SASI online Shopping mall

Figure 4.15: View location map Interface


This chapter discussed on design and prototype of the online shopping system for Libya. The next chapter will discuss on testing and evaluation of the system.





The main aim of this chapter is to discuss the evaluation of the online shopping system for Libya. A usability testing is one of the most fundamentals methods in usability evaluation, because real test users are asked to use the product. The moderator of the test gives predetermined test one at a time to the test user, who in turn performs the tasks with the user interface (Nielson, 1993). The test users are usually asked to think aloud while doing the test tasks. Interviews are also often used in order to gain more insight into the user's actions with the interface.

According to Nielson (2000) the evaluation uses usability testing based on the standard tests followed by interview in a closed environment with video equipment. Testing with potential users can obtain as efficient feedback as possible in a short time frame and with the available resources. It is also irrelevant to ask people in a focus group to predict whether they would like something they have not tried, so the only way to get valid data is to let users experience the technology before opinions are sought (Nielson, 2000).


In this project, the prototype has been designed, based on the selected answered provided by end users. The evaluation of the prototype uses the object-oriented system analysis and design (OOSAD) is to complete the motives of the project. Based on the brief interview conducted by end users to apprehend their view on the system, it had been reported that, there are three different constituents and they are: convemence of the system, excellence of the content and the features of the interface.


The testing was performed by monitoring user's performance on carefully constructed interview and distributed questioner. To gather information about the user's attitude towards the system, investigation with semi-structure interviews were prepared. The test used thinking-aloud protocol technique where the respondents were encouraged to vocalize their thoughts, feelings and opinions while interacting with the prototype. This technique was intended to capture what the participants were thinking including their confusion, frustration and delight.

5.1.1 User involvement

Users who participated in this test should ideally represent those who have experience in web-based application. This study however identified IT-related persons who are familiar with web to be the potential respondents as the objective of the evaluation is to examine the design of the user interface of the prototype system. For convenience, most of the respondents were chosen from UUM students and staff. The users involved in this test had a combination of experience, skills and


demographic characteristics. Altogether, there were 40 users involved, whom the researcher feels comfortable although the latest research indicates that testing only four to five participants will expose the vast majority of usability problems (Rubin, 1994). Despite previous claims that about five participants are enough to find the majority of usability problems (Virzi 1992; Nielson & Landauer, 1993), a recent study by Spool and Schroeder suggests that this number may be nowhere near enough (Spool & Schroeder, 2001).

The evaluation uses a qualitative approach instead of a quantitative approach. Qualitative approach is cheaper and effective method and according to Nielson (2001) an evaluation with only five users could review almost 85% of the problems.

The table 5.1 shows that 50% of the participants working of had worked in webbased system previously.

Table 5.1: Users Working Experience

Frequency Percentage
Experience 12 50
No experience 12 50
Total 24 100 52

Table 5.2: User's first spontaneous impression and positive experiences

Frequency Percentage
Simple and adequate functions 5 20.83
Interesting web application 6 25
Easy to use 7 29.17
Instructions clear and terminology was understandable 6 25

The user interface of online shopping system is very attractive and user friendly. All of the respondents comment same about the features of the system were great. The percentage of 90%. As an overall approach to the system, it can be reported that almost all the staff interviewed were really glad about the system. Thus, the sasi online shopping system is highly recommended.


Evaluation takes part in an important part in the development process and can uncover usability deficits early during the design. In further works, more usability tests for the re-design application with real consumers should be conducted. Interviews with these test persons and evaluation to reach more people will help to shape application and better meet the user's opinion, requirements and expectations. The overall results were encouraging but improvement is definitely needed.





There are few technologies in use today like WWW, WAP and Japanese I-Mode system. The web, known as e-commerce technology landscape imposes many uncertainties especially in technologies aspect. The primary difficulty is a young and underdeveloped market. However, in the U.S. and even in Europe internet is yet a newborn in term of its development to market (Shuster, 2001).

This chapter will suggest the conclusion of this project including some limitations and recommendations for future works. At the end of this chapter will discuss functionality of online shopping system and its features.


1. Online shopping system developed using Apace server. No testing has been performed using actual internet gateway. Thus, result may vary.


2. The prototype was tested usmg localhost server, namely Internet Information Services (lIS). However, with limited financial resources no actual web server can be employed in testing the prototype.


Due to the time frame that is not sufficiently enough to assure the entire functionalities of the system, future works can be carried out to fill in the deficits that came upon during the work of this project. It would be more suggestive to advice the one who needs to pursue some future works to follow every single step included in the project.

Online shopping system for JUSCO in Libya has the following features that will benefit the users:

1. Purchase products via online with e-payment (master card, visa card or cash payment) and without physically visit.

2. Provides direct, simple access to the focused valuable content via few keystrokes or text entry only.

3. Information regarding this system is trimmed page-to-page navigation down to a minimum and hyperlink buttons are used to navigate back and forth within the pages/ screens.

4. Reduces the amount of vertical scrolling by simplifying the text to display.



The online shopping system developed using PHP in localhost. This research will come out with new era in Libyan shopping market. Consumers can pursue their goods from anywhere without physically visit. In the future, it may be converted into mobile application. A new era of board computing is emerging with huge implications for our personal lifestyles and values. The creation of online shopping for Libya lead to extensive improvement of web-base applications that positively impact the future technology in Libyan citizen.



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