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Cognitive Theory by Jean Piaget

Piaget saw preschool children as moving on to a sub stage of preoperational

thought termed intuitive thought. During this time, children tend to look at an
object and see only one of its characteristics. Thought becomes more symbolic can
arrive at answers mentally instead of through physical attempt. Comprehends
simple abstractions but thinking is basically concrete and literal. Child is egocentric
displays static thinking.


The client is familiar with many things or objects. He can tell what the
characteristics of objects are. Also, the client is very demanding. What he wants
must be commanded.

Moral development Theory by Lawrence Kohlberg

Preschoolers tend to do good out of self interest rather than out of true intent
to do good or because of a strong spiritual motivation. When asked why it is wrong
to steal from a neighbor the preschool would answer because her mother won’t like
owns needs rather than society it anymore. Individualism, instrumental purpose and
exchange. Carries out actions to satisfy own needs rather than society.


The client knows what is good or bad and what is right or wrong. He can
defend what others say, he can answer things which are being asked by other
people. It’s because of his mother’s advices and beliefs. So, he adopted it.

Spiritual Development Theory by James Fowler

Children this stage imitates religious gestures and behaviors of others

without comprehending any meaning or significance to the activities. Assimilate
some of the values and rather than through an understanding of their basic


The client does not really know yet where God came from or who he really
are. The client just know that god exist. He imitates what the family believes and
already understood some things about God, but he can already pray and talk to

Result and Findings of MMDST

The client’s result are all normal, No developmental delay, However the client
failed to perform an item in the personal-social aspect specifically the item dresses
without supervision and on the language sector specifically the item


The client performed the activity well and was cooperative. He is attentive to
the instructions given and was active during the health teaching.

Nutritional Data

24 hour recall

Food Intake Fluid Intake Biochemical

Breakfast 2/3 cup of rice 1 glass milk High in Calcium
2 pcs. hotdog 1 glass water. Adequate
Lunch 2/3 of rice 2 glasses of water Adequate
1 medium fish carbohydrates,
Dinner 2/3 cup of rice 2 glasses of water. Adequate
Meat/fish carbohydrates,
Snack 1 pack of biscuits 1 glass of orange Adequate
juice and 1 glass of carbohydrates

The client does not eat well. He takes small amount of carbohydrates. He
chooses what he eats. He does not eat vegetables.

Nursing Intervention.

In order for our client to increase its weight we have suggested this meal
plan for him. The meal plan is high in carbohydrates that is essential for increasing
the mass or the weight of our client.

Food Intake Fluid Intake Biochemical

Breakfast 1/2cup of rice 1 glass milk High in Calcium
2 slice of bread 1 glass water. Adequate
2 pcs. Hotdog carbohydrates
Lunch 1/2 cup of rice 2 glasses of water Adequate
1bowl of carbohydrates,
vegetables protein.
1 medium fish
1 bowl of macaroni
Dinner 1/2 cup of rice 2 glasses of water. Adequate
Meat/fish carbohydrates,
1 bowl of mashed protein.
Snack 1 platter of 1 glass of orange Adequate
spaghetti with juice and 1 glass of carbohydrates
garlic bread. water.
The client should eat foods that are high in carbohydrates to increase his
weight and he should eat vegetables to help him in his growth and for good

Biochemical Appraisal

The client’s Nutritional Data shows that the food that he is eating are food
that are high in protein, vitamins but he has a low carbohydrates intake because he
has a low appetite when eating.


The client does not have an appropriate weight for his age because he does
not eat vegetables and chooses what he eats so this contributes to his low weight.


The client eliminates once a day usually in the morning before going to
school has a moderate amount of stool, varying from dark brown to light brown in
color. He urinates 6x a day depending on the amount of water intake varying from
yellow to light yellow in color.


The client takes a bath once a day usually done in the morning and half bath
before going to sleep. He can already brush his teeth on his own and comb his hair,
but dresses his self with supervision.

List of Prioritized Nursing Diagnosis.

Nursing Diagnosis Rank Supporting Data Justification

Risk for 1 Supported by This is the 1st

imbalanced 24hour dietary Nursing diagnosis
nutrition less than recall there is a low because imbalance
body requirement carbohydrates nutrition might
r/t inadequate intake. cause malnutrition
intake of which will make the
carbohydrates. client irritable and
he will be prone to
infection and he
will be unhealthy.

Risk for Injury 2 Trans??/ with rest This is the 2nd

related to hyper and exercise prioritized problem
activity. because this can
be prevented by
having the right

Readiness for 3 The client sleep at This is the least

enhanced sleep. around 9:00 pm prioritized problem
and wakes up at because it is on the
5:30 am wellness state and
could be avoided
by simple health