Unit 9

The post office
Period 1: READING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to: – Develop such reading micro-skills as scanning for specific ideas, and identifying antonyms. – Use the information they have read to discuss post office services.

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts.

III. Anticipated problems
Students may need to be provided vocabulary related to post office services so that they can complete various learning tasks. Finding antonyms may also be a difficult task so teachers should be ready to help students (e.g. giving cues, teaching them how to guess meaning in context, etc.).

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

5’

WARM-UP: A MATCHING GAME (To teach vocabulary related to post office services)

– T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 students. Then T distributes the following handouts for Ss to do the matching task in their own groups. Which group finishes it first and has all the correct answers will be the winner. – T might want to get Ss to tell if there are similar services in their neighbourhood post offices to get Ss to use the new words. Remember to get Ss to pronounce the new words correctly. When

Group work and whole class

3

correcting Ss, T may want to model first and then ask Ss to repeat after him/ her. Matching these post office services with the correct translations below:
1. Express Mail Service 2. Surface Mail 3. Air mail 4. EMS mail 5. Parcel service 6. Express Money Transfer 7. Messenger Call Service 8. Facsimile service 9. Press Distribution 10. Flower Telegram Service a. Th− chuyÓn b»ng ®−êng hµng kh«ng b. DÞch vô ®iÖn hoa c. DÞch vô ®iÖn tho¹i d. DÞch vô ph¸t hµnh b¸o e. DÞch vô göi fax f. Th− chuyÓn b»ng ®−êng bé, ®−êng s¾t, hoÆc ®−êng biÓn g. DÞch vô th− chuyÓn ph¸t nhanh h. DÞch vô chuyÓn ph¸t tiÒn nhanh i. DÞch vô chuyÓn ph¸t b−u phÈm j. Th− chuyÓn ph¸t nhanh

Answer 1. g 2. f 7’ 3. a 4. j 5. i 6. h 7. c 8. e 9. d 10. b Pair work Whole class

BEFORE YOU READ

– T gets Ss to work in pairs and answer Questions 1 & 2 using the pictures on page 100 as cues. Q1 can be skipped to save time. – T calls on some Ss to answer the questions. – T checks with the class and asks Ss to guess what they are going to read about. Suggested Answers: 2. I go to office when I need to send a letter, make a phone call, transfer money, pay the phone bill, subscribe to a newspaper, send a fax, receive a parcel, etc.

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3. The post office may offer a number of various services such as mail and parcel service, express mail surface, fax service, messenger call service, money transfer service, flower telegram service, passport renewal service (dÞch vô gia h¹n hé chiÕu – a new service), etc.
WHILE YOU READ

8’

10’

Introduction: You are going to read about Thanh Ba Post Office and the different services they offer. Then you do the tasks that follow. Individual TASK 1 work and – T gets Ss to firstly read Task 1 and locate the whole words in italic in the passage. Then Ss read around class these words so that they can guess their meanings. For example, the word “speedy’ in line 3 in the paragraph about Express Money Transfer is the same meaning as “quick”. Ss can get the meaning of “speedy” thanks to such words as “express” and “quick”. However, T may note that some of the words in this Task are hard to guess because the context is not helpful enough. T should therefore give Ss more instruction and guide, for example, teaching them to combine different methods to deal with difficult words. For example, for the word “spacious” occurring in line 2 of the first paragraph, T may guide Ss so that they see that this word may have a positive meaning because it is used to advertise Thanh Ba post office. Advertisements often contain positive words. Looking at all the four options in the answer to Q1, Ss can see that A, B, and D all have a positive meaning, so the answer should be C. Also, “spacious” is related to “space”, so it may mean Individual “having a lot of space”. “Cramped” means work and
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“narrow”, so it should be the answer. – T gets Ss to do the task individually, then discuss the answers in pairs, and finally T checks the answers with the whole class Answer: 1. C 2. B 3. D 4. C
TASK 2

whole class

7’

– T gets Ss to read the passage silently and then answer the comprehension questions in Task 2. Before Ss answer the questions, T might want to elicit or remind them some tips to do the task: + First, Ss should skim the five questions to understand them. As Ss do this they: • underline the key words to decide what information they need to find and guess where in the text they can find the information, using the subheadings of the paragraph to help themselves. • look for questions words like “why” which indicates Ss should read for specific thing like a reason. + Then they should go back to the passage and locate the key words in the passage. + Then they should read around the key words carefully to find the answer. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a peer – T calls on some Ss to answer and ask them to Individual explain their choices. work and – T checks with the class and gives the correct whole answers class Answer: 1. Advanced technology and a spacious and pleasant front office (lines 1-2 paragraph 1) 2. Mail and parcel service, express money transfer, phone calls and faxes, press distribution (looking
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at the subheadings of the paragraphs) 3. Air mail, surface mail, and EMS mail (lines 1-2, paragraph 2) 4. For someone to receive a phone call (lines 2-3, paragraph 4) 5. Subscribe (line 2, paragraph 5)
TASK 3

T checks if Ss can provide evidence to support the given statements in Task 2 without a second reading of the passage. If they cannot, T gets Ss to read through all the 4 questions in Task 2 and identify the key words in each question. This is to help them identify the information they need to look for in the passage. For example, in question 1, the key words might be “cannot”, ‘phone calls” and “10 p.m”. In question 2, these might be “save money”, “parcel” and “under 15 kg”, etc. – Now T instructs Ss to guess where in the passage they can find the information, using their knowledge of the passage (e.g. question about money transfer can be found in the paragraph about money transfer). Then Ss go back to the passage and locate the answers. – Then T gets Ss to check their answers with a friend. – T calls on some Ss to present and say where they look for their answers. T gives feedback and correct answers. Answer: 1. Open daily 7-9 p.m (paragraph 1) 2. Competitive rate for parcels of under 15 kg (paragraph 2) 3. EMS mail will be delivered in the shortest time possible (paragraph 2) 4. The money will be sent to your relatives in less
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than 24 hours (paragraph 3) 8’
AFTER YOU READ

– T introduces the task: Ss work in small groups of 3 or 4 and discuss the questions. – T reminds Ss of the structures to ask and give opinions (e.g. what do you think? In my opinion, …) – T goes around to check and offer help. – T calls on the groups to tell and explain their choice. – T gives corrective feedback 3’
WRAPPING UP

Group work and whole class

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework T asks Ss to write a short paragraph about one service they like most in their neighbourhood post office and explain why they like that service.
EXTRA ACTIVITY: A COMPETITION

T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 Ss and announces the competition: supposing each group is working for a different post office and now they should think of one service that may be attractive to customers. Then Ss prepare a small talk about this service and then tell the class about their service when they are ready. The class or T will decide which service is the most attractive. The group which offers the most attractive service wins the competition.

Period 2: SPEAKING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to
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– Use appropriate language to make requests in formal business situations.

II. Materials
Textbook

III. Anticipated problems
Students may transfer the Vietnamese speaking rules when making requests in English, which could cause communication difficulty, should they be involved in cross-cultural communication. So T should raise their awareness of linguistic and socio-cultural differences between English and Vietnamese speakers in the way they make requests.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

7’

WARM UP

– This warm up activity encourages Ss to reflect on their own experiences with giving requests and on their knowledge of this communicative function in Vietnamese and English. – T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 Ss and gets them to discuss these questions: a. Have you ever heard someone make a request in English? What did they say? b. Have you ever made a request in Vietnamese? What did you say? c. Did you observe any differences in the way requests are made in English and Vietnamese? – After 7-8 minutes, T asks Ss to give their answers. T writes the answers on the blackboard but should refrain from making any comments or correction at this stage. Note that the questions may be quite challenging for Ss, so they may not have the full answers and T should accept this. Tell

Group work and whole class

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them not to worry if they don’t have the answers because in the following task they are going to learn how to make requests in English. 15’
TASK 1

– T leads Ss to the topic by getting them to look at the picture on page 103 and asks questions like “What can you see in the picture? Where do you think these people are? Who is the man? Who is the woman? What might the man want to do? Etc.” – Then T gets Ss to practice reading the dialogue in pairs. After getting some pairs to read aloud the dialogue and correcting their pronunciation, T gets Ss to answer the question: “What service is the customer taking in the dialogue?” and look for examples of requests and responses to requests in the dialogue. E.g. Request: Could you help me to send this document to my office by fax? Response: Certainly. What’s the fax number? (T may also tell Ss that before making requests people tend to say something, for example in the dialogue the customer says “Excuse me” to get attention. Other things they may say are greetings, for example “Hello”, “Good morning/ afternoon” or checking if the other person is ready to listen, e.g. “You’ve got some minutes?”) – T then gives Ss some other structures to express requests. T may want to tell Ss what structures to use when the request is more formal (e.g. you don’t know the other person or he/ she is more powerful than you) and more important (e.g. borrowing money). E.g.
I was wondering if you/ I More formal More

Pair work, individual work and whole class

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could perhaps/ possibly ….? Would you be kind enough to …? Would you mind (V-ing) …? Would you please ….? May I ….? Could you/ I … please? I would/ I’d like to … please Can you/ I … please?

important

Less formal

Less important

– T might also want to tell Ss that an appropriate response to a request for service is normally “Yes certainly sir/ madam” – Then T might want to draw Ss’ attention to the differences between Vietnamese and English rules of speaking when making requests. E.g. in Vietnamese we often say something which may be literally translated into English as “Please do this (V) for me”. In English, however, this request may sound strong and impolite. – Finally, T might want to give Ss some situations to practice making requests using the above structures. E.g. a. In the post office: What would you say if you’d like to send an EMS mail? b. In a shop: What would you say if you’d like to change some coins to make a phone call? c. In the class: What would you say if you’d like the teacher to correct your essay? d. At home: What would you say if you’d like to use your brother’s computer? Suggested answers a. I’d like to send an EMS mail please/ Could I have this EMS mail sent to Nha Trang please? b. I was wondering if I could have some coins for making an urgent phone call?
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c. Would you have time to look at my essay and give me some feedback please? d. Could I use your computer for a minute please? I need to send an email right away. 10’
TASK 2

– T explains the task and new words. T elicits some useful structures, e.g. asking about the price/ fee, saying address, etc. – T puts Ss in pairs and gets them to write the dialogue together based on the information given in the task. – Then Ss act out the dialogue together firstly in close pairs and then in open pairs. – T elicits feedback from class and gives his/ her own feedback at the end. Sample dialogue A: Good morning, sir/ madam/ Miss. May I help you? B: Yes, I would like to have a telephone line installed at home please. A: Certainly, sir/ madam/ Miss. Where do you live? B: 120 Tran Hung Dao Street. When can you send people over? A: Firstly, you will need to register, sir/ madam/Miss. It will take a week to process before we can send someone over. So today is Wednesday, hopefully, the installation can be done by Wednesday next week. Would you like to register now? B: Oh yes, definitely. But you know what? I will be out of town until Thursday. So can you send someone on Friday then? I’ll be home all day Friday. A: Certainly, sir/ madam/ Miss. Have you already

Pair work and whole class

12

got a telephone? B: Yes I have. Ah and what is the installation fee and monthly fee? A: The installation is free of charge, sir/ madam/ Miss. And then you pay 30.000 dongs a month, plus 1.200 dongs per minute for the calls you make. And I have the registration form here if you could fill it out and return it to me please? 10’ Pair work – T explains the task, puts Ss in pairs and gets them and whole class to write the dialogue together based on the information given in the task. – Then Ss act out the dialogue together firstly in close pairs and then in open pairs. – T elicits feedback from class and gives his/ her own feedback at the end. Sample dialogues 1. A: Good morning. How can I help you? B: Good morning. I’d like to subscribe to Lao Dong newspaper, please. A: Certainly. For how long would you like to subscribe? B: For one year please A: Great. Would you like to come and pick up your newspapers or have them delivered to your address? B: Have them delivered to my address, please. That is 7 Ngoc Ha Street. Ah and could I have them delivered before 6:30a.m.? A: Yes definitely. You will get the newspaper every morning before 6:30. B: Thank you very much indeed. A: You are very welcome. Have a nice day. B: You too. Good-bye
TASK 3
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A: See you. 2. A: Yes? May I help you please? B: Yes, I was wondering if you offer flower telegram service? A: Yes we do. When would you like to have the flowers delivered? B: Tomorrow, May 16 A: Great. And what kind of flowers would you like to send? B: Roses, a bunch of red roses please. A: Certainly, a bunch of red roses, yes. And can I have the name and address of the recipient, please? B: Her name is Mai and her address is 108 Tran Nhan Tong Street. A: OK. And would you like to send her a greeting card? B: Oh yes, please. A: What would you like to be written in the card? B: Ah something like “Dear Mai! Happy 17th birthday! Many happy returns of the day!”. A: That’s it? B: Yes, that’s it. A: OK, I will get the flowers to be sent to Mai on May 16th. Thanks very much. B: Thank you 3’
WRAP UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, Ss do exercises in workbook and prepare for the next lesson.

Period 3: LISTENING
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I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to: – Develop such listening micro-skills as listening for specific and detailed information. – Use the acquired language to summarize the information they listen to.

II. Materials
Textbook, cassette tapes.

III. Anticipated problems
The topic can be challenging for Ss, so T should prepare them enough for the listening tasks (e.g. pre-teaching new words, giving a bit of information about the topic, etc.).

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

7’

WARM UP

– T divides the class into groups of 10 and introduces the game: The groups should generate as many words related to telephone as possible in 5 minutes. – T divides the board into as many sections as the number of groups is. When time is up, T calls on the representative of each group to come to the board and write their list. Then T gets the whole class to count. Each correct word gets one point. Which group has more points wins the game. Suggested words: Dial, cell phone, landline phone, mobile phone, network, coverage, digit, fixed telephone, hand phone, number, subscriber, fee, international calls, local calls, long distance calls, telephone bill, text, message, voice mail, hang up, hold, receiver, iphone.

Group work and whole class

15

8’

BEFORE YOU LISTEN

– T gets Ss to discuss this question in groups of 34: “Do you think more and more people are using cell phones in Vietnam nowadays? Why?” – T goes around to listen. After a few minutes T elicits answers from different groups. Suggested Answers: More and more people are using cell phones in Vietnam nowadays because: – Cell phones become cheaper and come in a wider variety of colours and styles. – There are more telecommunication companies, e.g. Viettel, Vinaphone, Army Telecommunication, etc. So competition is greater, which means better service. – There are many plans that customers can choose from: prepaid, subscription. – No subscription, no connection fee. Pre-teach vocabulary Commune (n): xã Communal (adj) Capacity (n): công suất, khả năng Digit (n): số Upgrade (v): nâng cấp – T helps Ss to pronounce the words correctly. T may want to play the tape or model first and then ask Ss to repeat after the tape or after him/ her in chorus and individually – T presents or elicits the meanings of these words from the class.
WHILE YOU LISTEN

Group work and whole class

Introduction: You are going to listen about the
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10’

development of Vietnam’s telephone system over the last few years. Then do the tasks that follow.
TASK 1

– T gets Ss to read the questions carefully and work out what information they need to concentrate on while listening. Then T checks with the whole class. – T gets Ss to read the options in each question carefully and underline the words that make them different. E.g. in Q5 these are “increase/ number of phone”, “growth/ mobile phone”, “change/ international”, “reduction/ fee”. For the numbers T gets Ss to read them aloud. This is to remind them how the numbers are pronounced so that they can catch the correct numbers later on.

Individual, pair work and whole class

8’

– T gets SS to guess the answer to each question and then tells them they need to listen attentively to check if their guesses are confirmed. – T plays the tape (or reads the tapescript) once for Ss to listen and do the task. Individual, – Then T gets Ss to find a partner to check their pair work answers with. and whole – T checks the answers with the whole class. If class many Ss cannot answer the questions, T plays the tape one or two more times and pauses at the answers for them to catch.
TASK 2

– T checks if Ss can answer the questions in Task 2 without listening again. If they cannot, T plays the tape for them to listen again but before doing this, T should encourage Ss to read through all the questions, identify the information they need to look for in each question (by finding the key words and the question word, e.g. “what’, “where’,
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“when”, “how”, etc.) and if possible, predict the answers. – Then T plays the tape again for Ss to listen and answer the questions. While Ss are listening, T encourages them to take notes of what they hear for the after-listening task. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a partner. Then T checks with the whole class. T should play the tape again and pause at difficult points if many Ss cannot complete the task. Tapescripts: Over the past few years, Vietnam has quickly developed its telephone system. Vietnam ranks second only to China for growth in the number of telephone subscribers. It is among the 30 countries in the world that have more than two million telephone subscribers. In the early 1990s, there were only 140,000 telephones across Vietnam. At present, we have more than six million subscribers. In 1996, Vietnam began upgrading its fixed telephone networks and changing numbers from six to seven digits in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City as well as five to six digits in other provinces. Five years later the mobile phone system was upgraded to meet the growth in customer demand. Since 2000, Vietnam has reduced the price of several services, especially in the monthly fees for fixed and mobile telephones. In the future, more attention will be paid to the rural areas. At present, 93 percent of communes across Vietnam have telephone services. A network of 6,014 communal post offices has been set up across the country.

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10’

AFTER YOU LISTEN

– T divides the class into small groups of 3 or 4 and gets them to summarize the listening text based on their notes and the cues given in their books. T might want to appoint a group leader for each group. This person will monitor the group work, note down ideas and appoint a representative to present their work to the class. – T goes around to check and offer help. – After checking that all the groups have finished, T calls on the representative of each group to present their summary. T checks if other groups would have the same or different ideas. – T listens and takes note of their errors. T provides corrective feedback after that. 2’
WRAP UP

Group work and whole class

– T summarises the main point of the lesson. – For homework, Ss learn by heart new words and make sentences with them.

Period 4: WRITING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to: – Write a formal letter to express their evaluation of a service

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Students may not have sufficient linguistic resources to write a letter of complaint (dissatisfaction), so T should be ready to help them.

IV. Procedure
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Time

Steps

Work arrangement

7’

WARM UP: CROSSWORD PUZZLE (This activity is to help Ss revise the new words)

– T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 and distributes this handout. Ss do the puzzle in their groups. – After a few minutes T calls out the representative of each group to go to the board and write the answers. – T gives correct answers.
1 2 3 4 5

Group work and whole class

Complete the sentences with the appropriate words: Down 1. The … hours of General Post Office run between 7 a.m and 9 p.m. 2. If you want to send money to your relatives who live in another city, you can use the money …. service at any post office in your neighbourhood. 3. Newspaper … is sometimes late. You expect to have your paper at 6:30 am but it does not come until afternoon. 4. You’ve got a big … to pick up at the post office. Across 5. I like the flower telegram …offered at my neighbourhood post office.
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Answer
T R A N S F E R D E L I V E R Y B U S I N E S S

E

P A R C E L

V

C

PREPARE SS TO WRITE

7’

TASK 1

– T explains the task and gets Ss to read through it. T explains new words if necessary. Note that to make the task more realistic, T might want to modify it a little bit, allowing Ss to talk about any post office they know if they do not like to talk about Thanh Ba post office. – Ss then work in pairs talking about things that they like and do not like about the services at Thanh Ba Post Office or a post office they know. – After a few minutes T elicits answers from Ss, writes good answers on the blackboard and helps Ss express their ideas. T reviews the structures that are used for expressing likes/ dislikes and opinions, if necessary. 20’
WRITING

Individual and pair work, and whole class

– T reminds Ss of the format and layout of a formal letter. – T draws Ss’ attention to the fact that when evaluating something people normally say about good things before they say about negative things. This is to make their hearers feel good. People may also want to give suggestions to improve things they find not good enough.
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– Then T guides Ss to work out the structure of the letter they are going to write. E.g.
Opening First paragraph Second paragraph Closure Introduce who you are Say the purpose of your letter Say about what you like about the service Say about what you do not like about the service. Make suggestions if possible. Thank the recipient for their time and attention. Good-bye

– T reviews the structures that are used for giving suggestions. E.g. it would be a good idea to …, if I could make a suggestion, that would be about …, I would suggest …, etc. – Then T gets Ss to write the letter. In the meantime, T goes around to check and help. Sample writing Nguyen Thanh Mai 12 Tran Hung Dao St. Mr. Vu Nguyen Hung Director, Thanh Ba Post Office 2 Tran Hung Dao St. Dear Mr. Vu Nguyen Hung: My name is Nguyen Thanh Mai. I am a regular customer of Thanh Ba Post Office. I am writing in reference to your invitation for comments about the services offered at the post office and suggestions for improving them. I think generally, your services are of very good quality. For example, I especially like the Flower Telegram Service. It is much cheaper than many florists’ that I know. And there are many types of
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flowers to choose from, too. I also like the Express Money Transfer Service. It is speedy and effective. And I like the press distribution service. The delivery is always punctual and I never lose any newspapers. I highly appreciate the fact that your staff are helpful and courteous. If I could make a suggestion, however, that would probably be about your business hours. I think you close quite early. Sometimes I need to send an urgent fax at night time but the post office closes at 9p.m. So I thought it may be a good idea to keep it open until 10 or 10:30 p.m. And I notice that the telephone in the booth at the end of the corridor is not working properly. Thank you very much for your time and attention. I wish you a good weekend. Kind regards Nguyen Thanh Mai 8’
FEEDBACK

– T chooses one letter and reads it to the class. – Then T elicits corrective feedback from the class and gives final comments afterwards. T should draw Ss’ attention to the format of the letter, the organisation of ideas and language use. 3’
WRAPPING UP

Whole class

– T summarises the main point of the lesson. – For homework, T asks Ss to revise their letters according to their peer’s suggestions and submit for marking in the next lesson.
EXTRA ACTIVITY:

You do not like the mail and parcel delivery service at your neighbourhood post office. Your letters are often lost and your parcels
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are sometimes opened. Newspapers delivery is also often very late. Now you write a letter to the manager of the post office to express your dissatisfaction.

Period 5: LANGUAGE FOCUS
I. Objectives
By the end of this lesson, Ss will be able to: – Distinguish the sounds /sp, /st/ and /sk/ – Pronounce the words and sentences containing these sounds correctly – Distinguish the uses of defining vs. non-defining relative clauses – Use these two structures correctly and appropriately to solve communicative tasks

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Students might have difficulty pronouncing clusters because they do not exist in Vietnamese. Ss may also have difficulty distinguishing and using nondefining relative clauses. Therefore, T should be ready to assist them.

4. Procedures
Time Steps Work arrangement

7’

Individual, pair work Distinguishing sounds and whole – T models the three consonant clusters /sp/, /st/ class and /sk/ for a few times. Explain how to pronounce clusters (e.g. pronounce the first sound and then move onto the second sound quickly). – T plays the tape (or reads) once for Ss to hear the words containing these two sounds. Then T plays the tape (or reads) again and this time asks Ss to
PRONUNCIATION
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repeat after the tape (or T). – T asks Ss to read the words in each column out loud in chorus for a few more times. Then T calls on some Ss to read the words out loud. T listens and corrects if Ss pronounce the target words incorrectly. If many Ss do not pronounce the words correctly, T may want to get them to repeat after the tape (or himself/ herself) again in chorus and then individually. Practising sentences containing the target sounds – T asks Ss to work in pairs and read aloud the given dialogue (p. 108). – T goes around to listen and takes notes of the typical errors. – T calls on some Ss to read the sentences again and provides corrective feedback. 7’
EXERCISE 1

– T gets Ss to read the example and analyse the form of the relative clause occurring in it (e.g. this clause begins with “who” and there is no comma between the main clause and the relative clause). – T gets Ss to complete other sentences in the same way as the example. Before that, explain new words if necessary. – T gets Ss to go and write their answers on the blackboard and elicits correction/ feedback from the class. – T gets Ss to work out/ review the meaning and use of defining relative clause based on the example and sentences they have just completed. E.g. Defining relative clauses are used in order to give important information about a person/ an object. This information helps to distinguish him/

Individual work and whole class

25

her/ it from others. – T reminds Ss of the form of the structure. E.g. there is no comma, it can start with any pronoun like who, whom, whose, where, which, that. Answers: 1. A burglar is someone who breaks into the house to steal things. 2. A customer is someone who buys something from a shop. 3. A shop-lifter is someone who steals from a shop. 4. A coward is someone who is not brave. 5. A tenant is someone who pays rent to live in a house or flat. 7’
EXERCISE 2

– T gets Ss to review when to use whom (i.e. when the noun to be modified is the object of the main verb in the relative clause), who (i.e. when the noun to be modified is the subject of the relative clause), and whose (i.e. to express possessive). – T gets Ss to give some examples to check that they all understand the rules. – T gets Ss to complete the exercise individually and then find a peer to compare their answers. – T checks the answers with the whole class and gives correction where necessary. Answers 1. who 2. whose 3.whom (who if informal style) 4. whose 5. whom (who if informal style) 7’
EXERCISE 3

Individual work, pair work and whole class

– T gets Ss to distinguish the difference between “that” and “which” (e.g. “that” can be used for both people an things) – T gets Ss to write the sentences with a peer.

Pair work and whole class

26

– Then T elicits answers from the whole class and gives correction where necessary. Answer 1. The man who answered the phone told me you were away. 2. The waitress who served us was very impolite and impatient. 3. The building that/ which was destroyed in the fire has now been rebuilt. 4. The people who were arrested have now been released. 5. The bus that/ which goes to the airport runs every half an hour. 7’ Individual – T gets Ss to read the example and analyse the work, pair form of the relative clause occurring in it (e.g. work and there is a comma between the main clause and the whole relative clause). class – T gives Ss some more examples and gets Ss to work out/ review the meaning and use of nondefining relative clause based on the examples. E.g. Non-defining relative clauses are used in order to give additional information about a person/ an object, not to distinguish him/ her/ it. Usually, we already know this person/ object so we don’t need information to distinguish him/ her/ it. – T reminds Ss of the form of the structure. E.g. there is a comma, it can start with any pronoun like who, whom, whose, where, which, that. – T gets Ss to complete other sentences in the same way as the examples. – T gets Ss to go and write their answers on the blackboard and elicits correction/ feedback from the class.
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EXERCISE 4

Answers: 1. Peter, who is studying French and German, has never been abroad. 2. You’ve all met Michael Wood, who is visiting us for a couple of days. 3. You are moving to Manchester, which is in the north-west. 4. I’ll be staying with Adrian, whose brother is one of my closest friends. 5. John Bridge, who is one of my oldest friends, has just gone to live in Canada. 8’
COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITY

– T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 students. Then T gives them this task: Suppose Ss are at a party. Some know everyone. Some don’t but hear about other people. Now those who know everyone should introduce people to one another. When introducing people, try to give some information about them, using relative clauses. E.g. Lan, this is Minh, who is a teacher of music that I talked about the other day. Minh, this is Lan, who is one of my closest friends at college, etc. Also, at the party Ss meet some old friends. Now talk to one another, reminding people of your common friends, using relative clauses. E.g. – Lan, do you remember Son? – Son who? We have two Son in the class, right? – Yes, Son the little boy who lives near school. – Yes I remember him. What’s he doing now? – After a few minutes T calls one or two groups to perform in front of the class and gives feedback. 2’
WRAP UP

Group work and whole class

– T summarises the main points of the lesson.
28

– For homework, Ss review the uses of defining vs. non-defining relative clauses and do exercises in workbook.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Complete the following sentences with who, which, that, whom, whose, where, when, etc. Place a comma where necessary. 1. Have you seen the hat … Mary bought for the wedding? 2. I prefer to go to Spain in winter … there are fewer tourists. 3. She recalls the time … the telephone rang in the middle of a dinner party. 4. We visited the house … Shakespeare lived during his childhood. 5. They have designed a microwave … can defrost a frozen chicken in just ten seconds. 6. The man … is going to play the organ played at my wedding, too. 7. That is the girl … Jeremy brought the diamond ring for. 8. The woman … daughter is a famous pianist is my distant cousin. 9. We’ll have the party on February 24th … is the day when he comes out of hospital. 10. Anne’s fiancé … is based in Manchester is hoping to get transfer to a branch nearer home. Answers: 1. that 3. when 5. which 7. whom 9., which 2., when 4. where 6. who 8. whose 10., who

Unit 10
Nature in danger
Period 1: READING
I. Objectives
29

By the end of the lesson students will be able to: – Develop such reading micro-skills as identifying main ideas and guessing meaning in context. – Use the information they have read to discuss environmental destruction and conservation.

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts.

III. Anticipated problems
Students may not have sufficient vocabulary to read and talk about the topic, so teachers should be ready to help them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

5’

WARM UP: BRAINSTORMING

– T divides Ss into small groups of 3-4. T distributes the handout and gets Ss to match the causes with effects and then brainstorm solutions to the problems. – Then T calls different groups to present their answers. T writes the ideas on the blackboard and helps Ss to express their ideas correctly. – T introduces to the topic – Nature in Danger. Handout
Cause 1. Cutting down trees 2. Producing harmful gases 3. Killing animals 4. Using water for industry and agriculture Effect a. Rare animals disappearing b. Reducing water supply c. Destroying the air d. Changing weather Solution

Group work and whole class

Suggested answers

30

Cause 1. Cutting down trees

Effect a. Changing weather

Solution Planting forests Banning cutting trees Banning releasing harmful chemicals into the environment Enlisting rare animals in the red book. Banning killing animals for food or industry. Breeding and raising rare animals.

2. Producing harmful gases 3. Killing animals

b. Destroying the air c. Rare animals disappearing

4. Using water for industry and agriculture

d. Reducing water supply

Building dams for water storage. Calling people to save water.

7’

BEFORE YOU READ

– T gets Ss to look at the picture on p. 114 and name the animals (e.g. cheetah, pandas, and Siberian tigers). – T elicits if Ss know about these animals. If not, T gets Ss to read the facts about them and then answer the questions on p. 114. T explains new words (remain, endangered species, scattered, etc.), if necessary. – T elicits answers from Ss and helps them to express their ideas correctly. Pre-teach vocabulary Respect (n): area Result in (v): cause

Whole class

31

Prohibit (v): ban, not allow Off-spring (n): children Coexist (v): live together (co- means “together”) Suggested Answers: 1. The number of these animals is decreasing. They may disappear from the earth if we do not take action to protect them. 2. People kill rare animals for food and fur. People destroy forests and pollute the air, soil and water, so animals’ lives have been badly affected.
WHILE YOU READ

8’

Instruction: You are going to read about how we have destroyed our environment and affected other species and what we can do to save endangered animals. Then you do the tasks that follow.
TASK 1

8’

– T gets Ss to read the passage silently and then do Task 1. T may want to remind Ss of the strategies for guessing the meaning of new words. For example, Ss should look for the instances of the new words in the text and read around them. Ss use the context in which the words occur and their knowledge of word formation to understand the meanings. E.g. the word “pollutant” found in the last line of the first paragraph means “substances that pollute”. Ss can understand this meaning thanks to the phrase “destroying the air” and their knowledge of the verb “pollute”. – T might want to check that Ss understand all these words correctly by calling on some Ss to tell the meaning of the words in Vietnamese. – Then Ss complete the sentences with the correct words. Ss can do the task more easily if they work Individual, out what part of speech is needed in each blank so pair work
32

Individual work and whole class

that they can choose the word that best fits in. E.g. sentence 1 requires an adjective. – T checks the answers with the whole class.
TASK 2

and whole class

7’

– T checks if Ss can do Task 2 without a second reading. If not, allow them to read the passage again. T might want to remind Ss of the strategies for finding main ideas. E.g.: + read the first, the middle and the last sentences of each paragraph, etc. + read the options in each question carefully and underline the words that make them different. E.g. in Q2 these are “animals disappearing”, “human responsible”, “people becoming extinct”, and “human are endangered species”. – After checking that Ss are finished, T asks Ss to compare their answers with a peer. – T elicits answers from Ss. Ss also need to explain Individual, pair work their choices. and whole Answers class 1. C (A and B are too narrow, D is not supported by information in text) 2. A (B is too broad. C and D are not supported by information in text) 3. A (B is too narrow. C and D are not supported by information in text) 4. C (A, B and D are not supported by information in text)
TASK 3

T checks if Ss can answer the comprehension questions in Task 3 without having to read the passage again. If Ss cannot, T gets them to read the questions carefully. T might want to remind them
33

of some tips to do the task. E.g. Ss should skim the questions to understand them. As Ss do this they underline the key words to decide what information they need to find in the text. E.g. the keywords in Question 1 are “four ways people change environment”. Then they look for question word like “why” which indicates Ss should read for specific thing like a reason. – Now T instructs Ss to guess where in the passage they can find the information, using their knowledge of the passage (e.g. question about ways to protect endangered nature can be found in the third paragraph). Then Ss go back to the passage and locate the answers. – Then T gets Ss to check their answers with a friend. – T calls on some Ss to present and say where they look for their answers. T gives feedback and correct answers. Answers 1. People destroy the environment in four ways: building cities and villages where forests once stood, using water for industry and agriculture, cutting down trees and adding pollutants to the air (paragraph 1). 2. There are 2 serious consequences of human’s actions: many rare animals are killed and many are becoming extinct because the environment where they live has been badly destroyed (paragraph 2). 3. Many things have been done to save the endangered nature. First, scientists created a list of endangered animals and suggested ways to protect them. People also built parks and zoos to keep and protect endangered animals. Governments introduced laws to ban the killing of rare animals
34

and destroying environments where they lived (paragraph 3). 7’
AFTER YOU READ

– T divides the class into small groups of 3-4. In their groups one S acts as a TV reporter and the others as scientists. The TV reporter will interview the scientists about the reasons why some animals such as cheetahs, pandas and Siberian tigers are disappearing and some have become extinct. The reporter will have to write down the ideas and later report to the class. – T goes around to check and help. – After a few minutes T calls the reporters to present the ideas they have collected. T writes the answers on the blackboard and helps Ss to express their ideas correctly.
WRAP UP

Group work and whole class

3’

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, Ss make sentences with the new words and prepare for the next lesson.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Your class is participating in a school writing competition. You are required to write an essay to a board of examiners to explain how human beings are destroying the environment and what you think we can do to save rare animals from disappearing. The best essay will be published in the school magazine and the writer wins a free trip to Cuc Phuong National Park. You can use the information in the reading text to help you write.

35

Period 2: SPEAKING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to – Use the required language to talk about endangered nature and ways to protect it.

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Students may not have enough vocabulary to talk about the topic, so T should be ready to help them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

7’

WARM UP: HANG MAN GAME (To review vocabulary related to environment)

– T divides the class into 2 big groups and draws each of them a gallows on the board.

Group work and whole class

Team A

Team B

– T explains to Ss that they are going to play “Hangman” with the vocabulary related to environment. The rule is each time T gives a secret word and the groups will take turn to guess it by telling what letters they think there are in this word. If Ss choose a letter that appears one or more times in the secret word, the letters and their positions will be revealed and Ss can keep on guessing the next letter. On the other hand, if Ss guess a letter that is not in the secret word, then a piece of the man being hanged will be added to the
36

gallows and they will lose their turn to the other group. Ss will get one point for each secret word they can guess correctly and get a minus point for each complete hangman they have got. When the game is over, T will count how many points each group has collected and the group with more points will win the game. – T leads the games with such words related to the environment, e.g. “pollutant”, “extinct”, “forest”, “air”, “water”, “animal”, “endanger”, “nature”, “planet”, “tree”, etc. (T may want to add more words to suit his/ her classroom). For each word, Y draws the same number of dashes as the number of letters in it. For example, for the word “Pollutant”, T would need 9 dashes like this: 12’
TASK 1

– T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 and gives them the task. T might want to remind Ss of the ways to ask and give opinions. E.g. What do you think …? In my opinion/ I think/ I feel, etc. Ss may appoint one among themselves to be a secretary to write down their peer’s ideas. – After 6-7 minutes T calls on each group to turn in their answers. Ss should be able to explain their choice. – T checks with other groups to see if they have the same idea. T helps Ss express their ideas correctly. Suggested answers
Order Why nature is threatened Your explanation

Group work and whole class

1

Burning forests

Forests are green lungs of the earth. Trees take in CO2 and produce oxygen. Without trees the climate will change for worse. Trees also help to stop erosion because they hold water. 37

2 3

Cutting down trees for cultivation Discharging chemical pollutants into environment Using fertilizers and pesticides for cultivation Killing endangered animals for fur, skin and food

Forests are where many important animals live, too. Burning forests means many animals may die. Smoke from forest fire may pollute the air. As above. Dangerous chemicals can ham people’s lives and cause fatal diseases such as cancer. They can destroy soil and pollute the air and affect other living species as well. As above. All living species on earth depend on one another to exist. Making some species disappear would create a lack of ecological balance. All species are part of our planet. They help us understand life on our planet and we need to protect them for younger generations. Many people believe just like human beings animals also have their rights to a happy life. Hunting and capturing animals for recreation is violating animals’ rights. Also, the best place for wild animals is natural environments. We should not take them out of where they belong.

4 5

6

Hunting and capturing animals for recreation

7

Keeping animals as pets

38

treat these animals kindly and take good care of them.

8’

TASK 2

– T puts Ss in pairs and gets them to read through the task. T explains new words if necessary. Then Ss match the problems in Task 1 with appropriate solutions in Task 2. – After a few minutes T calls on Ss to give their answers. T checks with the whole class. – T might want to elicit more solutions from Ss. While Ss are speaking, T helps them express their ideas correctly. T writes the ideas on the blackboard so that Ss can use them for Task 3 later. E.g.
Problems Solutions

Pair work and whole class

Killing endangered animals for fur, skin and food.

Keeping animals as pets.

Hunting or capturing animals for recreation or entertainment. Burning forests.

Killing endangered animals for fur, skin and food should be banned. People who use products made from rare animals’ fur and skin should be fined. Factories which are involved in using rare animals’ fur and skin for their products should be made to find alternative materials. Keeping animals as pets should be discouraged. Animals which are kept as pets should be treated kindly. There should be organizations to watch over pet owners to make sure they take good care of their pets. Pet owners should register with the governments so that they can be supported and assisted in how to raise and take care of animals. Animals should not be captured for recreation and entertainment. People who abuse animals should be punished. Zoos and national parks should be 39

Cutting down trees for wood.

Using fertilizers and pesticides for cultivation.

Discharging chemical pollutants into the environment.

established to save animals and plants. All kinds of animals and plants should be protected. Burning forests should be banned. Planting trees should be encouraged. People should be encouraged to use renewable fuels (e.g. solar energy) rather than non-renewable fuels like wood. Decreasing the use of fertilizers and pesticides for farming should be encouraged. Pesticides and fertilizers should be checked carefully for quality control before being sold for use. Farmers should strictly follow instructions about safety when using pesticides and fertilizers. Discharging chemical pollutants into the environment should be prohibited. There should be good systems for treating industrial waste and chemical substances.

15’

TASK 3

– T puts Ss in groups of 3-4. One student will play the role of a reporter and the other play the role of environmentalists. The reporter will interview the environmentalists about the solutions to existing environmental problems. The reporter needs to write down the ideas s/he collected from the people s/he interviewed. – T goes around to help Ss. – After 10 minutes T calls on the reporter in each group to present what s/he found. T gives corrective feedback. 3’
WRAP UP

Work group and whole class

– T summarises the main points of the lesson.
40

– For homework Ss do exercises in workbook, make sentences with new words and prepare for the next lesson.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Read and complete the following text with suitable words from the box.
scarcity environment increasing Wisely fresh necessary activities environmental

Fresh water is …….1……. for life on Earth. People need water for everyday ….….2……. and to produce food. Water is also important for energy production and the health of Earth’s ……..3……..systems. Everywhere, water use is …….4…….. Humans already use fifty-four percent of all the ………5…….. water in rivers, lakes and underground. It is estimated that this rate will reach seventy percent by 2025. Water ……….6……… is a growing concern among nations of the world. To raise awareness about the issue, to motivate people to use water more ………7…….. and in ways that will not hurt the ………..8………., the United Nations declared 2003 the International Year of Fresh Water. Answers 1. necessary 2. activities 3. environmental 4. increasing 5. fresh 6. scarcity 7. wisely 8. environment

Period 3: LISTENING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to: – Develop such listening micro-skills as listening for specific and detailed information. – Use the acquired language to summarize the information they listen to.
41

II. Materials
Textbook, cassette tapes.

III. Anticipated problems
The topic can be challenging for Ss, so T should prepare them enough for the listening tasks (e.g. pre-teaching new words, giving a bit of information about the topic, etc.).

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

8’

Vocabulary revision- Noughts and Crosses (to Pair work revise and check Ss’ understanding of the and whole vocabulary related to environment) class – T puts a grid on the board with nine words which Ss have learnt from the previous lessons. Pollutant Endangered Interference Prohibit Co-exist Worsen Destruction Protect Extinct

– T tells Ss the rules of the game: + Ss work in pairs. ONE of the students copies the grid in his / her book. + One student is “noughts” (“O”) and the other is “crosses” (“X”). + One student starts. S/he chooses a word and makes a sentence with it. If the sentence is correct, s/he puts her mark (“O” or “X”) in that square. + The first student to get three-in-a row (across, down, or diagonally) wins. – T may want to check by calling some pairs to read aloud their sentences. T elicits feedback from the class. 8’
BEFORE YOU LISTEN

– T write these questions on the blackboard:

Individual work,
42

1. Can you name some national parks that you know in Vietnam? 2. What purposes do national parks serve? 3. What are the problems that national parks might be facing at the moment? 4. What can we do to protect national parks? Suggested Answers: 1. Ba Vi National Park, Cuc Phuong National Park, Cat Ba National Park, etc. 2. They protect and preserve the natural beauty of the lands. 3. Many are being polluted by visitors 4. Encourage people to help keep the parks clean and green by dropping litter in the right place, etc. – T gets Ss to discuss the questions in groups of 34. After a few minutes T elicits answers from groups and writes the answers on the blackboard. – T gets Ss to guess what topic they are going to listen about. Pre-teach vocabulary scenic (a): belonging to scenes features (n): characteristics (scenic features: đặc điểm phong cảnh) devastating(a): destructive maintenance (n): act of maintaining approximately (adv): nearly vehicles (n): cars, trucks, etc. completely (adv): totall – T helps Ss to pronounce the words correctly. T may want to play the tape or model first and then ask Ss to repeat after the tape or after him/ her in chorus and individually – T presents or elicits the meanings of these words from the class.

group work and whole class

43

WHILE YOU LISTEN

8’

Introduction: You are going to listen about national parks in the USA. Then do the tasks that follow.
TASK 1

8’

– T gets Ss to read the questions carefully and work out what information they need to concentrate on while listening. Then T checks with the whole class. – T gets SS to guess the answer to each question and then tells them they need to listen attentively to check if their guesses are confirmed. – T plays the tape (or reads the tapescript) once for Ss to listen and do the task. – Then T gets Ss to find a partner to check their answers with. – T checks the answers with the whole class. Ss need to be able to explain their answers. If many Ss cannot answer the questions, T plays the tape one or two more times and pauses at the answers for them to catch.
TASK 2

Individual, pair work and whole class

Individual, pair work and whole class

– T checks if Ss can answer the questions in Task 2 without listening again. If they cannot, T plays the tape for them to listen again but before doing this, T should encourage Ss to read through all the questions, identify the information they need to look for in each question (by finding the key words and the question word, e.g. “what’, “why’, “when”, “how”, etc.) and if possible, predict the answers. – Then T plays the tape again for Ss to listen and answer the questions. While Ss are listening, T should encourage them to note down the answers. T should remind Ss to write down only the main
44

points in note forms but not full sentences. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a partner. Then T checks with the whole class. T should play the tape again and pause at difficult points if many Ss cannot complete the task. Tapescripts: In many parts of the United States, large areas of land have been made into national parks to protect and preserve the natural beauty of the land. National parks usually contain a variety of scenic features, such as mountains, caves, lakes, rare animals and plants. Today, there are 52 national parks in the United States, covering approximately 3 per cent of the total land area of the country. National parks are all open to the public and have millions of visitors each year. Many national parks, however, are in danger of being destroyed. Rare animals in national parks are killed or hunted for fur, skin or other parts. Trees are cut down for wood. Large areas of national parks also experience devastating fires caused by careless people. The increasing number of visitors is harming the parks due to the pollution from their vehicles. If these problems are not solved immediately, and if there is not enough money for the parks staff and maintenance of their resources, many national parks will be completely destroyed. 10’
AFTER YOU LISTEN

– T divides the class into small groups of 3 or 4 and gets them to summarize the listening text based on their notes. T might want to appoint a group leader for each group. This person will monitor the group work, note down ideas and
45

appoint a representative to present their work to the class. – T goes around to check and offer help. – After checking that all the groups have finished, T calls on the representative of each group to present their summary. T checks if other groups would have the same or different ideas. – T listens and takes note of their errors. T provides corrective feedback after that. 3’
WRAP UP

– T summarises the main point of the lesson. – For homework, Ss learn by heart new words and make sentences with them.

Period 4: WRITING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to: – Describe a national park based on given information.

II. Materials
Textbook, A0 sized posters

III. Anticipated problems
Students may have difficulty with writing descriptive essays, so T should be ready to help them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

WARM UP
46

8’

Pair work – T puts Ss in pairs and gets them to do this task: One student will tell about his/ her recent visit to a and whole class national park. S/he should describe what s/he can remember about the park and the other will draw a picture accordingly. – After 5 minutes, Ss will show their pictures to the class, who will choose the most beautiful picture to be the winning one. – T introduces the topic of the lesson.
PREPARE SS TO WRITE

10’

– T puts Ss in groups of 3-4 and gets them to brainstorm what they would like to include in their description of a national park. – T elicits the answers from different groups and writes the ideas on the blackboard. Then T elicits useful structures and vocabulary and also writes them on the blackboard. E.g.
Where? (Location) How big? (Area) What? (Geographical features? Scenic features? Historic features?) X is located in Y. X is … km north/ south/ east/ west from Y. X is … square km. There is/ are … X is characterised by … It is famous for … Many species/ kinds of plants live here … Many rare animals can be found here … X is home to many kinds of rare animals.

Group work and whole class

– Then T gets Ss to read the table of information on p. 120. T explains new words, if necessary. – T reminds Ss of the format of a paragraph. 12’
WRITING

– T divides the class into small groups and assigns

Group work
47

each group to write about an aspect of Cat Ba National Park. E.g. Group 1 writes about location and area, Group 2 about scenic features. Group 3 writes about plants and animals. And Group 4 writes about Historic features. – T hands each group an A0 sized paper sheet. Ss will write their paragraphs on that paper. – After the groups are finished, they stick their posters on the four walls (in case of small classes) or blackboard (in case of large classes). Sample writing Cat Ba National Park is located in Cat Ba Island, Hai Phong. It is 120 km from Hanoi and 20 km east of Hai Phong city centre. It is 15,200 square hectares in total. The park is characterised by beautiful tropical forests and coastal waters. It is famous for magnificent landscapes with white sand beaches and abundant natural resources. Many kinds of rare and precious animals and plants live in Cat Ba National Park. It is home to 300 species of fish, 40 species of animals, 150 species of birds and 620 kinds of plants. Cat Ba National Park is also a historic site. Archeologists found 6000-year-old stone tools and even human bones. So the park is not only a tourist attraction but also a good place for historians and archeologists to study the past. 13’
FEEDBACK

– T gets the class to read and give corrective feedback on their peers’ work. – T gives his/ her own corrective feedback and final comments. T should draw Ss’ attention to the format of the paragraph (i.e. topic sentences, supporting ideas/ examples, linking words, etc.),

Whole class

48

the organisation of ideas and language use. 2’
WRAP UP

– T summarises the main point of the lesson. – For homework, T asks Ss to write about Cat Ba National Park again, based on their works and their friends’ works in class, incorporating their peers and teacher’s comments and corrections.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

National parks in Vietnam have recently received an increasing number of visitors. As more people come, the parks are now facing serious pollution problems. Write a letter to the Director of the Department of Natural Resources and Environment to explain what we can do to protect national parks.

Period 5: LANGUAGE FOCUS
I. Objectives
By the end of this lesson, Ss will be able to: – Distinguish the sounds /sl, /sn/, /sm/ and /sw/ – Pronounce the words and sentences containing these sounds correctly – Master the use of relative pronouns with prepositions – Use this structure correctly and appropriately to solve communicative tasks

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Students might have difficulty pronouncing clusters because they do not exist in Vietnamese. Ss may also have difficulty with relative clauses with prepositions. Therefore, T should be ready to assist them.

4. Procedures

49

Time

Steps

Work arrangement

8’

Individual, Distinguishing sounds pair work – T models each of these consonant clusters /sl/, and whole /sm/, /sn/ and /sw/ for a few times. T reminds Ss class how to pronounce clusters (e.g. pronounce the first sound and then move onto the second sound quickly). – T plays the tape (or reads) once for Ss to hear the words containing these two sounds. Then T plays the tape (or reads) again and this time asks Ss to repeat after the tape (or T). – T asks Ss to read the words in each column out loud in chorus for a few more times. Then T calls on some Ss to read the words out loud. T listens and corrects if Ss pronounce the target words incorrectly. If many Ss do not pronounce the words correctly, T may want to get them to repeat after the tape (or himself/ herself) again in chorus and then individually. Practising sentences containing the target sounds – T asks Ss to work in pairs and read aloud the given dialogue (p. 121). – T goes around to listen and takes notes of the typical errors – T calls on some Ss to read the sentences again and provides corrective feedback.
EXERCISE 1

PRONUNCIATION

8’

– T prepares some examples as below and shows to Ss. That is the girl with whom I share the apartment. That is the girl who shares the apartment with me. The picture that she hangs over the fireplace is one
50

of the most famous works by Monet. The picture at which you are looking is one of the most famous works by Monet. – T gets Ss to read the examples and pay attention to the relative pronouns after prepositions. E.g. we use “whom” but not “who”, “which” but not “that” after prepositions. But when we place the preposition at the end of the sentence as we might do in casual style, we can drop the relative pronoun. E.g. That is the girl Ø I share the apartment with. The picture Ø you are looking at is one of the most famous works by Monet. – T gets Ss to complete the exercise in the same way as the examples. Before that, explain new words if necessary. – T gets Ss to go and write their answers on the blackboard and elicits correction/ feedback from the class. Answers: 1. whom 2. which 3. whom 4. who 5. which 6. whom 7. which 8’
EXERCISE 2

– T gets Ss to read the examples and go over the rules again. – If Ss show that they all understand the rules T gets Ss to complete the exercise individually and then find a peer to compare their answers. – T checks the answers with the whole class and gives correction where necessary. Answers 1. The man to whom I talked yesterday was very kind. 2. The man about whom I told you works in

Individual work, pair work and whole class

51

hospital. 3. The woman about whom I am telling you teaches me English. 4. The movie about which they are talking is fantastic. 5. The picture at which she was looking was beautiful. 6. I’ll give you the address to which you should write. 8’
EXERCISE 3

– T gets Ss to review when to use whom, who, which and that. – T gets Ss to complete the exercise individually and then find a peer to compare their answers. – T checks the answers with the whole class and gives correction where necessary. Answers 1. whom/ that 2. which 3. who 4. whom 5. which/ that 6. which 7. who 8. whom
COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITY

Individual work, pair work and whole class

10’

Story-telling game – T divides the class into small groups of 3 or 4 and introduces the game: Ss are going to work in their own groups to expand the story given to them by using as many relative clauses with prepositions as possible. They will have 5 minutes to do this. After 5 minutes, all groups will present their story. Which group has more correct and meaningful relative clauses with prepositions will be the winner. – T distributes Ss the following handouts:
1. A burglar broke into a small grocery shop. 2. He stole a few beers and grabbed some money.

Group work and whole class

52

3. He heard the owner of the shop coughing 4. He hid under a bed 5. The owner was on that bed. The burglar didn’t know 6. He waited to escape, he drank the stolen beers, got drank, fell into sleep, snored loudly 7. The owner woke up, called police

Suggested answers
The burglar about whom they talked on TV today broke into a small grocery shop in which the owner was sleeping. He stole a few beers and grabbed some money, over which the owner placed a heavy paperweight. So he made some noise and heard the owner of the shop coughing. He thought the owner might see him, so he hid himself under the bed in which the owner was sleeping. But in the darkness the burglar didn’t know this. As he waited to escape, he drank the stolen beers, because of which he got very drunk. So he felt into sleep and snored loudly right under the bed in which the owner was lying. Unluckily for him, the owner heard the snore and woke up. He immediately called the police, to whom he told about the burglar. When the police came to the shop, in which the burglary took place, the burglar was still asleep. They awakened him and took him to the police station, in which he was interrogated for five hours.

3’

WRAP UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, Ss review the use of relative clauses with prepositions and do exercises in workbook.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Combine the sentences into one single sentence using relative clauses with or without prepositions. 1. The flat is in an old part of the city. I have just moved to this flat.
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2. The traffic is very noisy. I was very annoyed at the noisy traffic. 3. The local market sold excellent local produce. The newspaper wrote about it. 4. In my new house there is a balcony. You can see beautiful beach from my balcony. 5. We were unable to get tickets for the concert. The Browns went to this concert. 6. Beckham scored the second goal in the final minutes. Everyone was excited about the goal because it won England the cup. Answers 1. The flat to which I have just moved is in an old part of the city. 2. The traffic is very noisy, at which I was very annoyed. 3. The local market, about which the newspaper wrote, sold excellent local produce. 4. In my new house there is a balcony, from which you can see beautiful beach. 5. We were unable to get tickets for the concert to which the Browns went. 6. Beckham scored the second goal in the final minutes, about which everyone was excited because it won England the cup.

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Unit 11
sources of energy
Period 1: READING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to: – Develop such reading skills as understanding main ideas, scanning for specific information, guessing meaning in context, and summarizing. – Use the information they have read to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different sources of energy.

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Students may not have sufficient vocabulary to read and talk about the topic, so teachers should be ready to help them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

7’

WARM UP

– T writes the word “ENERGY” on the board. – T divides the class into groups of 10, gives them the handouts, and introduces the game: The groups should identify from the given list as many words related to this word as possible in 5 minutes. – T divides the board into as many sections as the number of groups is. When time is up, T calls on the representative of each group to come to the board and write their list. Then T gets the whole class to count. Each correct word gets one point. Which group has more points wins the game.

Group work and whole class

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List endangered animals, power, pollutant, fuel, weapon, nuclear, air, solar, environment, wind, fertilizer, water, food, heat, oxygen, geothermal, zoos, renewable, non-renewable, earth, moon, windmill, cooker, oil, forest, coal, gas, ocean, dust, electricity, petroleum, pesticides, soil, smoke. Answers: power, fuel, nuclear, solar, wind, water, heat, geothermal, zoos, renewable, non-renewable, earth, windmill, oil, coal, gas, electricity, petroleum. 7’
BEFORE YOU READ

– T gets Ss to work in pairs and try to make sense of the pictures on page 124 and answer the questions. – T calls on some Ss to answer the questions. If Ss have difficulty making sense of the pictures, T may elicit their answers by asking questions and giving prompts. E.g.: What can you see in the picture? What source of energy does water produce? What about the sun? The wind? etc. – T checks with the class and asks Ss to guess what they are going to read about. Pre-teach vocabulary Reserve (n): resources Geothermal (a): belonging to heat coming from earth Windmill (n): Cối xay gió Infinite (a): unlimited Suggested Answers: 1. Wind power, solar energy, water power 2. We need energy for generating electricity and heat for industrial and domestic use.

Pair work and whole class

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WHILE YOU READ

8’

Introduction: You are going to read about alternative sources of energy and do the reading tasks that follow.
TASK 1

7’

– T gets Ss to firstly read Task 1 and locate the words in italic in the passage. Then Ss read around these words so that they can guess their meanings. For example, the word “alternative’ in the final line of the first paragraph means “something to replace with”. Ss can get the meaning of this word thanks to the context (fossil fuels will be exhausted soon, so we’ll need to look for new sources of energy to replace fossil fuels). – T might want to check that Ss understand all these words correctly by calling on some Ss to tell the meaning of the words in Vietnamese. – Then Ss complete the sentences with the correct words. Ss can do the task more easily if they work out what part of speech is needed in each blank so that they can choose the word that best fits in. E.g. sentence 1 requires an adjective. Answer: 1. released Individual 2. alternative work, pair 3. energy work and 4. limited whole 5. exhausted class TASK 2 – T checks if Ss can do the task without reading the text a second time. If the cannot, T gets Ss to read the passage silently and then do Task 1. T may want to give them some tips to do the task: + First, Ss should study the key words (nuclear
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Individual work and whole class

power, solar energy, etc.). + Then they should go back to the passage and locate the key words in the passage. + Then they should read around the key words carefully to find the answer. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a peer. – T elicits Ss’ answers and writes them on the board. T should ask Ss to explain their choices. – T checks the answers with the whole class. Answers
Sources of energy Nuclear power Advantages Provide electricity for the world’s needs for hundreds years Plentiful, clean, safe, infinite Gives energy without pollution Clean energy, there’s a lot of it / Disadvantages Dangerous

Solar energy Water power

/ Expensive If the wind doesn’t blow, there’s no energy Available only in a few places in the world

7’

Wind power Geothermal heat

TASK 3

– T checks if Ss can do Task 3 without reading the text again. If not, allow them to read the passage again. – T might want to remind them of some tips to do the task. E.g. Ss should skim the questions to understand them. As Ss do this they underline the key words to decide what information they need to find in the text. E.g. the keywords in Question 1 are “major source of energy”. These words are “how many” and “most potential” in Q2.

Individual work, pair work and whole class

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– Then T gets Ss to check their answers with a friend. – T calls on some Ss to present and say where they look for their answers. T gives feedback and correct answers. Answers 1. Fossil fuels (oil, coal and natural gas) (line 1, paragraph 1) 2. 6 sources: fossil fuels, nuclear power, solar energy, water power, wind power, geothermal heat. Sun energy has the most potential because it is plentiful and infinite. At the same time, it is clean and safe to use. 6’
AFTER YOU READ

– T puts Ss in pairs and then gets them to read the summary and work out what part of speech is required for each blank. Then Ss work out which information to be filled. – Ss do the task in pairs. They can go back to the text to look for information if they do not remember it. – After a few minutes T checks with the class. Answer 1. energy 2. one 3. fuels 4. limited 5. alternative 6. sources 7. unlimited 8. environment 3’
WRAP UP

Pair work and whole class

– T summarises the main point of the lesson. – For homework Ss do exercises in workbook and prepares for the next lesson.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Read the text and decide if the statements below are True (T) or False (F).
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September 22 is a day when humans might damage the ozone layer less than on other days. Why? It is international car free day, which is celebrated worldwide by over 100 million people in about 1,500 cities. The global event is a day for people to leave their cars at home. This means car drivers can help reduce global warming and perhaps get some exercise instead. It is also aimed at encouraging motorists into considering more environmentally friendly alternatives to cars. Many cities will close off whole roads to cars. In Europe, the day forms part of European Mobility Week (EMW). It has the theme “clever commuting”. The EMW website states: “European citizens will have the opportunity to enjoy a full week of events dedicated to sustainable mobility.” Clever commuting aims “to encourage alternative modes of transport…to reduce traffic congestion, transport-related greenhouse gases and improve the health and quality of life.” Participating this year is particularly important, as it is the year the Kyoto Protocol is implemented.

a. Many cars will be given away free to poor people on Car Free Day. b. Over 100 million people in about 1,500 cities will celebrate this day. c. The day will encourage motorists to use their cars less. d. Many cities will not allow people to drive this day. e. The day is celebrated in Europe only. f. The theme “Clever Computing” means avoiding traffic jams and saving the environment. g. Car Free Day hopes to reduce indigestion and harmful gases. h. The Kyoto Protocol will be implemented next year. Answers a. F b. T c. T d. F e. F f. T g. T h. F

T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F

Period 2: SPEAKING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to
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– Use the required language and knowledge to talk about the advantages and disadvantages of using alternative sources of energy – Use the required language and knowledge to talk about the use of alternative sources of energy in the future.

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Students may not have enough vocabulary to talk about the topic, so T should be ready to help them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

10’

WARM UP (To review vocabulary)

– T distributes Ss the handouts, asking them to reorder the letters into meaningful words related to energy. – After a few minutes T elicits answers from Ss and gives correct answers if necessary. – T gets Ss to make sentences with these words and gives correction where needed. Reorder the letters into meaningful words related to “Energy” Answers 1. sosifl seulf ________ ________ 2. vetiretalan secourc ________ ________ 3. ralos genery ________ ________ 4. teraw rowep ________ ________ 5. loras nepal ________ ________ 6. wpero eralucn ________ ________

Individual work and whole class

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7. inwd owerp ________ 8. lamrehtoeg ygener ________ 1. fossil fuels 2. alternative sources 3. solar energy 4. water power 5. solar panel 6. nuclear power 7. wind power 8. geothermal energy 7’
TASK 1

________ ________

– T gets Ss to read through the statements and explains new words if necessary. – T gets Ss to do the task and then compares their answers with a peer. – T checks the answers with the whole class and elicits more advantages and disadvantages if possible. Suggested answers
Fossil fuels Advantages Available from environment (coal, oil, natural gas) Disadvantages Fossil fuels will be exhausted in a relatively short time. Fossil fuels are nonrenewable energy because it takes thousands years for them to appear after being used up. Solar energy is not only In winter time it might not plentiful and unlimited be plentiful in some areas. but also safe and clean. It might be cheap as well. It uses simple technology. It is safe to use. It is expensive to build a

Individual work, pair work and whole class

Solar energy

Water

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power Wind power

It is also environment friendly.

It is cheap, clean and safe. It is environment friendly. It uses simple technology. Geo. It is cheap and safe. It Energy is environment friendly and clean. Nuclear It can generate a large power amount of electricity.

dam for hydroelectricity. It is limited in some areas of the world. If the wind does not blow, there is no wind energy.

Geothermal heat is available only in a few places in the world. A nuclear reactor releases radiation which is dangerous to the environment. Nuclear reactor explosion happens sometimes and kills many people, pollutes the air and causes cancer for many generations who live in the affected area. It requires advanced technology.

15’

TASK 2

– T gets some pairs of Ss to read out the dialogue on p.128 and corrects them if necessary. – T explains new words if necessary and reminds Ss of the structure to ask for and give opinions, agree and disagree with someone. – T gets Ss to discuss the good points and bad points about using different kinds of energy, using the prompts in their book and the ideas gathered in Task 1. – T goes around to check and help. – T calls on some pairs to perform in front of the class and elicits feedback from the class. T gives corrective feedback afterwards. Asking for and giving opinions Asking for opinions

Pair work and whole class

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What do you think about...? What’s your opinion about...? What’s your feeling about...? What’s your point of view about...? How do you feel about...? Do you have any opinions about...?
Expressing opinions I think... Personally, I believe... I feel... In my opinion,... From my point of view... Expressing agreements I agree I think so, too That’s true, and... That’s right, and... Expressing disagreements Well, maybe, but... That might be true, but... Well, my feeling is that...

10’

Pair work – T gets Ss to read the task requirements and elicits and whole class some ideas and puts them on the blackboard. T helps Ss to express their ideas correctly. E.g.
TASK 3
Energy Solar energy Potential? Yes very likely Why? It is plentiful, unlimited, safe and clean. It also uses simple technology so it is economical for developing countries.

Water power Wind power Geo. Energy Nuclear power

– Then T gets Ss to swap their partners and do Task 3. – T goes around to check and help. – After 6-7 minutes T gets Ss to report the outcomes of their discussion and elicits feedback from the class. T gives feedback afterwards. 3’
WRAP UP

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– T summarises the main points of the lesson – For homework Ss write a paragraph about the most potential kind source of energy in the future based on their work in the class.
EXTRA ACTIVITY: WORD SEARCH

Find all of the continents and oceans in the grid to the left. Write C next to the continents and O next to the oceans. What continents are these?

(1)_______

(2)_________ (3)__________ (4)_________

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Answers Africa Antarctica Arctic Asia Atlantic Australia

Continent Equator Europe Globe Indian North America

North Pole Ocean Pacific South America South Pole Southern

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Period 3: LISTENING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to: – Develop such listening micro-skills as listening for specific and detailed information. – Use the acquired language and knowledge to talk about different kinds of energy.

II. Materials
Textbook, cassette tapes, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
The topic can be challenging for Ss, so T should prepare them enough for the listening tasks (e.g. pre-teaching new words, giving a bit of information about the topic, etc.).

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

10’

WARM UP: SOLAR ENERGY SONG

– T distributes the handouts to the class. – T gets Ss to read through the song lyric and explains new words if any. – T plays the song or read the lyrics for Ss to complete the blank. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a peer. – T checks with the class and gives the correct answers – T asks Ss what the song is about and introduces the topic of the lesson. Handout: Complete the blanks with the words you hear. Solar Energy Song (Ron Brown) Oh, the …1… is a star.

Individual work and whole class

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It’s our closest star. It’s just ….2… miles away. It gives us …3… and …4…. It makes the world just right. We’re getting solar energy …5…. …6… heats our water and homes And it makes …7… Solar power is a …8… When we convert its …9…. Oh, the sun is a …10…. Its light can …11…. Hot gases burn at 10,000 …12... As it shines its light, …13… can grow just right, So the …14… is great for you and me. Answers 1. sun 2. 93 million 3. heat 4. light 5. every day 6. solar energy 7. electricity 8. natural resource 9. energy 10. star 11. travel far 12. degrees 13. plants 14. earth 10’
BEFORE YOU LISTEN

– T gets Ss to discuss the question on p. 128 in groups of 3-4. -T goes around to listen. After a few minutes T

Group work and whole class
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elicits answers from different groups. Suggested Answers: For heating and cooling the house, for cooking, for running electronic appliances such as washing machines, fridges, etc. Pre-teach vocabulary Ecology (n): Sinh thai hoc Ecologist (n): Person who studies ecology Divide (v) (between, into): chia Nitrogen (n): Ni to (N) Oxygen (n): O xi (O2) Carbon dioxide (n): CO2 – T helps Ss to pronounce the words correctly. T may want to play the tape or model first and then ask Ss to repeat after the tape or after him/ her in chorus and individually – T presents or elicits the meanings of these words from the class.
WHILE YOU LISTEN

10’

TASK 1

– T gets Ss to read the questions through and identify key words in each question. For example, in Q1 key word is “ecology”. Then Ss identify the key words in each option and the differences between them. T explains new words if any. – T gets Ss to guess the answer to each question and then tells them they need to listen attentively to check if their guesses are confirmed. – T plays the tape (or reads the tapescript) once for Ss to listen and do the task. – Then T gets Ss to find a partner to check their answers with. – T checks the answers with the whole class. If many Ss cannot answer the questions, T plays the

Individual, pair work and whole class

69

10’

tape one or two more times and pauses at the answers for them to catch. Answers 1. C 2. C 3. D 4. A 5. B

Individual, pair work and whole TASK 2 class – T checks if Ss can answer the questions in Task 2 without listening again. If they cannot, T plays the last part of the tape for them to listen again but before doing this, T should encourage Ss to read through the text and try to guess the answers. – Then T plays the tape again for Ss to listen and answer the questions. While Ss are listening, T encourages them to take notes of what they hear for the after-listening task. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a partner. Then T checks with the whole class. T should play the tape again and pause at difficult points if many Ss cannot complete the task. Answers 1. unlimited 3. may 4. gases 5. amounts Tapescript The natural environment includes all natural resources that are necessary for life: the air, the oceans, the sun, and the land. Because they are vital for life, these resources must be protected from pollution and conserved. Ecologists study their importance and how to use them carefully. According to ecologists, resources are divided into
70

two groups: renewable and non- renewable. When a resource is used, it takes some time to replace it. If the resource can be replaced quickly, it is called renewable. If it cannot be replaced quickly and easily, it is nonrenewable. For example, grass for animals is a renewable resource. When cows eat the grass, the resource is used. If the soil is fertilized and protected, more grass will grow. Coal, however, is nonrenewable because it takes millions of years to make coal. All fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources. Solar energy, air, and water are renewable resources because there is an unlimited supply. However, this definition may change if people are not careful with these resources. The amount of solar energy that reaches the earth may be dangerous. If life is going to continue, the air must contain the correct amount of nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and other gases. If humans continue to pollute the air, it will not contain the correct amounts of these gases. 5’
AFTER YOU LISTEN

– T puts Ss in pairs and gets them to do the task. Then T checks the answers with the class. Ss need to be able to explain their answers. – T gets Ss to choose one interesting point about the passage that they can remember and tells their peer why they find it interesting. Ss can use the notes they take when doing Task 2 to help themselves. – T calls on some Ss to present their ideas and gives feedback. 3’
WRAP UP

Pair work and whole class

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– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework Ss make sentences with new words, do exercises in workbook and prepare for the next lesson.

Period 4: WRITING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to: – Interpret and compare date described in chart/ graph/ table form and write a report of the data analysis.

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Interpreting and describing charts/ graphs/ and tables might be a challenging task for Ss, so T should be ready to help them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

10’

PREPARE SS TO WRITE TASK 1

-T reminds Ss of how to interpret data in a table/ graph/ chart. E.g.
+ To understand a chart, it is important to firstly understand its topic. The topic of a chart can generally be found by looking at its title. Pay attention to the time reported in it as well. Is it the past, the present, or the future? + Then, it is important to look for the general trend that the chart describes. What patterns are shown? Is there an overall trend? How are the different pieces

Whole class and pair work

72

general trend, if there are any. Finally, look for the differences in detail.

– T gets Ss to work in pairs to study the 2000 charts on p. 130 by asking questions like below and gives correction if necessary: 1. What is the topic of the chart? Does it describe the past, the present, or the future? 2. What patterns are shown? How are the pieces of information related? i.e. a. Which made up the largest amount of consumption: petroleum, coal, or nuclear and hydroelectricity? b. Which consumption ranked the second? c. Which made up the smallest amount of consumption? – Then T gets Ss to do Task 1. – T checks the answers with the class. – Then T gets Ss to read Task 1 again and review the format/ organization of ideas in a graph/ chart/ table description. T might want to copy this handout and distribute to Ss afterwards. E.g.
1. Topic sentence: – tells what the chart is about; that is the time, the location, and what is being described in it. E.g.: The chart describes the literacy rates of population in different parts of the country of Fancy from 1998 to 2007. – a sentence that sums up the general trend. E.g.: The literacy rate of population varied considerably between 1998 and 2007. – sentences that describe the table in detail. – summarises the main points or draws a relevant conclusion. E.g.: These data may help the researchers or planners make suitable plans for educational development in each area of the country. However, this sentence is optional.

2. Supporting sentences: 3. Concluding sentence

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– After that, T helps Ss to review the language used to describe tables/ charts/ graphs. E.g.: + Verb tenses: When the chart shows the present situation, use the present simple tense. When it shows the past events, use the past simple tense. However, the simple present verb tense is often used in the topic sentence. E.g.: The chart shows that … The chart describes … The chart presents … + Describing proportion: T might want to remind Ss of expressions like : make up the largest/ smallest percentage/ proportion/ amount contribute the largest/ smallest percentage/ proportion/ amount This is followed by … This ranks first/ second … Answers to Task 1: 1. 117 2. coal 3. smallest 18’
WRITING TASK 2

– T gets Ss to study the 2005 charts in pairs. – T checks how Ss understand the data illustrated in the charts by asking questions like below and gives correction if necessary: 1. What is the topic of the chart? Does it describe the past, the present, or the future? 2. What patterns are shown? How are the pieces of information related? i.e. a. Which made up the largest amount of consumption: petroleum, coal, or nuclear and hydroelectricity?
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b. Which consumption ranked the second? c. Which made up the smallest amount of consumption? – T gets Ss to write the description of the charts. Ss do the task individually. – T goes around to help. Sample writing The charts show the energy consumption in Highland in 2005. As can be seen, the total energy consumption was 170 million tons. Nuclear and hydroelectricity made up the largest amount of this figure (75 million tons). This was followed by the consumption of petroleum (50 million tons). Coal made up a slightly smaller proportion with 45 million tons. 15’
FEEDBACK

– T gets Ss to exchange their works and give feedback to each other. T goes around to help. – Then T chooses one description and corrects it with the class. – T should draw Ss’ attention to the format, organisation of ideas and language use. 2’
WRAP UP

Whole class

– T summarises the main point of the lesson. – For homework, T asks Ss to revise their works to their peer’s suggestions, do Task 3 and submit both for marking in the next lesson. Sample writing (Task 3) The charts show the energy consumption in Highland in 2000 and 2005. In general, there was a difference in the amount as well as trend of consuming different sources of energy between the two years.
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As can be seen, in 2002 the total energy consumption was 117 million tons. Petroleum made up the largest amount of this figure (57 million tons). This was followed by the consumption of coal (40 million tons). Nuclear and hydroelectricity made up a slightly smaller proportion (20 million tons). In 2005 more energy was consumed (170 million tons). Also, though consumed the least in 2000, now nuclear and hydroelectricity made up the largest amount of consumption (75 million tons). This was followed by the consumption of petroleum (50 million tons). Coal made up a slightly smaller proportion with 45 million tons.

Period 5: LANGUAGE FOCUS
I. Objectives
By the end of this lesson, Ss will be able to: – Distinguish the sounds /Sr, /spl/, and /spr/ – Pronounce the words and sentences containing these sounds correctly – Use relative clauses replaced by participles and to infinitives correctly and appropriately to solve communicative tasks

II. Materials

Textbook, handouts
III. Anticipated problems
Students might have difficulty pronouncing clusters because they do not exist in Vietnamese. Ss may also have difficulty with relative clauses because they do not exist in their mother tongues, either. Therefore, T should be ready to assist them.

4. Procedures

76

Time

Steps

Work arrangement

7’

PRONUNCIATION

Distinguishing sounds – T models each of these consonant clusters /Sr, /spl/, and /spr/ for a few times. T reminds Ss how to pronounce clusters (e.g. pronounce the first sound and then move onto the next sounds quickly). – T plays the tape (or reads) once for Ss to hear the words containing these two sounds. Then T plays the tape (or reads) again and this time asks Ss to repeat after the tape (or T). – T asks Ss to read the words in each column out loud in chorus for a few more times. Then T calls on some Ss to read the words out loud. T listens and corrects if Ss pronounce the target words incorrectly. If many Ss do not pronounce the words correctly, T may want to get them to repeat after the tape (or himself/ herself) again in chorus and then individually. Practising sentences containing the target sounds – T asks Ss to work in pairs and read aloud the given sentences (p. 131). – T goes around to listen and takes notes of the typical errors – T calls on some Ss to read the sentences again and provides corrective feedback. 8’
EXERCISE 1

Individual, pair work and whole class

– T gets Ss to read the example and analyse the form of the sentences with and without a relative pronoun (e.g. relative pronouns functioning as

Individual work, pair work and whole
77

subjects can be replaced by present participle). T might want to remind Ss of the differences between relative clauses and relative clauses replaced by present participle (e.g. the time of the action is clearer with relative clauses. For example, in the sentence the girl who is coming toward me is my girl friend, we know that the action is happening at the present time but in the sentence the girl coming toward me … we can’t tell this). – T gets Ss to complete other sentences in the same way as the example. Before that, explain new words if necessary. – T gets Ss to go and write their answers on the blackboard and elicits correction/ feedback from the class. Answers: 1. …playing … 2. …coming … 3. …researching … 4. … surrounding … 5. …overlooking … 8’
EXERCISE 2

class

– T gets Ss to read the example and analyse the form of the sentences with and without a relative pronoun (e.g. relative pronouns functioning as objects can be replaced by past participle). – T gets Ss to complete other sentences in the same way as the example. Before that, explain new words if necessary. – T gets Ss to go and write their answers on the blackboard and elicits correction/ feedback from the class. Answers 1. … presented …

Individual work, pair work and whole class

78

2. … built … 3. … published … 4. … conducted … 5. … sponsored … 8’
EXERCISE 3

– T gets Ss to read the example and analyse the form of the sentences with and without a relative pronoun (e.g. the structure is the first + N + Vinfinitive with –to or the first + N + to be + V-ed (passive voice), so relative pronouns in this type of sentences can be replaced by infinitive with -to). – T gets Ss to complete other sentences in the same way as the example. Before that, explain new words if necessary. – T gets Ss to go and write their answers on the blackboard and elicits correction/ feedback from the class. Answers 1. … to reach … 2. … to leave … 3. … to see … 4. … to be killed … 5. … to catch … 12’
COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITY

Individual work, pair work and whole class

– T prepares a picture like below (or any other picture that shows people doing some activities) and makes enough copies for the class.

Pair work and whole class

79

– T distributes the copies to Ss and asks them to study the picture and in pairs write sentences about the picture, using relative clauses replaced by participles and infinitive with –to. – T calls on some pairs to read their sentences to the class and elicits feedback. T gives corrections where necessary. Some suggested answers 1. The girls sunbathing on the lawn are my classmates at college. 2. The boys sitting on the bench and talking are those I often play soccer with. 3. The building in front of you was the first high rise building to be constructed in the neighbourhood. 4. I live in the building painted red. … 2’
WRAP UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework Ss do exercises in workbook and prepare for the next lesson.
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Unit 12
The Asian Games
Period 1: READING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to: – Develop such reading skills as scanning for specific information, and guessing meaning in context. – Use the information they have read to discuss the Asian Games.

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Students may not have sufficient vocabulary to read and talk about the topic, so teachers should be ready to help them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

6'

WARM UP

– T gets Ss to look at the picture on p.136 (if possible, T prepares some more pictures showing other kinds of sports as well). T gets Ss to name the sports shown in the pictures. – Then T gets Ss to name all sports they know and asks them to tell what they know about these sports (e.g. in what countries they are played, whether they are winter or summer, indoor or outdoor sports, who are the famous players of these sports, etc.) – T gives feedback and introduces the topic of the

Whole class

81

lesson. Suggested answers – Top right: karatedo – Top left: tennis – Bottom right: soccer – Bottom left: fencing – Some other kinds of sports: boxing, shooting, wrestling, wushu, table tennis, volleyball, hockey, cricket, rugby, baseball, swimming, aerobics, bodybuilding, cycling, aquatic sports, athletics, weightlifting, chess, mountain biking, fencing, billiard, etc. 7'
BEFORE YOU READ

– T gets Ss to discuss the questions on p.136 in pairs. – After a few minutes T elicits the answers from Ss. T helps Ss to express themselves correctly and provides vocabulary where necessary. Suggested Answers: 1. Every four years 2. The number of participating countries has increased tremendously since the first Games. In 1951 only 11 countries participated in the First Asian Games. In 2002 the Games attracted nearly 10,000 participants from 44 countries. 3. Vietnam seem to do well in bodybuilding, billiard, karatedo and wushu. – T shows the picture of the Asian Games logo to Ss and elicits or provides more information about the Games. E.g. The Asian Games also called the Asiad is a multisport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. The games are regulated by OCA (Olympic Council of Asia) under the

Pair work and whole class

82

supervision of IOC (International Olympic Committee). Medals are awarded in each event, with gold for first place, silver for second and bronze for third. The first Asian Games were held in New Dehli, India in 1951. The most recent event, the 15th Asian Games were held in Doha, Qatar in 2006. The next event, the 16th Asian Games will be held in Guangzhou, China in 2010. Pre-teach vocabulary intercultural (a): between cultures multi-sport event (n): event in which many sports are played solidarity (n): tinh doan ket promote (v): develop – T elicits the meanings of these words, gives examples and gets Ss to make their own sentences with the words. 8'
WHILE YOU READ TASK 1

– T gets Ss to read the passage silently and then do Task 1. T may want to remind Ss of the strategies for guessing the meaning of new words. For example, Ss should look for the instances of the new words in the text and read around them. Ss use the context in which the words occur and their knowledge of word formation to understand the meanings. E.g. the word “advancing” found in the second line of the second paragraph means “developing”. Ss can understand this meaning thanks to the explanation and examples following the words and their knowledge of the word “advanced”. However, T should be aware that some of these words are hard to be guessed because the information is not fully available from

Individual work and whole class

83

8'

the context, e.g. "aquatic sports", "facilities", "efforts", etc. T might want to give more examples and explanation to help Ss to guess these words. – T might want to check that Ss understand all these words correctly by calling on some Ss to tell the meaning of the words in Vietnamese. – Then Ss complete the sentences with the correct words. Ss can do the task more easily if they work out what part of speech is needed in each blank so that they can choose the word that best fits in. E.g. sentence 1 requires a noun. – T checks the answers with the whole class. Answers 1. facilities 2. aquatic 3. enthusiasm 4. effort 5. advancing 6. appreciated
TASK 2

Individual work, pair work and whole class

8'

– T checks if Ss can do Task 2 without a second reading. If not, T gets them to go back to the text and read it a second time. Before Ss do that, T might want to remind them of some helpful tips for scanning the text. E.g. first, Ss read through the questions and identify key words. For example, for question 1, the key words are "1st", "Dehli, India". Then Ss go back to the text and locate the key words. They should read around these words to find the answers. – Ss do the task individually and then find a peer to Individual check their answers with. work, pair – T checks the answers with Ss. work and Answers whole 1. 1951
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2. the 2nd Asian Games in Manila, the Philippines 3. 1958 4. Squash, rugby, fencing and mountain biking 5. 2002
TASK 3

class

– T checks if Ss can answer the comprehension questions in Task 3 without having to read the passage again. If Ss cannot, T gets them to read the questions carefully. T might want to remind them of some tips to do the task. E.g. Ss should skim the questions to understand them. As Ss do this they underline the key words to decide what information they need to find in the text. E.g. the keywords in Question 1 are “purpose", "Asian Games”. These words in Q2 are “How many” and “14th”. – Now T instructs Ss to go back to the passage and locate the answers. – Then T gets Ss to check their answers with a friend. – T calls on some Ss to present and say where they look for their answers. T gives feedback and correct answers. Answers 1. The purpose is to develop intercultural knowledge and friendship within Asia. (Lines 1-3, paragraph 1) 2. 9,919 (from 44 countries) (Line 2, final paragraph) 3. Bodybuilding, billiard and women's karatedo. (Lines 5-6, final paragraph) 6'
AFTER YOU READS

– T puts Ss into groups of 3-4 and do the After You Read task.

Group work and whole class
85

– T elicits answers from different groups and gives correct answers (billiard, bodybuilding and women's karatedo). – If there is still some extra time, t may want to give Ss some more questions to discuss. e.g. What sports is Vietnam good at? What sports don't we play or are not very good at? Etc. 2'
WRAP UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson – For home work, Ss do exercises in workbook and prepare for the next lesson.
EXTRA ACTIVITY: FIND THE OLYMPIC EVENTS IN THE GRID BELOW:

archery badminton baseball basketball beach volleyball boxing canoe cycling decathlon discus

diving equestrian fencing field hockey gymnastics hammer throw high jump hurdles javelin judo

kayaking long jump marathon pole vault relay race rowing sailing shooting soccer softball swimming

synchronized swimming table tennis tae kwon-do tennis triathlon triple jump volleyball water polo weightlifting wrestling

86

Period 2: SPEAKING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to – Use the required language to ask and answer about the Asian Games and sports

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts.

III. Anticipated problems
Students may not have enough vocabulary to talk about the topic, so T should be ready to help them.
87

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

10'

WARM UP: CROSSWORD

– T distributes this handout to Ss and gets them to solve the crossword puzzle as quickly as they can. Then T gets them to check the answers with their friends. – Finally, T checks the answers with the class. Handout
1 2 4 5 6 3

Individual work, pair work and whole class

Across 2. You kick a black and white ball. 4. You need a racket and a net. 5. You throw the ball into a net. Down 1. A sport you play in an ice rink. 3. You need a glove and a bat. 6. A winter sport. Answer
S O C T B A S K I H O C K E Y K E N E R N T I B B A S E B A L L

L

L

88

17

Pair work and whole – T prepares two sets of cards like below and makes enough class copies for his/ her class.
TASK 1 Card A
Games No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Qatar 2006 45 39 Thailand 1998 41 36 China 1990 37 27 India 1982 33 21 Iran 1974 25 16 Thailand 1966 18 14 Japan 1958 20 13 Host Country India Year 1951 No of countries 11 No of sports 6

Card B
Games No 1 2 3 Philippines 1954 18 8 Host Country Year No of countries No of sports

89

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Korea 2002 44 38 Japan 1994 42 34 Korea 1986 27 25 Thailand 1978 25 19 Thailand 1970 18 13

– T gets Ss to read the sample dialogue, correcting their pronunciation where necessary. T might want to elicit more structures. E.g.:

When and where did the 1st Asian Games take place? How many countries participated in the Games? How many sports were played at the Games? etc. – T puts Ss in pairs and gives one student Card A and the other Card B. – In pairs, Ss will take turn to ask and answer about the Asian Games. Ss might want to do the same as the sample dialogue or use their own language. – T goes around to check and offer help. – T calls on some pairs to perform in front of the class and provides corrective feedback 15'
TASK 2

– T puts Ss in groups of 3-4, asking them to play the role of a group of TV reporters preparing their report about Vietnam's performance and achievements at the 14th Asian Games. T emphasises that their report should firstly include

Group work and whole class

90

some brief information about the Asian Games (e.g. what is it, why is the event held, etc.) and the 14th event (where is it held, how many countries participate, what sports are played, etc.). Then their report should tell what sports Vietnam compete in and what medals it obtains in each sport, etc. – T goes around to help. – After 10 minutes T calls on the representative of each group to come to the front and report the work. The other groups listen and give feedback. 3'
WRAP UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework Ss do exercises in workbook and prepare for the next lesson.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Listen and fill in the spaces. London to host 2012 Olympics
London ____ ____ the 2012 Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee announced the ________ on July 6 in Singapore. It was ___ _______ race to decide the venue of the games in Olympics history. Up to the last minutes of the final decision it ______ ____ Paris, the longtime favorite, would win. However, in the final round of voting London managed to edge its rival by _____ to ______ votes. Crowds in London erupted ____ ____. Meanwhile, Parisians that had gathered to celebrate a Paris victory _______ ______ in stunned silence. It is the first time the Games will __ ____ in London since 1948.

Tapescript London will host the 2012 Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee announced the decision on July 6 in Singapore. It was the closest race to decide the venue of the Games in Olympics history. Up to the last minutes of the final decision it looked like Paris, the longtime favorite, would win. However, in the final round of voting
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London managed to edge its rival by 54 to 50 votes. Crowds in London erupted with joy. Meanwhile, Parisians that had gathered to celebrate a Paris victory went home in stunned silence. It is the first time the Games will be held in London since 1948.

Period 3: LISTENING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to: – Develop such listening micro-skills as listening for specific and detailed information. – Use the acquired language and knowledge to talk about sports and sportsmen.

II. Materials
Textbook, cassette tapes

III. Anticipated problems
The After you listen task could be a bit challenging for Ss as they may not have enough information to complete it, so T should be ready to assist them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

7'

WARM UP

– T prepares photos of some famous sportsmen and shows them to Ss. T asks Ss to name each sportsman in the photos. – T gets Ss to talk about these sport stars by asking questions like “What do you know about them?” “Which one do you like best? Why?” etc. – T may want to provide some information about these sportsmen if Ss do not know them very well. 8'
BEFORE YOU LISTEN

Whole class

– T introduces the topic and gets Ss to study the

Individual work, pair
92

pictures on p.141. Then T writes these questions on the board and asks Ss to work in pairs to find the answers: Can you name the sport in each picture? Do you know who won the gold medal in these spots in the most recent Asian Games? – T elicits answers from the class. If Ss do not know the answer to Question 1, T gives them the correct answer. If they do not know the answer to Q2, that is fine. T does not need to provide one but tells Ss they will know the answer after they listen to the tape. Answers: Top right: Swiming Top left: High jump Bottom right: Long jump Bottom left: Gymnastics Pre-teach vocabulary – T gets Ss to look at the new words on page 141: gymnasium, gymnast, bar, land, freestyle, etc. T elicits the meanings of these words from Ss. – T plays the tape once (or reads) for Ss to listen to how these words are said and then repeat after the tape (or T). T gets some Ss to read the words again and makes sure that they pronounce the words correctly.
WHILE YOU LISTEN

work and whole class

9'

Introduction: You are going to hear a TV report of the Asian Games and do the tasks after that.
TASK 1

– T gets Ss to read the questions through and identify key words in each question. For example, in Q1 key word is “ecology”. Then Ss identify the key words in each option and the differences

Individual, pair work and whole class

93

7'

between them. T explains new words if any. For the numbers T gets Ss to read them aloud. This is to remind them how the numbers are pronounced so that they can catch the correct numbers later on. – T gets SS to guess the answer to each question and then tells them they need to listen attentively to check if their guesses are confirmed. – T plays the tape (or reads the tapescript) once for Ss to listen and do the task. – Then T gets Ss to find a partner to check their answers with. – T checks the answers with the whole class. If many Ss cannot answer the questions, T plays the tape one or two more times and pauses at the answers for them to catch. Answers 1. C Individual, 2. A pair work 3. A and whole 4. B class 5. D
TASK 2

– T checks if Ss can answer the questions in Task 2 without listening again. If they cannot, T plays the tape for them to listen again but before doing this, T should encourage Ss to read through all the questions, identify the information they need to look for in each question (by finding the key words and the question word, e.g. “what’, “where’, “when”, “how”, etc.) and if possible, predict the answers. – Then T plays the tape again for Ss to listen and answer the questions. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a partner. Then T checks with the whole class. T should play
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the tape again and pause at difficult points if many Ss cannot complete the task. Answers 1. 10.15 2. 6 3. 2 4. High jump 5. Disappointed Tapescript Good evening. It’s 10.15 and it’s time for “The Asian Games Report”. It’s the 3rd day of the Games. Well, today’s most important even was the women’s 200-metre freestyle. The Japanese, Yoko was first and got the gold medal. She made a new world record time of 1 minute 58 seconds. The Japanese athletes won two gold medals yesterday, and three the day before, so in the first three days they’ve won six gold medals. …Here we’re in the Gymnasium. Lily, the Chinese gymnast, has just finished her display. She’s got an average of 9.5 points. That’s the best score today! Lily’s won the gold medal! …And this is Lee Bong-ju coming from Korea. This is the second time he competed in the long jump at the Asian Games. Last time he jumped 8.5 metres. Today he’s won a gold medal for men’s long jump. He jumped 8.9 metres. … Now we’re waiting for the last high jumper, Vichai coming from Thailand. The bar is at 230 metres and …it seems too high for him. Vichai has just jumped!...Ooh! He’s crashed into the bar! He’s landing. The bar has fallen too. He’s getting up and walking away. But he’s very disappointed. 12'
AFTER YOU LISTEN

– T puts Ss into groups of 3-4 and explains the

Group work and
95

task: in their own groups, Ss are going to prepare a talk about a famous Vietnamese athlete (e.g. Thuy Hien, Ly Duc, Nguyen Ngoc Truong Son, etc.). Then they will come to front and tell the class about this athlete. But they should not tell the athlete's name and let the class guess who this person is. – T gives Ss some prompt questions to guide them in preparing their talk. E.g.: 1. How old is the athlete? 2. When did s/he begin playing the sport? 3. Where did s/he train? 4. What are his/ her major achievements? – T goes around to check and help. – After 6-7 minutes T calls on the representative of each group to come to front and present his/ her group's work. The class should listen attentively and guess the name of the athlete. They are allowed to ask the presenter up to 3 yes-no questions if they cannot immediately tell who the athlete is. If no one has the correct answer, the group wins. 2'
WRAP UP

whole class

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework Ss write a paragraph about Vietnam's performance and achievements in recent Asian Games and prepare for the next lesson.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Do, play or go? Choose the best verb to fill each sentence below. Change the verb form where necessary, 1. He used to ….. jogging everyday when he was at college. 2. I love … a good game of chess from time to time. 3. She … gymnastics for over five years now. 4. This summer we … windsurfing very day on our vacation.
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He's quite an athlete. He … basketball, baseball, and hockey, too. 6. My wife … horse riding twice a week. 7. Why don't we … a set of tennis? 8. Some people think that … aerobics four times a week is the best possible way of keeping fit. 9. His idea of the perfect summer holiday is to rent a sailboat and … the sailing between the islands. 10. He … athletics for his local track club. Answers 1. go 6. goes 2. playing 7. play 3. has been doing 8. doing 4. are going to go 9. go 5. plays 10. does

5.

Period 4: WRITING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson students will be able to: – Write a paragraph describing the preparation for the Asian Games using future verb tenses.

II. Materials
Textbook

III. Anticipated problems
Students may not have enough vocabulary to complete the task so T should be ready to assist them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work 97

arrangement

5'

WARM UP

– T gets Ss to name all the national stadiums and sport centres that they know and/ or have been to. T writes Ss' answers on the board and asks if they see any problems if Vietnam hosts the coming Asian Games. T gets Ss to brainstorm and write down some problems that might arise. – T elicits and puts Ss' answers on the board in the form of a summary table like below:
Infrastructure – Many stadiums and sport centres are old and rundown (in a bad condition) – Stadiums and sport centres are too small to accommodate a large number of sportsmen and spectators. – Training areas are too small, not fully equipped and in a bad condition. – Roads to stadiums and sport centres are too narrow and there might be traffic congestion when we receive a large number of visitors to the city. – We might not have enough hotels and guesthouses to accommodate a large number of visitors. – We need a lot of English speaking volunteers to serve the Games (receptionists, help desk people, guides, interpreters).

Whole class

Human

– T introduces the topic. 10'
PREPARE SS TO WRITE

– T gets Ss to read the task and the prompts. T explains new words if any. – T elicits more ideas regarding how to prepare for the Asian Games and helps Ss to express themselves correctly. – T reminds Ss of the format and organization of a

Whole class

98

paragraph (topic sentence, supporting ideas, unity and linking words, etc.). T gets Ss to organize the prompts before they write. One of the possible ways to organize ideas is to categorize them into infrastructure preparation and human resources preparation like in the table above. 15'
WRITING

– T gets Ss to write their paragraphs in 15 minutes. – T goes around to check and offer help. Sample writing To prepare for the Asian Games we have a lot of  things to do. First of all, we will build one more  national stadium because at the moment we  have only one. Next, we will upgrade the  existing stadiums and sport centres so that they  meet the international standard. At present,  they are too small and many of them are  rundown. We will widen and equip training areas  because they do not have enough facilities and  are not large enough to accommodate a huge  number of participants. We will also need to  improve the roads leading to stadiums and sport  centres where the Games are going to take place  so as to avoid traffic congestions. What is more,  we will upgrade and build more hotels and  guesthouses because most of our hotels and  guesthouses at the moment do not meet  international standards. There are not enough of  them, too, to accommodate the participants and  their families. Besides, we need a lot of English‐ speaking staff, so we will train and recruit  volunteers from students and young people who  speak good English. We will also advertise our 

Individual work

99

preparation work on TV as to call for sponsor.  Finally, we will need to have an official song for  the event, so we might want to hold a  competition to choose the best song.  13' Pair work and whole – T puts Ss in pairs and gets them to exchange their class work and give corrective feedback to each other. – T goes around to check and help. – T picks one or two works to correct with the class. T should draw Ss’ attention to the format of the paragraph (i.e. topic sentences, supporting ideas/ examples, linking words, etc.), the organisation of ideas and language use.
FEEDBACK WRAP UP

2'

– T summarises the main point of the lesson. – For homework, T asks Ss to revise their work, incorporating their peers and teacher’s comments and corrections.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Read the text and do the tasks that follow.
The Chinese government has already started to clean up its capital city, ahead of the 2008 Olympic Games. Beijing officials started a new campaign recently to make citizens behave better. Over fifty people have been fined in the past week for spitting in the streets. China’s state media reported on Monday that this is part of Beijing’s attempts to step up its efforts to "civilise" its citizens before the Olympics start. Government workers also handed out more than 10,000 bags to tourists to encourage them to keep the city tidy and free from litter. Special teams patrolled the city's tourist sites during China’s week-long Labour Day holiday. This is a time when hundreds of millions of Chinese are on the streets, and spitting and littering are at their height.

100

For a long time now, China has been worried about its image as the world spotlight will be on Beijing. A Chinese news agency Xinhua quoted a travel guide as saying: "The Olympics are coming, and we don't want to get disgraced." The China National Tourism Administration has printed thousands of leaflets educating citizens and tourists on correct “street etiquette”. Also on the list of do's and don'ts is jumping queues; people are reminded they have to stand in line and wait patiently. The eleventh day of every month is now "voluntarily wait in line" day in Beijing. Authorities hope this will stamp out pushing and shoving. Clearing one’s throat loudly is another no-no. The city hopes its citizens will win the gold medal for perfect manners. 1. In pairs / groups, rank which of these actions are the worst manners in the street - worst at the top. * spitting * eating as you walk * dropping litter * walking slowly * queue jumping * listening to a loud Walkman * staring at people * drinking alcohol 2. Answer True/ False questions. a. China wants its people well-behaved ahead of the Beijing Olympics. T/F b. More than 5,000 people have been arrested for spitting in public. T/F c. Beijing’s government is trying to “civilize” its citizens. T/F d. Tourists to China have been given bags to keep their litter in. T / F e. The queue jump is a new sport at the Beijing Olympics. T/F f. The eleventh of each month is a day for practicing queuing. T / F g. Officials also want to stop people clearing their throat loudly. T / F
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h. There will be a gold medal at the Beijing Games for best manners. Answers 1. Answers are open 2. a. T b. F c. T d. T e. F f. T g. T h. F

T/F

Period 5: LANGUAGE FOCUS
I. Objectives
By the end of this lesson, Ss will be able to: – Distinguish the sounds /str, /skr/, and /skw/ – Pronounce the words and sentences containing these sounds correctly – Master the use of relative clauses and equivalent types of clauses without relative pronouns. – Use these structures correctly and appropriately to solve communicative tasks

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Students might have difficulty pronouncing clusters because they do not exist in Vietnamese. Therefore, T should be ready to assist them.

4. Procedures
Time Steps Work arrangement

8’

PRONUNCIATION

Distinguishing sounds – T models each of these consonant clusters /str/, /skr/, and /skw/ for a few times. T reminds Ss how to pronounce clusters (e.g. pronounce the first

Individual, pair work and whole class

102

sound and then move onto the next sounds quickly). – T plays the tape (or reads) once for Ss to hear the words containing these two sounds. Then T plays the tape (or reads) again and this time asks Ss to repeat after the tape (or T). – T asks Ss to read the words in each column out loud in chorus for a few more times. Then T calls on some Ss to read the words out loud. T listens and corrects if Ss pronounce the target words incorrectly. If many Ss do not pronounce the words correctly, T may want to get them to repeat after the tape (or himself/ herself) again in chorus and then individually. Practising sentences containing the target sounds – T asks Ss to work in pairs and read aloud the given sentences (p. 44). – T goes around to listen and takes notes of the typical errors – T calls on some Ss to read the sentences again and provides corrective feedback. 7' Individual work, pair – T gets Ss to read through the sentences in the work and box. T explains new words, if any. whole – T prepares a few examples like below and writes them on class
EXERCISE 1 the board:

I like the diamond ring that Mary is wearing. I like the diamond ring Mary is wearing. – T gets Ss to read the examples and analyse the form of the sentences with and without a relative pronoun (e.g. relative pronouns functioning as object can be omitted). – T gets Ss to complete other sentences in the same
103

way as the example. Before that, explain new words if necessary. – T gets Ss to go and write their answers on the blackboard and elicits correction/ feedback from the class. Answers: 1. you lost 2. he invited to the birthday party 3. John told 4. I bought yesterday 5. we met this morning 6. we had for lunch 8' Individual work, pair – T gets Ss to read through the sentences in the work and box. T explains new words, if any. whole class – T prepares a few examples like below and writes them on
EXERCISE 2 the board:

The flight that I wanted to travel on was full. The flight I wanted to travel on was full. – T gets Ss to read the example and analyse the form of the sentences with and without a relative pronoun (e.g. relative pronouns replacing the objects after preposition can be omitted). – T gets Ss to complete other sentences in the same way as the example. Before that, explain new words if necessary. – T gets Ss to go and write their answers on the blackboard and elicits correction/ feedback from the class. Answers: 1. I work with 2. we went to 3. we are living in
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4. they were talking about 5. he applied for 6. I slept in 8'
EXERCISE 3

– T gets Ss to read through the sentences and explains new words if any. – Then T puts Ss in pairs to do the exercise. In pairs Ss will identify which sentence allows for an omission of relative pronouns and which does not. – Then T elicits the answers from different pairs and gives correction. Ss need to be able to explain their answers. Answers: 1. yes (we are going to see) (relative pronoun functions as object) 2. no (relative pronoun functions as subject) 3. yes (you met yesterday) (relative pronoun functions as object) 4. yes (the broken table) (relative pronoun functions as object) 5. yes (he's talking to) (relative pronoun replacing object after preposition) 6. yes (I've been expecting) (relative pronoun functions as object) 12'
COMMUNICATIVE GAME

Pair work and whole class

– For small classes this activity can be used as a mingling activity. For large classes T might want to ask Ss to interview the two rows in front of and behind them. – T explains the activity like below: The first 1. Ask a student 'What was the first thing you did this morning?' 2. When he/she has answered, you can go on

Whole class or group work

105

asking the same question, or even better, make little variations like 'What was the first thing you saw this morning?'; or 'Who was the first person you met this week?' 3. After a few answers you can prompt students to take over asking the questions. – T goes around and check. – After 7-8 minutes T gets Ss to report what questions they have asked and what answers they have got. T gives corrective feedback. 2'
WRAP UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, Ss do exercises in workbook and prepare for the next lesson.

106

Unit 13
Hobbies
Period 1: READING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Develop such reading micro-skills as guessing meanings of words in context and scanning for specific ideas. – Use the information they have read to discuss the related topic.

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts.

III. Anticipated problems
Ss may need to be provided appropriate linguistic resources so that they can complete various learning tasks.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

8’

WARM-UP

Competition game- Matching – T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 students. Then T distributes the matching game handouts for Ss to do in their own groups. T may not explain the meanings of words so that Ss have to work them out. – In groups Ss match the hobbies in column A with the appropriate pictures in column B. Which group finishes first and has the biggest number of correct answers will be the winner.

Group work & whole class

107

108

Answers: 1K 2H 7C 8J

3A 9G

4I 10 F

5B 6D 11 E

– T may check the meaning of some words:
+ scuba diving: lặn có bình khí + sky diving: nhào lộn trên không + bungee jumping: nhảy từ trên cao xuống có dây bảo hiểm + kayaking: chèo xuồng gỗ + rafting: chèo bè + jetskiing: lái xuồng máy

6’

BEFORE YOU READ

– T asks Ss to look at the pictures on page 146 and call out the names of the hobbies described in the pictures (collecting stamps, fishing, keeping fish, playing chess, swimming, playing the guitar) – T asks Ss which of these things they like to do in their free time and why. If Ss do not like any hobbies in the pictures, they can talk about one of their hobbies. – T calls on some Ss to answer the question. – T introduces the topic of the lesson: hobbies.
WHILE YOU READ

Pair work & whole class

10’

Set the scene: You are going to read a passage about a person’s hobbies. Then you do the tasks that follow.
TASK 1

Note: T might want to adapt Task 1 in the following way: Instruction: The words/ phrases in the box all appear in the passage. Use them to fill the blanks in the sentences. accomplished discarded accompanying indulge in

Individual work, pair work & whole class

109

11’

modest keep me occupied avid 1. I’ll forget about dieting today. I’m going to …………..eating whatever I like. 2. He’s an……………….musician. All his songs are very popular. 3. I love all fictions by Sydney Sheldon. I’m an …………..collector of his works. 4. He doesn’t like a big house in the centre. His only dream is to have a ………….. little house on the outskirt. 5. I spend most of my free time looking after these puppies. They really…………………… 6. They don’t need the old radio any more. It can be…………….. 7. Her mother loves ……………… her on the organ. – T gets Ss to read the passage silently and then do Task 1. T may write the given words and phrases on the board and asks Ss to go back to the passage to locate and read around these words so that they can guess their meanings. For example, the words “accomplished” found in line 2 may refer to “talented”. Ss can understand this meaning thanks to the e idea that the person’s uncle is very good at playing the guitar and he/she admires his/her uncle… – T might want to check that Ss understand all these words correctly by calling on some Ss to tell the meaning of the words in Vietnamese. – Then T asks Ss to go back to the task and study the given sentences. Ss need to guess which part of speech they might deal with in each case. For example, for sentence 1 they might need to supply an infinitive verb, or for sentence 2 they might
110

need to supply an adjective, etc. – Now Ss use both their knowledge of the words in the box and their guess-work with the given sentences to fill them in the suitable blanks – T checks the answers with the whole class. Answers: 1. indulge in 5. keep me occupied 2. accomplished 6. discarded 3. avid 7. accompanying 4. modest
TASK 2

Individual work, pair work & whole class

Instruction: You are required to read the text again and answer the nine questions in the book. – T checks if Ss can answer the comprehension questions in Task 2 without having to read the text again. If Ss cannot, T gets them to read the questions carefully. T might want to give them some tips to do the task: + First, Ss should skim the 9 questions to understand them. As Ss do this they: • underline the key words to decide what information they need to find in the text. E.g. the keywords in Question 1 are “what”, “writer’s”, “first hobby” • look for question word like “why” which indicates Ss should read for specific thing like a reason. + Then they should go back to the text and locate the key words in the text. Next, they should read around the key words carefully to find the answer. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a peer – T calls on some Ss to read aloud their answers and ask them to explain their choices. - T gives the correct Answers:
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1. The writer’s first hobby is playing the guitar (line 1, paragraph 2) 2. No, he/she isn’t. (His/her uncle is) 3. Because he’s an accomplished guitarist and he’s good at accompanying people singing with his guitar.(line 1, line 5-6, paragraph 2) 4. It is keeping fish (line 2, paragraph 3) 5. He/she bought some from the shop and collected some from the rice field near his/her house. (line 2-4, paragraph 3) 6. He/she is not an avid stamp collector. (line 1, paragraph 4) 7. He collects them from discarded envelops his relatives and friends give him/her (line 23, paragraph 4) 8. Local stamps (line 3-4, paragraph 4) 9. He/she keeps the less common ones inside a small album. The common ones he/she usually gives away to others or if no one wants them he/she simply throws them away. (line 5-7, paragraph 4) 8’
AFTER YOU READ

– T gets Ss to work in pair to do the role play.
Student A: You are a journalist. You are going to interview a famous person about his/her hobbies. Ask him/her the following questions: 1. What is your favourite hobby? 2. How often do you ______ ? 3. Where do you usually _____? 4. When do you usually ________? Student B: You are a famous person. You are interviewed about your favourite hobby. Answer the journalist’s questions, using your own hobby.

Pair work & whole class

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5. 5. Who do you usually _________ with? 6. Why do you enjoy _________?

– T goes around to observe and offer help – T calls on some pairs to act out the interview. – T gives comments and compliments the best pair. 2’
WRAPPING UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – T asks Ss to learn by heart all of the new words and do the extra activity as homework.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Whole class

Read the following passage and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F). 'I turned my hobby into a business' I have loved playing video games since I was a kid and felt a little guilty that at 29, I was still paying a lot of money for video games and consoles. But, seeing how many other people of the same age also played video games I did some research into the size of the market, decided to find some extra money and in April this year launched my own business selling discount video games on the internet (www.thegamenetwork.co.uk)! This is run on a part-time/evening basis, whilst the 9-5 job continues to pay for all the essentials. With a baby on the way in December, the pressure is really on to ensure that the business is running smoothly and is at least paying for the small monthly expenses that the business incurs. I know only too well that I am only one miniscule part of a massive industry and know that I can't compete on the scale of the amazons out there, but the freedom to make decisions on my own, for my own benefit or detriment is one of the most exhilarating feelings I have known in my profession life! If you love it, live it! 1. The writer likes playing video games and doesn’t feel guilty at all. 2. He sells discount video games online.
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3. He did some market research before setting up his own business. 4. He doesn’t have any 9-5 jobs to do. 5. Having the freedom to make decisions for his own benefit makes him happy. Answers: 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. T

Period 2: SPEAKING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Ask and answer about a hobby – Talk about collections

II. Materials
Textbook, handout

III. Anticipated problems
Ss may not have enough vocabulary to talk about the topic, so T should be ready to provide help.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

8’

WARM-UP

Vocabulary revision- Guessing game (to revise the vocabulary related to the topic “Hobbies”) – T divides Ss into 2 groups : A and B – T tells Ss the rule of the game: One member

Group work & whole class

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from each group will go and stand in the front of the class with their backs facing the board. T will write a word/expression which describes a hobby and was learnt from the previous lesson on the board. Other Ss from each group have to explain the word by using their actions, face expressions, and sounds so that their representative can guess the word. The student with the quickest and correct answer will get 1 point for their group. Ss take turn to be the representative. After some turns, the group with more points will be the winner. 12’
TASK 1

Note: T can adapt Task 1, using the activity “Find someone who…” – T gets Ss to work in pairs. Which pair finishes the task first will be the winner. – T designs the following handouts and gives each student in a pair one handout. T can reduce the number of the activities in the “Likes”/ “Doesn’t like” column to fit the time available in the class. – T asks the winner to report the results to the whole class and calls on some other pairs to give out theirs. – T gives feedback.
Handout A: Go around interviewing your classmates to find someone who… Likes… Name Reason Swimming Fishing Stamp-collecting Mountain-climbing Playing computer games Reading books Watching TV

Pair work & whole class

115

Chatting with a friend on the phone Remember to write the name of the person and one reason why he/she likes the activity. Handout B: Go around interviewing your classmates to find someone who… Doesn’t like… Swimming Fishing Stamp-collecting Mountain-climbing Playing computer games Reading books Watching TV Chatting with a friend on the phone Remember to write the name of the person and one reason why he/she doesn’t like the activity. Name Reason

10’

TASK 2

Instruction: Now work in pairs to practice the dialogue between Lan and Huong. – T asks the whole class to read the dialogue on page 149, the T can explain some words: + stall (n): small shop + tag (n): label to show the name of something (e.g. a book) – T might want to model the dialogue with a good student. – Ss practice the dialogue in pairs – T calls on some pairs to practice the dialogue in front of the class and gives feedback. – T asks Ss about the main contents of the dialogue: the hobby, how to collect the books,

Pair work & whole class

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where to buy the books, how to organize the books, and what the future plan is. – Ss also pay attention to the questions in the dialogue. 13’
TASK 3

Note: T can adapt this task to make it more communicative. – T gets Ss to work in pair to do the role play. T uses the suggestions given in the book to include in his/her handouts.
Student A Your friend is an avid stamp collector. You want to take up collecting stamps as your hobby. Now ask for his/her experience, using the suggestions below: - How to collect stamps - How to organize stamps - Where to keep stamps - Why to collect stamps - Plan for the future Student B You are an avid stamp collector. Your friend wants to take up collecting stamps as his/her hobby. Share your experience with him/her, using the suggestions below: - Buy from post office - Ask member of family, friends, relatives, postmen - Make friends with people overseas - Exchange stamps with others - Classify stamps into categories: animals, plants, birds, landscape, people (hero, politicians, football players, singers…) - Keep stamps in albums - Broaden your knowledge: know more about landscape, people, animals, plants and trees - Collect more stamps.

Pair work & whole class

– T goes around checking and offering help. – T calls on some pairs to talk in front of the class. – T elicits feedback from the class and gives final
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comments.

2’

WRAPPING UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, Ss revise the things they have learnt and do the exercises in the workbook.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Whole class

Solve the crossword below by filling in the blank in each sentence with a suitable word from the box.

17. Peter likes collecting_______. 18. I ________go shopping with my mum.

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Answers:

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18. I ________go shopping with my mum. [SOMETIMES]

Period 3: LISTENING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Develop their skill of listening for specific information

II. Materials
Textbook, cassette tapes, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Students may not catch some information, so T should be ready to assist them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

7’

WARM-UP

Competition game- Hangman – T divides the class into 2 big groups and draws each of them a gallows on the board.

Group work

120

Team A

Team B

– T explains to Ss that they are going to play a “Hangman” game. The rule is T gives a secret word and the groups will take turn to guess it by telling what letters they think there are in this word. If Ss choose a letter that appears one or more times in the secret word, the letters and their positions will be revealed and Ss can keep on guessing the next letter. On the other hand, if Ss guess a letter that is not in the secret word, then a piece of the man being hanged will be added to the gallows and they will lose their turn to the other group. Ss will get one point for each letter they can guess correctly. When the game is over, T will count how many points each group has collected and the group with more points will win the game. – T leads the game, and in this lesson, the secret word is “READING”. T draws the same number of dashes as the number of letters in this word. For this word, T would need 7 dashes like this: __ __ __ __ __ __ __
– The activity will lead to the lesson naturally.

8’

BEFORE YOU LISTEN

Brainstorming – T gets Ss to work in pairs to brainstorm all the benefits of reading books in 3 minutes. – After 3 minutes T calls on the pair with the biggest number of benefits to give the answers. – T asks other pairs to add more ideas.

Pair work & whole class

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Pre-teaching vocabulary: – Before eliciting/pre-teaching the new words, T helps Ss to pronounce the words given in the book. T may read aloud first and ask Ss to repeat in chorus and individually. – T elicits/ teaches some of these words and those taken from the listening passage: + bygone (adj):past (quá khứ, đã qua) + gigantic (adj):very big, very great (to lớn, vĩ đại) + ignorant (adj):lacking knowledge, unaware of sth (không biết, ngu dốt) + to be fed up with: having reached the limits of tolerance or patience with somebody or something (chán ngấy) + to cope with: face with (đối phó, đương đầu) + jungle (n): tropical forest (rừng nhiệt đới) – T sets the scene: Now you are going to listen to a student talk about his hobby.
WHILE YOU LISTEN

12’

TASK 1

Instruction: You are going to listen to the talk and decide whether the statements on page 150 are true (T) or false (F). Put a tick ( ) in the appropriate box. – Before Ss listen and do the task, T asks them how to do the task. T might want to remind them of the strategies: + First, read through the statements to understand them and underline key words. For example, the key words in the first statement are: writer, started, hobby, when, he, young. + Listen to the tape and pay attention to the key words

Individual work, group work & whole class.

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9’

+ Decide whether the statements are true or false based on what they can hear. – T plays the tape once for Ss to do the task. – T asks for Ss’ answers and writes them on the board. – T plays the tape the second time for Ss to check their answers. – T asks Ss to work in groups of 4 to compare their answers. – T checks Ss’ answers by calling on some Ss and asks Ss to explain their answers. – If there are a lot of Ss having the same wrong answer, play that point of the tape for Ss to check the answer again. – T gives the correct Answers: 1. T 2. F (His parents soon got fed up with having to read to him continually) 3. F (He started with simple ABC books) 4. F (Now he reads just about anything that is available) 5. T 6. T 7. T 8. T
TASK 2

Individual work, pair work & whole class

Instruction: You are going to listen to the passage again and fill in each blank with a word you hear. – T checks if Ss can do Task 2 without listening again. If they cannot, T plays the tape for them to listen again but before doing this, T should encourage Ss to read through the passage and identify the part of speech of the word to be filled in and if possible, predict the answers. – Then T plays the tape again for Ss to listen and
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complete the passage. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a partner. Then T checks with the whole class. T should play the tape again and pause at difficult points if many Ss cannot complete the task. Answers: 1. wonderful 2. disease 3. jungle 4. certainly 5. ignorantly Tapescript: My hobby My hobby is reading. I read story books, magazines, newspapers and nay kind of materials that I find interesting. My hobby got started when I was a little boy. I had always wanted my parents to read fairy tales and other stories to me. Soon they got fed up with having to read to me continually. So as soon as I could, I learned to read. I started with simple ABC books. Soon I could read simple fairy tales and stories. Now I read just about anything that is available. Reading enables me to learn about so many things. I learned about how people lived in bygone days. I learned about the wonders of the world, space travel, human achievements, gigantic whales, tiny viruses and other fascinating things. The wonderful thing about reading is that I do not have to learn things the very hard way. For example, I do not have to catch a disease to know that it can kill me. I know the danger so I can avoid it. Also I do not have to go deep into the
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jungle to find out about tigers. I can read all about it in a book. Books provide the reader with so many facts and so much information. They have certainly helped me in my daily life. I am better equipped to cope with living. Otherwise I would go about ignorantly learning things the hard way. So I continue to read. Reading is indeed a good hobby. 7’
AFTER YOU LISTEN

– T gets Ss to work in groups of 4 to talk about the disadvantages of over-reading (reading too much). – T goes around checking and offering help. – T calls on the groups to present their ideas and other groups to add some more ideas. – T gives corrective feedback. Suggested ideas: Some disadvantages of over-reading: - becoming shortsighted - not having enough physical exercise - lacking practical knowledge - becoming a bookworm etc. 2’
WRAPPING UP

Group work & whole class

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – T asks Ss to learn by heart all new words and do the extra exercise as homework.
EXTRA ACTIVITY Complete the text by filling each blank with a word. Hobbies

Whole class

People may have many (1)……….. hobbies during their lifetimes. When we are very young most of our time is spent (2)………… with
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dolls or toy trucks. We may also enjoy playing in a sandbox or building with wooden blocks. When we get (3)………… we start to pursue our first hobbies. Some kids go out for a (4)……….. like football or figure skating. These new interests can be quite timeconsuming, and most children put a lot of energy into them. Some other children might get interested in (5)……….. active activities like reading, painting, or stamp collecting, while some others might enjoy playing an (6)………….. like the piano or the flute. As we get older, our hobbies might change or they might (7)……….. Some people who collected stamps as a child might still be collecting stamps when they are 80. Other people might (8)………… their interests every year depending on fashion. Some people are lucky that they have found professions that are (9)………..to their hobbies, like the weekend gardener who works as a landscaper or the kid (10)………….. loves computers and becomes a programmer. Answers: 1. different 6. instrument 2. playing 7. not 3. older 8. change 4. sport 9. similar 5. less 10. who/that

Period 4: WRITING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Write about a collection

II. Materials
Textbook, handout

III. Anticipated problems
Ss may not have sufficient vocabulary to write, so T should be ready to help them.

IV. Procedure
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Time

Steps

Work arrangement

7’

WARM-UP

Competition game – As Ss have chance to know about collecting books as a hobby in speaking and listening lesson, this activity aims at revising what they still remember and helps to work out the contents of the writing about a collection. – T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 students. Then T distributes the handout with a network of “Book Collection” for Ss to complete in their own groups. Ss have to brainstorm all of the things they should include in their writing about a book collection and fill the network. Which group finishes first and have correct answers will be the winner.

Group work & whole class

Book Collection

Suggested network
How to collect books

Where to buy books

How to keep books

How to classify books When started collecting

Book Collection Why to collect books

127

Plan for the future

12’

PREPARING SS TO WRITE

– With weaker Ss, T may allow them to write about a book collection and stamp collection, using the network developed in warm-up activity and the suggestions given in the speaking lesson (p. 149) – T gets Ss to work in pairs to make an outline for their writing. They should discuss to choose the most appropriate details to support the main ideas. Ss can develop the network they have produced. T reminds Ss that they have to add one introductory sentence, for example: I’m very much interested in collecting books and have a book collection at home. – T goes around offering help. – When Ss have finished, T calls on some pairs to share their outlines with the whole class. Other Ss can add some more ideas. – Here is an example of the detailed network: Suggested network:
- book shop; second-hand stall; parents, friends… Where to get/buy books How to classify books When started collecting Buy the book when find it interesting How to collect books

Pair work & whole class

Keep them in a big bookshelf

Book Collection

How to keep books Why to collect books

Plan for the future

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Different categories: history, people, science…

12, young

Continue to make the collection richer

Broaden knowledg e, know more about the world…

– With better Ss, T may encourage them to think of a new collection such as a coin collection to write about. 15’
WRITING

– Now T gets Ss to write their letters in 15 minutes, based on the outlines they have produced. Ss should arrange the ideas in a logical way. – T calls two Ss to go to the board to write. – T goes around offering help. A sample writing: I’m very much interested in collecting books and have a book collection at home. I started collecting books when I was a 12-year-old student. I buy the books whenever I find them interesting. Near my house are several book shops, so when I have free time I go there to find books for my collection. Sometimes I also buy books in second-hand book stalls, and occasionally, my parents and friends give me some. Now I have a total of about 100 books and I keep them all in a big bookshelf in my bedroom. I classify them into different categories: books about history, books about famous people, and books about science… I love collecting books because books help me

Individual work

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broaden my knowledge and know more about the world. Also, reading books train my patience. In the future, I will continue to make my collection richer and richer. I hope to have a library of my own. 8’
FEEDBACK ON SS’ WRITING

– T asks Ss to exchange their writing with another student for peer correction. – T goes around and collects mistakes and errors. – T asks the whole class to look at the writing on the board and elicits comments from Ss. – T writes Ss’ typical errors on the board and elicits self and peer correction. T provides correction only when Ss are not able to correct the errors. – Finally, T provides general comments on the writing. 2’
WRAPPING UP

Pair work & whole class

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, T asks Ss to revise their writing according to their peer’s suggestions and submit for marking in the next lesson.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Whole class

Read the following passage about birdwatching. Complete the passage by filling each blank with the suitable form of the word given at the end of each line. Birdwatching or birding is the (1)……….. and study OBSERVE of birds with the naked eye or through a visual (2)………….. device like binoculars. Birding often ENHANCE involves a significant auditory component, as many bird species are more (3)………..detected and identified READY
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by ear than by eye. Most birders and birdwatchers pursue this activity for (4)………….or social reasons, RECREATION unlike ornithologists, who are engaged in the formal (5)………….. study of birds.
Birding has (6)………….in recent decades as a popular hobby in the United States. Hundreds of thousands of persons consider themselves to be serious birders, and several million regard themselves as casual birders. Birding is even more popular in Britain than it is in the United States. Roger Tory Peterson played a (7)………..role in the emergence and defining of modern birding, both in the United States and Britain.

SCIENCE
EMERGE

CENTRE

Answers:
1. 2. 3. 4.

observation enhancement readily recreational

5. scientific 6. emerged 7. central

Period 5: LANGUAGE FOCUS
I. Objectives
By the end of this lesson, Ss will be able to: – Pronounce the clusters /pt/, /bd/, /ps/ and /bz/ – Pronounce the words and sentences containing these clusters correctly – Use cleft sentences (subject focus, object focus, and adverbial focus) correctly to do the exercises and solve communicative tasks

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Ss might have difficulty pronouncing. Therefore, T should be ready to assist them.
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IV. Procedures
Time Steps Work arrangement

8’

Individual work, pair Distinguishing sounds work & – T models the clusters /pt/, /bd/, /ps/ and /bz/ for a whole few times and explains how to produce them. E.g.: class When producing /pt/, Ss should produce /p/ first and then quickly switch to /t/, and so on. – T plays the tape (or reads) once for Ss to hear the words containing these clusters. Then T plays the tape (or reads) again and this time asks Ss to repeat after the tape (or T). – T asks Ss to read the words in each column out loud in chorus for a few more times. Then T calls on some Ss to read the words out loud. T listens and corrects if Ss pronounce the target words incorrectly. If many Ss do not pronounce the words correctly, T may want to get them to repeat after the tape (or him/herself) again in chorus and then individually. Practising sentences containing the target sounds – T asks Ss to work in pairs and take turn to read aloud the given sentences – T goes around to listen and takes notes of the typical errors – T calls on some Ss to read the sentences again and provides corrective feedback.
PRONUNCIATION GRAMMAR

8’

a) Presentation – T writes the following examples on the board (the examples should be taken from the book to

Individual work & whole class
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save time) and asks Ss to draw out the format of cleft sentences with different focus. E.g.: – The boy visited his uncle last month. + Subject focus: It was the boy who visited his uncle last month. + Object focus: It was his uncle that the boy visited last month. + Adverbial focus: It was last month that the boy visited his uncle. – T calls on some Ss to comment on these examples. – T explains or gives Ss the following handout.
A declarative sentence, such as David studied English at Oxford can be reformulated as: It was David who studied English at Oxford. This is called a CLEFT SENTENCE because the original sentence has been divided (or "cleft") into two clauses: It was David and who studied English at Oxford. Cleft sentences focus on one particular part of the original sentence, placing it after it was (or it is). Here we have focused on the Subject David, but we could also focus on the Direct Object English: It was English that David studied at Oxford or on the Adverbial at Oxford It was at Oxford that David studied English Cleft constructions, then, exhibit the pattern:

7’

It + be + focus + clause

Cleft sentences are particularly useful in writing where we cannot use intonation for purposes of focus or emphasis, but they are also frequently used in speech.

Individual work, pair work & whole
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7’

7’

class b. Practice: Exercise 1: − T asks Ss to do Exercise 1 individually and then compare their answers with another student. − T calls on some Ss to read out their answers. − T elicits peer correction and gives correct answers if necessary. Answer: 1. It was the boy who visited his uncle last month. 2. It was my mother who bought me a present on my birthday. 3. It was Huong and Sandra who sang together at the party. 4. It was Nam’s father who got angry with him. 5. It was the boys who played football all day long. Individual work & 6. It was the girl who received a letter for her whole friend yesterday. class Exercise 2 − T asks Ss to do exercise 2 individually and then calls some Ss to write their answers on the board. − T elicits feedback from other SS. − T gives the corrects Answers: 1. It is English that the man is learning. 2. It was the book that the woman gave him. 3. It was the postcard that she sent her friend. 4. It was the book that Hoa borrowed from Long. 5. It was his grandfather who(m) the little boy Pair work greeted in a strange language. & whole 6. It was the policeman who(m) the pedestrian class asked a lot of questions. 7. It was the stranger who(m) the dog barked at. Exercise 3 − T asks Ss to do Exercise 3 in pairs.
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− T asks them to compare answers with another pair. − T calls on some Ss to read aloud their answers. − T asks other Ss to feedback and gives correct Answers: 1. It was in the garden that the boy hit the dog. 2. It was for tea that she made some cakes. 3. It was for him that his father repaired the bicycle. 4. It was for him that his father repaired the bicycle. 5. It was on his birthday that she presented him a book. 6. It was in Britain that he met his wife. 7. It was from the shop that she bought that present. 8. It was at 8:00 a.m. that the meeting started. 7’
PRODUCTION

Noughts and crosses – T puts a grid on the board with nine words/expressions.
My dog At home My mother Their sister In the library This Sunday His wife Her best friend Mai

Pair work & whole class

– T tells Ss the rules of the game: + Ss work in pairs. One student copies the grid in his / her book. + One student is “noughts” (“O”) and the other is “crosses” (“X”). + One student starts. S/he chooses a word and makes a cleft sentence with it. If the sentence is correct, s/he puts her mark (“O” or “X”) in
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that square. + The first student to get three-in-a row (across, down, or diagonally) wins. – T goes around observing. – T calls on some Ss to read out their sentences, and other Ss give comments. 2’
WRAPPING UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, Ss review the lesson, do the exercises in the workbook and do the extra activity.
EXTRA ACTIVITY Reorder the words to form a cleft sentence. 1. world, he, it, in, was, that, loved, sailing, the, most 2. December, was, met, in, we, it, that, first

Whole class

3. from, a, it, neigbour, my, new, brother, that, car, our, was, bought 4. John, it, window, today, was, the, that, broke 5. That, Nga, it, from, was, the, borrowed, yellow, sister, that, my 6. scholarship, was, it, the, won, who, Lan 7. was, family, it, to, in, said, airport, goodbye, the, she, that, her Answers: 1. It was sailing that he loved most in the world. 2. It was in December that we first met. 3. It was a new car that my brother bought from our neighbour. 4. It was today that John broke the window. 5. It was the yellow umbrella that my sister borrowed from Nga. 6. It was Lan who won the scholarship. 7. It was in the airport that she said goodbye to her family.

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Unit 14
Recreation
Period 1: READING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Develop such reading micro-skills as guessing meanings of words in context and scanning for specific ideas. – Use the information they have read to discuss the related topic.

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Ss may need to be provided appropriate linguistic resources so that they can complete various learning tasks.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

8’

WARM-UP

Competition game- Leisure activities – T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 students. Then T distributes the handout for Ss to do in their own groups. – In groups Ss look at the pictures of leisure activities and work out which activity is described in each picture (these pictures describe the activities given on page 155). Which group finishes first and has the biggest number of correct answers will be the winner. (The pictures are given at the end of this lesson)

Group work & whole class

137

– T calls on the winner group to go to the board to write their answers and asks other groups to give comments.

– T gives the correct answers
Answers: A. Reading books B. Reading newspapers C. Playing volleyball/playing sports D. Shopping E. Singing F. Meeting friends G. Listening to music H. Watching TV I. Watching sports J. Fishing K. Playing the guitar/playing a musical instrument L. Birdwatching

8’

BEFORE YOU READ

– T asks Ss to look at the activities written on the board and guess which of these leisure activities British people often do in their free time. – T elicit the answers from the whole class and put a tick next to the activities Ss think British people often do in their free time. – T introduces the topic of the lesson: Recreation. Pre-teaching vocabulary – T might elicit or teach the meanings of the following words. + dull (adj): boring, slow to understand or learn (đần, chậm hiểu) + pastime (n): hobby, leisure activity + snooker (n): a pool game in which a white ball

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struck with a cue is used to hit fifteen red balls and six balls of different colors into any of six pockets (bi- a 21 viên) + pool (n): a game played with a cue stick, cue ball and 15 balls on a felt-covered table with six pockets (bi-a 16 viên) + darts (n): game of throwing missiles at target (phi tiêu) + bricklaying (n): cementing bricks together with mortar (xây gạch) + engrave (v): to carve a design or lettering into a hard surface for decoration or printing (trạm, trổ, khắc) – Before teaching these words, T helps Ss to pronounce them correctly. T may want to model first and then ask Ss to repeat after him/ her. – T presents or elicits the meanings of these words from the class. – T gets Ss to make sentences with these words if there is time and gives corrective feedback.
WHILE YOU READ

10’

Set the scene: You are going to read a passage about leisure activities British people often do in their free time. Then you do the tasks that follow.
TASK 1

Instruction: The words/ phrases in italics in the following sentences all appear in the passage. Working out their meaning and circle the correct answer. – T gets Ss to read the passage silently and then do Task 1. T may instruct Ss how to do the task. + Firstly, Ss read the sentences and go back to the passage to locate and read around the italicized word/phrase so that they can guess its meanings.

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9’

For example, the phrase “home based” in sentence 1 is found in line 1 of the first paragraph may refer to “at home”. Ss can understand this meaning thanks to the activities that are given as examples in this paragraph: watching TV, listening to music, reading… + Then Ss read the three choices given in the book and work out which one is closest in meaning to the word/phrase. + Do the same with other sentences. – T asks Ss to work in pairs to exchange their answers. – T checks the answers with the whole class. Answers: 5. A 2. B 3. B 4. A 5. B 6. A
TASK 2

Individual work, pair work & whole class

Instruction: You are required to read the text again and answer the four questions in the book. – T checks if Ss can answer the comprehension questions in Task 2 without having to read the text again. If Ss cannot, T gets them to read the questions carefully. T might want to give them some tips to do the task: + First, Ss should skim the four questions to understand them. As Ss do this they: • underline the key words to decide what information they need to find in the text. E.g. the keywords in Question 1 are “y”, “recreation and entertainment”, “important” • look for question word like “why” which indicates Ss should read for specific thing like a reason. + Then they should go back to the text and locate the key words in the text. Next, they should read
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around the key words carefully to find the answer. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a peer – T calls on some Ss to read aloud their answers and ask them to explain their choices. – T gives the correct Answers: 10. Because without them people will become dull/bored 11. Football and rugby in winter, and cricket and athletics in summer 12. Walking and swimming 13. Because this is a new kind of entertainment which gives them pleasure 8’
AFTER YOU READ

2’

– T gets Ss to work in pair to discuss the question: Which of the British leisure activities mentioned in the passage are also popular in Vietnam? Which are not? – T goes around to observe and offer help – T calls on some pairs to present their discussion. – T asks some other pairs to add some more ideas. – T gives comments and compliments the best pair. Wrapping up – T summarises the main points of the lesson. – T asks Ss to learn by heart all of the new words and do the extra activity as homework.

Pair work & whole class

Whole class

Handout: Pictures used in warm-up activity

141

A

B

C

D

E

F

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G

H

I

J

K

L

EXTRA ACTIVITY
143

Read the following passage and answer the following questions by choosing A, B, C or D. Are you interested in seeing the beautiful fall foliage of New England but tired of traffic jams and overbooked hotels? Then this year forget the crowds in New England and see the beautiful colors of autumn in the Catskills. These rugged mountains in New York State, just 90 miles northwest of New York City, (5) are famous for the legendary tales of Rip Van Winkle, and more recently for the summer hotels that sprang up in the region during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. Families trying to escape the heat of New York City found the Catskills to be the perfect place to stay for a month or so each summer. By the late 1950s there were over 500 resorts and hotels offering nighttime entertainment as well as all kinds of outdoor activities. Famous comedians like Jackie Gleason, Joan Rivers, and Sid Caesar all got their start touring the hotel clubs here. Since the introduction of air-conditioning and cheaper air travel, however, families have stopped coming to the Catskills in such large numbers, choosing instead more distant locations at different times of the year. Many of the Catskill hotels closed in the 1970s, but some remain and have expanded and changed their facilities to meet the needs of today's visitors. 1. What is the author's main purpose in this passage? (A) to promote the Catskills as a vacation destination (B) to introduce visitors to famous Catskills entertainers (C) to describe the history of the Catskills region (D) to compare the Catskills to New England 2. According to the passage, which of the following caused the decline in the number of resorts in the 1970s? (A) television (B) shorter vacations (C) affordable air travel (D) more traffic 3. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word "legendary" in line 5?

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(A) foolish (B) perplexing (C) mythical (D) humorous 4. In what season would a tourist most likely have visited the Catskills in the 1950s? (A) fall (B) winter (C) spring (D) summer 5. Which of the following most reflects the author's tone in this passage? (A) light and encouraging (B) informative and scientific (C) humorous and sceptical (D) regretful and reminiscent Answers: 1A 2C 3C 4D 5A

Period 2: SPEAKING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Express agreements and disagreements about entertainment activities and state the reasons

II. Materials
Textbook, handout

III. Anticipated problems
Ss may not have enough vocabulary to talk about the topic, so T should be ready to provide help.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

145

8’

WARM-UP

Competition game- Word search (to revise words/phrases related to “camping”) − T gets Ss to work in groups of 3-4 and then gives Ss the following word search handout. − Ss work in groups to find all the words related to “camping” in the puzzle. The group with the correct and quickest answer is the winner. − A variant of this activity: T draws or prepares two big copies of the word search and hangs them on the board. T calls two pairs of Ss to go to the board and ask them find all the adjectives as quickly as possible. The pair with the quickest and most correct answers will be the winner. − Before Ss work in groups T may elicit or explain quickly the meaning of some words: + shovel: xẻng + tarp: vải nhựa, vải dầu + latrine: nhà vệ sinh cơ động Find the Camping words The words go across, up, down, backward and diagonally. Lantern Shovel Tent Tarp Latrine Flashlight Backpack Whistle Sleeping bag Compass

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Answer:
S O U F Z M U I P R A T X X F Q F A Q B N V C O M P Z WU Y A J F N O J B C L F S CY L A T R I W PW A K L S L H T O L C H X P E L T N N B U A K DA V EW X E J O Q S DC O E S C T D C R N HK H P R WJ T M Q M L L S I D Q UY X O I S T I N O X KS Q G C A T Z G E G I Q R F Q L E F B H H I T I X K B Z A A WT N C D N J M C OG X A MQ G B R S C X I L J H V A S S Q K I N E M WF L X F Y T X R K V E G L N T R N Q R I E N Z MW Z E F T N H N A A Q

10’

TASK 1

Instruction: Look at the phrases used to express agreement or disagreement on page 157. Write A beside an expression of agreement and D beside an expression of disagreement. – T gets Ss to work in pairs to read the expression on page 157 and decide which expressions show agreement and which expressions show

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disagreement. – T checks with the whole class and gives correct Answers: 1A 2D 3A 4A 5D 6A 7A – T elicits more expressions to show agreement and disagreement from Ss and writes them on the board. Suggested expressions:
Expressing agreements You’re absolutely right. I agree I think so, too. That’s true, and... That’s right, and... Expressing disagreements Well, maybe, but... That might be true, but... Well, my feeling is that... Well, I don’t think so. I think...

13’

TASK 2 + 3

Instruction: Now practice the dialogue on page 157 and work in groups to continue the discussion, using the suggestions on page 158. – T asks the whole class to read the dialogue on page 157. – Ss practice the dialogue in pairs. – T calls on some pairs to practice the dialogue in front of the class and gives feedback. – Now Ss work in groups to continue the discussion. T reminds Ss that when they discuss with their group members they have to show their agreement or disagreement and give the reasons. Ss should also use the expressions given in the previous activity. – T encourages Ss to give out their own reasons and take notes of their discussion. – T goes around to observe and offer help. 12’
TASK 4

Pair work, group work & whole class

– T calls on some representatives to report their discussion to the whole class. Ss should present

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the reasons why their group member agree or disagree about the camping trip and what their decision is. – T elicits feedback from the class and gives final comments. 2’
WRAPPING UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, Ss learn by heart the expressions and do the exercises in the work book.
EXTRA ACTIVITY 1. 2. Read the following article and answer the questions. Television watching tops leisure activities of labourers

Whole class

TAIPEI, Taiwan -- Television watching is the favourite leisure activity of local blue-collar workers, according to the result of a survey released by the Council of Labor Affairs (CLA) yesterday. The survey on the leisure activities was part of the CLA's survey on the lives and employment of labourers in 2007. The CLA collected 4,017 effective samples for the survey. Lee Li-jen, director of CLA's Department of Statistics, said that television watching was the most popular leisure activity of laborers at 65.2 percent, followed by domestic trips (42.5 percent), and Internet surfing (39.3 percent). Rounding out the top five activities were book reading (34.2 percent) and window shopping (33.5 percent). Lee said that compared with a survey in 2002, the largest increase was recorded in "surfing the Internet," up 9.1 percentage points, showing that surfing the Internet has become part of labourers' lives. "Ball games" and "television watching" also recorded an increase of 5.2 percentage points and 4 percentage points, respectively. On the other hand, camping and barbecues, and domestic trips declined by 6.2 percentage points and 6 percentage points, respectively.
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In terms of gender, female labourers prefer watching television, domestic tours and window shopping, while men labourers mostly engage in television viewing, Internet surfing and domestic trips. 1. What institution carried out the survey? 2. What was the third popular leisure activity? 3. Which activity is more popular: window shopping or book reading? 4. Did more people like camping in 2007 than in 2002? 5. What do male labourers like? Answers: 1. The Council of Labor Affairs 2. Internet surfing 3. Book reading 4. No 5. They like television viewing, Internet surfing and domestic trips.

Period 3: LISTENING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Develop such listening micro-skills as intensive listening for specific information and taking notes while listening

II. Materials
Textbook, cassette tapes, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Students may not catch some information, so T should be ready to assist them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement 150

8’

WARM-UP

Competition (to revise the vocabulary related to the topic) – T gets Ss to work in groups of 3-4 and then gives Ss the following handout. – Ss discuss in their group and put the leisure activities in the appropriate column. The group with the correct and quickest answer is the winner. Where do these activities belong? surfing, scuba diving, playing video games, skiing, sunbathing, surfing the internet, building sand castles, hiking, swimming, horse riding, having a picnic, bungee jumping, rollerblading (trượt patin), cycling, snowboarding, bird watching, watching TV, playing chess
Indoor Outdoor summer Outdoor winter All season outdoor

Group work & whole class

– T asks the winner group to go to the board and write their answers. Other Ss observe and comments. – T checks and gives feedback. Answers:
Indoor Playing video games Outdoor summer Surfing Scuba diving Outdoor winter Skiing Snowboarding All season outdoor Building sand castles Hiking

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Surfing the internet Watching TV Playing chess

Sunbathing

Swimming Horse riding Having a picnic Bungee jumping Rollerblading Cycling Bird watching

8’

BEFORE YOU LISTEN

– T gets Ss to work in pairs to describe the two pictures. T may help Ss by giving them some questions: + Who are the people in the pictures? + What are they doing? + Where are they? + What is the weather like? – After 3 minutes T calls on some pair to give the answers. – T asks other pairs to add more ideas. Pre-teaching vocabulary: – Before eliciting/pre-teaching the new words, T helps Ss to pronounce the words given in the book. T may read aloud first and ask Ss to repeat in chorus and individually. – T elicits/ teaches some of these words and those taken from the listening passage: + campground (n):area for camping + depressed (adj):sad + solitude (n): state of being alone, remoteness(cô độc, hiu quạnh) + spectacular (adj):impressive, dramatic (đẹp, kỳ vỹ) + wilderness (n): natural uncultivated area (nơi hoang dã) – T sets the scene: Now you are going to listen to

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152

three student talk about how they would like to spend their holiday.
WHILE YOU LISTEN

10’

TASK 1

10’

Instruction: You are going to listen to the talk and decide whether the statements on page 150 are true (T) or false (F). Put a tick ( ) in the appropriate box. – Before Ss listen and do the task, T asks them how to do the task. T might want to remind them of the strategies: + First, read through the statements to understand them and underline key words. + Listen to the tape and pay attention to the key words + Decide whether the statements are true or false based on what they can hear. – T plays the tape once for Ss to do the task. – T asks for Ss’ answers and writes them on the board. – T plays the tape the second time for Ss to check their answers. – T asks Ss to work in groups of 4 to compare their answers. – T checks Ss’ answers by calling on some Ss and asks Ss to explain their answers. – If there are a lot of Ss having the same wrong answer, play that point of the tape for Ss to check the answer again. – T gives the correct Answers: 1. T 2. T 3. F (He used to be there in summer) Individual 4. T work, pair
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Individual work, group work & whole class.

5. F (She doesn’t like it) 6. T
TASK 2

work & whole class

Instruction: You are going to listen to the passage again and answer the comprehension questions. – T checks if Ss can answer the questions in Task 2 without listening again. If they cannot, T plays the tape for them to listen again but before doing this, T should encourage Ss to read through all the questions, identify the information they need to look for in each question (by finding the key words and the question word, e.g. “where”, “why’, “when”, etc.) and if possible, predict the answers. – Then T plays the tape again for Ss to listen and answer the questions. While Ss are listening, T should encourage them to note down the answers. T should remind Ss to write down only the main points in note forms not full sentences. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a partner. Then T checks with the whole class. T should play the tape again and pause at difficult points if many Ss cannot complete the task. Answers: 1. Riding their dirt bike in the desert, taking showers in waterfalls and swimming in lakes and rivers. 2. In sleeping bags or tents 3. Because more and more people are coming to these places and leave trash in the forests and take rocks and plants with them. 4. He thinks nature is also important in the world. 5. In cities 6. Because she can’t put up an umbrella tent in
154

the wind or make a fire in the rain or carry a heavy backpack. Tapescript: Three American students are talking about how they would like to spend their summer holiday. ANNA: It’s hot and humid in New York City in the summer and I often feel depressed then. So in July and August I often go out of the city to the west where there are some beautiful national parks and forests. I often go with my friends, and we spend about two weeks in a national park every year. We might stay at campgrounds in the park, but wilderness areas are more fun. What we enjoy most is to ride our dirt bike in the desert, take showers in waterfalls and swim in lakes and rivers. And at night we sleep in our sleeping bags or tents and cook on our gas stove. It’s wonderful that we can live in nature and enjoy it. TERRY: I used to go to the mountains, the desert, and other places with spectacular scenery in summer. I don’t any more, although I’m still attracted to the beauty of nature. But I do think these natural places aren’t as beautiful as they used to be. Now more and more people are going to these places. They leave trash in the forests, and take rocks and plants with them. They don’ care about nature. I believe not only people are important to the world- nature is important, too. MARY: Like most other people I’m very fond of natural spectacular scenery, but when I travel. I spend most of my time in cities. Why I don’t want to live in nature and enjoy it? It’s the solitude of the wilderness. It’s for animals and plants, not for me. I hate camping, too. I can’t put up an umbrella
155

tent in the wind, I can’t make a fire in the rain, and a backpack is usually too heavy for me. So I’d better stay in the cities and enjoy the comfort they offer. 7’
AFTER YOU LISTEN

Note: T might want to change the activity in the book because in the speaking lesson Ss discussed the topic. – T gets Ss to work in groups of 4 to discuss what campers/tourists should do to protect the wilderness/the campgrounds. – T goes around to check and offer help. – T calls on the groups to present their ideas and other groups to add some more ideas. – T gives corrective feedback. Suggested ideas: − They shouldn’t leave trash in the place. − They shouldn’t cut trees or take plants home. − They shouldn’t throw dirty things into the lakes and streams. − Be careful with the fire. − They shouldn’t take rocks or wild animals home. 2’
WRAPPING UP

Group work & whole class

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – T asks Ss to learn by heart all new words and do the extra activity as homework.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Whole class

You are going to join a writing contest organized by your teacher of English. Now write a paragraph of about 120 words to show the extent you agree or disagree with the following statement: “Young people should not play chess. It is meant for old people.”

156

Period 4: WRITING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Describe a camping holiday

II. Materials
Textbook, A0 papers

III. Anticipated problems
Ss may not have sufficient vocabulary to write, so T should be ready to help them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

8’

WARM-UP

Competition game- What should be prepared for a camping trip? – T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 students. Then T explains the activity: Imagine that your class is going for a camping trip in Ao Vua, a place which is around 50 km from Hanoi and has many mountains, streams and waterfall. Now discuss in your groups to work out the things you should prepare before the camping trip. After 4 minutes, which group has the most suitable things will be the winner. – T gives each group an A0 paper to write their answers. – T goes around to observe. – After 4 minutes, T asks the groups to stick their paper on the board and elicits the comments from the class. – T gives final comments Suggested Answers:

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− Things to bring: food, drinks, tent, shovel,
flashlight, sleeping bag, blanket, whistle, mattress, tarp, compass, first aid kit, swimming suit, spare clothes, strong shoes, stove, cooker, guitar − Things to do: hire a coach, hire the tent, buy necessary things, prepare some games and songs 12’
PREPARING SS TO WRITE TASK 1

– T asks Ss to work in pairs to look at the pictures and activities given on page 159 and 160 of the book. Ss discuss to match the activities with the suitable pictures. – T checks the answers with the whole class. 1g 2a 3b 4c 5f 6d 7h 8i 9e – T asks Ss to work in groups to brainstorm the ideas for the description. Ss should also work out the structure of the writing. – Ss answer and T summarizes the main points: + Introduction: Ss write one or two sentences about the time and place of the camping trip. + Body: Ss describe the camping trip in details: the time they set up, what activities they did, and the time they came back from the campground. + Conclusion: Ss write about their feelings of the trip – T reminds Ss of the verb tenses they can use in the description: + The past simple is used to talk about an event that happened and finished in the past + The past continuous is used to talk about an event that was in progress around a specific past time. We often use the past continuous together with the past simple. The past continuous refers to a longer

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‘background’ action or situation; the simple past refers to a shorter action or situation that happened in the middle or interrupted it. + The past perfect is used to talk about an event that had happened before another event that happened in the past. – T might also want to give Ss some relevant vocabulary and structures if necessary and ask Ss remember to use adverbials of time (after that, next, after lunch, etc.) in their writing. 15’
WRITING

– Now T gets Ss to write their description in 15 minutes, based on the suggestions given in Task 1 and the things T has revised. Ss should arrange the ideas in a logical way. With better students, T may encourage them to add more ideas. – T calls two Ss to go to the board to write. –T goes around to offer help. A sample writing: Last weekend our class went to Ba Vi for a twoday camping holiday. Our bus left the school very early, at 5 a.m. on Saturday morning so that we could have more time to play. When we arrived at the campground, we quickly put up the two big umbrella tents. After that some of us went around to watch wildlife in the forest. Some of our classmates who had been in the place before went swimming in the lake. At around ten a.m., we gathered near the tent and cooked our food over the open fire. After lunch, we had a short rest. At about 3p.m., we went fishing in the hope that we could catch some fish for our dinner. Luckily, we caught three big fishes. We

Individual work

159

cooked and had dinner together happily. After that, we put up a big fire to prepare for the evening activities. We sang and danced around the camp fire. At 11 p.m., we went to sleep in the tents. The boys slept in the blue tent, and the girls stayed in the red one. We all slept soundly. The next morning we woke up early. After a light breakfast, we organized some games with funny and surprising prizes. After lunch, some of us went around the place while others took a nap in the tents. We got on the bus to leave the campsite at 4 p.m. on Sunday afternoon. The camping trip has had a great impression on us. After the trip, our classmates seem to understand more about one another. We hope we can have another chance to go camping again. 8’
FEEDBACK ON SS’ WRITING

– T asks Ss to exchange their writing with another student for peer correction. – T goes around and collects mistakes and errors. – T asks the whole class to look at the writing on the board and elicits comments from Ss. – T writes Ss’ typical errors on the board and elicits self and peer correction. T provides correction only when Ss are not able to correct the errors. – Finally, T provides general comments on the writing. 2’
WRAPPING UP

Pair work & whole class

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, T asks Ss to revise their writing according to their peer’s suggestions and submit for marking in the next lesson.

Whole class

160

EXTRA ACTIVITY

Read the following passage about recreational fishing and decide whether the statement are true (T) or false (F).
2.1.1 Recreational fishing Recreational fishing and the closely related (nearly synonymous) sport fishing describe fishing for pleasure or competition. Recreational fishing has conventions, rules, licensing restrictions and laws that limit the way in which fish may be caught. The International Game Fishing Association (IGFA) makes and oversees a set of voluntary obligations. Typically, these prohibit the use of nets and the catching of fish with hooks not in the mouth. Enforceable regulations are put in place by Governments to ensure sustainable practice amongst anglers. The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod, reel, line, hooks and any one of a wide range of baits (mồi). Other devices, commonly referred to as terminal tackle (dụng cụ), are also used to affect or compliment the presentation of the bait to the targeted fish. Some examples of terminal tackle include weights, floats, and swivels. Lures are frequently used in place of bait. Most types of fishing tackle are made in a professional manufacturing facility while others are hand made by hobbyists who find greater satisfaction in catching fish with tackle made by themselves. Some examples of hand- made tackle include plastics from Fishing worm molds and flies. The practice of catching or attempting to catch fish with a hook is known as angling. 1. Unlike sporting fishing, recreational fishing has no rules. 2. The International Game Fishing Association prohibits only the use of nets. 3. Recreational fishing is involved a rod, reel, line, hooks and any one of a wide range of baits. 4. Most types of fishing tackle are hand-made. 5. Angling is the practice of catching fish with a hook. Answers: 1. F 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. T
161

Period 5: LANGUAGE FOCUS
I. Objectives
By the end of this lesson, Ss will be able to: – Pronounce the clusters /ts/, /dz/, /t∫t/ and /dʒd/ – Pronounce the words and sentences containing these clusters correctly – Use both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither...nor and cleft sentences in the passive correctly to do the exercises and solve communicative tasks

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Ss might have difficulty pronouncing the clusters. Therefore, T should be ready to assist them.

IV. Procedures
Time Steps Work arrangement

10’

PRONUNCIATION

Distinguishing sounds – T models the clusters /ts/, /dz/, /t∫t/ and /dʒd/ for a few times and explains how to produce them. E.g.: When producing /ts/, Ss should produce /t/ first and then quickly switch to /s/, and so on. – T plays the tape (or reads) once for Ss to hear the words containing these clusters. Then T plays the tape (or reads) again and this time asks Ss to repeat after the tape (or T).

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– T asks Ss to read the words in each column out loud in chorus for a few more times. Then T calls on some Ss to read the words out loud. T listens and corrects if Ss pronounce the target words incorrectly. If many Ss do not pronounce the words correctly, T may want to get them to repeat after the tape (or him/herself) again in chorus and then individually. Practising sentences containing the target sounds – T asks Ss to work in pairs and take turn to read aloud the given sentences. – T goes around to listen and takes notes of the typical errors. – T calls on some Ss to read the sentences again and provides corrective feedback.
GRAMMAR

6’

Exercise 1 a. Presentation – T writes the following examples on the board (the examples might be taken from the book to save time) to help Ss revise the use of both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither...nor. E.g.: + Both Tom an Ann were late. + She neither wrote nor phoned. + Either his brother or his sister will come. + Not only Tom but also Mary passed the exam. – T calls on some Ss to comment on the use of these correlative conjunctions. – T explains again quickly or gives Ss the following handout: - Both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither...nor are correlative conjunctions.

Individual work & whole class

163

7’

This means that they always appear in pairs -we use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The most important thing to remember when using correlative conjunctions is that the words, phrases, or clauses that are put together must be the same type. That means that nouns must be put together with other nouns, verbs with other verbs, adjectives with other adjectives, and so on. - The verb/verbs used with neither…nor is/are always in the positive form because this correlative conjunction play a negative role in the sentence. - When we use not only…but also, either…or and neither…not to join two parts of a subject, the second part of the subject that is closer to the verb will determine the number (singular or plural form) of the verb.
1. Neither the boys nor Jill likes fetching a pail of water. 2. Neither Jill nor the boys like fetching anything. 3. Not only the teacher but also the students are interested. 4. Not only the students but also the teacher is interested. 5. Either Mary or her sisters are responsible for that.

Individual work, pair work & whole class

b. Practice: – T asks Ss to do Exercise 1 individually and then compare their answers with another student. – T calls on some Ss to write their answers on the board. – T elicits peer correction and gives correct answers if necessary. Answer:
164

6’

7’

1. Both Jim and Carol are on holiday. 2. George neither smokes nor drinks. 3. Neither Jim nor Carol has (got) a car. 4. The film was both long and boring. 5. That man’s name is either Richard or Robert. 6. I’ve got neither time nor money to go on holiday. 7. We can leave either today or tomorrow. 8. Helen lost both her passport and her wallet at the airport. 9. …they are both clean and easy to park. 10. … I either go to the cinema or stay home and watch TV. Exercise 2 a. Presentation – T elicits some examples of cleft sentences from Ss to revise this kind of sentence. – T writes some sentences on the board and asks Ss to change them into cleft sentences in the passive voice. – T calls on some Ss to go to write their sentences on the board. – T gives feedback and the correct answers. + The boy hit the dog in the garden. – It was the dog that was hit in the garden. + They gave Mai a book last weekend. – It was Mai who was given a book last weekend. b. Practice: – T asks Ss to do exercise 2 individually and then calls some Ss to write their answers on the board. – T elicits feedback from other Ss. – T gives the corrects Answers: 1. It was Christina who was given a lot of flowers by fans.

Individual work & whole class

Individual work & whole class

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2. It was the policeman who was asked for direction to the post office. 3. It was his house that was talked a lot about. 4. It was a bicycle that was bought for him for his birthday. 5. It was his home town that was described in his novel. 6. It was the children who were frightened. 7. It was her glasses that were broken. 8. It was my younger sister who was kissed at the party by the Prince. 9. It was this story book that was given to me as a birthday present by my father. 10. It is Tet that is celebrated as the greatest occasion in a year by the Vietnamese people. 7’
COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE (production stage)

– T asks Ss to work in pairs to act out the role play. T gives Ss the following handout: Student A Student B You are A’s best It’s your birthday this Sunday. You do not know friend. Give him/her some advice in this whether to invite your friends to the cinema or situation. to invite them to eat in a Remember to use correlative restaurant. You now conjunctions discuss with your best friend to work out the both…and, not best way to celebrate your only…but also, birthday. either…or, or Remember to use neither...nor where correlative conjunctions appropriate both…and, not only…but also, either…or or neither...nor where

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appropriate – T goes around to observe. – T calls on some pairs to act out their conversation, and other Ss give comments. – T gives feedback and compliments the best pair. Suggested conversation: A: Hi, B. It’s my birthday this Sunday. B: Yes, I know. What’s your plan? A: I haven’t made up my mind yet. I intend to invite our friends either to the cinema or to the restaurant. B: I think you should invite them neither to the cinema nor to the restaurant. That’s not a good idea. A: What’s your suggestion? B: Why don’t you give a party at home? It’ll be much more interesting. A: That’s great. I think I will invite both some of our classmates and some friends living around my house. etc. 2’
WRAPPING UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, Ss review the lesson, do the exercises in the workbook and do the extra activity.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Whole class

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable correlative conjunctions. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 1. ……………..Roger …………….Carlos knows how to speak Russian. 2. ……………my uncle ……………my cousin live in San Diego.

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3. Maybe I should take ……………biology ……………geology. 4. I don't like science classes. I want to take …………..biology ………….geology. 5. My sister is going to ………….England ……………Ireland this summer. 6. My brother cannot take a vacation. He is going to ………….England …………Ireland. 7. If she has enough time, she will go to …………Las Vegas …………..the Grand Canyon. 8. After three days in the cave, he became…………hungry………….thirsty. II. Change these sentences into cleft sentences in the passive voice. 1. We bought our new car yesterday. 2. They sent me a big parcel last week. 3. Ngoc broke two glasses when she went to my house. 4. My brother gave her a bunch of red roses on her birthday. 5. They usually took their children to the zoo when they lived in Hanoi. Answers I. 1. Neither/nor ; not only/but also; either/or 2. Both/and 3. Both/and; either/or 4. Neither/nor 5. Both/and; not only/but also; either/or 6. Neither/nor 7. Both/and 8. Both/and; not only/but also II. 1. It was our new car that was bought yesterday. 2. It was a big parcel that was sent to me last week. 3. It was two glasses that were broken by Ngoc when she went to my house. 4. It was her who was given a bunch of red roses by my brother on her birthday.
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5. It was their children who were usually taken to the zoo when they lived in Hanoi.

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Unit 15
Space Conquest
Period 1: READING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Develop such reading micro-skills as skimming for general information and scanning for specific ideas. – Use the information they have read to discuss the related topic.

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Ss may need to be provided appropriate linguistic resources so that they can complete various learning tasks.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

8’

WARM-UP

Competition game- Crossword puzzle – T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 students. Then T distributes the crossword puzzle handouts for Ss to do in their own groups. Which group finishes first and has all the correct answers will be the winner. (The Handout is at the end of this lesson)
– T introduces the topic of the lesson.

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8’

BEFORE YOU READ

– As two of the three questions on page 166 have been answered after Ss have finished the warm-up activity, T should use the picture in the book in another way. – T writes the following names on the board and asks Ss to match each name with the right person in the picture: + Pham Tuan + Neil Armstrong + Yuri Gagarin (Pham Tuan: the third person; Neil Armstrong: the first person; Yuri Gagarin: the second person) Pre-teaching vocabulary – T might elicit or teach the meanings of the following words. + orbit (n):path of planet, satellite, or moon (quỹ đạo) + cosmonaut (n):Russian astronaut (nhà du hành vũ trụ người Nga) + react (v):respond (phản ứng) + extreme (adj):highest in intensity or degree (vô cùng, cực độ) + venture (n): risky project (việc mạo hiểm, phiêu lưu) + tragic (adj): deeply sad (bi thảm) + tension (n): anxious feelings (căng thẳng) – Before teaching these words, T helps Ss to pronounce them correctly. T may want to model first and then ask Ss to repeat after him/ her. – T presents or elicits the meanings of these words from the class. – T gets Ss to make sentences with these words. – T gives corrective feedback.

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WHILE YOU READ

10’

Set the scene: You are going to read about Yuri Gagarin, the first human to fly into space. Then you do the tasks that follow.
TASK 1

8’

Instruction: Read the text and match the heading with the paragraphs. – T asks Ss how to do the task. If they do not know, T instructs them to use some strategies to do the task: + Read the first paragraph carefully and try to sum up, in the Ss’ own words, what it is about. + Then search through the list of headings provided in the task to find the most suitable answer. + Make sure the heading chosen sums up the entire paragraph and not just one idea within it. + Continue with the rest of the paragraphs. – T asks Ss to work individually to do the task. – T goes around to offer help when necessary. – T asks Ss to exchange their answers with a partner. – T calls on some Ss to give their answers and asks other Ss – to say whether they agree or disagree. – T gives feedback and the correct Answers: Paragraph 1: B Paragraph 2: D Paragraph 3: E Individual Paragraph 4: C work, pair Paragraph 5: A work & TASK 2 whole class Instruction: You are required to read the text again and answer the five questions in the book.
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Individual work, pair work & whole class

- T checks if Ss can answer the comprehension questions in Task 2 without having to read the text again. If Ss cannot, T gets them to read the questions carefully. T might want to give them some tips to do the task: + First, Ss should skim the 6 questions to understand them. As Ss do this they: • underline the key words to decide what information they need to find in the text. E.g. the keywords in Question 1 are “how old”, “Gagarin”, “became first human being” “ space” • look for question word like “why” which indicates Ss should read for specific thing like a reason. + Then they should go back to the text and locate the key words in the text. + Then they should read around the key words carefully to find the answer. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a peer – T calls on some Ss to read aloud their answers and ask them to explain their choices. – T gives the correct Answers: 14. He was 27 then. 15. He was in space for 108 minutes. 16. They were what would happen to a human being in space or how the body would react to the extreme changes in temperature or how the mind would deal with the psychological tension. 17. It was more than 17,000 miles per hour. 18. Because he died in a plane crash on a routine training flight in March 1968. 19. After his death, his hometown of Gzhatsk
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was renamed Gagarin, and the Cosmonaut Training Centre at Star City, Russia, was given the name of his national hero. 8’
AFTER YOU READ

Instruction: You are to work in pairs and summarize the passage by filling each blank with a word or phrase given in the box. – T checks if Ss know how to do this activity. T may instruct Ss to use some strategies to do the task: + Ss read the words and phrases given in the box to understand the meanings. T can explain the meanings of some words if Ss find them difficult. + Ss read through the summary and identify the part of speech of the word to fill in each blank. + Ss read the passage again for the main ideas and complete the summary. – Ss do the activity in groups and T goes round to offer help. – T asks Ss to check their summary with another group. – T checks with the whole class. Answers: 1. cosmonaut 5. gravity 2. in space 6. view 3. lasted 7. impossible 4. success 8. named after 3’
WRAPPING UP

Group work & whole class

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – T asks Ss to learn by heart all of the new words and do the extra activity as homework.

Whole class

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HANDOUT FOR WARM-UP:

Solve the crossword by filling each blank with the appropriate word from the box.
BIGGEST BIGGER LONGEST SUN LIGHTER HEAVIER PLANETS FIRST BRIGHTER HOTTEST SPACE MOON

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Answer:

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EXTRA ACTIVITY

Complete the following text by filling each blank with a word.
John Glenn John Herschel Glenn Jr. was (1)…………. on July 18, 1921 in Cambridge, Ohio. He is an American astronaut, fighter pilot, corporate executive, and senator. He was the third American to (2)…………in space and the first American to (3)………… the Earth, aboard Friendship 7 in 1962. After retiring (4)……….. NASA, he served as a Senator, (5)………… Ohio from 1974 to 1999. He received the Congressional Space Medal of Honour in 1978. On October 29, 1998, at the (6)……….. of 77 he became the oldest human ever to venture (7)……….. space, flying aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery.

Answers 1. born 2. fly 3. orbit 4. from

5. representing 6. age 7. into

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Period 2: SPEAKING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Ask and answer questions on given information – Talk about historical events in the space conquest

II. Materials
Textbook, handout

III. Anticipated problems
Ss may not have enough vocabulary to talk about the topic, so T should be ready to provide help.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

10’

WARM-UP

Competition game- Word search – T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 students. Then T distributes the following word search handouts for Ss to do in their own groups. Which group finishes first and has all the correct answers will be the winner. Note: Most of the words in the box appear in Task 1 and Task 2. Before Ss work, T may ask if Ss know all the words in the box. T can give some Vietnamese equivalents of the words and quickly teach Ss to pronounce the words. + milestone (n): mốc lịch sử + conquest (n): cuộc chinh phục + launch (v): phóng + artificial (adj): nhân tạo The words in the box bellow are hidden in this

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puzzle. The words go across, up, down, backward and diagonally.
Astronaut orbit cosmonaut spacecraft flight

Satellite conquest
Y A O O A N C M P D K D S C Q B Q R P R Y G I L J L C M T Y E C Q T M B A A M E E P D Y T J M A E I D I N A S T R O N A U T V W O F G T B Y N M W K R T B B E X

artificial launch
G I O A R B Q Q F U Y S V J T W D C H X I A M X M K P W P F I A V I P M I L E S T O N E A J L C A A C K F L D J L S R R G Z L C D L I J B C D E T I C C V P E F F P Z V V F L V Q E O P L X T K J G C X N K V I C S X H V J A T U C K H X X J A M R R S N L S J T G U W S J P O S T G H N E V T

milestone
O F K I C S N Q Y M C Q U L Z T G Y K Y R A Q G H N Q Q O C H S A V R X U Q M T U X N T V G Z L A R I T A N B A P O R H I P J D Y W K Y P T L D C K Q L S X M B M Y T O F G O T C V F Z I P W H

Answers:
Y A O O A N C M P D K D S C Q Q R P R Y G I L J L C M T Y E Q T M B A A M E E P D Y T J M E I D I N A S T R O N A U T V O F G T B Y N M W K R T B B E G I O A R B Q Q F U Y S V J T D C H X I A M X M K P W P F I V I P M I L E S T O N E A J L A A C K F L D J L S R R G Z L D L I J B C D E T I C C V P E F P Z V V F L V Q E O P L X T J G C X N K V I C S X H V J A U C K H X X J A M R R S N L S T G U W S J P O S T G H N E V O F K I C S N Q Y M C Q U L Z G Y K Y R A Q G H N Q Q O C H A V R X U Q M T U X N T V G Z A R I T A N B A P O R H I P J Y W K Y P T L D C K Q L S X M M Y T O F G O T C V F Z I P W

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B C A W X W A C C F K T J T T S L D B H

10’

TASK 1

Instruction: Work in pairs to ask and answer questions about a piece of news. – T introduces the task and goes over the news with the class. – T gets Ss to do the task in pairs. T requires Ss to make questions with every sentence in the news. T reminds Ss of the simple past tense used in the news. – T goes around the class to check and offer help. – T calls on some pairs to present their questions and answers and asks others to comment. – If necessary T may call on some Ss to go to the board and write down the questions. Suggested questions: 1. What was the spacecraft called?(Shenzhou 5) 2. What is the astronaut’s name?(Yang Liwei) 3. How old was he when he flew into space?(38) 4. How important was the successful flight to China?(It marked a milestone in China’s space project) 5. How many countries in the world have been able to independently carry out manned space flights?(3) 13’
TASK 2

Pair work & whole class

Note: T can adapt this task to make it more communicative and save time for the next activity. Instruction: Now work in groups to talk about important event in space exploration, using the given suggestions. After this activity, you have to prepare a short presentation about the important

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events in space exploration – T photocopies page 171 and cuts it into 4 sections, each of which includes two events. – T puts Ss in groups of 4 and gives each group a set of the cut handout. Each student has 3 minutes to read the events and prepare for their talk and then will take turn to talk about these two events in their section. While one student talks, others have to take notes. – Before Ss work in groups, T elicits the verb tense they should use (the simple past) and reminds Ss that they can use both the active and passive voice. – T goes around to check and offer help. – T calls on some Ss to talk in front of the class. – T elicits feedback from the class and gives final comments. Suggested Answers: On October, 1957 the first artificial satellite “Sputnik”, which was made by the USSR, was launched into space. It marked the beginning of Space Age. One month later, on 3rd November 1957, a dog named Laika was the first living thing being in space. It was aboard Sputnik 2. After that, on 12th April 1961, Yuri Gagarin, a 27-year-old Russian cosmonaut, became the first human in space. His flight lasted 108 minutes. Then on 16th June 1963, Valentina Tereshkova, a Russian cosmonaut, became the first woman in space. On 20th 1969, two American astronauts, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, were the first people to set foot on the moon.
The first Vietnamese in space was Pham Tuan. Along with a Russian cosmonaut, V.V. Gorbatko, he stayed 8 days in
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orbit. At the age of 77, John Glenn, an American astronaut, was the oldest human ever to fly into space on 29th October 1998. Not long ago, on 15th October 2003, Yang Liwei, 38 years old, became the first Chinese to spend 21 hours in space.

10’

PRESENTATION

– T asks Ss to return to their group and prepare a short presentation about the important events in space exploration based on the talk in the previous activity. – Ss work within their group and prepare the presentation. They should use some transitions to make their presentation coherent. Some transitions they can use are: first, next, after that, then… – T calls on the representative of each group to present – T give comments and compliments the best presentation. 2’
WRAPPING UP

Group work & whole class

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, Ss do the extra activity.
EXTRA ACTIVITY Read the following text and answer the questions. Space walkers

Whole class

Many people can name the first American in space (Alan Shepard) or the first man to walk on the moon (Neil Armstrong). Not as many people can name the astronauts who set records for space walking. So many astronauts have completed a space walk now that the records go to those with the largest number of space walks, or the most total space walk hours. All together, there have been over 100 space walks. An astronaut goes outside of his spaceship. Nothing but a special rope, called a tether, keeps him from floating away in space. The tether, about 55 feet long, is attached at one end to the astronaut and at the other end to a slide
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wire on the outside of the spaceship. This allows the astronaut as much freedom of movement as possible. When an astronaut goes outside of his spacecraft, it is usually to repair or to build something on the outside of the spaceship. Sometimes it is a new piece of scientific equipment; sometimes it is just routine maintenance. When going for a space walk, astronauts wear a stiff, pressurized suit that weighs about 250 pounds. Just moving around in this suit is hard, tiring work. The astronaut must stay focused on his job every minute, because he has to keep track of his tether, and the tethers holding each and every tool and piece of equipment, at all times. After all, he is about 150 miles above the earth, and moving at a speed that is measured in miles per second! 1. Who is the first American in space? 2. What keeps the astronaut from floating away in space? 3. What does an astronaut do when he goes outside of his spacecraft? 4. How heavy is the suit an astronaut wears? 5. How is moving around in this suit? Answers: 1. Alan Shepard 2. A tether 3. He repairs builds something on the outside of the spaceship. 4. About 250 pounds 5. It’s hard and tiring.

Period 3: LISTENING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Develop such listening micro-skills as intensive listening for specific information and taking notes while listening

II. Materials
Textbook, cassette tapes, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Students may not catch some information, so T should be ready to assist them.
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IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

6’

WARM-UP

Vocabulary revision- Guessing game (to revise the vocabulary related to the topic “space conquest”) – T divides Ss into 2 groups : A and B – T tells Ss the rule of the game: One member from each group will go and stand in the front of the class with their backs facing the board. T will write a word which was learnt from the previous lesson on the board. Other Ss from each group have to explain the word without mentioning it or translating it into Vietnamese so that their representative can guess the word. The student with the quickest and correct answer will get 1 point for their group. Ss take turn to be the representative. After some turns, the group with more points will be the winner. 8’
BEFORE YOU LISTEN

Group work

Matching – T gets Ss to work in pairs to match the pictures on page 172 with the captions (lời chú thích). – T calls on some Ss to give the answers. – T checks with the class. Answers: 1. Orbiting : d 2. The Apollo crew: a 3. Walking on the Moon: c 4. The Moon landing: e 5. The first foot print on the Moon: b Pre-teaching vocabulary:

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– Before eliciting/pre-teaching the new words, T helps Ss to pronounce the words given in the book. T may read aloud first and ask Ss to repeat in chorus and individually. – T elicits/ teaches some of these words and those taken from the listening passage: + challenge (v): dare sb to do sth (thách thức, giao nhiệm vụ) + spacesuit(n): special suit for space traveller + mission (n):a special task given to a person or a group to carry out (nhiệm vụ) + reminder (n): something that reminds (cái/vật gợi nhớ, nhắc nhở) + NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Cơ quan hàng không vũ trụ quốc gia) – T may get Ss to make sentences with the words and give corrective feedback. – T sets the scene: Now you are going to listen to a talk about the first human moon landing. 10’
WHILE YOU LISTEN TASK 1

Instruction: You are going to listen to the talk and decide whether the statements on page 173 are true (T) or false (F). Put a tick ( ) in the appropriate box. – Before Ss listen and do the task, T remind them how to do the task: + First, read through the statements to understand them and underline key words. For example, the key words in the first statement are: speech, Kennedy, asked, to put, man, moon. + Listen to the tape and pay attention to the key words.

Individual work, group work & whole class.

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10’

+ Decide whether the statements are true or false based on what they can hear. – T plays the tape once for Ss to do the task. – T asks for Ss’ answers and writes them on the board. – T plays the tape the second time for Ss to check their answers. – T asks Ss to work in groups of 4 to compare their answers. – T checks Ss’ answers by calling on some Ss and asks Ss to explain their answers. – If there are a lot of Ss having the same wrong answer, play that point of the tape for Ss to check the answer again. – T gives the correct Answers: 1. F (He challenged the nation to put a man on the moon) Individual 2. F (There were three astronauts) work, pair 3. F (Neil Armstrong was to first to land on the work & moon; next is Buzz Aldrin) whole 4. F (The spacesuit had a portable life support class system) 5. T TASK 2 Instruction: You are going to listen to the passage again and answer the comprehension questions. – T checks if Ss can answer the questions in Task 2 without listening again. If they cannot, T plays the tape for them to listen again but before doing this, T should encourage Ss to read through all the questions, identify the information they need to look for in each question (by finding the key words and the question word, e.g. “which”, “why’, “when”, “how”, etc.) and if possible, predict the answers.
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– Then T plays the tape again for Ss to listen and answer the questions. While Ss are listening, T should encourage them to note down the answers. T should remind Ss to write down only the main points in note forms but not full sentences. – T gets Ss to check their answers with a partner. Then T checks with the whole class. T should play the tape again and pause at difficult points if many Ss cannot complete the task. Answers: 1. NASA’s Apollo programme. 2. On July 16, 1969 3. For controlling the oxygen, temperature and pressure inside the spacesuit 4. For two and a half hours 5. They performed a variety of experiments and collected soil and rock samples to return to Earth. 6. On July 24, 1969 Tapescript: In a speech to the Congress in 1961, the US President Kennedy challenged the nation to put a man on the moon before the end of the decade. After the president’s speech, NASA’s Apollo programme was developed to meet the challenge. On july 16, 1969, the Apollo 11 was launched. The astronauts on board of the spacecraft were Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins. On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first man on the moon. He was followed by Buzz Aldrin 40 minutes later. To walk on the moon’s surface, the astronauts needed to wear a spacesuit with a portable life support system. This controlled the oxygen, temperature and pressure inside the spacesuit.
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Armstrong and Aldrin spent a total of two and a half hours on the moon’s surface. They performed a variety of experiments and collected soil and rock samples to return to Earth. An American flag was left on the moon’s surface as a reminder of the achievement. The crew of Apollo 11 returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. They successfully completed their historic mission. It is regarded as one of the greatest human efforts in the history of mankind. 9’
AFTER YOU LISTEN

There may not be enough time to discuss the two questions on page 173. T can adapt the activity in the following way: Survey – T introduces the task: Ss go around their class or their row to ask their friends the question “If you were offered a chance of going to the moon and you could take three things with you, what would you choose and why?”. Ss will write the friends’ names and answers in the handout given by T. After 5 minutes, the student who can interview the biggest number of classmates will be the winner. – The winner will report the survey results to the whole class. Survey “If you were offered a chance of going to the moon and you could take three things with you, what would you choose and why?”
Name 1. 2. 3. 4. What + why What + why What + why

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3’

WRAPPING UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – T asks Ss to learn by heart all new words and do the extra exercise as homework.
EXTRA ACTIVITY Complete the text by filling each blank with a word.

Whole class

How is flying in space like playing sports? Leland Melvin knows. He used to be a professional football (1)………... Now he is an astronaut and crew (2)……….. of the STS122 space shuttle mission. The crew will help add a new part to the International Space Station. "Sports are all about teamwork," astronaut Leland Melvin said. "You can't (3)………….. a game if you can't work with your team. Working in the tight spaces of the shuttle or the (space) station takes (4)…………., as well. You can't be a good astronaut if you can't get (5)………… with the people around you." When people are preparing for (6)……….. careers, it is important they find things they enjoy. That makes (7)………… easier to be good at what they do. (8)……….. Leland Melvin was in college, he found two things he loved doing. Melvin really liked playing football. And he became very good at it. He (9)……….. awards and set records while in school. He also enjoyed studying mathematics and science. He worked very hard in those (10)………... When he finished college, he was able to do both of the things he loves. Answers: 1. player 6. their 2. member 7. it 3. win 8. When 4. teamwork 9. won 5. along 10. subjects

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Period 4: WRITING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Write a biography

II. Materials
Textbook, handout

III. Anticipated problems
Ss may not have sufficient vocabulary to write the biographyt, so T should be ready to help them.

IV. Procedure

Time 7’

Steps
WARM-UP

Competition game − As Ss learnt to write a biography in Grade 10, this activity aims at revising what they still remember. − T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 students. Then T distributes the handout with a network of the word “Biography” for Ss to complete in their own groups. Ss have to brainstorm all of the words/expressions related to “biography” and fill the network. Which group finishes first and has all the correct answers will be the winner.

Work arrangement Group work & whole class

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Biography

Suggested Answer:
Things one Birth place Achievemen ts

Birth date

Husband/ wife

Biograp hy

Failures

Parents

Current position

Famous sayings

10’

PREPARING SS TO WRITE TASK 1

– T sets the scene: You are going to write a biography of Neil Armstrong, the first human to set foot on the moon. First of all, put each of the

Individual work & whole class

191

headings in the box in the appropriate blank. – T gets Ss to work in pairs to read the given information on page 174 and put each of the headings in the box in the appropriate blank. – T checks the answers with the whole class: 1. Date of birth 2. Place of birth 3. Known as 4. Career 5. Quote – T may elicit/ teach quickly some words: + B.S.: Bachelor of Science (Cử nhân Khoa học) + M.S.: Master of Science (Thạc sỹ Khoa học) + resign (v): leave job (từ chức, từ bỏ công việc) + to be appointed: to be selected for a position (đề cử, đề bạt) + giant (adj): huge (khổng lồ, vĩ đại) + leap (n): a long and high jump (nhảy vọt) – T revises the structure of a biography by asking the following questions: 1. How many major parts are there in a biography? 2. What kind of information is included in each part? − T calls on some Ss to answer the questions and elicits more ideas from the class. T may summarise the Answers: 1. A biography has three major parts: brief introduction, body, and a short conclusion. 2. The introduction includes the general information about the person: his/her date of birth, place of birth, what his/her job is, what he/she is known as…
In the body, we describe the lifetime accomplishments and major events of his/her life
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In the last part, we write about his/her effects/impact on society, historical significance, his/her famous sayings… – T elicits the verb tenses and the grammatical structures Ss use in their report. + The past simple is used to talk about an event that happened and finished in the past. + The present simple is used to describe facts. + The passive voice is used occasionally in the biography − T may also ask Ss which part of the report needs the simple past tense, which part needs the simple present and which part needs the passive voice. 17’
TASK 2 WRITING

Individual work

– T gets Ss to read the given information again and write the biography in 15 minutes. T may call on 2 Ss to go to the board to write. – If there is not enough time, T may ask Ss to write the biography in pairs and then exchange their writing with another pair. – T goes around to offer help. A sample biography: Neil Armstrong, an American astronaut, is known as the first person to walk on the moon. He was born on August 5th, 1930 in Wapokoneta in Ohio. From 1949 to 1952, he worked as a pilot in the United States Navy. In 1955 Armstrong received his B.S. from Purdue University. Later in 1962, he joined the NASA astronaut programme. On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first human to set foot on the moon’s surface. In 1970, he received his M.S from the University of Southern California. A
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year later, he resigned from NASA, and from 1971 to 1979 he taught at the University of Cincinnati. In 1986, Armstrong was appointed vice chairman of the committee that investigated the space shuttle Challenger disaster. He is wellknown for his quote “That’s on small step for man, one giant leap for mankind”. 9’
FEEDBACK ON SS’ WRITING

– T asks Ss to exchange their writing with another student for peer correction. – T goes around and collects mistakes and errors. – T asks the whole class to look at the writing on the board and elicits comments from Ss. – T writes Ss’ typical errors on the board and elicits self and peer correction. T provides correction only when Ss are not able to correct the errors. – Finally, T provides general comments on the biography. 2’
WRAPPING UP

Pair work & whole class

Whole class

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, T asks Ss to revise their writing according to their peer’s suggestions and submit for marking in the next lesson.
EXTRA ACTIVITY Read the following passage decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F)

Sally Kristen Ride- First American Woman in Space
Sally Kristen Ride was born on May 26, 1951 in Encino, California (near Los Angeles). At first, Sally wanted to become a professional tennis player, but later she quit tennis and enrolled at Stanford University. At 27, with B.A., B.S., and masters' degrees, she was a Ph.D. candidate looking for postdoctoral work in astrophysics when she read about NASA's call for astronauts in the Stanford

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University paper. More than 8,000 men and women applied to the space program that year. 35 were accepted, six of whom were women. One was Sally Ride. After joining NASA in 1977 Ride underwent extensive training that included parachute jumping, water survival, gravity and weightlessness training, radio communications and navigation. She enjoyed flight training so much that flying became a favorite hobby. During the second and third flights of the space shuttle Columbia (November 1981 and March 1982), Ride served as communications officer, relaying radio messages from mission control to the shuttle crews. Dr. Ride was also assigned to the team that designed the remote mechanical arm, used by shuttle crews to deploy and retrieve satellites. In 1983, Dr. Sally Ride became the first American woman in space on the shuttle Challenger (STS-7). Her next flight was an eight-day mission in 1984, again on Challenger (STS 41-G). Her cumulative hours of space flight are more than 343. 1. Sally wanted to be an amateur tennis player. 2. She read about NASA's call for astronauts when she paid a visit to NASA centre. 3. Sally was one of the six women admitted by NASA to the space program. 4. She made her first flight to space in 1981. 5. In 1984, she had an eight-day mission. Answers: 1. F 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. T

Period 5: LANGUAGE FOCUS
I. Objectives
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By the end of this lesson, Ss will be able to: – Pronounce the clusters /nt/, /nd/, /n0/, /ns/ and /nz/ – Pronounce the words and sentences containing these clusters correctly – Use could/be able to and tag questions correctly to do the exercises and solve communicative tasks

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Ss might have difficulty pronouncing. Therefore, T should be ready to assist them.

IV. Procedures
Time Steps Work arrangement

8’

PRONUNCIATION

Distinguishing sounds − T models the clusters /nt/, /nd/, /n0/, /ns/ and /nz/ for a few times and explains how to produce them. E.g.: When producing /nt/, Ss should produce /n/ first and then quickly switch to /t/, and so on. − T plays the tape (or reads) once for Ss to hear the words containing these clusters. Then T plays the tape (or reads) again and this time asks Ss to repeat after the tape (or T). − T asks Ss to read the words in each column out loud in chorus for a few more times. Then T calls on some Ss to read the words out loud. T listens and corrects if Ss pronounce the target words incorrectly. If many Ss do not pronounce the words correctly, T may want to get them to repeat after the tape (or him/herself) again in chorus and then individually. Practising sentences containing the target sounds

Individual work, pair work & whole class

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– T asks Ss to work in pairs and take turn to read aloud the given dialogue. (p. 175) – T goes around to listen and takes notes of the typical errors. – T calls on some Ss to read the dialogue again and provides corrective feedback.
GRAMMAR

10’ Exercise 1 a. Presentation – T writes the following examples on the board and asks Ss if there are any differences between them. E.g.: + Jack was an excellent tennis player. He could beat anyone. + Jack and John had a game of tennis yesterday. John played very well, but in the end Jack was able to beat him. – T calls on some Ss to comment on these two examples. – T explains or gives Ss the following handout. Sometimes “could” is the past of “can”. We use “could” especially with “see, hear, smell, taste, feel, remember, understand”. E.g.: + When we went into the house, we could smell burning. + She spoke in a very low voice, but I could understand what she said. We also use “could” to say that somebody had the general ability or permission to do something. E.g.: + My father could speak five languages. + We were completely free. We could do what we wanted. (= we were allowed to do…)

Individual work & whole class

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We use “could” and “was/were able to” for general ability, but if someone was in the position to do something, or managed to do something, we use 'was/were able to” instead of “could” E.g.: The fire spread through the building quickly, but everybody was able to escape. (not “could”) In the negative, “wasn't/weren’t able to” OR “couldn't” are both correct. E.g.: I couldn't come last night, sorry. OR I wasn't able to come last night, sorry. b. Practice: – T asks Ss to do Exercise 1 individually and then compare their answers with another student. – T calls on some Ss to read out their answers. – T elicits peer correction and gives correct answers if necessary. Answer: 16’ 1. couldn’t/wasn’t able to 2. was able to 3. could/was able to 4. was able to 5. could/was able to 6. couldn’t/wasn’t able to Exercise 2+3 a. Presentation – T revises tag questions by writing some examples on the board: E.g.: + It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it? + You can speak French, can’t you? – T asks Ss to comment on the form of a tag question. – T explains or gives Ss the handout. A tag question is a question we can add to the
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Individual work & whole class

end of a statement. The basic rules for forming the two-word tag questions are as follows: * the subject in the statement matches the subject in the tag * the auxiliary verb (have, will…) or verb “to be” in the statement matches the verb used in the tag * if the statement is positive, the tag is usually negative and vice versa Compare the following: • You've posted my letters, haven't you? • You won't forget to check my emails, will you? • You're sad that I'm going, aren't you? • You aren't going to cry when I leave, are you? When present and past simple tenses appear in positive statements, normally no auxiliary verb is used, but we use the auxiliaries does, do or did in the tag. In negative statements in the present or past simple, the auxiliaries doesn't, don't or didn't are, of course, already present. Compare the following: • And Jack plays with you, doesn't he? • You didn't play last Thursday, did you? When we use the there is structure, there is reflected in the tag: • There's nothing wrong, is there? • There weren't any problems when you talked to Jack, were there? * The meaning of a question tag depends on how you say it. If your voice goes down, you aren’t really asking a question; you are only
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inviting the listener to agree with you: + It’s a nice day, isn’t it? – Yes, lovely. But if the voice goes up, it is a real question: + You haven’t seen Mai today, have you? – No, I’m afraid not. We often use a negative sentence + positive tag to ask for things or information, or to ask somebody to do something. The voice goes up at the end of the tag in sentences like these: + You haven’t got a pen, have you? – Yes, here you are. + You couldn’t do me a favour, could you? – It depends what it is. + You don’t know where Lan is, do you? – Sorry, I’ve no idea. * Notice the meaning of “yes” and “no” in answer to a negative sentence: + You’re not going out today, are you? – Yes. (Yes, I am going out) + You’re not going out today, are you? – No. (No, I am not going out) b. Practice Exercise 2 – T asks Ss to do exercise 2 individually and then calls some – Ss to write their answers on the board. – T elicits feedback from other SS. – T gives the corrects Answers: 1. It’s (very) expensive, isn’t it? 2. The film was great, wasn’t it? 3. She has got a lovely voice, hasn’t she?/ She has a lovely voice, doesn’t she? 4. It doesn’t look very god, does it? 5. You’ve had r hair cut, haven’t you? Exercise 3

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– T asks Ss to do Exercise 3 in pairs. – T asks them to compare answers with another pair. – T calls on some Ss to read aloud their answers. – T asks other Ss to feedback and gives correct Answers: Answers: 9. doesn’t she 5. won’t we 10. haven’t you 6. can’t you 11. wasn’t it 7. mustn’t it 12. didn’t we 8’
COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE (production stage)

Job interview – T puts Ss in pairs and gives each pair this job advertisement: English tutor wanted Youth Centre is looking for students who are competent in English to work as tutors for primary school children. Requirements: good at speaking and writing in English, humorous, patient, having some experience working with children. Please contact Ms Nguyen Thi Lien, Secretary; phone: 04-9745 321; email: liennguyen@gmail.com – T introduces the role play: Student A: You are the director of Youth Centre. You have in hand student B’s CV. Student B: You want to apply for the job. You have in hand the job advertisement.

Pair work & whole class

201

Try to elicit extra information from B, using tag questions.

Answer the interviewer’s questions and try to elicit extra information about the job, using tag questions.

– T goes around to check and offer help. – T calls on some pairs to the front and perform their conversation again. T elicits comments from the class and gives corrective feedback as appropriate. Sample conversation: Student B: I don't need a Bachelor degree for this job, do I? Student A: No, not as long as you have the relevant experience and a certificate. You have a certificate, don't you? Applicant: Yes, I got a certificate from ABC Language Centre. etc. 3’
WRAPPING UP

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – For homework, Ss review the lesson and do the extra activity.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Whole class

I. Complete the following sentences with “could”, “couldn’t” or “was/were able to”.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A girl fell into the river but fortunately we ………….rescue her. I …………….walk when I was less than a year old. My grandfather …………walk without any help last night. ………… you understand what he was saying? My grandmother …………….speak Spanish.

II. Complete the following tag questions.

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1. You can't answer all the questions,…………? 2. You will help me to do the dishes, …………? 3. He believes you, …………? 4. The teacher should explain the lesson, …………? 5. The boy didn't know the lesson, …………? 6. Bob frightened you, …………? 7. You can speak English well, …………? 8. She couldn't arrange that, …………? 9. You won't tell him, …………? 10. He shouldn't do it, …………? Answers: I. 1. were able to 2. could 3. was able to 4. Could 5. couldn’t/wasn’t able to II. 1. can you? 2. won’t you? 3. doesn’t he? 4. shouldn’t he/she? 5. did he? 6. didn’t he? 7. can’t you? 8. could she? 9. will you? 10. should he?

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Unit 16
The Wonders of the World
Period 1: READING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Develop such reading micro-skills as scanning for specific ideas and identifying meaning in context. – Use the information they have read to discuss the related topic.

II. Materials
Textbook, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Ss may need to be provided appropriate linguistic resources so that they can complete various learning tasks.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

7’

WARM-UP

A matching game − T divides the class into small groups of 3-4 students. Then T distributes the following handouts for Ss to do the matching task in their own groups. Which group finishes it first and has all the correct answers will be the winner. − After Ss have finished the activity T might want to elicit what they know about these wonders of the world. Then T might give some details about these landmarks and wonders of the world.

Group work & whole class

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Matching the landmarks and wonders of the world with the correct images below: Pyramids of Egypt Mahal Statue of Liberty Colosseum a. Eiffel Tower Great Wall b. Taj

c.

d.

e.

f.

Answer:
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Pyramids of Egypt Statue of Liberty Eiffel Tower Great Wall Colosseum Taj Mahal

b f e a c d

Some details about the landmarks and wonders of the world: – Pyramids of Egypt: This pyramid was built by King Khufu, the second Pharaoh of the fourth dynasty of rulers in Egypt, to serve as a tomb when he died. It is believed to have been built by 100,000 labourers over a 20- year period concluding around 2560 BC. It is sometimes called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu. When it was built, the Great pyramid was 145.75 m (481 ft) high. Over the years, it lost 10 m (30 ft) off its top.
– Statue of Liberty is a large statue that was presented to the United States by France in 1886. It stands at Liberty Island, New York in New York Harbor as a welcome to all visitors, immigrants, and returning Americans. This copper statue is 151 feet 1 inch (46.5 m) tall, with the pedestal and foundation adding another 154 feet (46.9 m). – Eiffel Tower is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris. Including the 24 m (79 ft) antenna, the structure is 325 m (1,063 ft) high (since 2000), which is equivalent to about 81 levels in a conventional building.

– The Great Wall is a series of stone and earthen fortifications (công sự) in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th century to protect the nation from invading Huns, Mongols, and other tribes. Stretching over approximately 6,400 km (4,000 miles), this is the world's longest man-made structure.
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– Colosseum is the largest and most famous amphitheatre ever built in the Roman Empire in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Its construction started between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus, the emperor’s son. The Colosseum is elliptical, measuring 189 m long and 156 m wide with a base area of 6 acres. It was used for contests between gladiators and public spectacles and could seat around 50,000 spectators. – Taj Mahal is a mausoleum located on the southern bank of the Yamuna River in Agra, India. The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan had it built in memory of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The construction began in 1632. This white marble mausoleum is composed of four identical facades, each containing a large central arch 33 m high. A large bulb-shaped dome, over 73 m tall, rises over the centre, with four smaller domes surrounding it. 8’
BEFORE YOU READ

Pre-teaching vocabulary – T might elicit or teach the meanings of the following words. + treasures: jewels and precious objects (của báu) + belongings: the thins somebody owns or has with him or her (tài sản) + to rank: have or give something rating (xếp hạng) + to proceed: to progress (tiếp tục) + to propose: make suggestion (đề xuất) + to enclose: surround or shut in something (bao quanh) + plateau: raised area with level top (cao

Pair work & whole class

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nguyên) – Before teaching these words, T helps Ss to pronounce them correctly. T may want to model first and then ask Ss to repeat after him/ her. – T presents or elicits the meanings of these words from the class. – T gets Ss to make sentences with these words. – T gives corrective feedback.
WHILE YOU READ

7’

Set the scene: You are going to read about the Great Pyramid of Giza. Then you do the tasks that follow.
TASK 1

Instruction: Fill each blank with one of the words in the box. – T asks Ss to read through the words in the box. The words mysterious, wonder and tomb are quite familiar with Ss, so T may just ask them to work out the meaning of the rest three words. However, it is possible that Ss may just be able to guess the meaning of chamber in context, based on the surrounding words and sentences. T might have to explain the meaning of spiral (xoáy trôn ốc) and ramp (bờ dốc – Next, T might remind Ss of some strategies to do task 1: + First, Ss should read through the sentences provided in the task to identify the part of speech of the word to fill in each blank. For example, in sentence 1, 2, 3 and 4 the word to fill in should be a noun; in sentence 5 and 6 the word should be an adjective. + Read the first sentence carefully to understand the meaning roughly. Read the words in the box

Individual work & whole class

208

10’

to choose the most suitable one to fill in the blank, paying attention to their right form. + Continue with the rest of the sentences. – T asks Ss to work individually to do the task. – T goes around to help Ss when necessary. – T asks Ss to exchange their answers with other Ss. – T asks Ss for their answers and tells them to explain their choices. – T gives the correct answers: 1. tomb 2. wonder 3. ramp 4. chamber 5. mysterious 6. spiral
TASK 2

Individual work & whole class

Instruction: You are required to read the passage and answer the five questions in the book. – T asks Ss how to do this task. If they do not remember, T may instruct them to use some strategies to do the task: + First, skim the six questions to understand them. As Ss do this they: • underline the key words. For instance, in question 1 Ss can underline where, Pyramid, situated, when, built • decide what information they need to find in the text • look for questions words like “what”, “how”… + Go back to the first question and locate the information for the question by finding the key
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words in the passage and mark the place. + Read the part carefully to find the answer. Ss can use their own words. + Continue with the rest of the questions. – T asks Ss to work individually to do the task, then discuss their answers with their peers. – T calls on some Ss to give their answers and ask them to explain their choices. T elicits feedback from other Ss and gives the correct Answers: 1. It is situates in the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the River Nile (line 2-3, paragraph 4). It was built around the year 2560 BC (line 2, paragraph 1) 2. It was about 147 metres high on a base of 230 metres square. (line 1-2, paragraph 2) 3. Its purpose was to serve as a tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Khufu and to protect the burial chamber from the weather and from thieves who might try to steal the treasures and belongings there. (line 2-5, paragraph 5) 4. It is proposed that ancient Egyptians used a straight or spiral ramp or huge weight arms to lift and place the blocks. (line 2-5 paragraph 3) 5. The boat is believed to have been used to carry the body of Khufu in his last journey on earth before being buried inside the pyramid. (line 5-7, paragraph 4)
TASK 3

Instruction: You are required to read the passage again and decide what the following words refer to – T asks Ss how to do this task. Then T may instruct them to use some strategies to do the task: + Locate the word in the text
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+ Read the sentence that has the word and decide what it refers to. – T asks Ss to work individually to do the task, then discuss their answers with their peers. – T calls on some Ss to give their answers and ask them to explain their choices. T elicits feedback from other Ss and gives the correct Answers: Who (line 4): thieves It (line 8): the Great Pyramid It (line 9): the Great Pyramid Each (line 12): block of stone 10’
AFTER YOU READ

– T introduces the task: Ss work in small groups of 3 or 4 and discuss the question – T asks Ss to use the information they have got from the Warm-up to explain the reasons for choosing a particular wonder or landmark of the world. – T goes around to check and offer help. – T calls on the groups to tell and explain their choice. – T gives corrective feedback. 3’
WRAPPING UP

Group work & whole class

– T summarises the main points of the lesson. – T asks Ss to learn by heart all of the new words and do the extra activity as homework.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Whole class

Read the following passage and answer the questions by choosing A, B, C or D. Niagara Falls Niagara Falls, one of the most famous North American natural wonders, has long been a popular tourist destination. Tourists today flock to see the two falls that actually comprise Niagara Falls: the 53211

meter high Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of the Niagara River and 5 the 55-meter high American Falls on the U.S. side of the river. Most visitors come between April and October, and it is quite a popular activity to take a steamer out on to the river and right up to the base of the falls for a close-up view. It is also possible to get a spectacular view of the falls from the strategic locations along 10 the Niagara River such as Prospect Point or Table Rock, or from one of the four observation towers which have heights up to 500 feet. Tourists have been visiting Niagara Falls in large numbers since the 1800's. Because of concern that the large number of tourists would destroy the natural beauty of this scenic wonder, the State 15 of New York in 1885 created Niagara Falls Park in order to protect the land surrounding American Falls. A year later Canada created Queen Victoria Park on the Canadian side of the Niagara, around Horseshoe Falls.
1. According to the passage, which best describes Niagara Falls? A. Niagara Falls consists of two rivers, one Canadian and the other American. B. American Falls is considerably higher than Horseshoe Falls. C. The Niagara River has two falls, one in Canada and one in the U.S. D. Although the Niagara river flows through the U.S. and Canada, the falls are only in the U.S. 2. The passage implies that tourists prefer…………… A. to visit Niagara Falls during warmer weather B. to see the falls from a great distance C. to take a ride over the falls D. to come to Niagara Falls for a winter vacation 3. What is a "steamer" (line 7)? A. A bus B. A boat C. A walkway D. A park 4. According to the passage, why was Niagara Park created? A. To encourage tourists to visit Niagara Falls B. To show off the natural beauty of Niagara Falls C. To protect the area around Niagara Falls D. To force Canada to open Queen Victoria Park
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5. What is the major point the author is making in this passage? A. Niagara Falls can be viewed from either the American side or the Canadian side. B. A trip to the U.S. isn't complete without a visit to Niagara Falls. C. Niagara Falls has had an interesting history. D. It has been necessary to protect Niagara Falls from the many tourists who go there.

Answers: 1C

2A

3B

4C

5D

Period 2: SPEAKING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: – Distinguish facts and opinions about the wonders of the world – Use facts and opinions to talk about features of man-made places

II. Materials
Textbook, handout

III. Anticipated problems
Ss may not have enough vocabulary to talk about the topic, so T should be ready to provide help.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

7’ Guessing game

WARM-UP

Whole class

213

T prepares a handout with some statements about the wonders of the world. The statements will include both facts and opinions. Ss work in groups to find out which wonders of the world are mentioned. Which group finishes first and has all the correct answers will be the winner. 1. This wonder of the world is located in Egypt. It was built around 2560 BC. It is believed to have been built by 100,000 labourers over a 20year period. 2. This wonder of the world is located in Rome, Italy. It was used for contests between gladiators and public spectacles and could seat around 50,000 spectators. 3. This wonder of the world is located in India. The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan had it built in memory of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The construction began in 1632. Answers: 1. The Great Pyramid 2. Colosseum 3. Taj Mahal 10’
TASK 1

Instruction: Work in pairs to decide which sentences express facts and which ones express opinions. − T introduces the task and goes over the sentences with the class. T explains new words if necessary. − T gets Ss to do the task in pairs. Students decide which sentences express facts and which ones opinions. With weaker students, T may want to model with sentence 1 and sentence 2.

Pair work & whole class

214

− T asks Ss to explain why they think these sentences are facts and those are opinions. − T goes around the class to check and offer help. − T calls on some Ss to present their answers and asks others to comment. − T asks for the reasons and asks Ss how they define a fact and an opinion. − T gives his/her definitions: + A fact is something that can be proven to be true, to exist, or to have happened by evidence. + An opinion is the view somebody takes about an issue, especially when it is based solely on personal judgment Answers: Facts: sentence 2, 3, 4 Opinions: sentence 1, 5, 6, 7 10’
TASK 2

Instruction: Now work in pairs to tell your partner about some facts and opinions of the Great Pyramid, using the information in Task 1. −T puts Ss in pairs and gets them to tell each other about some facts and opinions of the Great Pyramid of Giza based on the information in Task 1. − In the meantime, T goes around to check and offer help. − T calls on some pairs to perform in front of the class. − T elicits feedback from the class and gives final comments. 15
TASK 3

Pair work & whole class

Instruction: Work in groups to discuss possible answers to the questions on page 181. − T introduces the task and asks Ss to work in

Group work & whole class
215

2’

groups to discuss possible answers to the given questions. T reminds Ss that in this task Ss should use their imagination to produce opinions about the Great Pyramid. − Before Ss perform the task, T asks them to read the useful language and the examples on page 182. T may calls on some Ss to do some practice with the suggested expressions. − While Ss work in groups, T goes around and offers help. After 8 minutes the group with the greatest number of opinions will be the winner. − T asks some groups to present their opinions and other groups to share theirs. Whole Wrapping up class − T summarises the main points of the lesson. − For homework, Ss do the extra activity.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Read the following passage about Christ the Redeemer in Brazil (Tượng Chúa cứu thế ở Brazil). Complete the passage by filling each blank with the suitable form of the word given at the end of each line.

216

This is a 700-ton statue of Jesus Christ standing with outstretched, (1)………..arms in Rio de Janeiro, Braizil. WELCOME The statue is located at the top of Corcovado Mountain at a (2)………. of 710 metres. The granite figure stands HIGH 30 m (100 ft) high and is set on a pedestal 6 m (20 ft) high. The span from fingertip to fingertip is 28m. There is a small chapel (nhà thờ nhỏ) for 150 people (3)………….in the base. HOUSE The original design of the statue was done by a Brazilian, (4)………. Heitor da Silva Costa. He was also NAME the engineer in charge of the (5)……….. He shared CONSTRUCT the project with the French sculptor Paul Landowski. It was built from 1926 to 1931, with funds raised from donations. Nowadays, Christ the Redeemer is one of the world's (6)……… known and most visited monuments. GOOD
Answers: 1. welcoming 3. housed 5. construction 2. height 4. named 6. best

Period 3: LISTENING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: − Develop such listening micro-skills as intensive listening for specific information and taking notes while listening

II. Materials
Textbook, cassette tapes, handouts

III. Anticipated problems
Students may not catch some information, so T should be ready to assist them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work

217

arrangement

7’

Warm-up Competition game- China Matching Game − T divides the class into groups of 5 and introduces the game: each group will receive a handout and have to discuss to match the words in the first column to the best available answer in the second column. Which group finishes it first and has all the correct answers will be the winner.
Match the words in the first column to the best available answer in the second column. a. Travel destinations 1. panda b. Endangered animal 2. Beijing duck, noodles, c. Famous Chinese people Sichuan hot pot on TV. 3. Sichuan province, d. Chinese board game Hainan Island e. Popular Chinese sports Beijing Great Wall Guilin Mountains & caves f. Money g. Chinese food 4. ping pong, badminton 5. Yuan, RMB 6. mahjong 7. Yao Ming, Liu Xiang, Jacky Chan

Group work & whole class

8’

− T calls the winner to read out their answers. − T give the correct answers. Answers: 1. b 2. g 3. a 4. e 5. f 6. d 7. c Note: Mahjong: a game of Chinese origin using 144 small tiles bearing various designs, played by four people around a square table. The winning player is the first one who completes a particular pattern using 13 tiles. Before you listen Discussing the questions − T gets Ss to cover their books and shows them

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the picture in the book, then asks them to guess what they are going to listen about. T gives feedback and gets them to open their books. − T gets Ss to work in pairs to answer the questions on page 182. − T calls on some Ss to answer the questions. − T checks with the class. Pre-teaching vocabulary: − Before eliciting/pre-teaching the new words, T helps Ss to pronounce the words given in the book. T may read aloud first or play the tape and ask Ss to repeat in chorus and individually. − T elicits/ teaches some of these words and those taken from the listening passage: + Magnificence (n): the impressive beauty + World Heritage: Di sản thế giới + Dynasty (n): a succession of rulers from the same family (triều đại) + Visible (adj): able to be seen + Wind (v): To move along a course with many bends and twists in it (uốn lượn, uốn khúc) − T may get Ss to make sentences with the words and give corrective feedback. − T sets the scene: Now you are going to listen to a passage about the Great Wall of China. 10’ Individual work, Instruction: You are going to listen to the passage group work & and fill in the missing information. whole − Before Ss listen and do the task, T gets them to class. read through the table of information to understand and decide what kind of information and what part of speech of the word/expression to fill in each blank. For example, for blank 1, the word should
TASK 1
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WHILE YOU LISTEN

8’

be a noun and it requires the information to be about a place. For blank 2, Ss should fill in a number; it is either a date or a year. − T checks with the whole class. − T plays the tape once for Ss to do the task. − T asks for Ss’ answers and writes them on the board. − T plays the tape the second time for Ss to check their answers. − T asks Ss to work in groups of 4 to compare their answers. T checks Ss’ answers by calling on some Ss. If many Ss cannot complete the sentences, T plays the tape one or two more times and pauses at the answers for them to catch. T gives the correct Answers: Answers: 1. moon 2. 1987 3. Ming Dynasty 4. 200 5. 200 BC 6. 6,000 km 7. 11 metres 8. stones

Individual work, pair work & whole TASK 2 class Instruction: You are going to listen to the passage again and answer the comprehension questions. − T checks if Ss can answer the questions in Task 2 without listening again. If they cannot, T plays the tape for them to listen again but before doing this, T should encourage Ss to read through all the questions, identify the information they need to look for in each question (by finding the key words and the question word, e.g. “which”, “why’, “when”, “how”, etc.) and if possible, predict the answers. − Then T plays the tape again for Ss to listen and
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answer the questions. While Ss are listening, T should encourage them to note down the answers. T should remind Ss to write down only the main points in note forms but not full sentences. − T gets Ss to check their answers with a partner. Then T checks with the whole class. T should play the tape again and pause at difficult points if many Ss cannot complete the task. Answers: 1. The ancient Chinese started to build the Great Wall in 1368. 2. Five provinces 3. Because it can be seen from the moon 4. The part in the northwest of Beijing is the best choice for visit because it is still in its original state. Tapescript: The Great Wall of China, which is said to be visible from the moon, winds up and down across deserts grasslands and mountains of 5 provinces. It is considered one of the greatest man-made wonders in the world thanks to its magnificence and significance. In 1987, the Great Wall was listed as a World Heritage by UNESCO. The Great Wall as we see today was mostly built during the Ming Dynasty for defence purpose. It started in 1368 and took 200 years to complete. Some parts of the wall are much older and go back to around 200 BC. It stretches for about 6,000 km from east to west. The wall is about 11 metres high and a stone roadway runs along the top of it. The Great Wall is a symbol of the Chinese nation throughout history. If you prefer to see the wall in a relatively natural state, you’d better go to the northwest of Beijing. This part of the wall is the
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best choice for it is still in its original state. A visit to the Great Wall will certainly bring tourists great excitement in each step of the wall. 9’
AFTER YOU LISTEN

− T puts Ss in pairs and introduces the task: Suppose that student A is a Vietnamese student and student B is a Chinese student. You meet each other in the Youth Camp. A will ask B about the best place to visit in China. B recommends the Great Wall. Now A asks B some questions to get more information about the Great Wall. − T distributes the following role cards for Ss to do the role play. T reminds them to use the information from the listening passage. In the mean time, T goes around to check and offer help. − After checking that all Ss have finished, T calls on some pairs to perform the role play in front of the class. T elicits feedback from the class and gives final comments.
CARD A Ask your Chinese friend about the Great Wall. Ask about: − When it was built − How many years Chinese people use to build it − How long it is − Why it is considered one of the greatest man-made wonders in the world Add more questions as you like CARD B Tell your friend about the Great Wall. Use the information from task 1 and task 2.

Pair work & whole class

3’

WRAPPING UP

− T summarises the main points of the lesson. − T asks Ss to learn by heart all new words and do

Whole class

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the extra exercise as homework.
EXTRA ACTIVITY Read the text and answer the questions that follow. The People’s Republic of China in Asia is one of the largest countries in the world. The only countries bigger than China are Russia, Canada, and the USA. China is about 3.7 million square miles in area, only slightly smaller than the United States. Fourteen countries and the Pacific Ocean border China: Russia, India, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burma, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Vietnam all surround China. China’s landscape is very diverse. The magnificent Himalayan Mountains on the Tibetan plateau are located in the western part of China. In the southwest there are many deep gorges, waterfalls, underground caverns and limestone rock formations. In the center of China is the Taklamakan Desert, the second largest desert in the world. The Turpan Depression is also in the center of China. The Turpan Depression is the lowest point in China, and the second lowest land depression in the world. Because China is so large, and has so many different regions, many different animals are able to live there. Unfortunately many of these animals are either rare or endangered because their homes have been destroyed. Many large animals make their homes in China, including snow leopards, elephants, wild yaks, reindeer, moose… and of course, the giant panda! 1. What is the area of China? 2. What countries surround China? 3. What two interesting natural features are in the middle of China? 4. What are some of the large animals that can be found in China? Answers: 1. 3.7 million square miles 2. Russia, India, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burma, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Vietnam all surround China. 3. The Taklamakan Desert and the Turpan Depression 4. Snow leopards, elephants, wild yaks, reindeer, moose and the giant panda are some of the large animals that live in China.

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Period 4: WRITING
I. Objectives
By the end of the lesson, Ss will be able to: − Define the format and structure of a report to a place. − Write a report on a man-made place.

II. Materials
Textbook

III. Anticipated problems
Ss may not have sufficient vocabulary to write the report, so T should be ready to help them.

IV. Procedure
Time Steps Work arrangement

7’

WARM-UP

Competition game -T divides the class into groups of 8 and introduces the game: The groups should generate as many words and expressions related to Nha Trang as possible. -T divides the board into as many sections as the number of groups is. When time is up, T calls on the representative of each group to come to the board and write their list. Then T gets the whole class to count. Each correct word/expression gets one point. Which group has more points wins the game. Suggested words: Beach, sand, Cham Towers, sea food, Khanh Hoa, Nha Trang Bay, Bamboo Island, Vinpearl, Cam Ranh airport, resort, sun.

Group work & whole class

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10’

PREPARING SS TO WRITE

− T sets the scene: You are going to write a report on a visit to the Ponagar Cham Towers in Nha Trang. − T gets Ss to read the given information on page 184 to work out the organization of the report. T may ask Ss the following questions: 1. How many parts are there in the report? 2. What kind of information is included in each part? − T calls on some Ss to answer the questions and elicits more ideas from the class. T may summarise the answers: 1. The report has three parts: brief introduction, details, and summary of the visit. 2. The introduction includes the general information about the place. In the Details part, we describe the special features of the place in detail. We can write about the location of the place, the time the place built, the things the place has, etc. In the last part, we write how long our visit lasts and our feelings about the trip. − T may also explain some new words if necessary. + be dedicated to: dành để tưởng nhớ + sandstone: sa thạch + throne: ngai − T elicits the verb tenses and the grammatical structures Ss use in their report. + The past simple is used to talk about an event that happened and finished in the past. + The present simple is used to describe facts. + The passive voice is used occasionally in the

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report − T may also ask Ss which part of the report needs the simple past tense, which part needs the simple present and which part needs the passive voice. 17’
WRITING

− T gets Ss to read the given information again and write their reports in 15 minutes. − T goes around to offer help. A sample report: Last year I had a brief tour to Ponagar Cham Towers. This tower complex is one of the most beautiful examples of Cham architecture in central Vietnam. The Ponagar Cham Towers consist of four towers. They are located on Cu Lao Marble Hill, 2 km north of Nha Trang. They were built between the 8th and 13th centuries. Each tower is dedicated to a different god. The largest one was built in honour of Lady Thien Y. The 22.5 m tower contains her sandstone statue sitting on Buddha’s throne. The 2.6 m statue has 10 hands; each is holding a object illustrating the power of Buddha. The tour to Ponagar Cham Towers lasted 5 hours. It was tiring but enjoyable and memorable.

Individual work

8’

FEEDBACK ON SS’ WRITING

− T asks Ss to exchange their writing with another student for peer correction. − T goes around and collects mistakes and errors. − T collects some writings for quick feedback. − T writes Ss’ typical errors on the board and elicits self and peer correction. T provides

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correction only when Ss are not able to correct the errors. − Finally, T provides general comments on the report. 3’
WRAPPING UP

− T summarises the main points of the lesson. − For homework, T asks Ss to revise their reports according to their peer’s suggestions and submit for marking in the next lesson.
EXTRA ACTIVITY Fill in each blank with the appropriate word from the box.

Whole class

The Old (1)…………, near Hoàn Kiếm Lake, has the original street layout and (2)……………. of old Hanoi. At the beginning of the 20th century the city (3)………….. of only about 36 streets, most of which are now part of the old quarter. Each street then comprised of (4)………….. and households specialized in a particular (5)…………., such as silk, jewelery, etc. The street names nowadays still (6)………….these specializations, although few of them sell their (7)…………… products. The area is famous for its small artisans and merchants, including many (8)……….. shops. A night market in the heart of the district is (9)…………….. for every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening with a variety of clothing, souvenirs and food.
consisted trade silk Answer: 1. Quarter 2. architecture 3. consisted 4. merchants 5. trade 6. reflect 7. original 8. silk 9. open
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original Quarter merchants

reflect open architecture

Period 5: LANGUAGE FOCUS
I. Objectives

By the end of this lesson, Ss will be able to: Distinguish the clusters /ft/, /vd/, /fs/ and /vz/ Pronounce the words and sentences containing these clusters correctly Use the structures: It is said that… and People say that…correctly to do the exercises and solve communicative tasks
II. Materials

Textbook, handouts
III. Anticipated problems

Ss might have difficulty pronouncing the clusters. Therefore, T should be ready to assist them.
IV. Procedures
Time Steps Work arrangement

8’

PRONUNCIATION

Distinguishing sounds − T models the clusters /ft/, /vd/, /fs/ and /vz/ for a few times and explains how to produce them. E.g.: When producing /ft/, Ss should produce /f/ first and then quickly switch to /t/, and so on. − T plays the tape (or reads) once for Ss to hear the words containing these clusters. Then T plays the tape (or reads) again and this time asks Ss to repeat after the tape (or T). − T asks Ss to read the words in each column out loud in chorus for a few more times. Then T calls

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on some Ss to read the words out loud. T listens and corrects if Ss pronounce the target words incorrectly. If many Ss do not pronounce the words correctly, T may want to get them to repeat after the tape (or him/herself) again in chorus and then individually. Practising sentences containing the target sounds − T asks Ss to work in pairs and take turn to read aloud the given sentences (p. 185). − T goes around to listen and takes notes of the typical errors. − T calls on some Ss to read the sentences again and provides corrective feedback. 12’
GRAMMAR

a. Presentation − T revises the special passive structure: People say/believe… that…by giving out some examples. These examples can be taken from the exercises in the book to save time. + People say that he is 108 years old. − It is said that he is 108 years old. − He is said to be 108 years old. + People believe that the Great Pyramid of Giza was built over a 20 - year period. − It is believed that the Great Pyramid of Giza was built over a 20-year period. −- The Great Pyramid of Giza is believed to have been built over a 20-year period. + People think that he’s living in Hanoi. − It is known that he’s living in Hanoi. − He’s known to be living in Hanoi. − Ss comment on the examples

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− T can help Ss to identify the form for this special passive structure. People/they + think/ say/suppose/ believe/consider/ report.....+ that + clause. We have two ways to change this structure into a passive sentence. 1. Change the structure into: It's + thought/said/ supposed/ believed/ considered/ reported... + that + clause (this is the clause in the original sentence) E.g: + People say that he is a good doctor. >> It's said that he is a good doctor. + People think he stole my car. >> It's thought he stole my car. 2. Use the subject of that-clause as the subject of the passive sentence. a. If the verb in that-clause is in the simple present: S + am/is/are + thought/ said/supposed... + to + V-inf E.g: People say that he is a good doctor. >> He is said to be a good doctor. b. If the verb in that-clause is in the simple past or present perfect: S + am/is/are + thought/ said/ supposed... + to + have + P2. E.g: People think he stole my car. >> He is thought to have stolen my car. c. If the verb in that-clause is in the present continuous: S + am/is/are + thought/ said/ supposed... + to + be + V-ing. People think that he’s living in Hanoi. − He’s known to be living in Hanoi.

8’

Individual, pair work & whole class

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7’

b. Practice: Exercise 1 − T asks Ss to do Exercise 1 individually and then compare their answers with another student. − T calls on some Ss to go to the board and write their sentences. Each student writes one sentence. − T elicits peer correction and gives correct answers if necessary. Answer: 1. Many people are said to be homeless after the floods. 2. The prisoner is thought to have escaped by climbing over the wall. 3. He is believed to have driven through the town at 90 km an hour. 4. Two people are reported to have been seriously injured in the accident. 5. Three men are said to have been arrested after the explosion. 6. The strike is expected to begin tomorrow. 7. He is said to speak English very well. Exercise 2 − T asks Ss to do Exercise 2 in pairs. − T asks them to compare answers with another pair. − T calls on some Ss to go to the board to write their answers. − T asks other Ss to feedback and gives correct answers: Answers: 1. He is thought to be very clever. 2. The wanted man is believed to be living in New York. 3. He is known to be very rich. 4. The film is supposed to be very good.

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5. Many people are thought to have been killed in the accident. 6. About a million puppies are thought to be born each year. 7. The factories are said to be mush worse. 8. Those dogs are said to be dangerous. 8’
COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE (production stage)

− T puts Ss in pairs and introduces the role play. Student A: Yesterday Student B: Listen to your friend’s story. you ran across Bill Ask him/ her questions Gates. Now you meet your friend. Tell as appropriate and him/her about the share what you know about Bill Gates. incident and share Remember to use the what you know about Bill Gates. Remember structures: people to use the structures: say/believe/report that…; it is said/ people believed/ reported say/believe/report that…; he is that…; it is said/ said/believed to… believed/ reported that…; he is said/believed to… − T goes around to check and offer help. − T calls on some pairs to the front and perform their conversation again. T elicits comments from the class and gives corrective feedback as appropriate. Sample conversation: - Hi, Lan. - Hi, Mai. You know what? I met Bill Gates in Hang Bai Street yesterday. - Really? People say that he’s travelling

Pair work & whole class

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2’

around Southeast Asia at the moment. - Yes, I know. I didn’t think that I could meet him here in Hanoi. It is said that he’s still the richest man in the world. - Yeah. He’s said not to have finished his university study. Wrapping up − T summarises the main points of the lesson. − For homework, Ss review the lesson and do the extra activity.
EXTRA ACTIVITY

Whole class

Rewrite the following sentences in two ways.

1. People know that she is a good swimmer. → ………………………………………………………………… ….. 2. They say that Francis is in hospital. → ………………………………………………………………… ….. 3. They think that the children are in bed. → ………………………………………………………………… ….. 4. People believe that the robber has worked in the bank. → ………………………………………………………………… ….. 5. People believe that nuclear power stations are dangerous. → ………………………………………………………………… …..

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6. People know that cars pollute the environment. → ………………………………………………………………… ….. 7. People think that she’s travelling in Asia. → ………………………………………………………………… …..
Answers: 1. It is known that she is a good swimmer./ She is known to be a good swimmer. 2. It is said that Francis is in hospital./ Francis is said to be in hospital. 3. It is thought that the children are in bed./The children are said to be in bed. 4. It is believed that the robber has worked in the bank./ The robber is believed to have worked in the bank. 5. It is believed that nuclear power stations are dangerous./ Nuclear power stations are believed to be dangerous. 6. It is known that cars pollute the environment./ Cars are known to pollute the environment.

8. It is thought that she’s travelling in Asia./ She’s thought to be travelling in Asia.

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CÁC BÀI DỊCH MẪU
Bài 9: BƯU ĐIỆN Chào mừng quý khách đến với Bưu điện Thanh Ba! (Mở cửa hàng ngày từ 7h sáng đến 9h tối) Bưu điện Thanh Ba được trang bị công nghệ tiên tiến và có một không gian rộng rãi và dễ chịu. Chúng tôi có các dịch vụ tốt nhất với đội ngũ nhân viên được đào tạo bài bản, luôn tận tụy và lịch sự với khách hàng. Dịch vụ gửi thư và bưu kiện Quý khách hàng có thể chọn gửi thư theo đường hàng không hoặc gửi thư thường. Chúng tôi cũng có dịch vụ gửi thư nhanh EMS và thư EMS của quý khách sẽ được phát trong thời gian ngắn nhất có thể. Bưu kiện nặng nhất là 31,5 kg. Chúng tôi chào giá rất cạnh tranh cho các bưu kiện dưới 15 kg. Dịch vụ chuyển tiền nhanh Tưởng tượng rằng người thân của quý khách sống cách xa hàng nghìn cây số và quý khách muốn nhanh chóng chuyển tiền cho họ. Dịch vụ chuyển tiền nhanh và an toàn này sẽ rất có ích. Tiền sẽ được chuyển cho người thân của quý khách trong vòng 24 giờ. Gọi điện thoại và gửi fax Ngoài dịch vụ gọi điện thoại bình thường, Bưu điện của chúng tôi còn cung cấp dịch vụ Điện thoại Thông báo. Dịch vụ này sẽ giúp quý khách thông báo cho người nhận điện thoại về thời gian và địa điểm nhận cuộc gọi. Nếu quý khách muốn gửi một tài liệu và không muốn mất đi định dạng gôc của tài liệu đó thì dịch vụ gửi fax của chúng tôi sẽ giúp

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đỡ quý khách. Việc chuyển fax hiện nay là một cách rẻ và tiện lợi để chuyển các văn bản và các hình vẽ đồ họa đi xa. Dịch vụ phát hành báo chí Quý khách không cần phải đi ra khỏi nhà sớm để mua báo nữa. Quý khách chỉ cần đặt các tờ báo và tạp chí yêu thích của mình và chúng tôi sẽ chuyển tới nhà quý khách vào buổi sáng sớm.

Bµi 10: HIỂM HỌA VỚI THIÊN NHIÊN Loài người chỉ là một giốn loài nhỏ trong thế giới sống. Có rất nhiều các loài khác đang tồn tại trên hành tinh này. Tuy nhiên, loài người có ảnh hưởng rất lớn đối với phần còn lại của thế giới. Họ đang thay đổi môi trường bằng việc xây dựng các thành phố và làng mạc ở những nơi từng là các khu rừng. Họ đang làm ảnh hưởng tới nguồn nước bằng việc sử dụng nước cho công nghiệp và nông nghiệp. Họ đang làm thay đổi thời tiết bằng việc chặt cây trong các khu rừng. Và họ đang phá hủy bầu không khí bằng việc thải ra các chất gây ô nhiễm. Có thể nói rằng con người đang thay đổi môi trường ở tất cả các phương diện thông qua các hành động và thói quen của mình. Điều này đã dẫn đến hai hậu quả nghiêm trọng. Hậu quả đầu tiên là nhiều loài động vật quý hiếm bị giết hại. Hậu quả thứ hai là môi trường sống của các loài động vật này bị hủy hoại nghiêm trọng. Vì vậy số lượng các loài động vật quý hiếm đang giảm mạnh đến nỗi mà chúng đang có nguy cơ tuyệt chủng. Để đảm bảo rằng các loài động vật quý hiếm này không biến mất cần phải nỗ lực bảo vệ môi trường sống của chúng. Các nhà khoa học đã lập danh sách các loài động vật đang bị nguy hiểm và đề ra các biện pháp để bảo vệ chúng. Nhiều tổ chức đã được thành lập và nhiều quỹ cũng được huy động. Hàng ngàn các công viên quốc gia trên khắp thế giới được thành lập để bảo vệ các loài động vật đang bị nguy hiểm. Các điều luật cũng được thông qua để nghiêm cấm việc giết hại
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các loài động vật đang bị nguy hiểm và việc phá hoại môi trường sống của chúng. Nếu sự tác động của con người đối với môi trường giảm đi thì nhiều loài khác sẽ tồn tại và sinh con đẻ cái. Trái đất sẽ là một hành tinh hạnh phúc nơi con người, các loài động, thực vật cùng chung sống hòa bình.

Bài 11: CÁC NGUỒN NĂNG LƯỢNG Hiện tại đa số năng lượng của chúng ta đều có nguồn gốc từ các các nguyên liệu hóa thạch (dầu, than đá và khí ga tự nhiên). Tuy nhiên những nguồn nguyên liệu đó đều có giới hạn. Bởi vì nhu cầu năng lượng đang tăng rất nhanh, các nguyên liệu hóa thạch sẽ cạn kiệt trong một thời gian ngắn nữa. Vì vậy người ta phải phát triển và sử dụng nguồn năng lượng thay thế. Một nguồn năng lượng thay thế là năng lượng hạt nhân. Năng lượng hạt nhân có thể cung cấp đủ điện cho nhu cầu sử dụng của thế giới trong hàng trăm năm nhưng nó có thể nguy hiểm. Một nguồn năng lượng thay thế khác là địa nhiệt từ rất sâu trong lòng đất. Các nhà khoa học sử dụng lượng nhiệt này để tạo ra năng lượng. Tuy nhiên năng lượng này chỉ có ở một số nơi trên thế giới. Mặt trời, nước và gió là các nguồn năng lượng thay thế. Gió quay các cối xay gió và chuyển động thuyền buồm. Đây là nguồn năng lượng sạch và rất sẵn. Tuy nhiên, nếu gió không thổi thì không có năng lượng gió. Nước chảy từ cao xuống thấp sẽ tạo ra năng lượng. Năng lượng này dùng để tạo ra điện. Sức nước tạo ra năng lượng mà không gây ô nhiễm. Tuy nhiên người ta phải xây đập để sử dụng năng lượng này. Và xây dựng các con đập thì tốn nhiều tiền vì vậy thủy điện rất đắt. Mặt trời giải phóng lượng năng lượng lớn hàng ngày. Nguồn năng lượng này có thể được biến thành điện. Nhiều quốc gia sử dụng năng lượng mặt trời trong cuộc sống hàng ngày. Các tấm thu năng lượng mặt trời trên mái các ngôi nhà có thể tạo ra đủ năng lượng để làm
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nóng hoặc làm mát cả ngôi nhà. Năng lượng mặt trời không chỉ nhiều và vô tận mà còn sạch và an toàn. Mặc dù có một số điểm bất lợi, tiềm năng của các nguồn năng lượng thay thế rất lớn. Tuy nhiên làm thế nào để sử dụng tốt các nguồn năng lượng này là một câu hỏi đối với các nhà nghiên cứu trên toàn thế giới.

Bài 12: THẾ VẬN HỘI THỂ THAO CHÂU Á Thế vận hội thể thao châu Á diễn ra 4 năm một lần được tổ chức để phát triển kiến thức liên văn hóa và tình hữu nghị trong châu Á. Trong đại hội thể thao này, các vận động viên trẻ trên khắp châu Á gặp nhau để tranh tài. Đây là một dịp để kiểm tra sức mạnh và kỹ năng thể thao; tình hữu nghị và đoàn kết được xây dựng và phát triển. Trong lịch sử 5 thập kỷ của nó, Thế vận hội thể thao châu Á đã phát triển về mọi mặt. Số lượng vận động viên tham gia không ngừng tăng. Chất lượng các vận động viên, các quan chức và dụng cụ thể thao cũng tăng lên theo thời gian. Các môn thể thao mới và các môn thể thao truyền thống được giới thiệu và thêm vào. Thế vận hội thể thao châu Á đầu tiên được tổ chức tại New Delhi, Ấn Độ vào năm 1951. Chỉ có 489 vận động viên từ 11 quốc gia tham gia. Sáu môn thể thao tại Thế vận hội thể thao châu Á đầu tiên là bóng rổ, đua xe đạp, bóng đá, các môn thể thao dưới nước, điền kinh và cử tạ. Quyền anh, bắn súng và vật được bổ sung ở Thế vận hội thứ 2 tại Manila, Philipin năm 1954; quần vợt, bóng chuyền, bóng bàn và khúc côn cầu được bổ sung ở Thế vận hộ lần thứ 3 tại Tokyo, Nhật Bản năm 1958. Bóng quần, bóng bầu dục, chạy vượt rào và đua xe đạp leo núi lần đầu tiên được giới thiệu tại Thế vận hội thể thao châu Á lần thứ 13 tại Băng kok, Thái Lan năm 1998. Thế vận hội thể thao châu Á lần thứ 14 được tổ chức tại Busan, Hàn Quốc vào năm 2002 đã thu hút 9.919 vận động viên từ 44 quốc gia tham gia. Các vận động viên đã tranh tài trong 38 môn thể thao khác nhau và giành được 427 huy chương vàng. Các vận động viên Việt Nam đã tham gia Thế vận hội này với lòng nhiệt tình lớn lao. Nỗ
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lực của họ đã được ghi nhận khi họ được 2 huy chương vàng trong môn thể hình và bi-a và 2 huy chương nữa trong môn karatedo nữ. Hy vọng rằng trong tương lai không xa Việt Nam sẽ trở thành nước chủ nhà và giành được nhiều huy chương hơn nữa trong các đại hội thể thao khác nhau.

Bài 13: SỞ THÍCH Tôi thích làm một số việc trong thời gian rỗi. Đó là các sở thích của tôi. Tôi thích nhất là chơi đàn ghi ta. Chú tôi, một nghệ sỹ ghi ta nổi tiếng, đã dạy tôi chơi đàn. Hiện giờ tôi có thể chơi một số giai điệu đơn giản. Tôi cũng bắt đầu hát trong khi đánh đàn nhưng chưa thành công lắm. Chú tôi nói rằng điều tôi cần làm là luyện tập thường xuyên và tôi phải thực hiện bằng được điều này. Chú tôi rất giỏi đệm đàn ghi ta cho mọi người hát và tôi rất ngưỡng mộ chú. Một sở thích nữa của tôi là nuôi cá cảnh. Tôi có một chiếc bể nuôi cá nhỏ bằng thủy tinh nơi tôi nuôi một số con cá nhỏ. Một số cá được tôi mua ở cửa hàng còn một số khác được vớt từ cánh đồng gần nhà. Chúng bơi lội tung tăng trong bể trông thật đẹp. Tôi rất thích ngắm nhìn chúng và mẹ tôi cũng vậy. Tôi còn sưu tập tem nữa. Tuy nhiên tôi tự nhận không phải là người đam mê sưu tầm tem. Thực ra tôi chỉ sưu tầm tem từ những chiếc phong bì bỏ đi mà họ hàng và bạn bè cho tôi. Tôi chủ yếu có những chiếc tem trong nước. Thỉnh thoảng tôi có những chiếc tem từ Nga, Mỹ, Anh, Úc, Trung Quốc và một số nước khác. Tôi giữ những chiếc tem hiếm trong một an bum nhỏ. Còn những chiếc tem bình thường tôi thường cho người khác hoặc nếu không ai thích những chiếc tem này thì tôi bỏ chúng đi. Có những sở thích mà tôi theo đuổi trong một thời gian ngắn nhưng chúng không thú vị bằng những sở thích tôi vừa kể. Những sở thích này thực sự khiến tôi quan tâm và tôi rất vui tôi có thể theo đuổi chúng.

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Bài 14: SỰ GIẢI TRÍ Một câu ngạn ngữ của Anh nói rằng “Học mà không chơi đánh rơi tuổi trẻ” (Chỉ làm việc mà không chơi khiến Jack trở thành người đần). Nghỉ ngơi và giải trí rất quan trọng đối với mọi người ở bất cứ nơi nào trên thế giới. Tuy nhiên các nước khác nhau lại có các hoạt động giải trí phổ biến khác nhau. Ở Anh, các hoạt động giải trí phổ biến nhất thường diễn ra ở nhà. Xem tivi là hoạt động phổ biến nhất và khoảng gần một nửa số hộ gia đình có 1 chiếc tivi. Hơn 51% số hộ gia đình có 2 hoặc nhiều hơn 2 tivi và thời gian xem tivi trung bình cho lứa tuổi từ 4 trở lên là 25 giờ một tuần. Các hoạt động giải trí khác là nghe nhạc, đọc, các công việc nâng cấp nhà cửa tự làm và làm vườn. Người Anh cũng rất thích xem và tham gia các môn thể thao. Đi bộ và bơi là hai hoạt động thể thao phổ biến nhất, có sự tham gia gần như đồng đều của nam và nữ. Bi-a 21 viên, bi-a 16 viên và phi tiêu là các hoạt động thể thao phổ biến tiếp theo trong nam giới. Các môn thể thao thi đấu được ưa thích nhất là bóng đá và bóng bầu dục vào mùa đông, và cric-kê và các môn điền kinh vào mùa hè. Một vài năm gần đây ở Anh một xu hướng mới đang phát triển; đó là tham gia các khóa học cuối tuần hoặc vào kỳ nghỉ. Có rất nhiều các khóa học được tổ chức. Có khóa học đơn giản như xây gạch lại có những khóa học phức tạp như ra quyết định trên thị trường chứng khoán. Những người đam mệ nghệ thuật có thể tham gia các khóa học vẽ. Những người yêu âm nhạc có thể tham gia khóa học hát karaoke. Những khóa học như đóng giày hay chạm khắc thủy tinh cung cấp cho người học những kỹ năng thực tế với đôi tay. Những người muốn nâng cao trí óc có thể tham gia khóa học “Sống với nhiều ý nghĩa hơn”. Điều kiện để tham gia các khóa học cuối tuần rất thấp, có nghĩa là thường thì không có điều kiện gì ngoài khả năng chi trả học phí và thường thì học phí tương đối cao.

Bài 15: CUỘC CHINH PHỤC VŨ TRỤ

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1. Vào hồi 9h7 phút sáng giờ Matxcơva ngày 12 tháng 4 năm 1961 Yuri Gagarin đã bay vào vũ trụ trên con tàu Vostok 1. Khoảng 12 phút sau đó, con người đầu tiên đã ở trong quỹ đạo bay quanh Trái Đất với vận tốc hơn 17.000 dặm một giờ. Chuyến bay của anh kéo dài 108 phút. 2. Nhà du hành vũ trụ 27 tuổi đã trở thành người đầu tiên ăn và uống trong tình trạng không trọng lượng. Từ cửa sổ trong vũ trụ, Gagarin có thể nhìn Trái Đất theo một cách mà không một người nào làm được trước đó. Những lời nói đầu tiên từ vũ trụ là “Tôi nhìn thấy Trái Đất. Nó thật đẹp!” 3. Trước chuyến bay lịch sử của Gagarin thì vẫn còn rất nhiều điều chưa chắc chắn. Không ai biết một cách chính xác điều gì sẽ xảy ra cho con người trong vũ trụ. Cơ thể con người sẽ phản ứng thế nào đối với những thay đổi vô cùng trong nhiệt độ? Bộ não người sẽ phản ứng thế nào với sự căng thẳng về tâm lý? Nếu có một trục trặc kỹ thuật nào đó thì Gagarin có thể sẽ không bao giờ quay trở về Trái Đất nữa. 4. Sự thành công của chuyến bay của Gagarin thu hút sự chú ý của toàn thế giới và biến anh trở thành một anh hung. Trong một bức điện gửi tới Matxcơva, Tổng thống Mỹ John Kennedy viết “Nhân dân Mỹ chia sẻ với nhân dân Liên Xô niềm vui sướng về chuyến bay an toàn của nhà du hành vũ trụ trong chuyến phiêu lưu đầu tiên của con người vào vũ trụ. Chúng tôi xin chúc mừng các bạn và các nhà khoa học và kỹ sư Xô Viết, những người đã làm nên kỳ tích này…” 5. Gagarin đã có thể thực hiện một chuyến bay nữa vào vũ trụ nếu một tai nạn thảm khốc không xảy ra. Anh đã qua đời trong một tai nạn máy bay trong chuyến bay luyện tập định kỳ vào tháng 3 năm 1968. Sau khi anh mất thành phố quê hương anh Gzhatsk được đổi tên thành Gagarin và Trung tâm đào đạo các nhà du hành vũ trụ tại thành phố Star cũng được đặt tên của người anh hùng dân tộc này.

Bài 16: CÁC KỲ QUAN THẾ GIỚI Kim tự tháp vĩ đại Giza
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Kim tự tháp vĩ đại Giza được pharaông Ai Cập Khufu xây dựng vào khoảng năm 2560 trước công nguyên. Mục đích của kim tự tháp bằng đá khổng lồ này là trở thành ngôi mộ khi nhà vua mất và để bảo vệ căn phòng chôn nhà vua khỏi thời tiết và những kẻ có thể ăn trộm những vật báu và tài sản ở đó. Người ta tin rằng Kim tự tháp vĩ đại được xây dựng trong khoảng thời gian 20 năm. Đầu tiên nơi xây dựng được chuẩn bị và sau đó những tảng đã khổng lồ được chuyển đến và được sắp xếp vào chỗ của chúng. Khi được xây dựng, Kim tự tháp vĩ đại cao 147m trên một chân đế rộng 230m2. Nó là kết cấu cao nhất trên mặt đất trong hơn 43 thế kỷ và chỉ bị vượt về chiều cao ở thế kỷ 19 sau công nguyên. Kết cấu này cao gồm khoảng 2 triệu tảng đá, mỗi tảng nặng khoảng 2,5 tấn. Người ta cho rằng số tảng đá ở 3 kim tự tháp đủ để xây một bức tường cao 3m, dầy 0,3m xung quanh nước Pháp. Mặc dù người ta không biết làm thế nào có thể xếp được những tảng đá vào vị trí một số giả thuyết đã được đưa ra. Một giả thuyết có đề cập đến việc xây dựng những bờ dôc thoai thoải thẳng hoặc xoáy trôn ốc khi việc xây dựng kim tự tháp được tiến hành. Giả thuyết thứ hai cho rằng những tảng đá được nhấc lên và được sắp xếp nhờ việc sử dụng hàng ngàn tay đỡ khổng lồ. Hiện nay Kim tự tháp vĩ đại Giza đã được bao xung quanh cùng với các kim tự tháp khác trong khu du lịch của Cao nguyên Giza trên bờ phía tây của sông Nin. Trong khu vực này cũng có một viện bảo tang trưng bày Chiếc thuyền Mặt trời huyền bí, chỉ được phát hiện ra năm 1954 gần mặt phía nam của kim tự tháp. Người ta tin là chiếc thuyền này được sử dụng để chở thi hài của vua Khufu trong chuyến đi cuối cùng của ông trên trái đất trước khi được chôn cất trong kim tự tháp.

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Môc lôc
Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13 Unit 14 Unit 15 Unit 16 THE POST OFFICE....................................................................3 NATURE IN DANGER ..............................................................29 SOURCES OF ENERGY..........................................................55 THE ASIAN GAMES .................................................................81 HOBBIES ................................................................................107 RECREATION ........................................................................137 SPACE CONQUEST ..............................................................170 THE WONDERS OF THE WORLD ........................................204

CÁC BÀI DỊCH MẪU ................................................................................235

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