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disturbances using

A DSP complex filtering schemes,

often employing large
based passive components.

On-Line Among the various UPS

systems online UPS
UPS provides maximum
protection to such loads
against any power
problems. Because of
ABSTRACT multiple power conversion
stages, online UPSs have
Many facilities
been the most complex and
such as patient health care
expensive type of systems.
centers, data processing
Today’s low cost, high
systems, critical
performance Digital Signal
telecommunication links,
Processors(DSPs) provide
LAN servers, offices etc
an improved and cost-
rely on uninterruptible
effective solution for
power supplies (UPS) to
online UPS design,
maintain a continuous
making them software
supply of power in case of
controllable, adding some
line outage. In addition to
facilities like remote
requiring continuous
configuration and
power, many critical
monitoring and other
nonlinear loads are
network management
sensitive to the incoming
line transients and input
This paper presents
harmonic voltage
the basic design and merits
distortion. Conventional
of using real time digital
UPS systems operate to
protect against such
signal processing (DSP) conversion stages, on-line
control of UPS systems. UPSs have been most
complex and expensive
type of systems.

Today’s low cost, high

performance Digital

Signal Processors

(DSPs) provide an

improved and cost-

effective solution for
online UPS design.
power supplies (UPS) play
Typical On-Line UPS:
an important role in
A typical UPS
interfacing critical loads
consists of a rectifier
such as computers, tele-
supplied battery bank & a
communication links,data-
static inverter-filter system
processing systems, life
to convert a dc voltage to a
supporting systems and
sinusoidal ac output.
industrial controls,e.t.c to
Modern UPS systems
the power grid .Among
minimize the harmonic
the various UPS
content of the inverter
topologies, on –line UPSs
output voltage through the
provides maximum
use of complex filtering
protection to such loads
schemes employing large
against any utility power
passive components.
problem, as it protects
against power
of multiple power
per half cycle is more,
lower order harmonics will
be eliminated.
General PWM

techniques for UPS:

Need for Pulse Width 1. Using Analog
Modulation: devices:
PWM is nothing Analog PWM uses
but the control of UPS natural sampling
inverter switching, under technique, which compares
feedback control to realize a sinusoidal modulating
the desired output wave form with a
waveform and also to triangular wave (from a
minimize the harmonic time-base generator) to
content of the output generate pulses.
voltage. Pulses are
generated whenever a
carrier signal &
modulating signal crosses
eachother.These pulses are
given to thyristors and
pulsating output is
generated. Depending on
the number of output
pulses generated, 2. Using
switching frequency of Microprocessors:
inverter is determined.
A digital PWM
Width of the pulses is
signal generator is
proportional to magnitude
interfaced with a
of the output sine wave
microprocessor. It
and if the number of pulses
calculates the pulse width instruction cycle,
at every sampling instant. complicated control
According to this algorithms can be executed
calculated width, the pulse with speed, making very
generator generates the high sampling rate possible
pulses with a constant for digitally controlled
switching frequency. inverters. High speed
DSPs are now capable of
executing over 30 million
instructions per second

Then, Why DSP? More reasons for

Most of the using DSPs:
Microprocessor –aided • No analog
UPS systems continue to circuitry. Thus no
depend on the analog op- offsets( i.e.
amp controls and they lack installation &
speed required for high maintenance cost
frequency inverter control. saved)
Therefore, harmonics are
• High speed DSP
not eliminated in the
control allows for
output wave form,
real time harmonic
insisting on the large
output LC-filter circuit.
• Flexible
With the
configuration for
availability of low cost-
many power sizes.
high performance DSP
• Sophisticated
chips characterised by the
execution of most
algorithm saving
instructions in one
overall system
• Features may be
upgraded in the
same hardware, to
fulfill different
incoming needs.

DSP control of UPS

Thus, the application of
advanced signal processing
Most using a DSP operates to
electronic loads served by provide sinusoidal load
UPS systems are non- voltages even under
linear and thus generate varying load situations,
harmonic currents that while eliminating the need
must be filtered at the of large passive filters.
inverter output to reduce
The figure shown
the distortion to acceptable
gives the basic block
levels. The DSP controlled
UPS systems employs diagram of DSP control

software controlled with PWM inverter

harmonic conditioners control circuit:
with the ability to
dynamically adopt to
changing load conditions
for compensating load
harmonics without manual
The functional
block diagram is as shown
and the result is applied to
the input of PWM inverter.
The above
mentioned harmonic
distortion correction signal
is generated in the negative
feedback loop. The Digital
Signal Processor detects
the harmonic distortion
signal within the output
voltage waveform and
The output of the
determines the amplitude
UPS PWM inverter is
of real and imaginary parts
sampled and converted to
of the harmonic
an rms voltage that is
components. This process
processed in a negative
will be described for the
feedback loop. The actual
cancellation of the 5th
inverter output is
harmonic, however, any
compared to a software
harmonic whose frequency
rms reference value to
is below half the sampling
determine the error
frequency can be cancelled
voltage. The error voltage
in the same manner.
is then passed through a
Each frame of the
proportional integral (PI)
converted digital output
control to eliminate any
from the A/D converter
steady state errors present.
passes to a real and
The result is the necessary
imaginary component
error compensation
harmonic detectors for
signal.A harmonic
phases a,b and c. For
distortion correction signal
example, the harmonic
is then subtracted from the
distortion waveform (Aa5)
error compensation signal
is processed by a signal of the 5th harmonic are
correlation function in computed by averaging the
order to detect the real and amplitude components of
imaginary values of the 5th the three phases as shown
harmonic. This function below.
can be written for phase ‘a’

The amplitude components

are then applied to a PI
Where v a
compensator to generate
(n) is the output voltage of
the harmonic distortion
phase a for sometime n.
correction signal necessary
The distortion signal may
to cancel harmonic
be represented more
distortion from the output
simply as
voltage. The resulting
harmonic distortion
correction signal is then
subtracted from the error
compensation signal and
Where λa5r is the real
applied to the input of the
component of Aa5, and λa5i
PWM inverter to produce
is the imaginary
an output voltage
component of Aa5.
waveform free of harmonic
Once the harmonic
distortion. The same
distortion signal (Aa5, Ab5
technique can be applied to
and Ac5) is detected by the
eliminate still higher
signal correlation function,
harmonics like 7th, 9th etc,
the amplitudes of the real
below figure shows
and imaginary components
the operation of UPS
without harmonic operating temperatures due
conditioner to additional harmonic

Advantages of using

DSP in UPSs:

• High reliability

and low
But with all-harmonic
dimensions: with
conditioners enabled, the DSP, the
the output voltage number of

wave is like below: electronic

components is
halved, thereby
processing time
and failure
probability and
reliability and
eliminating the use
Hence, the DSP of redundant
controlled inverter current and voltage
and harmonic sensors.
conditioners • Precision: the
operate to provide DSP controls the
Sinusoidal load voltages electrical values
even under varying non- directly,
linear load conditions guaranteeing
while preventing higher extreme precision
and stability of the form of clear
output voltage and read-out monitors,
avoidance of noise aiding them in
due to distorting taking any
loads. decisions.
• Interactive Moreover the
control system upgrade can
be implemented in
DSP controls the
software, making the latest
UPS in its entirety
features available to any
and outputs on a
compatible UPS without
serial interface all
changes to the hardware.
the supervision
reports, for
shutdown of
servers, for
communication on
The conventional
a LAN network,
methods of UPS control
the Internet and
and with using DSP, how
Intranet and for IT
the UPS control can be
maintenance which
made more users friendly,
is carried out
its advantages are
without switching
discussed in the paper.
the equipment off.
No doubt, DSPs are
• Knowing the
going to lead the market of
history: The control inverters in near
control software future and already big
provides users with players in the market like
operating and Texas Instruments, Eaton
historical data in group, Intel etc are in the
arena to make use the (3) “Power Electronics
technology in a full swing. Analysis Design &
Bibliography: Apllications” by Ned

(1)”DSP control of high- Mohan, Tore M. Undeland,

power UPS systems William P. Robbins

feeding nonlinear loads” (4)”Interfacing DSPs with

by Annette Von Jouanne high performance analog

and Prasad N.Enjeti converters” Jim Ryan,

sen.IEEE member, from Raheen Industrial estate,

IEEE transactions on Ireland.

Industrial Electronics,Vol (5)WEMPEC-25th

43,no.1,Feb,1996. anniversary review

(2)”Digital signal meeting, R&D

processing based online dept.innovation center

UPS” manual by Eaton Corporation.