Tourists: The origin of the word “tourist” date back to 1292 AD. It has come from the word ‘tour’. A number of experts have defined the term: “Tourists are the voluntary temporary travelers, traveling in the expectations of pleasure from the novelty and change experienced on a relatively and non-current round-trip”. “Tourist is a person who makes a journey for the sake of curiosity for the fun of traveling”.

Tourist: The UN/WTO (World Tourism Organization) defines visitors as “any person Traveling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than 12 months And whose main purpose of the trip is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated From within the place visited. Tourists are:
 Persons traveling for pleasure, health and domestic reason.  Persons arriving in the sea of sea cruise.  Persons traveling for convention.

In the view of the previously mentioned viewpoints of different experts, the following points emerge regarding tourism:  Tourism is a temporary and short-term movement of people.  Tourism is the totality of relationship.  Tourism is an activity involving a complex mixture of material and psychological elements.  Tourism is the activity concerned with the utilization of leisure hours.  Tourism is a composite industry consisting of various segments.


Tourism – the first commercial venture.

A religious Englishman called Thomas Cook in 1841 arranged, for a fee, a one –day rail excursion from Leicester to Loughborough for 540 members of a temperance league. Thus the first bona fide travel agent was Thomas Cook. While Cook himself did not make a profit on this first venture, he was a man of vision and was convinced that there was a need for a skilled “travel arranger”. So by 1845 he had become the first full-time travel agent, operating train excursions from Leicester. The next year he chartered a train and steamer for an excursion to Scotland for 330 people. In 1851 Cook arranged ocean steamship travel and accommodations for more than 1,50,000 visitors to the World Exposition in London and in 1856 he operated the first escorted “grand tour” of Europe. Tours to Europe and Middle East were also conducted and, in 1872, the first around the world tour was conducted.


Tourism as a Global industry

It is difficult to have a command on the cyclic movement of fashion, needs and requirements and the lifestyles. The process of change is of course, the seeds of dissatisfaction and monotony get a conducive nexus for their germination and development. Hence to control or regulate the process, we allow a change which influences our decision making behavior and forces us to welcome a change place. It was against the background that the travelling was transformed into a business and of late is an industry. The transformation has witnessed a number of ups and downs in almost all the areas. Right from the very beginning of the culture and civilization, we find the process of change continuing, of course as a pilgrimage. There is no doubt in it that the Roman Empire injected life, strength and continuity to the travelling and therefore, the credibility for the development of tourism industry ultimately goes to them. The fall of Roman Empire resulted into the downfall of the tourism, at least still the end of the middle age. The available facts reveal that the Romans evinced interest in visiting temples, shrines, festivals and the baths for health and amusement. The contours of development underwent radical changes at least until the 15th century. The trade and commerce along with religious activities gained the momentum but till the beginning of industrial revolution, tourism continued to remain a matter of pilgrimage. Of course a number of developments took place between 15th and 18th centuries. Tourism is arguably the world’s largest industry and continuously tremendous annual growth rates. For the recipients of international tourism, the tourism industry creates dependency upon a fickle and fluctuating global economy beyond their local control. Local economic activities and resources are used less for the development of communities and increasingly for export and enjoyment of others. With so few international policies and guidelines restricting it, tourism has given free reign to develop throughout the world. In fact, it has leaded the globalization process in areas of transportation, communications and financial systems.

Globally, tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world, generating wealth and employment, opening the minds of both visitors and visited to different ways of life. Tourism as an instrument of economic development will and is taking the greater importance in the future. There are grounds for optimism about what tourism can mean for poor nations in the 21st century. Tourism can help poor countries develop by increasing employment opportunities. Tourism tools encourage activities in least developed countries by promoting, recognizing developing strategy, encouraging providing what are most desirable, taking measure and formulating the structure, such as infrastructure. Like any other economic activity, tourism can also be loss making. But if managed properly tourism can be beneficial is the conclusion.


movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work.5 trillion worldwide. This is the very reason why the government of India has been compelled to grant organizations in this industry export house status. These service industries include transportation services such as cruise ships and taxis. and entertainment venues. Tourism is vital for many countries. short-term. 1 industry. due to the income generated by the consumption of goods and services by tourists. the taxes levied on businesses in the tourism industry. Spending on tourism amounts to 5%-10% of total consumer. 5 . bars.Overview of Tourism industry Tourism is a temporary. and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. The tourism as a whole is presently estimated to earn over US$ 3.7 million jobs which are 5.4 seconds with every one of those direct jobs creating another 11 indirect jobs. The Ministry of External Affairs says that the tourism industry is the second highest foreign exchange earner in the economy.6% of the total number of people employed in India. It involves travels and stay for temporary period to a place distant from the residence ranging from weekend to a few weeks or months.8 million by 2010. Tourism is one of the world’s fastest growing industries at present and holds the current status of the world’s no. the tourism industry will contribute close to Rs 8. and other hospitality industry services such as spas and resorts. The WTTC also says that the travel and tourism industry in India employs 17. This figure is expected to go up to 24. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council. by 2020. accommodation such as hotels. Thus it has a great impact on the economy of a country. 50. Tourism industry creates a job every 2. spending in a year worldwide. restaurants.000 crores to India’s GDP.

000 crores to the GDP. The figures indicate that tourism has certainly become a major social phenomenon of the modern society with enormous economic consequences. particularly in remote and backward areas. Tourism industry: Indian scenario 6 .Travel and tourism related jobs/employment are not only generated at a relatively low cost and concentrated in small business and local community but also provide significant opportunities for women and young people. UNWTO's Tourism 2020 Vision forecasts that international arrivals are expected to reach nearly 1. Tourism in India could contribute Rs 8. Its importance as an instrument for economic development and employment generation. 50. has been now well recognized the world over. An essential outcome of the Tourism 2020 Vision are quantitative forecasts covering a 25 years period. with 1995 as the base year and forecasts for 2010 and 2020.6 billion by the year 2020. offer educational training and skill development and protect and revitalize traditional arts and crafts. By 2020. Tourism 2020 vision : Tourism 2020 Vision is the World Tourism Organization's long-term forecast and assessment of the development of tourism up to the first 20 years of the new millennium.

In 1951. the potential of this industry cannot be neglected. plantations and adventure locations. Himachal Pradesh. India’s tourism destinations such as Kerala. JBIC ranked India as the fifth most attractive investment destinations. Further Government has identified locations in various states such as Madhya Pradesh. international tourist arrival stood at around 17 thousand only while the same has now gone up to 3. It generates maximum job opportunities. Indian tourism is one of the most diverse products on the global scene. a growth of 20. which makes it one of the most desirable tourism destinations across the world. Rajasthan. which employs the largest number of manpower. India has significant potential for becoming a major global tourist destination. Karnataka. Tourism industry also has one of the best employment multipliers when compared with any other industry in India. Bihar. The tourism industry currently stands 127th on the list of priorities of the Indian government. Apart from this. India has 26 world heritage sites. Agra etc are already well positioned on the global tourism map. Tourism is also one of the sectors.91 million in 2005. if solving the country's unemployment and foreign exchange problems are on the top of the national agenda. Tourism is the third largest net earner of foreign exchange for the country recording earnings of US$ 5731 million in 2005. India has a 6.1 million people and indirect employment to another 12. It is true that India has yet to reach the prosperity level where leisure activity can be included in the priority sector but. Conde NastTraveler.4 million. Goa. as it provides direct employment to 9. one of the world’s most celebrated travel magazines ranked India amongst the top 10 tourist destinations of the world. India also has a large number of villages. Tourism in India has registered significant growth in the recent years. It is divided into 25 bio-geographic zones and has wide ranging eco tourism products. diverse culture. The upward trend is expected to remain firm in the coming years.Tourism industry in india is one of the fastest growing industry. Gujarat. Maharashtra. India is home to a great variety of 7 . Andhra Pradesh etc to promote them as tourist’s hub. India's great ethnic diversity translates into a wide variety of cuisine and culture. India is known for its mystical attraction in terms of its rich heritage. religion and scenic beauty.000 km coastline and dozens of beaches.2 percent over 2004.

along the west coast where 8 . India’s amazing diversity offers you everything you could ever want in a holiday.on a camel safari in the Rajasthan desert when nature comes alive and the peacocks dance. At any part of the year India can offer a dazzling array of destinations and experiences. India also has excellent hospitals offering affordable Medicare and traditional healthcare systems like Ayurveda. One can taste the delight of the Indian monsoon anywhere in the country.6 million in 2006-07 to US$ 117. In the recent 2007-08 budget. you are on the way to one of the most rewarding experiences of your life. the provision for building tourist infrastructure has been increased from US$ 95. golden beaches. colorful people.wildlife and its reserves are well known throughout the world. In summer. It can provide impetus to other industries through backward and forward linkages and can generate huge revenue earnings for the country. India is a vivid kaleidoscope of landscapes. cities come alive with cultural feasts of music and dance. magnificent historical sites and royal cities. when the subcontinent is sizzling. Tourism sector holds immense potential for Indian economy. which are quite attractive to foreigners.5 million in 2007-08. From the moment that you see foot in India to be greeted by a graceful Namaste. rich cultures and festivals. It also has one of the world's biggest railway systems opening possibilities for those interested in rail tourism. In the cool of an Indian winter. a gesture that denotes both welcome and respect. The balmy weather is an ideal time for one to go century hoping in romantic cities studded with medieval forts and palaces. Bounded by the majestic Himalayan ranges in the north and edge by a spectacular coastline surrounded by three seas. In addition to this India organizes numerous fairs and festivals. there are spectacular retreats amidst the heady beauty of the Himalayas or the lush heights of the Western Ghats with cool trekking trails. tall peaks to conquer or stretches of white water for the adventure seekers. misty mountain retreats.

In the desert of Kutch.the relentless slanting rain paints the countryside in brilliant greens or even trekking amidst the stark grandeur of mountain valleys lying in the rain shadow of the Himalayas. the towering temples of south India. participate in the exuberance of a village fair or a colorful festival. The subcontinent of India lies in south Asia. a scattering of villages pit themselves against the awesome forces of nature. on the other hand. carved figurines. the result of the coexistence of a number of a religious as well as local tradition.one that favors tourist with a different facet of its fascination every time they come on a visit. where foothill valleys cover the northern most of the country’s 26 states. Experience exotic India – live like a maharaja in the rich ambiance of royal forts and palaces that are now heritage hotels. India always warm and inviting variety. Side by side with the country’s staggering topographical variations in its cultural diversity.At unbelievable prices. are associated with a great many crafts performing arts of the region. brass and silver ware. To the north it is bordered by the world’s highest mountain chain. Further south.buying exquisite silks. miniature paintings. between Pakistan. carpets …. delight in the grace of a dancer or shop till you drop.. 9 . In the extreme north is the high altitude desert of ladakh. tropical rain forests and sandy deserts are bordered by palm-fringed beaches. day dream on a house boat drifting down the palm – fringed back waters. Tripura and Manipur with their folk culture. plateaus. Local culture is visibly shaped by the faith Buddhism as well as by the harsh terrain. finely crafted jewelry. Gujarat. easily identifiable by their ornately sculptured surface. luxuriate in the serene beauty of a coral island with its turquoise lagoon. china and Nepal. Thus. marble inland with semi-precious stones. resulting in Spartan lifestyle made vibrant by a profusion of jewelry and ornamental embroidery used to adorn appeal and household linen. Yet another facet on Indian culture is the colorful tribal lifestyles of the northeastern states of Nagaland.

Realizing the various socio-economic benefits of tourism. river running. It is a land where temple elephants exist amicably with the microchip. Modern India is a home alike to tribal with his anachronistic lifestyle and to sophisticated urban jet-setter. Buddhism. Its ancient monuments are the backdrop for the world’s largest democracy where the atomic energy is generated and industrial development has brought the country within country’s coastline fashion simple fishing boats in a centuries old tradition while. India’s mountain provides heli skiing. Zoroastrianism. Christianity and Islam all exist with in a country today. terra-cotta figurines of the centuries BC bear distinctly Greek traces. each having left their imprint in the country. in the post world war period.200 BC when Hinduism was first founded. Advancements in transportation and communication have been the major thrust areas for achieving rapid industrialization. Motor vehicle glides off conveyor belts in the state of the art factories. however faint or localized. Jainism. Tourism has achieved today the status of an industry and has become more than a cultural pilgrimage. mountaineering and trekking. and its jungles provide shooting wildlife – with a camera. the history of a country has seldom been the same for adjoining territories. Its beaches provide lazy sunbathing as well as wind surfing and snorkeling. Judaism. Thus. India’s history goes back to 3. Sikhism. while in north. governments in all the 10 . Tourism is one such industry. As a consequence of India’s size. As a result many new industries have mushroomed and have been responsible for catapulting many a nations to the status of highly industrialized nations.In the central Indian states of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh tribal village life has resulted in a variety of artistically executed handcrafts. Industrialization and modernization have been the buzzwords in almost every country. a few miles away. and its great natural wealth has lured a succession of traders and foreign influences to it. Chinese fishing nets in Kerala are a throwback to that country’s ancient maritime trade.

Tourism is arguably the world’s largest industry and continuously tremendous annual growth rates. in the new millennium. most of the countries including India 11 .5% in total capital investment in the world.6 billion tourist will cross international borders for holidays. accounting for about 8. the tourism industry creates dependency upon a fickle and fluctuating global economy beyond their local control. Tourists are swarming places of interest by the hordes. 1. People with increased disposable incomes are showing interest in holidays. Everybody in the tourism industry will have to change and rediscover its place in newly defined value chain. fame and reward. the Indian subcontinent is well poised to take advantage of the boom in the tourism sector. Therefore. tourism is one of the fastest growing industries. it has leaded the globalization process in areas of transportation. sunshine. As per the projections of the World Tourism Organization (WTO). The tourism industry is undergoing a sea change with the revolutions in communication and information technology. By the year 2010. whereas the global annual earnings are likely to reach $ 8500 billion. snow and sands to people all over the world.countries are competing with each other in selling “tourism & travel” concept in history. In fact. The 21st century of tourism magic. Globally. The role and the service offerings will undergo a big change in the present cyber world. culture. and are warming up to the idea of travelling and sightseeing. With so few international policies and guidelines restricting it.the most potent weapon of the name. The Asia-Pacific region has been identified as the number one emerging region in this industry with an estimated growth of 7. Local economic activities and resources are used less for the development of communities and increasingly for export and enjoyment of others.8% annually. the annual earnings are likely to reach $3000 billion in this region. Within the Asia Pacific region. For the recipients of international tourism. tourism has given free reign to develop throughout the world. by the year 2020. communications and financial systems.

5 260.7 5. a vast coastline.8 17.0 5.8 0.6 8.5 1. monumental attractions that span the entire country and the gaps in the infrastructure. snow capped mountains.0 6.128.4 7.0 (Billion) 2006 Personal Travel and 935.3 1.4 1. rich culture and heritage.9 8.0 7.342.6 8.6 2.0 1.3 7.6 -0.679.827.3 1.4 10.4 Tourism Business Travel Government Expenditures Capital Investment Visitor Exports Other Exports Demand T&T Industry GDP 713.2 Travel and Tourism 2.1 7.2 121.8 41.8 1.3 10.2 5. India is a vast country with a history that goes back 5000 years.0 2.5 302.591.1 119.349. fair and festivals.2 1.8 3.2 1.6 681. 015.857.4 2.542.031.6 8. offer tremendous potential for tourism.1 6.0 7.8 27.3 2.7 12 .7 8.8 T&T Economy GDP T&T Industry Employment T&T Economy Employment 24.1 1.9 5.8 1.3 1. Travel & Tourism: Driver for economic growth India INR % of Tot Growth* INR (Billion) 6.0 5.1 6.2 7. Its vast geographical diversity.1 822.881.7 7.0 2.2 3.3 10.8 7.3 984.are spending millions of dollars for the revamping of the existing facilities or the creation of new ones.1 5.314.3 % of Tot Growth** 2016 4.9 14.

Personal And Business Travel & Tourism: 13 . rising in nominal terms to INR2.8 bn (2.3 bn (US$38.4 bn or 7. Travel & Tourism Demand is expected to grow by 8.Source: World Travel and Tourism Council *2006 real growth adjusted for inflation (%) **2007-2016 annualized real growth adjusted for inflation(%) Total Demand: India Travel & Tourism is expected to generate INR1.8 bn) of economic activity (Total Demand) in 2004.7% of total employment or 1 in every 17.4 bn or US$13. US$21.441.6% of the total by 2014.5 jobs.0 bn).663.2 per cent of total investment in year 2004.3 bn.6% of total employment. By 2014.7 bn (US$90. 5.9 per cent (INR1.2 per cent (INR4.8 per cent of total.4 bn or US$31.6% of total employment in 2004 and are forecast at 12.9 bn. this should reach INR1.1 bn) to 5.000 T&T Industry jobs account for 2.477.4 bn) by 2014. Capital Investment: India Travel & Tourism capital investment is estimated at INR485.002. The T&T Economy contribution (percent of total) should rise from 4. growing (nominal terms) to INR7. US$10. Gross Domestic Product: India's T&T Industry is expected to contribute 2.200 jobs or 2.8 jobs.0 per cent to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2004 (INR618.3 bn or US$25.1 per cent of total) by 2014. 5. By 2014.2 bn or 7.404.846. or 1 in every 17. this should total 27.0 bn) in this same period.972.790. between 2004 and 2014. in real terms. The 11.456.000 jobs.5 bn or US$64.8% per annum. Employment: India T&T Economy employment is estimated at 24.027.600 jobs in 2004.

267.5 bn or 5. India Travel & Tourism is expected to generate 6. growing (nominal terms) to INR1.4 bn or US$5. US$19.3 bn (5. Exports: Visitor Exports play an important development role for the resident Travel & Tourism Economy. By 2014.9 bn. this should reach INR3.7 per cent of total exports (INR283. By 2014.5 bn. this should reach INR387.612.2 bn or US$6.0 per cent of total personal consumption in year 2004.0 bn) in 2004. US$46.3 bn. 14 .India Personal Travel & Tourism is estimated at INR927.4 bn in year 2004.1 per cent of total consumption.0 bn.4 per cent of total) in 2014. India Business Travel is estimated at INR114. US$2.5 bn or 6.3 bn or US$16.

outside his/her usual environment for a period not exceeding 12 months. and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. leisure. for a duration of not less than 24 hours or one night and for not more than 12 months at a time for any of the following purposes:i) Pleasure (holiday. 15 . ii) Pilgrimage. Any person residing in a country who travels to a place within the country. sports etc). iii) Business conferences and meetings. religious and social functions.Domestic Tourism in India Domestic tourist: A domestic tourist is a person who travels within the country to a place other than his usual place of residence and stays at hotels or other accommodation establishments run on commercial basis or in dharamshalas/sarais/musafirkhanas/agra-shalas/choultries etc. and iv) Study and health.

66 million from the domestic arrivals from among the total of $ 4. There was almost growth of 30% from the previous year. According to WTO. Vaishnavo Devi USD 168 million. and stay in their own homes or with relatives and friends and not using any sight seeing facilities. iii) Persons visiting their hometown or native place on leave or a short visit for meeting relations and friends. There are major states such as Uttaranchal. There is a huge scope for domestic tourism in India. it is seen that the major of the receipts were not from the international arrivals but from the domestic arrivals. global domestic tourism flows at least 10 times greater than the international tourist flows. * Some-Day visitors: Visitors who do not spend one night in a collective or Private accommodation in the place visited. Though there is a remarkable growth in the contribution to GDP through tourism industry of India. A National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) study says that Thirupathi in Andhra Pradesh is the largest recipient of religious tourists earning USD 224 million. One of the major drivers for domestic tourism is the pilgrimage tourism. Others earn several million dollars but are not accounted for because most religious tourists travel meagerly as a pilgrimage and not as a luxury. The following are not regarded as domestic tourists: i) Persons arriving. Thus domestic tourism accounts for the major contribution to the GDP.85 million receipts in the year 2005. attending social and religious functions etc. The main purpose of travel 16 .Domestic visitors include: * Tourists (overnight visitors) : Visitors who stay at least one night in a collective Or private accommodation in the place visited. with or without a contract to take up an occupation or engage in activities remunerated from within the State/Centre. Tourism is a generic term. There were receipts of nearly $ 3. Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu contributing more than 50% of the total receipts. ii) Persons coming to establish more or less permanent residence in the State/ Centre. and Ajmer Sharif in Rajasthan USD 83 million. iv) Foreigners resident in India. which includes several types of travel and stay depending upon the motives that impel people to move form one place to another..

protecting threatened areas. India. Tourism has become one of the largest global activities and a way of paying for nature conservation and increasing the value of land. conserving energy and reducing and recycling waste. and learning new ways to live on the planet. personal growth. economic and environmental needs all together to occur. wilderness adventures. The World Travel and Tourism Council is concerned about the increasing number of tourists worldwide and has issued guidelines focusing on being sensitive to conservation aspects. Sustainable development needs to have social. Sports tourism. Business travel. Cultural tourism. Health tourism. internal tourism. typically involving travel to destinations where flora. Some of the major forms in India are as follows: Eco tourism: Ecotourism. fauna. The flow of dollars can flow back into conservation and make it pay for itself. There are series of eco tours for India that provide the coolest hangouts to take pleasure in indulging oneself into the God gifted environs. Common interest tourism. is a form of tourism which appeals to the ecologically and socially conscious. and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. Following are the forms of tourism: Domestic tourism. The ministry of environment and forests issued guidelines under which all tourism projects in hills and forests have to get environmental clearance. also known as ecological tourism.determines the form of tourism. species and scenic aesthetics. There are several ways to enjoy Mother Nature in most pristine way. volunteering. Heritage tourism: Cultural heritage tourism (or just heritage tourism) is a branch of tourism oriented towards the cultural heritage of the location where tourism is occurring. economic ans social concerns. the land of geographical varieties offers several tourist destinations that not just de-stress but also rejuvenate you. ecotourism focuses on local culture. Generally speaking. 17 . Recreational tourism. It is further an amalgamation of interests arising out of environmental. Eco tourism is defined as responsible travel to natural areas and sustains the well being of local people.

history. battlegrounds. Backed by the global success of the Palace on Wheels. it establishes and reinforces identity. experience the timeless spirit of ancient India. Heritage on wheels: A Journey into the Past. it has a positive economic and social impact. This trend is evident in the rise in the volume of tourists who seek adventure. The heart of heritage: Discover the heart of India as you travel through Madhya Pradesh. Here. with culture as an instrument it facilitates harmony and understanding among people. it supports culture and helps renew tourism.. as the development of the Grand Tour from the 16th century onwards attests. The entire Rajasthan has been a passion to be explored by the tourists. A landscape of abundant forests. Bikaner and Shekhawati being lesser explored regions have been chosen for the Heritage on Wheels. etc. a luxury tourist train on meter gauge enroute to the unexplored regions of Bikaner and Shekhawati. railways. some people have claimed. soaring hills and silver rivers that was once Kipling's India. archaeology and interaction with local people.. it helps preserve the cultural heritage. Where Empires rose and fell. famous beholders of the Heritage of Rajasthan. Heritage tourism involves visiting historical or industrial sites that may include old canals. The overall purpose is to gain an appreciation of the past. cultural heritage tourism is the fastest growing segment of the tourism industry because there is a trend toward an increase specialization among tourist. culture ceased to be the objective of tourism: tourism is now culture. leaving behind in forbidding fortresses and 18 . Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation and Indian Railways in their first ever endeavor takes you on board The Heritage on Wheels.Culture has always been a major object of travel. culture. Cultural heritage tourism is important for various reasons. In the 20th century. from the global highlights of world culture to attractions that underpin local identities. Cultural attractions play an important role in tourism at all levels.

000 feet? Fancy trotting from one palace to another riding a camel or perhaps get a better view of the jungle sitting smart on an elephant? Well if any of them is an affirmative. the desire to meet challenges makes people take up any of the adventure activities and rejuvenate themselves. trekking and rock climbing. wild life and bird watching. India is the land of variety and diversity. badminton. folk culture still retains all its colour and vivacity. offering package deals for groups as well as individuals.ornate palaces. Try out the aerial. golf. Form the gentlest to the fast placed. the Ganges is irresistible for the water sports and the scenic beauty of Jammu is picture perfect for the paragliding. polo. Besides this the prices here are lower as compared to international standards. camel treks and desert safaris. Adventure Holidays: India’s vast geographical diversity provides a vast potential for adventure tourism. for the beginners to the experts. wish to see to the land and everything on it from a height of 18. You name the adventure and India has the right spot for it. ballooning and hand gliding. Desert adventure in Rajasthan: Rajasthan still retains an elusive fairy-tale character. Mountaineering. the memory of their past glory. All tastes are catered to and there is something for everyone. the adventure holidays and tourism in India are just for you. Travel agents and tour operators very often specialize in certain fields. Apart from this there are sports like skiing. angling. the queen of rivers. swimming and motor rallies amongst the sports Ever felt the waves of a river on your face. scuba diving and underwater coral viewing. The pilgrim's route meanders through temples where stone carvings capture every facet of life. white water rafting and river exploration are some of the exciting possibilities. Here. The quest to do the uncommon. tennis. Where opulent palaces dot the desert landscape and battle-scarred fortresses appear on every hill like sentinels of the past. A land where the tales of valour of its medieval Rajput warriors are still sung by its travelling bards. The terrain of the sand dunes and long stretches of barren land is ideal for desert safaris. With 19 . the fun of watching the wildlife at the Corbett National Park gets multiplied when enjoyed riding an elephant. And the faithful worship at Buddhist stupas. Rajasthan is the 'Land of Kings'. aqua or land adventures and enjoy.

Trekking: India is the ultimate destination for a trekking holiday. the saptura range and the Nilgiri Mountains have a rich heritage of flora and fauna. As the climbing standards reached greater heights in the rest of the world. The states of Jammu and Kashmir. etc. offering everything from short and easy excursions to the long challenges of the snowy peaks. invoking visions of the spectacular Himalayas. The four cities on your itinerary will create a perfect portrait of this exotically-beautiful desert land. Some of the areas 20 . The mighty mountains stretching across the northern borders of India have hundred of peaks.the greatest adventure of all. transport.exuberant celebrations of fairs and festivals. indeed. Mountaineering: scaling the Himalayan peaks. each with a special lure of its own. There are agents who can make all the arrangements for groups or individuals including food. The Western Ghats. camping equipment. many yet unscaled and inviting the intrepid mountaineer. porters.quite apart from the exhilarating experience of climbing on virgin solid granite. chalk. The captivating landscape. the best season for mountaineering is from May to October and six months notice is required to book a peak. Uttar Pradesh and Sikkim offer bases for mountaineering expeditions. the aravalli hills. with an incomparable diversity of flora and fauna: India is regarded as the 'trekkers' paradise' and. Rock climbing: Rock climbing in India can be an enriching experience. Treks can be taken along the remote areas or the route pilgrims have trekked year after year to remote shrines in the mountains. The spectacular Himalayas are the abode of snow and evoke unmatched feelings of reverence and excitement and offer wonderful bevy of trekking routes. is a refreshing treat to the trekkers. A music that echoes across the desert emptiness and a tradition of craftsmanship with a highly developed aesthetic sense. modern protection and higher climbing standards and development of many superb climbing areas. Peninsular India offers natural beauty of another kind of trekking. India too was introduced to sticky rubber. the lush meadows. Himachal Pradesh. green woodland and fragrant orchards.

Or. Rock climbing. A festival balloon mela is organized in Delhi every year and anyone can take a joy ride. They also offer a view of the Taj Mahal from a balloon. Delhi and Jaipur. Hot air ballooning is becoming a great adventure option in India. Camel treks and Desert safaris: Rajasthan. But to really get a hands-on feel of the desert state. Winter months provide the most reliable conditions. aboard the "Palace on Wheels". although too static-is also good for hang gliding. India's westernmost state is the very essence of exotic India. The Ballooning Club in India organizes numerous international balloon festivals and demonstration flights annually. if you've a penchant for the high life. The climbing areas usually being close to interesting historical sites and unique monuments can provide a pleasant distraction. With the help of certified instructors anyone can fly with only ten minutes of instruction on the ground hang gliding has really caught on with clubs coming up in cities such as Bangalore. 21 .000 cubic feet of hot air fills a giant nylon balloon to which a basket is attached. Dehradun. the soaring in the winter months. but during summer it is better to take off early in the morning. Hand gliding: The sport of hang gliding involves hanging suspended by a harness from a large flying instrument. While India has good thermal soaring effects during the summer months. Especially popular in the foothills of the Himalayas wherever there are rocks and hills. and offers hill soaring almost round the year. Bangalore. You can see Rajasthan on a jeep safari. with the Yamuna flowing by. The sight is not only an exciting but also a thrilling experience. stiff climbs and Sheer Mountain sides. Rock climbing uses a minimum of aids and the challenge is to find the toughest route and scale in the least possible time. the luxury train.a kind of kite shaped vehicle called a hang glider. is constantly increasing its tribe of enthusiasts. There are ballooning clubs in Guwahati.rock climbing is the favorite spot. The best time to indulge in ballooning is after sunrise when the winds are at their calmest. They not only operate joy flights on the balloon but also conduct interesting tours like balloon-cum-horse or camel safaris. Balloon Ride over The Taj Mahal: Hot-air ballooning in India is being given a new dimension by some travel agents/tour operators.are superb and can easily be compared to some world class climbing areas. Ballooning: About 50.

Bhagirathi and various other smaller tributaries) can be hailed as the Queen of the White Water Rafting Industry.khilanmarg route is a great experience for ski mountaineering enthusiasts. Ravi. These rivers are excellent for canoeing and kayaking. and let the good times roll. Shimla offers iceskating and speed skating. lahul valley. pitching deck in turbulent waters. Zaskar. the Garhwali hills and Sikkim are some popular areas. skiing is possible in summer also. Ganges. These rivers are excellent for both beginners’ and experts. The Himalayan car rally attracts the international participation and goes through the mountains of Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The Gulamrg. Jeep tours can be taken over remote desert tracks that are rarely taken by tourists. The Indus. The mighty Indian rivers tumble and crash through the mountains to form whit water rapids and terraced cascades. A number of Lakes in the Kumaon Region and The Ganga with its upper tributaries (Alaknanda. Chenab and teesta are rivers with both rough and calm waters. which offers training courses. The Great Indian Desert provides the scene for exploring the old routes on camel carts. Beach resorts: 22 . This is a paradise for the white water sportsmen. Motor rallies: through out the year many rallies are held whose dates can be obtained through the nearest tourist office. for the Ship of the Desert walks in a way which would certainly remind any sailor of a rolling. White water rafting and river running: Many a river in the country especially the North Indian Rivers present themselves as a collection of the best white water in the world within a small geographical location. hang on for dear life. Beas. Kufri also offers skiing.nothing comes close to a camel safari. Along the rohtang pass. There is an institute of skiing and mountaineering. Climb up on one of these seemingly ungainly beasts. Ladakh and Zaskar valley in Kashmir. Winter sports: Gulmarg in Kashmir is India’s most popular and developed ski resort with most modern equipment.

The young state of Goa certainly happens to be the Beach Capital of India. These breathtaking beaches promise the perfect escape to tranquility. The swaying. the nature is for sure at its best at the beaches. A sunrise over the horizon turning the sea into molten gold. It offers the perfect spot for the novice divers. India boasts of many beaches of Goa in the West. The great peninsula with the Indian Ocean in the middle and accompanied by the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal on each side besides the two archipelagos of Lakshadweep and Andamans is perfect for beach holidays for tourists the world over. Sand. So you may head towards any direction of the Indian peninsula and be invited to the sun bathed beaches. which has a vast plethora of coral and marine life that is equally interesting to the tourist and naturalist. The Konkan coast in the west has the beaches of Goa and Diu. The balmy beaches of India are perfect escapade for the fun loving holiday tourism seekers. the 23 . fringed shadow of the palms. India with its long coastline of 7500 kms. The never-ending shores and the untouched oceanic horizons seem to be mesmerizing. The photogenic dawn and dusks at the beaches are sure to be repetitive visitor to the shores. offers some of the most exotic beach holidays and beach tourism destinations in the world. The crashing surf streaming up the sand and then receding again. On the Coromandel Coast in the east are the rock-cut temples by the sea at Mamallapuram and the seaside retreat at Gopalpur-on-Sea. the stride of a camel. This clear water permits exciting under water photography for enthusiasts. The sight and sounds of a majestic elephant. Kovalam in the South and Gopalpur in the East. the swinging palms and the many hues of the sky. a peacock’s dance. leaving behind sea shells and driftwood. The blaze of glory. the beautiful waves.Has the combination of Sun. endless beaches offer you a balmy holiday. Wild life tourism: India is home to a rich diversity of wildlife supplemented by an equally rich variety of flora and fauna. On the eastern and western coasts of Kerala. Scuba diving: the best spot for scuba diving and snorkeling is at the Andaman Islands. Go southwards to the white sands of Kovalam on the Malabar Coast. Sea and Surf ever tempted you to take a break from the daily monotonous chores that you perform so religiously? Then we have just the right package for you with the sure-shot itinerary to relax you completely.

The country offers immense opportunities for wildlife tourism. And among the ruins of Nalanda you can still hear a distant echo of the chants of scholars of ancient times. waterside birds. Ayurveda and Rejuvenation: 24 . deer. Tropical forests in its eastern contrast with pine and coniferous woodlands of western Himalayas. their lifestyles and the inseparable culture cannot be done solved in words but can surely be enjoyed with experience. Tourists from far and wide are attracted to the Bird Sanctuary.roar of a tiger are unparalleled experiences in themselves. The thrill spotting herds of wild elephants. griffon vulture and ravens. The rich and varied heritage happens to be one of the many sources of pride of the nation. simplicity and renunciation. The highlight of your journey will be the Holy Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya under which he gained enlightenment. The Himalayan region is well known to be the natural habitat for the Pheasant. customs and languages. is home to indigenous water birds. Watching birds and animals in their natural habitats is an experience in itself. gees and teals. The Buddhist circuit: Two thousand five hundred years ago. At the Dudhwa wildlife reserve migratory birds like Egrets. migratory water birds. The immense heritage of wildlife in India comprises of more than 80 national parks and about 441 wildlife sanctuaries including the bird sanctuaries. The Keoladeo Ghana National Park popularly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in the Indian state of Rajasthan. storks and cormorants share space with the ducks. Cultural Holidays: Ever wondered at the cultural diversity of India? The enticing unity represented by the people of the country who display a wide range of religions. in close proximity of Delhi. travelled this land preaching his message of compassion. Gautama Buddha. land migratory birds. Visit Sarnath where he gave his first sermon and Kushinagar where he attained Parinirvana. culture. a gentle sage taught the world the path to enlightenment. This circuit is a pilgrim's passage through the palaces immortalised by the enlightened one. and domestic land species. herons. a rhino or even a tiger in its natural environment is very difficult to match. Indian wildlife has its share of native birds along with the migratory birds. Several hundred species of birds can be spotted across India. The mysterious ways of the people. Sakyamuni.

the comfort and the style have made the first tourist train of India the most sought after. The lavish lifestyle. the traditional Indian system of medicine holds out to the world the promise of a healthy long life. step into the world. the largest passenger train service in the world seem to invite you. The marvelous train that today is a joint effort of the Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation and the Indian Railways. The turfs. Jaisalmer. An extensive and well . The Palace on Wheels lives by its name and is no less than a fort on the swing. Add that extra touch of versatility in you by playing the different surfaces in the various golf clubs developed in several cities of India. Chittaurgarh. During this excursion.India adheres to the age-old philosophy of Ayurveda . You may even opt for a voyage onboard the Royal Orient. Udaipur. the facilities. where healing is a ritual and nurturing life a tradition. the décor. the yards of green all make golf better than ever before. Be onboard the luxury trains of India.in a traditional way .crafted out Ayurvedic treatment package that would rejuvenate your body and mind and make you face the hustle and bustle of the city life again.that's what makes India a different locale to visit. e. the mounds. Golf Tours: If Golf. Jodhpur and Bharatpur. Ayurveda recognizes that each individual is different and so treatment too should be customized. and Agra chugging through the culturally colorful states of Rajasthan and Gujarat. Just catch up with the Golf fever that has caught the entire country in a big way. Railway Tours: Kuuuuu& Chuk Chuk !!! Doesn't the whistle of the luxury train. Ayurveda and Rejuvenation programs include a few programs combining Ayurveda along with sightseeing and other aspects of tourism in India. is what you are passionate about and you happen to be an avid traveler then the 21 day Golf Holidays package of India being offered is something you cannot refuse to go ahead with. experience the magical power of Traditional Ayurveda. The perfect break from the stressful routine religiously followed otherwise. Ayurveda. i. the climate. the Palace on Wheels. the Royal Orient and the Toy Trains are the pride of Indian Railways. the tourists are overwhelmed with the beauty at the major stations of Jaipur. the train offering both 25 .

style and comfort. mussels and prawns is finger licking good. The toy trains are called so because of the narrow gauge railway lines they ride on. Special theme parties: Under these the following options are available 26 . barramundi. The city hosts the International Yoga Week every year in the month of February attracting several experts and participants. The rainbow of cities trotted by the royal extravagance of the bygone era include Delhi. The wondrous miniature of rail engineering that offers the most scenic beauties of the Himalayas from Kalka to Shimla and another from Jal Pai Guri to Darjeeling. crabs. which comprises of delectable fresh fish like pearl spotted fish. The placid backwaters that stretch for over fifteen hundred kilometers are covered with swinging palm trees. Tourists and travelers flock to contemplate and practice Yoga and meditation in the lap of Himalayas. Ooty/ Udagamandalam or Ootacamund and Matheran. Mandvi/Palitana/ Sarkhej. Kottayam and Ernakulam. It is a project of the Tourism Corporation of Gujarat Limited along with the Indian Railways. Gir/Ahmedpur. the toy trains of India have attracted many a tourists. fishing and sightseeing while exploring the backwaters of Kerala. Besides the Royal trains. Junagarh/Veraval. Yoga Tours in India: India has been the land of saints and sages who meditated and practiced yoga. The backwater cuisine. The Houseboats that float on the backwaters are the improved version of the Kettuvalloms. Chittaurgarh. it's the most authentic and unexplored way to explore the beauty of the backwaters. Darjeeling. Somnath/Sasan. The tourists may indulge into tourism activities like boating. Alappuzha. Backwater Tours in India: Cruising along the backwaters of Kerala is an ideal way to discover the real Kerala. The spiritual city of Rishikesh happens to be the Yoga capital of India. The tourists are left spell bound by the tranquility of the backwaters while riding the Houseboats. The ride on the train with a 4500 kilometers track chugs through the popular hill stations of the country like Shimal. Ahmedabad and Jaipur. The frequently visited tourist destinations amongst the backwaters in Kerala comprise of Kovalam.

Celebrate the biggest and the best occasion of your life .Marriage. client presentations. The feast to your eyes and ears will be equaled by the sumptuous food that will treat the taste buds at the dream marriage. workshops. specially decorated boat for a delightful moonlight cruise on the backwater of Cochin. board meetings.Moonlight Boat Cruise on the Backwater of Kerala: Guests are ferried aboard a spacious.Along with the corporate incentives tours arrangements can be made for conferences. The setting for the realization of your dream will be splendid and the arrangements will be spectacular for your marriage that will bring smiles on every face and heart! 27 . The various corporate incentive tours that are offered have been planned in a manner to rejuvenate and refresh the employees for the forthcoming assignments. pulsating palaces or the happening hotels and make your dream come true. Get married at any of the captivating castles. Corporate incentive tours: In today's world incentive travel is one of the most effective marketing and motivational tools especially in the corporate sector. After all those long hours at work let the corporate employee get the much-deserved break in the form of an incentive. dealers meet or any other relationship building activity in any destination in India. There is also a thrilling firework display. From champagne bottles and confetti to photographers we can arrange it all for the special you and the very special occasion of your dream marriage. training programs. Dream Marriages: Tie the knot with your knight in shining armor in the most royal way. South Indian culinary surprises are served. conventions. At your dream marriage there will be fun and festivity all around backed by the music of your choice and decorations with your favorite flowers.in the most beautiful style. seminars.

and the splendor of the desert city of Jaipur. the air echoes to the pilgrims' chant of mantras. take a dip at the holy confluence of the Ganga. the sculptors and stone carvers of the ancient Hoysala kingdom built temples that show their joyous devotion through their creation. stylised motifs from nature and friezes depicting life during the reign of the Hoysalas. The great pilgrimage: As the sun rises over a holy river or the sea. sounds and experiences.000 sq km and constitutes 4 percent of the century's total land area. Where religion is more than an act of worship. Here. while Varanasi is a city that sings out its prayers to Lord Shiva. Religion in stone: Discover the worship of the Almighty. Discover the ancient roots of Hinduism in these age-old cities. travellers have marvelled at the delicate intricacies of the carvings. Every city offers its unique blend of sights. Yamuna and Saraswati rivers. The lure of jungle: The total area of India's protected wildness is approximately 140. An eternal dawn ritual asking for the benediction of the Gods. The marble symphony of Shahjahan's Taj Mahal. The emphasis has not only been on protecting wildlife in 28 .The golden triangle: This triangle of three cities perfectly captures the pageantry of India. At these temples. At Prayag. the pilgrims wend their way to the Jagannath Temple and the exquisite Sun Temple. the interior and exterior walls are decorated with intricately-carved deities. For centuries. From the opulence of the Mughal empire to the vibrant life of modern India. through craftsmanship. And the ability of the sculptors to breathe such exuberant life into unyielding stone. the imperial elegance of Lutyen's New Delhi. at Belur and Halebid. it is a way of life. Celebrating one of the oldest living religions of the world. From the tumultuous sea of Puri and Konark. A gorgeous panorama of majestic architectural creations and a rich tradition of art and culture.

While traditionally traveling on a holiday meant going to a hill station or a beach. The country's protected wilderness consists of 80 National Parks and 441 Sanctuaries. tourism as a form of recreation has really caught on. For example. of which 19 fall under the purview of Project Tiger. This had a ripple effect on the country. People are now adopting themselves to the fact that tourism pays and it can be a major source of income for them. However some places such as Kerala and Rajasthan have been able to strike a balance between their own culture and the demands of the international tourists and have profited handsomely in the bargain. 29 . In addition. the example of Goa was cited to discourage the inflow of international tourists. The more the amount of outside people coming into a place. Here they came in thousands and changed the whole culture of the state. Whenever a certain place became famous. the more the perceived risk of that place losing its identity. From the late 60's to the early 80's when the Hippy culture was at its height. Goa was a haven for such hippies. India's wildlife is a delight for the nature lover. Its climatic and geographic diversity makes it the home of over 350 mammals and 1200 bird species. especially of the international tourists.reserved forests. but in areas where man and animal continue to live in harmony. flora and fauna. now people are willing to go in for adventure tourism and also visit places that might be exotic and cannot really be called hospitable. the peacock and the rhinoceros. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS Social: Tourism was always looked upon as something that led to the destruction of the social fabric of a place. People became cautious. A good example is Goa. People themselves have started traveling and are willing to travel to a place that is out of the way and exotic. The wildlife parks and sanctuaries spread across the country offer a fascinating diversity of terrain. many of which are unique to the subcontinent. The land of tiger and the elephant. now places like Leh and Lakshwadeep are mentioned in the same breath as Goa or Kashmir.

and Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1986. In fact. Foreign equity holding above 51 percent are possible. These do not set aside any specific area for tourism. Such high taxation renders the tourism sector as a whole uncompetitive. The more the people spend the more the industry grows. but such areas have to be identified by the State Governments and obtain the required approvals/relaxations. Indian hotels charge about 40% tax compared to other Asian countries where it varies between 3% and 6%". 51% foreign equity is automatically approved subject to meeting certain prescribed criteria. 100% foreign equity is automatically approved. Economic: The tourism industry not unlike the other industries grows with the increase in the spending of the people.g. including having a capital base proposal below US $143 million (Rs. especially on food and beverages. The spending power of the people has been increasing in the country and all over the world. Dividends on such investments are repatriable. the Environment (Protection) Act 1986. The National Policy on Tourism lays emphasis on sustainable development of tourism.Legal: The laws that govern the industry are not the same in all the parts of the country. In accordance. 6 billion). These are the Wild Life Protection Act 1972. the World Travel and Tourism Council has observed that “Tax paid by tourists in India is the highest in the world.75% in West Bengal. the sales tax on imported beverages varies widely. With respect to taxation. With respect to Foreign Investment in any tourism related venture. There are several Acts and laws. e. Since we are concentrating on 30 . Many of the laws that are in effect are old and archaic. It is to be noted that the Ministry of Industry provides final clearance of FIPB approvals. which ensure sustainable tourism. there is considerable disparity between state level taxes. 63% in Karnataka to 28. clearance must be obtained from the Central government (RBI or Foreign Investment Promotion Board). Further. but are subject to FIPB approval. In the case of NRIs. and not geared to meet the challenges of the 21st century. the Government has brought out a comprehensive Eco Tourism Policy and Guidelines.

Similarly. the roads and the railways are all in the hands of the Government. The increase in the spending is also evident in the increase in the number of people traveling by air. This has lead to an increase in the demand for better hotels. That is under the control of the Government. the Government charges high rates of taxes on the luxury and the star category hotels and this has always been a cause of disagreement between the hotel associations and the Government. the political turmoil in the state of Kashmir and now in Gujarat has caused a virtual decimation of the flourishing tourism industry. This has led to a tourism boom the world over and India has been no exception. Political: The political factors are the main driving force of the industry. through the Archaeological Survey of India. The major reason as to why tourists visit India is for the vast and rich heritage that our country has. The Indian tourism industry is built on the backbone of Government support and the industry cannot sustain itself without it. People who previously used to come to the country on a shoestring budget and hunt around for the cheapest accommodation can now afford to go in for luxury hotels. the large increase in the spending power in most developed countries has left a large amount of idle cash in their hands. the airlines industry and the tourist operators to name some are heavily dependent on the support and the cooperation of the Government. Any policy change that comes into force can have dramatic effect on the way the industry players perform. The neglect of the Government in developing the North-East has led to a situation where there is practically no tourism in the seven states. However. Even the number domestic tourists traveling by air has dramatically gone up. there has been a change in many of the 31 . However. All the support services like the hotel industry. Examples are the North East for the former and Kashmir for the latter. an increase in spending does not only limit itself to accommodation. There are many areas where the growth of tourism has not been rapid or has seen dramatic fall because the political environment has not been conducive. For example.the international tourists. There have been more people coming into the country with more cash than ever before. This has led to an increase in the number of hotels in the country. The various archaeological sites and the places of historical importance.

Government has finally taken the decision to privatize the airports. it plays a major part in the promotion of a place. Better communication facilities are one of the first prerequisites for growth in the inflow of tourists. The hotel industry has been getting many incentives and many State Governments are encouraging the growth of major hotels in their states.policies of the Government with regard to the tourism industry. Better communication means access to media. This connectivity has made these places visible to the world. Improved technology in the field of communication at cheaper costs has resulted in many remote and inaccessible areas of the country getting connected to the rest of the world. Similarly better transportation facilities have lead to a dramatic increase in the number of tourists visiting any particular place. 32 . Technological: Although technology does not seem to be a major influence at first glance. And that is very important if any place wants to be on the world tourist map. This has been made possible with technology. The presence of an airport and the availability of frequent flights are a great convenience to any traveler. After years of tight control over airport infrastructure.

e. The airlines in India. and beaches. are inefficient and do not provide basic facilities at airports. superstition. The case of Plague in Surat in 1994 led to a decrease of 36% in arrival of foreign tourists in India.SWOT Analysis: STRENGTHS:  India's geographical location. This provides better margins for the industry  A very wide variety of hotels is present in the country that can fulfill the demand of the tourists. for example. The road condition in India is very bad.  Diversity of culture i. and diseases. Thus. mountains. There are many places where the image of India is one of poverty. There are international players in the market such as Taj and Oberoi.  Limited market segmentation  Lack of awareness about India’s tourist potential 33 .  Political commitment to tourism development  Acknowledgement of public and private sector partnership WEAKNESSES:  Lack of adequate infrastructure.  A wealth of archeological sites and historical monuments. a culmination of deserts. Foreigners still think of India as a land of snake charmers.  Manpower costs in the Indian hotel industry are one of the lowest in the world. a blend of various civilizations and their traditions. the needs of the international tourists and travelers are seen to while they are on a visit to India.  No proper marketing of India's tourism abroad. forests.

 Political turbulence within India in Kashmir and Gujarat has also reduced tourist traffic  Aggressive strategies adopted by other countries like Australia.  Cooperation among competitors  SAARC countries : a viable target  Restrategise offerings to corporate clients THREATS:  Economic conditions and political turmoil in other countries affects tourism. The advantage here is that domestic tourism and international tourism can be segregated easily owing to the difference in the period of holidays. Political instability  Lack of awareness about potential for employment and economic development OPPORTUNITIES:  More proactive role from the government of India in terms of framing policies  Allowing entry of more multinational companies into the country giving us a global perspective.  Growth of domestic tourism.  India’s image of an unsafe country  Victim of seasonality  Under provision of infrastructure  Competition from existing and future destinations  Growing terrorism 34 . Singapore in promoting tourism.

facilities and comforts to satisfy the client’s at the most reasonable rates. etc. Other types of accommodations are also well established in tourist markets. The services and the facilities are such that the hospitability of India gets 35 . adopting a consortium approach. Under a central brand name. and present a recognizable identity to consumers which enables them to compete against the larger. ranging from the biggest international chains recognizable worldwide such as Hilton and Holiday Inn to small independent establishments. major industries that support tourism are: Accommodation: Accommodation includes hotels. In order to gain recognition in an increasingly competitive marketplace. for eg. Budget Hotels to the Heritage Hotels In India. This combination of carious industries has to work as one to increase the tourist traffic of the country. With the innumerable dream destinations India offers the best of the accommodation facilities to the travelers to the land. notably self-catering apartments and club type complexes. The other aspect of this industry is that it is heavily dependent on a set of other industries that are in turn dependent on the tourist flow of their business. Then there are several Indian & International Hotel Chains in India. many smaller independent hotels have grouped together. The hotels and resorts in India provide high standards of quality of accommodation. There are plenty of hotels and resorts in India that cater to the needs of tourists of all kinds. more established chains. entertainment. they can offer central reservations services. this set of industries takes care of the activities like travel.We have seen in the SLEPT analysis how various environmental forces influence the tourism industry. sight seeing. Standard Hotels. accommodation. The variety of hotels and resorts in India ranging from Luxury Hotels.

 There are international players in the market such as Taj and Oberoi. Throughout the length and the breadth of the country that is dotted with tourist destinations the hotels and resorts are available to make your experience of India unique. Hotels in India have been categorized on different parameters all of them taking into account the factors such as service provided. the Oberoi. There are around 1000 classified hotels and the total room availability is pegged at 60000 rooms. these categorizations help the common travelers zero down on the accommodation option he can afford or wanted to stay at during his/her visit. Hotels are classified into six categories according to the star rating assigned by the development of tourism. hotel Leela venture and the Ashoka chain of hotels. These range from one star to five star deluxe depending upon the size and amenities. The incomparable and incredible land of India offers plenty of accommodation options such that the visit to the wonderland suits all pockets. 36 . There are the exclusive hotels and hotel chains that boast of luxurious amenities and world-class décor. To identify the present status of this industry we have done a SWOT analysis. The country where tradition and trends fuse to give you the best the range of possible accommodations is vast. The major players in the industry are Indian Hotels Company Ltd (IHCL) operating under the Taj brand. infrastructure. heritage value. location. and types of guests accommodated.revealed always. Hotel industry: Hotels form one of the most important support service that affect the arrival of tourist to a country. This will help us in understanding this industry and also identify the weak points. Oriental hotels. owned and operated by the Indian tourism development corporation. Strengths:  A very wide range and variety of hotels are present in the country that can fulfill the demand of tourists. About 30% of the rooms fall under five star categories. Like many other countries worldwide.

This provides better margin for the industry  India offers a readymade tourist destination with the resources it has. Weaknesses:  The cost of land of India is high at 50% of total project cost as against15% abroad.  The services currently offered by the hotels in India are only limited value added services. This can be gauged from the facts that while Indian company have to staff to room ration3:1. Thus the magnet to pull the customers already exists.This is because India is an ideal destination for tourists as it is the only country with the most diverse topography. luxury tax and the sales tax inflate the hotel bill by over 30%.  Only 58000 rooms are available in India today which is very less.4% of the global figures .  The hotel industry in India has a major burden of tax over it. generally the summer months. this ratio is very high compared to international ratio which is 1:1. Manpower costs in the Indian hotel industry are one of the lowest in the world. 37 . the inbound tourists are a mere 0. For international tourists the peak season for arrival is between September to march when the climatic conditions are suitable where as the national tourist waits for school holidays. This act as a major deterrent to Indian hotel industry. The expenditure tax.  In the long. It is not comparable to existing world standards.This number is expected to increase at a phenomenal rate thus pushing up the demand for the hotel industry. Opportunities:  Demand between the national and the inbound tourists can be easily managed due to difference in the period of holidays.  The hotel industry in India is heavily staffed. For India.term the hotel industry in India has latent potential for growth .

but also in terms of different services. This is a growing trend in the west and is now catching up in the whole India. the range of airline services has considerably. over the years. coach and bus travel. thus diverting the hotel traffic.  The economic conditions in a country have a direct impact on the earnings in the hotel industry. Cruise lines are operating different services tailored to consumers’ budgets.  Political turbulence in the area reduces tourist traffic and thus the business of hotels. and differing levels of service to meet different passenger needs. especially the ferry operators. Coach and bus companies have acted in a similar fashion and so have the car rental companies. Euro rail tickets allowing extensive international travel at basic(service) standard for students and budget tourists. This shows the important role marketing plays as competition and demand intensifies. and other shipping lines involved in the tourist industry. Aviation industry: 38 . and to remain competitive.Threats:  Guest houses replace the hotels. for example. car hire. are broadening and upgrading their range of services and facilities to meet consumer expectations. Thanks to the increase in tourist traffic. cruise and ferry lines. to the luxury of Palace on Wheels – where the train voyage is the holiday. and their role in tourism is as wide as with. Transportation industry: Tourism industry is heavily dependent on the transportation industry which comprises of airlines. Passenger rail services have also changed. In India examples of the same are insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir & the Kargil war.  Changing trends in the environment which are difficult to implement due to high project costs. passenger railways. not only in terms of frequency of flights and number of destinations.

There are facilities like the palace on wheels providing the feel of Indian majesty of the days gone by. Udaipur and Varanasi. Travel agents and tour operators: 39 . It would be surprising that renowned tourist’s destinations like jaipur do not have an international airport. There are no major threats to this industry as there is no substitute at present. This makes thing cumbersome and time consuming. Airlines are the only threat which will take time to develop to come up to have such extensive distribution as rail and roads. The major weakness is the condition of roads during the monsoon seasons.there are number of instances that the flights are delayed or cancelled. the basic infrastructure to support the tourism industry is missing. Many tourists have to travel via Mumbai or Delhi to reach the destination. Though its major weakness is the inefficiency. Secondly major strikes by the pilots and the maintenance problems are major cause of concern. The major strength of this industry is that avaibility of number of domestic airlines affording at reasonable prices. tourists are forced to use roads. Road network and railways: Airports being a weak links in Indian tourism. The major strength of this sector is that there is the avaibility of the largest road network. Thus. The major threat to this is from competition from other basic modes of transportation and from the other transnational airlines. As the tourism industry expands the tourism industry expands the airline industry is also in for a boom. thus discouraging many a time conscious tourists form visiting these places. Similar is the case of cities like Agra. where tourist account for more than 50%. More than 80% of the tourists have to use road network but the deplorable road conditions in India do not make the travelling easier. The major factor that hampers the development of road sector is the government control over all the road properties.Airports are the primary infrastructure facility that a country has to offer to the tourists.

The major weakness is the structure of different taxes that levied on this industry. City Cross Travels Private Ltd. An example. They play an important role in promoting tourism. who take the complete responsibility for the consumer needs.Tour operators are the firms which specialize in providing the whole holiday package. incorporating travel and accommodation needs for the consumer. and many transportation companies also offer holiday packages. An independent local coach firm may also be a tour operator. or singles holidays to ‘near’ or ‘faraway’ destinations. to large operators offering services at all different levels to cater for budget. The travel agencies provide the package tours which extract the best of the places and give tourist a feel of the rich cultural diversity. Mumbai is promoting tourism in Jammu and Kashmir despite of the violence that took place sometimes ago. 40 . who customize every kind of trip that you can dream of. They range from highly specialized operations such as Indianvisit. The major threat is from the role of internet due to which this company is facing a threat of extinction. Similarly other travel agencies are also trying to project a peaceful picture of India. The major strength of this industry is the avaibility of various tour packages and acting as a tourism consultant. Travel agents and tour operators form the backbone of the industry. Thomas Cook is one of the best known of such operators. they also offer travel agency and financial services to their consumers. family.com.

e. government of India has a system of categorizing the available accommodation as per certain criteria to measure the standards and enforce control. In the world of Charles Kaiser and Helberg. Railways: Railways were established in 1853 and are now in the 154th year of existence. in large measure. For better comfort and conveniences and to meet the needs of the tourists the department of tourism. It is the world’s largest network under single management with a travel route of 62500 kms. determine the total success of tourism program. The approved hotels are of international standard and have a stamp of official recognition. The railways are the nations’ lifeline and prime carrier of men and material.Infrastructure facilities for Development of Tourism Accommodation: The prime and paramount factor that facilitates tourism is accommodation i. Tourists have become highly conscious of better comforts and hygiene. 7000 stations and employment to 1.8 million people. inns. The levels of satisfaction by an area accommodation facilities will. paying guest accommodation. “accommodation facilities are the places where tourists stop travelers and become guests. guest houses. motels. shelters etc. the success or failure of tourism industry mainly depends upon the avaibility and quality of accommodation facilities. 41 . establishments with bed and breakfasts. holiday camps. Accommodation facilities can be broadly grouped into hotels.” Keeping this in view the government of India has taken efforts to development facilities. ministry of tourism and civil aviation.

Udaipur and Varanasi. foreign exchange earnings. Similar is the case of cities like Agra. The liberalization of civil aviation policies in India are marked by licensing of private airlines to operate on routes served for 40 years by the state owned carriers was prompted by the demands of tourism. Many tourists have to travel via Mumbai or Delhi to reach the destination. They are:  Launching of 8 new exclusive luxury tourist trains on the palace of wheels pattern to operate on popular tourist circuits. up gradation and expansion of services. thus discouraging many a time conscious tourists form visiting these places. replacements and renewals are part of infrastructure requirements. The economic objectives of tourism policies involve growth of national incomes. where tourist account for more than 50%. Tourism related civil aviation development is not limited to licensing of operators for serving short haul routes.  Super fast inter-city Rajdhanis and day return Shatabdi trains.  Setting up of Railway Catering and tourism Corporation ( IRCTC) to provide necessary control and direction to the catering services on trains as well as stations.Rail tourism: to develop rail tourism the Indian railways have come up with various methods and innovative ways to promote travel by rail. there can be conflicts between aviation and tourism as for instance question of protection of airline in the context of growing tourist traffic. regional developments and government tax revenues. It would be surprising that renowned tourist’s destinations like jaipur do not have an international airport. In each of these 42 . employment.  Rail holiday package tours. Aviation and tourism: Airports are the primary infrastructure facility that a country has to offer to the tourists. Despite the synergies.  Hotel infrastructure at 100 railway stations in places of tourists circuit  Discover India indrail passes for use from half a day to 90 days. Airport development. This makes thing cumbersome and time consuming.

hospitality services too offer a range of services by internet. A caller could get not only the information about the flights. High incidence of internet access is illustrative of another instance of the great impact of telecommunications. theatre shows and museum timings. connections and seat avaibility but also whole lot information useful to the traveler like car rentals. Since there has been telecom revolution today tourism’s growth is greatly conditioned by the web and the net. The greatly publicized information super-highway is accessible to anyone with time. Another travel aid is the satellite phone. There are likely to aggravate as increased leisure time and disposable income increase of the people world over. Air transport has contributed to business travel and to conference tourism as well. in its rapid pace. Precise evaluation of the economic benefits form increased tourism arising form the adoption of more liberal aviation policies will be possible if the database is strengthened. Airport and airspace congestion. Travel agents and airline offices are increasingly linked by the electronic information distribution systems. Telecommunication and tourism: From the plain old telephone services to multimedia the telecom revolution. hotel bookings. Even the plain old telephone has its uses in marketing. has enveloped the tourism sector as any other economic activity. passenger facilitation. Doubtlessly there is a need to increase international seat capacity to India. The electronic card door keys have become popular in most of the hotels in all big cities. With the success of its successful implementation in the Rajdhani trains it was decided to equip all the trains with this service. With customers becoming ever more demanding. Hospitality services are not only beneficiaries of these aids but also at times the cause of their creation.aspects the civil aviation sector has a private role. interest and curiosity. 43 . The use of hand free tools gifted by the telecom industry has grown phenomenally in the tourism sector to extent that any establishment that fails to be one up loses to its competitors. environmental issues and constraints of resources are problems affecting the tourism and aviation sectors.

hotels. traveler’s lodges.Importance of infrastructure in tourism industry Goods and services consumed by the tourists are the product of the tourist. etiquette. which create these product. other type of supplementary accommodation to hotels are required. facilities. auto service centers. mannerism. good accommodation and catering. its socio-economic background. 44 . A successful tourist destination is compose of a serious of accommodation and attraction which draw predictable volume visit traffic therefore various infrastructure aspect related quality and availability of air. Tourists product sold by the industry are intangible though the plant for creating the products are very much tangible in other words the courtesy. state of tourism development and so on. resort hotels. but also the facilities extended should be within their reach. while the plants (infrastructure). It is not just enough to ensure that the tourist reaches their destination quickly and comfortably and our housed and fed suitably. the hotels alone are not sufficient to meet the tourist demand for the accommodation and therefore. transport system.e. tourist activities. airlines coach service. entertainment center. according to their convenience as per their expectation and liking. health club have physical form and therefore are tangible. public toilets and eating house and opportunities of recreation and entertainment are to be provided by tourist plant. way side amenities like petrol pump. motels. tourist inflow pattern. sports and shopping center. hospitality provided by sector have physical forms and therefore are intangible. i. The various infrastructure facilities are summarized below: Accommodation: it is one of the basic components of tourist system and improves all such provisions all such provisions necessary for the sojourn of a visitor such as hotels. etc. Among all these the hotels are the most popular and widely sought after as far as tourism industry is concerned. However. tourist rest houses. water. clean and hygienic. The role of supplementary accommodation depends upon the factors like type of tourist destination.

Communication: Tourists regularly find it necessary to communicate with homes and offices from which they are getting away from.Transport facility: transport forms an integral part of tourism. ships and passenger cargo. While air transport is used for lone distance. ferries. which lie in the interior. It is convenient. It is now therefore. Therefore. Also. Large expenditures are also necessary in many instances. As travelling is an essential part of tourism. road transport has a high level of penetration. telegraph and television services are available in the accommodation centers. It has thereby reduced the distance which separates the people. For the development and growth of road transport there should be effective network of roads and avaibility of transport equipments. Tourists simply do not come in large numbers to unclean areas. road transport is important for both long and short distance. Air transport has made movement form one place to another very fast and comfortable. 45 . cheap and fast. The term transport is broad and comprehensive and relates to 3 subsectors. Sewage and drainage: the capacity and quality of sewage and drainage facilities can be a major factor in the success of a tourism program. transport facility at any place should be excellent for speedy tourism development.air transport. road transport is the most feasible means of transport for regions. surface transport and water transport. There are many forms of travel on water such as ocean cruises. It is essential that long distance and local telephone. Water transport is also very important mode of transport but subjected to the avaibility of water bodies. easier to reach distant places by the excellent network of connecting flights. natural or manmade lake or sea. Transport is to tourism what Veins and Arteries to human body. The water bodies are river systems. Sewage and drainage requires technical expertise.

the age group expected. Destination area planning must recognize. 46 . the types of activities they will engage and local geographical factors. major medical facilities should be available for use by tourist Failure to recognize these needs can have drastic results. careful consideration is essential. Tourists are no exception.Because it is virtually impossible to develop a major tourist destination without substantial investment in this infrastructure component. Recognizing and dealing with them on the other hand can be relatively easy and can lead to considerable goodwill. Health care facilities: people have medical emergencies. All people do.mountain resource will typically need a number of professional trained to evacuate accident victims and apply first aid measures. The health care facilities necessary to accommodate tourism will depend largely on anticipated visitor volume. For example.

incorporating travel and accommodation needs for the consumer. Airlines. to large operators offering services at all different levels to cater for budget.com. hotels. The job of travel agent in the beginning consisted merely arranging simple reservations and some form of transport and arrange tickets. the business has undergone a series of changes. they also offer travel agency and financial services to their consumers. pricing. local travel and sight seeing. The unique feature is that agent gets his remuneration through commissions from producers of services and provides them free of cost to the passenger. accommodation. They range from highly specialized operations such as Indianvisit. or singles holidays to ‘near’ or ‘faraway’ destinations. insurance. The travel agencies provide the package tours which extract the best of the places and give tourist a feel of the rich cultural diversity. Similarly other travel agencies are also trying to project a peaceful picture of India. An independent local coach firm may also be a tour operator. the passengers need specialists to provide advice and make services available. banks and other engaged in travel and tourism need distributors. An example. Travel agents and tour operators form the backbone of the industry. who customize every kind of trip that you can dream of. 47 . provision for foreign exchange and the like. and many transportation companies also offer holiday packages.Role of Tour Operators and Travel Agents Tour operators are the firms which specialize in providing the whole holiday package. City Cross Travels Private Ltd. They play an important role in promoting tourism. Since then. planning. Mumbai is promoting tourism in Jammu and Kashmir despite of the violence that took place sometimes ago. family. car hire. Thomas Cook is one of the best known of such operators. credit card and insurance companies. Modern travel agency business is not mere ticketing and reservations bur covers a wide spectrum of activities including travel guidance.

Kolkata. Bangalore and Ahmadabad. to promote its orderly growth and development and to safeguard the rights of the traveling public. who felt that the time had come to create an Association to regulate the Travel industry in India. On the whole. The Travel industry is now highly specialized and the average traveler depends upon the professional Travel agent to guide him wisely. Hotels and Tour operators. Allied and Associate members comprising of IATA accredited Travel Agencies. ethical and dynamic in nation's Travel related activity and has been recognized as the voice of the Travel and Tourism industry in India. etc. 50% of IATA head office cre concentrated in Mumbai an Delhi. each TAAI member by reason of their membership admits and acknowledges that they are aware of the TAAI Code of Ethics and subscribes to and supports the precepts and principles contained therein. The Association with an excellent and wide data base of membership comprises of Travel Agents. TAAI represents all that is professional.Room & Packages Selling Agencies. Therefore. TAAI is the largest Travel Association of India. travel agency is yet a highly fragmented business. Leading Hoteliers and other travel related partners. one-third of the balance has their offices in four major cities of Chennai. Tour Operators (Inbound & Outbound). The growing number of Travel agents and their increased scale of activities require their adherence to fair dealing and ethical practices. General Sales Agents of Airlines. Hotels . Airlines.branches. With a membership data base of over 1800 Active. Airlines & General Sales Agencies. the organized travel agency system came into being in late 1940s. The Travel Agents Association of India (TAAI) was formed towards the end of the year 1951 by a group of twelve leading Travel agents. with sharp imbalances in its spread areas of over congestion and large stretches of inadequate representation. a total of some 850. There are nearly about 720 IATA approved head offices locations.In India. The primary purpose was to protect the interests of those engaged in the industry. 48 . The Principals who appoint Travel agents to represent them also depend upon their approved agents to follow the best traditions of salesmanship and ethical conduct.

it is essential that we assign due weight age to the three important considerations. 49 . which determines its functional boundaries. communication to inform and promote. coordination. Professionalism paves the way of excellence. and expectations is the result of a number of developments. This necessitates a change in the concept of marketing. national and international levels to achieve the optional satisfaction of the needs of identifiable consumer groups and in doing so achieves an appropriate return.” A clear perception of tourism marketing requires a brief analysis of marketing. developing professionally sound personnel. While clarifying the perception of tourism marketing.  Tourism marketing comprises fact findings. control and evaluation. regional. the first generation of profits by the tourist organizations. We are all aware of the fact that there have been fundamental changes in the traditional concept of marketing which have been influenced by multidimensional changes in business environment.Marketing of Tourism Services Marketing in tourism in words of krippendrof “marketing in tourism is to be understood as the systematic and coordinated execution of business policy by tourist undertakings whether private or state. There are certain points on tourism marketing that needs to be given due importance:  Tourism marketing is a process creating a product or providing a service. analyzing. We find satisfaction of the users the focal point around which all the functional areas of marketing cluster. A transformation in the attitudes. data gathering. owned at local. and selection of marketing planning. which opens doors for quality generation vis-à-vis competition almost all the organization providing goods and services have no option but to assign an over riding priority to quality up gradation that require innovations. lifestyles. second world class services to the tourists which help them in satisfying them and the third positive contributors of tourist organization to the process of social transformation and ecological balance. ensuring and facilitating sales.

international connectivity becomes essential for promoting tourism. hoe to develop and promote tourism in the state and maintain and strengthen the existing tourist infrastructure. A major ingredient in tourism publicity is the information service. They have proved very popular with foreigners. An updated information service with quick retrieval facilities leads to good tourist turnover. In tourism marketing a destination is being marketed. A destination can have a large variation of products or benefits to offer and a unique combination of features that cannot be duplicated elsewhere. This was the task faced by TGCL in 1975 i. India has just realized the potential of the software industry whose annual export earnings total Rs 4500 cores. Germany. Tourism on the other hand is already generating an annual forex income of Rs 12000 cores. Once a destination is sold to a customer or customer group. industry and government should work together to destroy India’s image of being a low priority country in markets such as the US. 50 . In a highly competitive market where almost all countries are actively vying for attention of tourists. These communication services can export information on tourist services and allied infrastructure. Therefore through high visibility advertising and promotional campaigns. expand market and increase the market share. The technological development in the fields of communications and computers would be profitable for establishing a tourist information network. which have gained popularity all over the world. Europe etc. every one who is providing the service in relation to tourism gets benefited. Online connectivity amongst all supporting sector of the tourism industry facilitates the travel process for the international traveler. Another effective marketing tool for india is its cuisines. The food-cum-cultural festivals have made invaluable contribution.  Tourism marketing is a managerial process to promote business.e. Tourism marketing is an integral effort to satisfy tourist and more so. it is a device to transform the potential tourist into actual tourist. This promotional activity should be a regular feature at trade fairs and exhibitions.  Tourism is the safest way to generate demand. The question that arises is how a one to attract tourists to Gujarat is – an industrial hub of India – that nothing as glamorous as the Tajmahal or the backwaters of Kerala or the beautiful landscapes of Kashmir to talk about.

Academics. Education: Literate. etc. Executives. Movie stars 2. Region: Rural. hydroplanes. 1. Urban 4. General: Domestic. Since tourism includes pleasure. Region. Availability of basic infrastructure components like airports. Teens. Sex: Men. transport. railways. Artists 51 . waterways. it is important to develop after transport systems like cruises. a proper infrastructure has to be put in place and maintained.conditioned tourist coaches. Education. Youths. TYPES OF CUSTOMERS & SEGMENTATION Users Of Tourism Services: The users of tourism services can be categorized in a number of ways. Therefore some of the small airport and airstrips access to even to the remote areas without potential. Illiterate 5. mini vans. Sex. One such way of classifying the users is by dividing them into categories such as General. Artists Politicians. Foreign Kids. The air traffic capacity into the country as well as within the country should be expanded. roads. Women 3. A liberal should be adopted in allowing capacity expansion. hospitality and communications become important focus area for potential consumers. catamarans. Sportsmen. seniors Students. etc in the private sector by providing attractive incentive and the necessary berthing facilities at the respective ports.In order to attract tourists from abroad as well as from within the country. Poor 6. The development of civil aviation sector would aid in the promotion of tourism. Profession: Executives. India has a vast coast line of over 5000 kms and several navigable inland water resources. conference and business travel infrastructure relating to travel. Status: Rich. In order to facilitate movements of tourists. particularly where the road segments are in poor condition. The number of air. etc. is a crucial requirement.

Blue collar Another method of classifying users of tourism services is on the basis of the frequency of usage of services. 1. In recent years. 2. transform them into actual tourists and further into habitual tourists. Habitual Travelers: They have formed a habit and avail of the services regularly. In a nutshell. Actual Users: They are already using the services generated by the tourist organizations 4. preferences and expectations which are the result of environmental influences. products and brands change constantly.7. In a nutshell. the users have become more discriminating in their using habits and therefore their needs for different services. Traveling decisions are fantastically influenced by changing lifestyles. In this way they can identify the potential tourists. C) Segmentation: Though there are a number of bases for segmentation of tourists. Potential Users: They have the willingness but the marketing resources have not been used optimally to influence their impulse. Users have values. tourist organizations need to undertake segmentation in order to simplify their task of creating and stimulating demand. tourist organizations need to undertake segmentation in order to simplify their task of creating and stimulating demand. one of the most important is Lifestyle. This makes it essential that the marketers analyze their behavioral profile and undertake segmentation so that they know the level of expectations. desire and ability (income & leisure time). 3. There are a number of factors that influence the behavioral profile of consumers. Occupation: White collar. Occasional Users: They have not formed the habit of traveling 5. Need For Segmentation: Consumer behavior can be defined in psychological terms as the whole range of the generation of wants and their transformation into buying or using decisions. Non-users: They lack the willingness. perceptions. In this way they can identify the potential tourists. transform them into actual tourists and further into habitual tourists. They are also 52 .

Common Interest Convention  Age: Teens. Personal motive. For example. etc. Rural-Urban. Opportunity. Cultural Tourism. etc. Individual market. ♠ The popular market consists of smaller groups going on inclusive or semi-inclusive tours. availability of leisure time. they are as follows:  Holiday: Mass market. Popular market. on the basis of religions.  Geography: International.  Socio-economic: Rich-Poor.  Psychographic: Lifestyle. Religion. literate. Youth.Illiterate  Purpose: Business Travel. senior executives. ♠ As the lifestyle changes. consumption of services might change. ♠ The individual market consists of chairmen. Knowledge  Demography: Age. but once they have children they would prefer family vacations where there are plenty of activities to entertain kids.affected by other factors such as level of income. Sex. cities. a newly married couple might prefer romantic holidays.  Demand: Primary. This group includes pensioners and retired people. They are generally conservative. Marketing Mix 53 . etc. ♠ Teens and youth might prefer adventure holidays whereas senior citizens would probably prefer more relaxing vacations. Secondary. For example: ♠ The mass market consists of vacationists that travel in large groups and prefer all-inclusive tours. Seniors  Such segmentation is useful when deciding the offerings to target a particular segment.

the tourism product is a non-material intangible thing. Productivity and Physical evidence. hotel room. such as. This engineered a sound foundation for the frequent use of the term marketing mix in which initially four sub-mixes were included. Process. Also. touch or sample a package tour. etc.James Gulliton described the marketing executives as a mixer of ingredients. Attraction deserves an intensive care. airline seat. particularly to raise the acceptability of the tourist product by stimulating and penetrating the demand. The tourism product is essentially an intangible thing. because tourism is a multi-segment industry. Place mix. potential users cannot feel. occasional tangible products such as souvenirs. It includes natural site. Thus a tourism product is quite a complex one. the marketing executives would hardly be successful in accomplishing the organizational goals. places of historic interest. Price mix. development and conservation of tourist 54 . we find inclusion of some other mixes such as People. The content factor is within the jurisdiction of the government that undertakes the maintenance. The designing of the marketing mix variables in case of tourism is significant as it helps the marketer in conceiving the right ideas. This inspired Prof. There is nothing fixed or fundamental about the tourism product. events and cultural attraction. The marketing concept for the travel and tourism industry is profit driven and customer centric (unlike sales which are volume driven and target centric). Neil Borden to coin a new terminology in the marketing literature. the task of formulating a product mix becomes more difficult & challenging. Promotion mix. Innovation in the tourism industry helps to raise the sensitivity in this regard. Framing of a proper marketing mix is significant because it helps the tourist organization in accomplishing the objective and projecting a fair image. including the destination. Marketing Mix. i. taste. a free bag or bottle of whisky. Gradually. Selling a holiday is ‘selling dreams’. Product mix: Tourism is a composite product with components like attraction facilities and transportation.e. Like the manufactured product. The way to win the customer’s heart is through the peripheral services provided along with the core product. Product mix. He was of the view that without the help of quality sub-mixes.

Railways iii. museums. Unless these factors are developed in the right fashion. Airways ii. etc. 2 star. Local transport 4. water. havelis. 4 star.. Destination 3. Accommodation • Hotels-5 star. 3 star. The government and private tourist organizations work together to undertake activities such as developing infrastructural facilities such as transportation. Roadways iv. 1 star Motels Boatels Flotels Natural Scenes Historic Excellence Artificial Beauties Social Cultural Excellence Infrastructural i. Thus the direct or indirect patronage of the government is essential to get a positive response.attractions such as parks. beaches. and also developing and maintain hotels. Medicare facilities. etc. cottages. Transportation • Local i. Waterways • • • • • • • • 2. Tour operators • • Travel companies Travel agents 55 . the marketing professionals would never be successful in making the marketing resources productive. Tourism products: 1. historical treasures. etc. banking. lodges.

etc PRODUCT ELEMENTS 5. spectacular sights. A grade service at every stage Salient features of tourism product:  Tourism product is highly perishable: perishability is an important factor that influences the decision making behavior of the tourists professionals. music 5 POTENTIAL PRODUCT The possible evolution to distinguish the offer Totally customized tour packages. CORE BENEFIT 2 BASIC PRODUCT 3 EXPECTED PRODUCT The fundamental benefit or service that Travelling the customer is buying Basic. good food 4 AUGMENTED That meets the customers desires PRODUCT beyond expectations Prompt services. comfortable and convenient trip.• • • • • • • Guides Handicrafts Handloom Books artistic. garments jewellery. hotel reservation Set of attributes/conditions the buyer normally expects Customer friendliness. the product is used just when 56 . Shopping BENEFIT MEANING WITH RESPECT TO THE TRAVEL AND TOURISM INDUSTRY 1. functional attributes Ticketing.

When a tourist proposes to visit a particular place.  Tourism product is a service product: we find services the only product used and sold in the tourism industry. aircrafts remain vacant. the total cost of his traveling also includes the expenses incurred on transportation.  Adequate infrastructure facilities fir the tourism product: no doubt. it is pertinent that the users visit the place physically. Geographical location of the destination. By visiting tourist resorts. if it remains unused. The users are supposed to come all the way to the spot. In order to develop the tourism industry more and more potential users are to be transformed into actual users.it is offered and therefore. Thus. we find infrastructural facilities essential to improve the quality of services. spots. If the tourists do not visit a particular place the seats in the hotels. This necessities setting of product features in a right way. since more than 40% of the total populations are below the poverty line. sites. This makes it essential that tourist professional due weight age to creative marketing strategies which hare found proactive. the business is lost. Pricing: Pricing of the tourist product is complex. accommodation and communication. not that almost all the industries need infrastructural support. 57 . beaches. they get pleasure.  Service is for pleasure: it is right to mention that to enjoy use tourism services. bur the tourism industry cannot exist if hotels. the chance is lost.  Users are supposed to visit the center: for availing the services of the tourism industry. seasonality and varying demand affects the pricing decision. the business is lost. transportation services are found non-existent. In India the pricing strategies become important for promoting or contracting the tourism industry.

trade discounts etc. 58 . seasonal discounts. They are required to think in favors of discounting price. But while offering the discounts. The pricing strategy which includes low income group people. the pricing strategy should be such that demand fluctuations are successfully handled. With in these categories prices may be profit oriented. These may include discounts for cash payments. The tourism professionals are supposed to watch the emerging trends in both the markets. Pricing decisions are influenced by internal and external factors. the product or the service mix of the tourist organization is important. There are some basic guidelines for pricing of tourism which help in developing an appreciation of the framework for tourism policy:  For tourism. they are either cost based or market based. government controlled. The different pricing methods generally used are cost based pricing.  The tourism pricing should be such as to provide value addition and quality indication. In pricing decisions.  The pricing strategy should be such as to cope with the degree of competition operating within a certain geographic and time zone. it is not to be forgotten that it may also create image problem since some of the value sensitive tourists may doubt the quality Tourism pricing follows the principles and practices of pricing package and therefore. However the characteristics of tourism do influence the pricing and therefore different methods of pricing are to be followed.  Tourism prices should be based on costs so as to take into account the cost of tangible clues of intangible service. demand based pricing and competition based pricing. They have to set prices in line with the quality of services to be made available to the customers. competitive or customer oriented. particularly in case of tourism industry. student and retired persons can be more effective.Liberal pricing strategy is found to be a productive pricing decision. This is possible if the government concessional and subsidized infrastructural facilities to the potential tourist below the average income.

Researchers in tourism must determine how and where potential customers prefer to buy tourism products and services. At the same time it is also important that the ecological balance is not disturbed. transport and communication are important for development of tourist centres. Since growing ecological imbalances leads to pollution.  Thirdly competition should be studied both from the point of view of inter brand and also from the point of view of the brand which provides the same need satisfaction.  First is the planned market position for the tourism product. Infrastructural facilities. promotion and beautification may be undertaken in countering the side effects of atmospheric pollution and maintaining ecological balance Place or distribution management is concerned with two things – availability and accessibility. in setting price objectives. you have to see what strategic role the pricing can play in overall marketing strategy.Pricing objectives: the pricing to tourism is greatly influenced by basic tourism characteristics. several factors in relation to overall marketing strategy of the corporation should be considered. price affects customers perceptual positioning. increased accessibility and improved amenities. Place: The tourist centers should be located at suitable points if the tourists spots are natural there is no question of selection.  Secondly. some important steps like promoting afforestation. In a vast country like India with a divergent socioeconomic and cultural patterns. 59 . The site selected should have natural surroundings.  Lastly. However. the stage of life cycle of the tourism product and demand elasticity is important. the promotion of domestic tourism encourages unity in diversity.

The word of mouth promotion is an important tool in tourism marketing. Effective slogans raise the effectiveness of advertisement. Other companies may also utilize more than one method of distribution. newspapers. however. in the case of tangible products in tourism such as souvenirs and cuisine. however. sales support and public relations. It should be efficient. There exist. It is said that word of mouth is the best form of publicity. Good image projection can be made if the PRO manages the affair like a professional. for example. It makes the destinations accessible to people from around the world. intelligent and well-behaved. 60 . however some deal directly with the consumers and eliminate middlemen. active. Another important component of the promotion mix is public relation. The intangibility feature in the service sector prevents intermediaries from taking possession or ownership of goods. Advertising the sales promotion can be effective when supplemented by publicity and personal selling. impressive. cinema and printings are some of the important vehicles for traveling of messages. The purpose of promotion is to make available the information to the user. Tourism. It depends largely on the channel type. It helps in projecting the image of an organization. sell tickets through travel agents. and also offer travelers to book seats themselves through their own booking offices.Most tour operators sell their services through travel agents. Transport also plays a major role in the tourism industry. TV. Public relation officer plays an important role. Public relation and publicity include regular articles and photographs of tour attraction. Airlines. publicity. proves an exception where cuisine and souvenirs are goods and ownership is possible for the intermediaries. a number of intermediaries in the tourism marketing channel. and sell seats on flights to tour operators. transportation becomes a major logistical component Promotions: The promotion mix includes advertising. Radio. use of TV and travel journalists to promote editorial comment. Also.

Hence it is imperative that they have to be at their best at all times. The tourism industry is an amalgam of the services of a lot of people and hence this industry cannot work efficiently if the travel agents. tour operators and travel guides lack world class professional excellence. Quality in a service business like tourism means investing in a product quality. In the tourism industry the travel agents and the travel guides are the two most important people who speak a lot about the industry.the attraction. “Internal marketing paves the way for external marketing” 61 . A service is a performance and it is usually difficult to separate the performance from the people investing in people.People: The people who attend to the needs of the tourists form an essential ingredient in tourist marketing. motivation and retention of qualified employee. failing which even the world class services offered by the travel agents are found meaningless. good sense of humour. thorough knowledge of the places. linguistic skills etc. development. The travel guides need professional excellence since the projection of a positive image regarding a destination in particular requires their due cooperation.customer through need meeting job products. To realize its potential in internal marketing. Travel guides especially. tact to transform the occasional tourists into habitual ones. The tour operators also need to manage human resources efficiently. are expected to have a lot of patience.

therefore. Without sound process management. The following steps are involved in the delivery system of the tourist product:  Provision of travel information  Preparation of itineraries(planned routes and journey)  Liaison with providers of service  Planning and costing tours 62 . The size of the tourist firm determines the operation process of the firm. it becomes essential to find out ways and means to handle peak load to optimize different customer needs with varied expertise levels within the service organization.Process: The importance of process management is that it assures service availability and consistent quality. balancing service demand with service supply is extremely difficult Service cannot be inventoried.

the customer makes the purchase decision. communication material. facilities and atmosphere give enough physical evidence to help shape customer perceptions. etc. brochures. is those which cannot be possessed. Ticketing  Provision of foreign currency and insurance Physical evidence: Though a customer cannot see a service. employees. other customers. These clues might be both intended and unintended ones and therefore managing evidence is integral to the service marketing mix. The primary role of evidence management is to support the organizations marketing program me by making it possible to manage both intended and unintended clues. communication and price. rather they influence each other. 63 . on the other hand. but definitely he can see various tangible clues of the service offers like facilities. Physical environment. objects. on the basis of this perception of the tangible clues. To manage the evidence it is suggested that one should attempt to make the service more tangible. name of the place and the means of travel is essentially evidence. Physical facilities are important in facilitating the delivery of service. For tourism industry. The tourist organizations like relating to tourism industry need to manage the evidence they use in a planned and systematic way to overcome the market challenges created by the intangible characteristics of services. which can give adequate evidence to customer. In Parsuraman’s scheme of thinking the physical environment is one of the three elementsenvironment. price. These three elements of service are not mutually exclusive. In tourism marketing both the peripheral and the essential evidence are significant as they tangibalise the service. Essentially evidence.

Priestly Class. Jainism. Islam. Each has its own pilgrimage sites. Sikhism and other innumerable religious traditions. In 600 B. Besides Hindus. Members of every major religion participate in pilgrimages. Secular India is home to Hinduism. Christianity.C. the Worker class and the Slave class still exist in India in 64 . Buddhism. religion is a way of life.Brief look on Pilgrimage Tourism In religion and spirituality. practiced by over 80% of the population. Long had been in the process of the caste system which still exists today. In India. the Merchant class. It is an integral part of the entire Indian tradition. Common practices have crept into most religious faiths in India and many of the festivals that mark each year with music. Sometimes. Muslims are the most prominent religious group and are an integral part of Indian society. better known as the Buddha. from common-place daily chores to education and politics. around the time of the birth of Siddhartha Gautama. it is a journey to a sacred place or shrine of importance to a person's beliefs and faith. some organized in to kingdoms but for the most part.. Hinduism is the dominant faith. a pilgrimage is a long journey or search of great moral significance. mingling in a unique diversity that is the very pulse of society. religious heavy area of the world. heroes. In fact India has the second largest population of Muslims in the world after Indonesia. For the majority of Indians. in to small city states. legends and even culinary specialties. A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim India has long been known as a very spiritual. India was comprised of many small communities under different rulers. religion permeates every aspect of life. dance and feasting are shared by all communities. The noble class.

Even so. the Island of Ceylon (currently known as Sri Lanka) and the city of Bhimbhetka which is in relatively close proximity to current-day Bengal.5 million temples dating back several hundred years (and some several thousands). The secularism of India and the variety of religions followed by the people of the 65 . and Ajmer Sharif in Rajasthan USD 83 million. Vaishnavo Devi USD 168 million. the South dominates religious and cultural tourism whereas the North the more lucrative business tourism. most trips are only to nearby cities that have these facilities. Andhra Pradesh. and culture. Others earn several million dollars but are not accounted for because most religious tourists travel meagerly as a pilgrimage and not as a luxury.some form or another currently. there are 5000 temples in Tamil Nadu’s Thanjavur area built more than a 1000 years ago that are rich in art. However. The current area is also comprised of two small villages. over a 1300-year old Simachalam in Andhra Pradesh all lack access and facilities. Even the 2500 year old Buddhist shrine Bodh Gaya does not get tourists because of abject neglect for the last 15 years. Similarly. religious tourism in India is turning out to be a major revenue earner although most of the revenues are not really accounted. The current area takes what it can from the known history of the people of India. eating options. Maharashtra. since most of the religious places are located in places that are not well connected or provided for. etc are missing leaving out thousands who may be interested to see such heritage. 800-year old Hampi or 700-year old Belur & Halebid in Karnataka. quality roads. All mankind needs purification of the body. Karnataka. and incorporates some of the legends from their religious texts. With 2. mind and the soul. architecture. For instance. A National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) study says that Thirupathi in Andhra Pradesh is the largest recipient of religious tourists earning USD 224 million. facilities such as quality hotels. To achieve the same pilgrimage holidays have been designed. The Rig Veda and the Bhagavad Gita. Also. and Tamil Nadu rank very high in religious tourism while lawless Bihar the lowest.

The Buddhists too have several pilgrim spots in the country that are associated with the birth and teaching places of Buddha. the visit the famous Gauri temple and bathe in the hot water pond. Badrinath and Govind Ghat. something not to be missed. 'Budham Sharanam Gachami' and 'Wahe Guru' all remind us of the Almighty and focus on the gospel of peace and love for humanity. Thus. The holy city of Rudraprayag located at the confluence of Alaknanda and Mandakini draws several pilgrims to the Radranath. Great religions like Hinduism. Further up at Gaurikund. located at the confluence of the Alaknanda and the Bhagirathi rivers besides is renowned for the Raghunathji temple. at the foothills of Shivaliks. India is dotted with pilgrimages. The package is completed with visit to Joshimath. It happens to be a great site for rafting and trekking as well. Thus. Pilgrimage tourism in India is extremely popular. devotees from the world over frequent the holy city of Sarnath. Haridwar. The char dham yatra is a major attraction for tourism in India. The Hindus flock to take a dip in the holy rivers. Similarly. the Sikhs walk up to a height of 4329 meters through the difficult terrain to reach the Hemkund Sahib. in the laps of the Himalayas happens to be the common point for all the four pilgrim spots besides being sacred itself. The cradle of Buddhism. The yatra to the char-dhams comprise visit to holy places of Badrinath. Buddhism and Sikhism have originated on the Indian soil. The sources of the two most sacred rivers of India Ganga and Yamuna. is a pilgrim destination for the Hindus.country are amazing. attracts several pilgrims. or the door to God. with innumerable floating diyas and flowers is a must for all. Rishikesh. Chamunda Devi and the Koteshwar temples. Kedarnath. Its name has been derived from the 66 . the town of Uttarkashi is situated on the banks of the river Bhagirathi and its Vishwanatha temple. The aarti held every evening at the Har-ki-pauri. Gangotri and Yamunotri. Being a country of the pious. The holy city of Varanasi is situated on the banks of Ganga. devoted to Lord Shiva. The unity in diversity is the keyword for the grand country. Gangotri and Yamunotri are amongst the four shrines in the Himalayas. devotes as well as the adventurers flock to Rishikesh. The pilgrim spot of Devprayag. The faith reflected in the chanting of 'Om'.

M. The pilgrimage to Vaishali is significant as Buddha delivered His last sermon here and announced His Nirvana. Similarly. Make this experience your own. Lumbini is noteworthy for being the birthplace of Buddha. The city of Sarnath popular amongst the Buddhist as the spot for His first sermon. Lord Buddha had attained Enlightenment under the Bodhi tree in Bodhgaya. Noticeably. Devotes visit the Sri Guru Nanak Dev ji gurudwara at Manikaran known for the hot water springs with healing properties.M. For the Sikhs one of the most revered shrines is the Hemkund Sahib. the mosque was earlier the Vishnu temple. Pilgrims also flock to Anandpur Sahib. the pilgrims cover the most difficult of terrains with ease. The sacred city of Poanta Sahib is visited to regard the tenth guru. It BHU was founded by Pt. Pilgrims to the holy land. Malviya. Another major attraction for the pilgrims happens to be the Bharat Mata temple. which revealed the eight-fold path after His enlightenment. The campus has added attractions like the Vishwanath temple and a museum. there are a number of other spots for pilgrimage tourism in India. which too is a pilgrimage for the Buddhists. Guru Govind Singh. Pilgrimage tourism in India is not just a fad but it is an experience of lifetime. It boasts of the largest residential university is Asia. follow the ageold tradition of bathing and performing puja at the ghats. the residence and meditation spot for the Gurus.two steams flowing through it namely. Varuna and Assi. 67 . The pilgrimage starts at the base camp of Govind Dham. The Alamgir Mosque or the Beni Madhav Ka Darera close to the main city is an example of the beauty of amalgamation of the hindu and mughal styles or architecture. namely the Benaras Hindu University. which is not dedicated to any God or Goddess but Mother India. Pilgrims trek to a height of 4329 meters to pray at the world's Highest Gurudwara. With faith in the Almighty.

For Goa. among others.g.. beaches. Tourism development has many social impacts. Goa also capitalizes on its unique historical and cultural heritage while the Maldives on its unique archipelagic and coral reef marine environment. The Government has played a key role in promoting tourism on unoccupied islands (or abandoned islands where customary usufruct rights were compensated) through certain traditionally powerful families and with certain funding arrangements to encourage foreign investments. The Goan social scene is further complicated by the states porous borders with the rest of India. Goa promotes heterogeneous tourism development with upscale and inexpensive charter tourism to international and domestic audiences. the loss of biodiversity. disposal of solid waste and sewage. Goa capitalizes on its comparative environmental advantages: beach and sunshine. accretion and siltation and depletion of groundwater. The preservation of the natural environment. 7 percent of employment and 7 percent of tax revenues. While Goa’s geographical location improves domestic demand for 68 . a complex mixture of customary rights. Tourism development has resulted in. and the depletion and deterioration of groundwater attributable to tourist inflows are. declining fish catches. erosion of sand dunes. land ownership. the growth of coastal tourism has been rapid and uncontrolled. issues which the government of Goa face. the prudent use of natural resources. the needs of tourists and the local population in Goa come into frequent conflict over the use of local resources (e. and transport).Case study: Development of Tourism in Goa Tourism plays an important role in the economies of Goa. Although the environmental diversity and sensitivity of Goa has been widely known. water. the government has been closely monitored the development of tourism. a variety of stakeholders with very differing interests. In Goa. and ineffective institutional and political structures seem to have made it difficult for Goa to define a tourism strategy and to enforce its implementation. tourism generates 13. Goa does not have land which is untitled or unowned or which is not of some historical significance.7percent of the state’s net domestic product.

dress style. The active participation of all stakeholders in the planning process lends itself to greater sustainability of tourism in the long-run. which has intensively documented its environmental impacts and brought environmental concerns to the public agenda. In Goa.) and the courts.communidades. it has also lead to a large influx of labor from adjoining states. Nature and Growth of Tourism in Goa: Most of the tourism in Goa is concentrated in the coastal stretches of Bardez. the implementation of the laws and regulations appears to be somewhat tardy. The situation in Goa is rather complex due largely to the number of stakeholders involved in tourism: luxury hotels. Consequently. The first is the domestic tourists. should be highlighted. as the Goan image holds a degree of mysticism. These people come in search of the culture that is different. Similarly. a systematic study of the environmental impacts of tourism and the implementation of a monitoring and management system would also aid Goa. the needs of tourists. who comprise 80 percent of all tourists. further exasperating social impacts. from the rest of India. Although the paper alludes to several government department charged with varies aspects of tourism planning in Goa. . Over 90 percent of domestic tourists and over 99 percent of the international tourists frequent these areas. The second is the international tourists who visit Goa 69 . beach tourism is the only type that is avidly encouraged by policymakers and other concerned parties alike. Mechanism for resolving conflicts among the various resource users do exist.tourism. while a MasterTourism Plan is in place. a sense of freedom and. As in any other sector of an economy. Environmental legislation and regulatory mechanisms are formulated by the government for development of tourism in Goa. but the long backlog of cases has delayed justice. Goa is visited by two types of tourists with distinct needs which this state satisfies. local residents. The high number of conflicts among users suggests that an improved institutional response is necessary. Salcete. the active lobby of its citizenry at all levels. and other sectors of the economy. Tiswadi and Marmagao. In Goa. family-run guest houses. tourism requires a sound. such as the panchayats (. although institutional responses and the development of a tourism strategy which integrates the needs of all stakeholders has lagged. institutional strengthening is a clear issue. the various stakeholders and the public cooperate. unconventional. well-defined and executed approach in which the government.

Conversely.  increased urbanization and stress of living in cities and towns. a clear off season for all tourists could be identified.  increased ownership of cars. In previous decades. Although both visit Goa for the beaches. which is making domestic tourism more attractive. The discussion is very much economic in nature with some industry orientation and focuses on factors such as the revenues from 70 . Whereas. especially among the upper-middle and middle classes . sun and beaches. as well as the tourist industry.  greater advertising targeted at domestic tourists both by the central and the state governments. such as the leave travel concession. Domestic and international tourists also differ in terms of the areas they frequent. Within the category of international tourists are there are two sub-categories: backpackers and charter tourists.  improved employment benefits.purely for the natural environment. international tourists avoid the monsoon months. who come throughout the year albeit in larger numbers in the non-monsoon months. The backpackers are not found in areas of charter tourists. so domestic tourists remain away from the places frequented by the international tourists. development of inexpensive mass transport and improved connections to various places of tourist interest  increased number of cheap accommodations and resorts. they stay away from each other. the charter tourists tend to stay in the luxury starred hotels. The various factors that have contributed to this rise in domestic tourism are:  increased disposable income of the middle class. today this is not so for domestic tourists. that is being targeted at the middle class Tourism development among policy-makers tends to be discussed in terms of the factors that are of concern to the national and the state governments. For the domestic tourist. the beaches hold limited appeal. The timings of visits are clearly different for the domestic and the international tourists. they prefer to mingle and live with the local communities. and  development of time sharing of holiday accommodations. as for them the use of the beach is the prime attraction to come to Goa.

The micro level impact of tourism on the destination area immediately around it has been relatively less studied. The money spent by domestic and international tourists is received by different segments of the industry which provide the supporting goods and services. In the last few years indications are that the domestic tourist coming to Goa is increasingly from the more affluent segments of society. while state governments are more concerned with its contribution to local income.tourism. The foreign exchange earning potential of the tourism industry is one of the main attractions for its support by national governments. it has had a number of positive benefits in terms of increased incomes. earnings in foreign exchange for the last three years were US$43-57 million8. 71 . Tourists travel to and from their destinations.7 percent of Net State Domestic Product. 7 percent of employment and 7 percent to state tax revenues. Tourist receipts can be classified into five categories: accommodation and food. shopping. internal travel. increased revenue and increased foreign exchange earnings. All these activities require extensive infrastructural networks and support services that may not remain limited to the geographical positions of a tourists movements. the foreign exchange earnings. increased employment. the employment created and the income generated5. fed and entertained. Although tourism is concentrated along the coastal zone in Goa. entertainment and miscellaneous items. The impacts of such a large-scale. there are also some socio-economic and environmental impacts associated with these benefits that need to be highlighted. On an average. and the international tourist have increasingly been more of the inexpensive charter packages. are accommodated. added avenues for upwardmobility for locals. diversely interactive activity as tourism should be more inclusive of all components. Moreover. However. the effects result very much from the interactions among the tourists and the agents in the destination area. The focus has always been on the implications of tourism development on the economy of Goa and on the relations among the various components of its tourism industry. if at all6. taxes and employment. These impacts have arisen as a result of the trajectory that tourism has followed in Goa and can be summed up as follows:  The growth of coastal tourism has been rapid and uncontrolled. It is estimated that tourism contributes to around13.

 The seasonal nature of tourism has led to swings in employment and income most markedly in the small sector and to the unskilled worker.  There has been no clear nor firm policy relating to tourism; most decisions have been on a purely ad hoc basis, except for a marked predisposition to up market tourism. The policy initiatives that have been introduced are not attentive t o local concerns. This has led to some disaffection among locals toward tourists that needs to be studied.  There has been a marked spatial concentration of tourism development along the  coast, which is leading to heavy demand for resources in these places. Cumulatively, this results in concentration and congestion of population, enormous increase in the density of construction, and related infrastructure and facilities. Consequently, there has been an overall decline in the agricultural sector in the state.  It poses major changes in land use, shortages of resources, such as land and water, and damage to coastal aquifers, the sand dune system, and mangrove vegetation.  Spawning and breeding grounds have been lost due to anthropogenic activities related to tourism; consequently, fish populations are decreasing and traditional fishing activities are on the decline.  The principles of sustainability and the norms related to the conservation of the environment and ecology are generally ignored; the coastal environment is becoming irreversibly degraded as evidenced by the concretization of beaches

It is clear that there is much to be learned about the impacts of tourism in Goa, and that further planning and development requires information gaps to be filled. More specifically, the following actions are needed:


 A careful study on the type of tourism that best suits Goa: up-scale, low budget or a combination of the two.  Recognition that tourism is a vulnerable industry, subject to the fads of the trade; hence, tourism cannot be allowed to permanently change the face of the coast in the long run.  A systematic study of the environmental impacts of tourism, through perhaps, a life cycle analysis, and the valuation of the environment to enable its integration into decisionmaking.  Understandings of the processes that make the Goan coast a preferred tourist destination rather than the hills or the hinterland areas.  A monitoring and management system to ensure the effectiveness of coastal and environmental regulations. The development of sustainability markers would be a way to ensure this. Such markers will enable both the industry and government t o identify the emerging issues and to facilitate mitigation before problems becomes unmanageable. They can also serve as the basis for monitoring changes in the ecosystem, social and economic spheres.  The integration of the principles of coastal environment and ecology into the planning stage of any coastal activity, as preventative rather than remedial measures.
 An environmental impact assessment and studies of Goa’s coastal stretches including

estuaries and backwaters.  Policies which recognize the type of interconnections among tourism, local communities and the environment, to ensure that tourism contributes to a sustainable development agenda.

Suggestions for Development of Tourism in India:
The development and promotion of tourism sector should be done keeping on the basis of:  Planning

 Organizing structures  Business process re-engineering  Information systems  Technology planning  Human resource management  Operations management  Marketing, Economic & Financial planning  Strategy and Policy formulation  Regional planning and perspective/ development planning  Market strategy formulation  Market research and analysis  Infrastructure planning  Visitor management systems planning  Environment impact assessment  Land use planning  Economic and financial feasibility  Manpower development and training  Project implementation planning  Project management  Information systems and technology planning

 Public relations The seven key areas or the seven ‘S’ mantras which will provide thrust to the tourism development are:  Swagat( welcome)  Soochna( information)  Suvidha( facilitation)  Suraksha( safety)  Sahyog( cooperation)  Samrachna( infrastructure development) and  Safai( cleanliness)

The tourism industry, unlike many other industries, is a composite of several service providers. These service providers are generally in the private sector. In addition, public sector institutions such as the national or state departments of tourism are involved in the planning, development and management of tourism. The participation of different private and public agencies makes tourism industry a complex phenomenon requiring a strong cooperation for it to be developed and expanded along lines that will contribute to the overall national development objectives. Uncontrolled tourism growth could damage India’s socio- cultural structure, degrade its tangible and intangible cultural and natural heritage, and lead to adverse economic impacts such as high importation costs and weakening inter industry linkages. On the other hand, when industry is properly planned, developed and managed at all levels of government in partnership with the private sector, it will strengthen India’s socio- cultural structure. It would valorize its tangible and intangible cultural and natural heritage and lead to positive economic impacts including enhanced employment and income opportunities, lower importation costs and stronger interindustry linkages.

to modes of transport to destinations. to encourage private sector participation.There should be creation of world class infrastructure. build . The government should help in funding to assit programs designed to set hig hset of professionalism for guides working in all sectors of tourism industry. railway hotels. introduction of special tourist trains such as tourist trains. There should be promotion of 3-star or less luxurios functional. There should be development of theme based tour packages and network of facilities. and it ranges from ports of entry. heritage railway buildings. There should be development of integrated circuits. railway heritage tourism. water supply. construction and improvement of highways linking the heritage sites and tourist place of significance. ANNEXURES Government laying stress on domestic tourism: Ms Ambika Soni 76 . sewage and telecommunications amongst others. clean and hygenic accomodation. hill railways. to urban infrastructure supporting tourism facilities such as access roads. power and electricity. Appropriate incentives and income tax benefits may be provided to those who invest in infrastructure development for tourism. operate and transfer to the tourism industry as has been done in the maldives. There should be promotion of small tour operators who specialize in planning short organized trips. railways or waterways. by the airways. Programs relating to the same should be carried out to develop the tourism sector. Tourism education and training are critical aspects of the tourism industry’s international competitiveness. India’s physical infrastructure is the very foundation on which tourism is to be built. roads.e. India should apply the principle of BOT i. with good service near tourist attractive spots. All states should follow the path of Rajasthan and Kerela in the promotin of tourism. etc.

When the modernisation of Delhi and Mumbai airports is completed the visa-on-arrival programme would be started on a trial basis. And that will lead to further development and progress. according to Assocham. There is no problem in implementing the decision as Advance Passenger Information System is available now and unwanted people can be screened before they leave their country.5 per cent in 2010 from mere 0.New Delhi :The central government is laying greater stress on domestic tourism as it helps unite the country. But they have finally agreed to increase the abatement to 75 per cent although the industry was keen that it be increased to 90 per cent. Commonwealth Games will push up share in tourist arrivals' New Delhi:March 25 The Commonwealth Games in 2010 will push up India's share in foreign tourist arrivals to about 1. July 22 Travelling to India could become not only a bit cheaper but also a lot easier. which though not written is as good as it gets. The decision needs to be notified by the Finance Ministry before it can come into effect. Le Passage to India. The Government plans to start issue of visa-on-arrival at Delhi and Mumbai airports. “The decision was taken a few days back. she would continue to promote domestic tourism with equal importance. The domestic industry has been seeking to get the abatement level raised since 2005. It was not easy to convince the Finance Ministry. Inbound travel set to turn cheaper with service tax relief Ms Ambika Soni New Delhi. Soni said that even as she was promoting India as a tourist destination across the world.52 per cent in 2006 out of 842 million tourist arrivals globally.5 per cent. “I have got an assurance. 'We are laying greater stress on domestic tourism as we believe it is an important factor in uniting the country. India Initiative. Mr Arjun Sharma said. the Managing Director. Ms Ambika Soni said while inaugurating a travel and tourism conference on ‘Managing Growth’ organised by the World Travel and Tourism Council.” Ms Soni said. The Government’s recent decision to levy service tax on only 25 per cent of international tourist packages instead of the existing 40 per cent could make such packages cheaper. 77 .” the Minister for Tourism and Culture.' the minister said at a launch of a Hindi travelogue 'Safar Suhana Duniya Ka' written by Alok Mehta. Union Minister for Culture and Tourism Ambika Soni said here Friday. senior journalist and editor of Hindi weekly Outlook Saptahik. It is expected to reduce tour prices by about 1.

Haridwar. CEO. There are some who visit temples every month. Sources say Iskcon (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) Bangalore is looking at opening accommodation facilities at nine devotional destinations. Rishikesh. Velankanni. The offering. says the market at religious destinations has tremendous potential for growth. safety and food offerings often leave much to be desired. will invoke the essence of the particular religious destination in which it is based. On an average.5 lakh jobs. BANGALORE: India's religious destinations and temple towns draw some of the largest numbers of tourists and devotees. is on its way to open shop at Puri. according to the Chamber. What's fuelling the interest of hospitality players is also the growing number of NRI and new age urban Indians to these pilgrim centres. Puri. Rameshwaram. hotels.The Games will generate additional employment opportunities for over five lakh workforce in sectors such as airlines and airports. With modernisation of Delhi and Mumbai international airports and revamping of 35 metro airports. people visit devotional places twice in a year. Yet. besides medical and eco-tourism. is planning to offer wellness facilities at its leisure-cum-devotional destinations. cleanliness. 78 . tour operators. Some of the leading devotional destinations are Tirupati. CEO of Boutique Hospitality Consultants. Roots Corporation of Tata Group which owns Ginger brand. Taposh Chakraborty. It's dominated by small standalone lodging places. most of them can't speak much for their hospitality facilities. which would boast of a unique product. Guruvayoor and Amarnath. in order to get more room nights. whose hygiene. flyover. Budget hotel Ginger. as people look at quality accommodation to extend their trip for a few extra days. some 5% of the travellers look at luxury offerings. While. Badrinath. Around 90% visit with friends and families and stay on an average for two-three nights. Hotel biggies bet on religious tourism 28 Sep 2007. airlines and airport industry will alone create over 2. "We are also keen on going to Tirupati. Major hotel chains and newer entrants into the hospitality industry see a potential business coming from the increasing demand for quality accommodation at affordable prices from the 150 million domestic devotional travellers. The hotel. That could now change. which already has a presence in Haridwar." says Prabhat Pani. stadia developers. Shirdi. which could range from being a budget hotel to a serviced apartment complex to full-fledged homes. basic comfort and hygiene is what the masses want.

79 . "The government would need to provide single window clearance and incentives that go along similar special zones. Among the recommendations are that there should be 100 per cent tax exemption for a period of 10 years. entertainment etc. withdrawal of luxury tax and lower VAT. The proposal will now be placed before the Planning Commission for its approval. Velankanni. the Centre is considering a proposal to set up Special Tourism Zones (STZs) on the lines of Special Economic Zones (SEZs)." it said. including Palani. about 100 odd restaurants.000-3. are now foraying into the hospitality sector with the launch of their debut luxury project Vaikundam Retreat in Guruvayoor. cities as well as along the coastline. CMD. the STZs are needed as in view of the tremendous growth potential of the tourism industry. Tirupati and Puttaparti." says Sudhir Gopi. The idea to create STZs was approved at a recent meeting of the National Tourism Advisory Council (NTAC) chaired by Minister for Tourism and Culture Ambika Soni.000 hotel rooms. according to the recommendations of the subcommittee of the council on 'public-private partnership'. Govt planning to set up Special Tourism Zones NEW DELHI: With a view to making a more focussed effort at developing the tourism industry. While the state government would be required to create such STZs. "All the concessions available to the Special Economic Zones could be fine tuned to the STZ." the sub-committee said in its report. exemption from import duty on capital goods and raw material. facilities for shopping. the private sector would provide all the facilities and services inside the zones. The STZs are proposed to be located in the major tourist destinations. pioneers in the field of higher education services. "We are investing Rs 500 crore to set up luxury/religious hospitality properties.Sudhir Gopi Holdings. The group is planning to build a chain of luxury serviced apartments across the pilgrim centres of south India. As per the sub-group. the requirement of infrastructure will be of a high magnitude. Each STZ should be able to provide 2.

to draw up project reports. states will have to give land and implement the work. the Centre has now accepted tourism as one of the major drivers of economic growth.gooogle.tourismofindia.indiainfoline.com www. MoUs will be signed with states to ensure that the latter implements the projects within stipulated time periods.in www. Tourism ministry has for the first time been included in the committee of infrastructure that’s headed by the PM.com www. And this figure just includes people who spent a night in hotel in a city where they went as tourists and not those who also travelled but stayed with relatives or friends. This figure is up from 236 million just four years ago. including ITDC. Jaisalmer. The ministry is now going to appoint consultants. Among the places identified are — Hampi. The ministry will give a maximum of Rs 50 crore and Rs 25 crore to state governments to develop each circuit and destination.tourism. While the Centre will fund the projects. Bibliography        www.indiavisitinformation. the Union tourism ministry says a whopping 420 million domestic tourists were recorded in 2006. the ministry has earmarked Rs 650 crore of its fiscal’s budget allocation of over Rs 1.indiasta.tourisminindia. highlighting the importance the sector could play in driving development of infrastructure. Buoyed by the sudden surge in number of domestic tourists. ‘‘We are going to develop six circuits and 15 key destinations this year.com www.gov. NEW DELHI: Indians are travelling like never before to explore the charms of their ‘incredible’ country. Ellora.com www. Union tourism minister Ambika Soni has decided to make this sector as the prime focus area. In fact. Among the chosen circuits is the famed Buddhist area of Rajgir. Revealing last year’s figures. Ajanta.Nation on the move: 420 m domestic tourists in 2006 25 Apr 2007. Ajmer.’’ said a senior official.com 80 .000 crore to develop sites within the country. Nalanda and Bodh Gaya.com www. To prove that it means business. Badrinath and Kedarnath. This move came after Soni made a presentation to PM Manmohan Singh. ghats of Varanasi.

M.com  www. www.world-tourism.yahoo.incredibleindia.org Books and magazines:  Service sector management By S. 2006 – Tourism special  Business India.JHA  India today November. 81 .com  www.indiatimes.com  www.

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