Tourists: The origin of the word “tourist” date back to 1292 AD. It has come from the word ‘tour’. A number of experts have defined the term: “Tourists are the voluntary temporary travelers, traveling in the expectations of pleasure from the novelty and change experienced on a relatively and non-current round-trip”. “Tourist is a person who makes a journey for the sake of curiosity for the fun of traveling”.

Tourist: The UN/WTO (World Tourism Organization) defines visitors as “any person Traveling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than 12 months And whose main purpose of the trip is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated From within the place visited. Tourists are:
 Persons traveling for pleasure, health and domestic reason.  Persons arriving in the sea of sea cruise.  Persons traveling for convention.

In the view of the previously mentioned viewpoints of different experts, the following points emerge regarding tourism:  Tourism is a temporary and short-term movement of people.  Tourism is the totality of relationship.  Tourism is an activity involving a complex mixture of material and psychological elements.  Tourism is the activity concerned with the utilization of leisure hours.  Tourism is a composite industry consisting of various segments.


Tourism – the first commercial venture.

A religious Englishman called Thomas Cook in 1841 arranged, for a fee, a one –day rail excursion from Leicester to Loughborough for 540 members of a temperance league. Thus the first bona fide travel agent was Thomas Cook. While Cook himself did not make a profit on this first venture, he was a man of vision and was convinced that there was a need for a skilled “travel arranger”. So by 1845 he had become the first full-time travel agent, operating train excursions from Leicester. The next year he chartered a train and steamer for an excursion to Scotland for 330 people. In 1851 Cook arranged ocean steamship travel and accommodations for more than 1,50,000 visitors to the World Exposition in London and in 1856 he operated the first escorted “grand tour” of Europe. Tours to Europe and Middle East were also conducted and, in 1872, the first around the world tour was conducted.


Tourism as a Global industry

It is difficult to have a command on the cyclic movement of fashion, needs and requirements and the lifestyles. The process of change is of course, the seeds of dissatisfaction and monotony get a conducive nexus for their germination and development. Hence to control or regulate the process, we allow a change which influences our decision making behavior and forces us to welcome a change place. It was against the background that the travelling was transformed into a business and of late is an industry. The transformation has witnessed a number of ups and downs in almost all the areas. Right from the very beginning of the culture and civilization, we find the process of change continuing, of course as a pilgrimage. There is no doubt in it that the Roman Empire injected life, strength and continuity to the travelling and therefore, the credibility for the development of tourism industry ultimately goes to them. The fall of Roman Empire resulted into the downfall of the tourism, at least still the end of the middle age. The available facts reveal that the Romans evinced interest in visiting temples, shrines, festivals and the baths for health and amusement. The contours of development underwent radical changes at least until the 15th century. The trade and commerce along with religious activities gained the momentum but till the beginning of industrial revolution, tourism continued to remain a matter of pilgrimage. Of course a number of developments took place between 15th and 18th centuries. Tourism is arguably the world’s largest industry and continuously tremendous annual growth rates. For the recipients of international tourism, the tourism industry creates dependency upon a fickle and fluctuating global economy beyond their local control. Local economic activities and resources are used less for the development of communities and increasingly for export and enjoyment of others. With so few international policies and guidelines restricting it, tourism has given free reign to develop throughout the world. In fact, it has leaded the globalization process in areas of transportation, communications and financial systems.

Globally, tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world, generating wealth and employment, opening the minds of both visitors and visited to different ways of life. Tourism as an instrument of economic development will and is taking the greater importance in the future. There are grounds for optimism about what tourism can mean for poor nations in the 21st century. Tourism can help poor countries develop by increasing employment opportunities. Tourism tools encourage activities in least developed countries by promoting, recognizing developing strategy, encouraging providing what are most desirable, taking measure and formulating the structure, such as infrastructure. Like any other economic activity, tourism can also be loss making. But if managed properly tourism can be beneficial is the conclusion.


and other hospitality industry services such as spas and resorts. The WTTC also says that the travel and tourism industry in India employs 17. short-term. accommodation such as hotels. 1 industry. Tourism is one of the world’s fastest growing industries at present and holds the current status of the world’s no. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council.6% of the total number of people employed in India. This is the very reason why the government of India has been compelled to grant organizations in this industry export house status. Spending on tourism amounts to 5%-10% of total consumer. bars. Tourism industry creates a job every 2. It involves travels and stay for temporary period to a place distant from the residence ranging from weekend to a few weeks or months.5 trillion worldwide. and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. Tourism is vital for many countries. 5 . the taxes levied on businesses in the tourism industry. The Ministry of External Affairs says that the tourism industry is the second highest foreign exchange earner in the economy. 50.4 seconds with every one of those direct jobs creating another 11 indirect jobs.7 million jobs which are 5.000 crores to India’s GDP. spending in a year worldwide. movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work. The tourism as a whole is presently estimated to earn over US$ 3. These service industries include transportation services such as cruise ships and taxis. Thus it has a great impact on the economy of a country. due to the income generated by the consumption of goods and services by tourists.8 million by 2010. This figure is expected to go up to 24. by 2020. and entertainment venues. the tourism industry will contribute close to Rs 8. restaurants.Overview of Tourism industry Tourism is a temporary.

Tourism in India could contribute Rs 8. UNWTO's Tourism 2020 Vision forecasts that international arrivals are expected to reach nearly 1.6 billion by the year 2020. with 1995 as the base year and forecasts for 2010 and 2020.000 crores to the GDP. Tourism industry: Indian scenario 6 . Its importance as an instrument for economic development and employment generation. By 2020. has been now well recognized the world over.Travel and tourism related jobs/employment are not only generated at a relatively low cost and concentrated in small business and local community but also provide significant opportunities for women and young people. particularly in remote and backward areas. An essential outcome of the Tourism 2020 Vision are quantitative forecasts covering a 25 years period. 50. Tourism 2020 vision : Tourism 2020 Vision is the World Tourism Organization's long-term forecast and assessment of the development of tourism up to the first 20 years of the new millennium. offer educational training and skill development and protect and revitalize traditional arts and crafts. The figures indicate that tourism has certainly become a major social phenomenon of the modern society with enormous economic consequences.

000 km coastline and dozens of beaches.1 million people and indirect employment to another 12. religion and scenic beauty. In 1951. as it provides direct employment to 9. plantations and adventure locations. Bihar. Indian tourism is one of the most diverse products on the global scene. JBIC ranked India as the fifth most attractive investment destinations. Goa. India is home to a great variety of 7 . Tourism in India has registered significant growth in the recent years. India is known for its mystical attraction in terms of its rich heritage.2 percent over 2004. Gujarat. The upward trend is expected to remain firm in the coming years. international tourist arrival stood at around 17 thousand only while the same has now gone up to 3. It is true that India has yet to reach the prosperity level where leisure activity can be included in the priority sector but. Andhra Pradesh etc to promote them as tourist’s hub. India also has a large number of villages. Himachal Pradesh. It generates maximum job opportunities. a growth of 20. The tourism industry currently stands 127th on the list of priorities of the Indian government.Tourism industry in india is one of the fastest growing industry.91 million in 2005. India’s tourism destinations such as Kerala. Karnataka. India has significant potential for becoming a major global tourist destination. Apart from this. India has a 6. Further Government has identified locations in various states such as Madhya Pradesh. if solving the country's unemployment and foreign exchange problems are on the top of the national agenda. which makes it one of the most desirable tourism destinations across the world. Tourism is also one of the sectors. India has 26 world heritage sites. Maharashtra. Tourism industry also has one of the best employment multipliers when compared with any other industry in India. diverse culture. Rajasthan. It is divided into 25 bio-geographic zones and has wide ranging eco tourism products. the potential of this industry cannot be neglected. Tourism is the third largest net earner of foreign exchange for the country recording earnings of US$ 5731 million in 2005. Conde NastTraveler. which employs the largest number of manpower. one of the world’s most celebrated travel magazines ranked India amongst the top 10 tourist destinations of the world. Agra etc are already well positioned on the global tourism map. India's great ethnic diversity translates into a wide variety of cuisine and culture.4 million.

It can provide impetus to other industries through backward and forward linkages and can generate huge revenue earnings for the country. From the moment that you see foot in India to be greeted by a graceful Namaste.5 million in 2007-08. cities come alive with cultural feasts of music and dance. along the west coast where 8 . India is a vivid kaleidoscope of landscapes. In addition to this India organizes numerous fairs and festivals. The balmy weather is an ideal time for one to go century hoping in romantic cities studded with medieval forts and palaces. In summer. In the recent 2007-08 budget.6 million in 2006-07 to US$ 117. It also has one of the world's biggest railway systems opening possibilities for those interested in rail tourism. the provision for building tourist infrastructure has been increased from US$ 95. In the cool of an Indian winter. which are quite attractive to foreigners. misty mountain retreats. a gesture that denotes both welcome and respect. there are spectacular retreats amidst the heady beauty of the Himalayas or the lush heights of the Western Ghats with cool trekking trails. rich cultures and festivals. India also has excellent hospitals offering affordable Medicare and traditional healthcare systems like Ayurveda. India’s amazing diversity offers you everything you could ever want in a holiday. One can taste the delight of the Indian monsoon anywhere in the country. magnificent historical sites and royal cities. colorful people. Tourism sector holds immense potential for Indian economy. golden beaches.on a camel safari in the Rajasthan desert when nature comes alive and the peacocks dance. Bounded by the majestic Himalayan ranges in the north and edge by a spectacular coastline surrounded by three seas.wildlife and its reserves are well known throughout the world. when the subcontinent is sizzling. At any part of the year India can offer a dazzling array of destinations and experiences. tall peaks to conquer or stretches of white water for the adventure seekers. you are on the way to one of the most rewarding experiences of your life.

day dream on a house boat drifting down the palm – fringed back waters. Thus. plateaus. the towering temples of south India. miniature paintings.one that favors tourist with a different facet of its fascination every time they come on a visit.At unbelievable prices.the relentless slanting rain paints the countryside in brilliant greens or even trekking amidst the stark grandeur of mountain valleys lying in the rain shadow of the Himalayas. In the desert of Kutch. where foothill valleys cover the northern most of the country’s 26 states. The subcontinent of India lies in south Asia. Experience exotic India – live like a maharaja in the rich ambiance of royal forts and palaces that are now heritage hotels. delight in the grace of a dancer or shop till you drop. tropical rain forests and sandy deserts are bordered by palm-fringed beaches. on the other hand. a scattering of villages pit themselves against the awesome forces of nature. finely crafted jewelry. India always warm and inviting variety. luxuriate in the serene beauty of a coral island with its turquoise lagoon. To the north it is bordered by the world’s highest mountain chain. are associated with a great many crafts performing arts of the region. resulting in Spartan lifestyle made vibrant by a profusion of jewelry and ornamental embroidery used to adorn appeal and household linen. carpets …. Further south. easily identifiable by their ornately sculptured surface. marble inland with semi-precious stones. carved figurines. between Pakistan. participate in the exuberance of a village fair or a colorful festival. brass and silver ware. china and Nepal.. Gujarat. Local culture is visibly shaped by the faith Buddhism as well as by the harsh terrain. In the extreme north is the high altitude desert of ladakh. Tripura and Manipur with their folk culture. Yet another facet on Indian culture is the colorful tribal lifestyles of the northeastern states of Nagaland. the result of the coexistence of a number of a religious as well as local tradition. Side by side with the country’s staggering topographical variations in its cultural diversity.buying exquisite silks. 9 .

each having left their imprint in the country. Industrialization and modernization have been the buzzwords in almost every country. As a consequence of India’s size. Judaism. in the post world war period. Zoroastrianism. India’s history goes back to 3. Jainism.200 BC when Hinduism was first founded. terra-cotta figurines of the centuries BC bear distinctly Greek traces. and its great natural wealth has lured a succession of traders and foreign influences to it. Its ancient monuments are the backdrop for the world’s largest democracy where the atomic energy is generated and industrial development has brought the country within country’s coastline fashion simple fishing boats in a centuries old tradition while. Modern India is a home alike to tribal with his anachronistic lifestyle and to sophisticated urban jet-setter. Realizing the various socio-economic benefits of tourism. Advancements in transportation and communication have been the major thrust areas for achieving rapid industrialization. river running. and its jungles provide shooting wildlife – with a camera.In the central Indian states of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh tribal village life has resulted in a variety of artistically executed handcrafts. Tourism is one such industry. however faint or localized. Christianity and Islam all exist with in a country today. Motor vehicle glides off conveyor belts in the state of the art factories. governments in all the 10 . Chinese fishing nets in Kerala are a throwback to that country’s ancient maritime trade. a few miles away. the history of a country has seldom been the same for adjoining territories. India’s mountain provides heli skiing. Buddhism. It is a land where temple elephants exist amicably with the microchip. Sikhism. mountaineering and trekking. Its beaches provide lazy sunbathing as well as wind surfing and snorkeling. Tourism has achieved today the status of an industry and has become more than a cultural pilgrimage. while in north. Thus. As a result many new industries have mushroomed and have been responsible for catapulting many a nations to the status of highly industrialized nations.

The Asia-Pacific region has been identified as the number one emerging region in this industry with an estimated growth of 7. The role and the service offerings will undergo a big change in the present cyber world. As per the projections of the World Tourism Organization (WTO). snow and sands to people all over the world. the Indian subcontinent is well poised to take advantage of the boom in the tourism sector.6 billion tourist will cross international borders for holidays.the most potent weapon of the name. 1. People with increased disposable incomes are showing interest in holidays. The 21st century of tourism magic. and are warming up to the idea of travelling and sightseeing. For the recipients of international tourism. Therefore. culture. In fact. whereas the global annual earnings are likely to reach $ 8500 billion. most of the countries including India 11 . The tourism industry is undergoing a sea change with the revolutions in communication and information technology. sunshine. the annual earnings are likely to reach $3000 billion in this region. by the year 2020. tourism has given free reign to develop throughout the world. communications and financial systems. Globally. fame and reward. accounting for about 8. tourism is one of the fastest growing industries. in the new millennium. By the year 2010. it has leaded the globalization process in areas of transportation. Tourists are swarming places of interest by the hordes. the tourism industry creates dependency upon a fickle and fluctuating global economy beyond their local control. Tourism is arguably the world’s largest industry and continuously tremendous annual growth rates. Within the Asia Pacific region. Everybody in the tourism industry will have to change and rediscover its place in newly defined value chain.8% annually.countries are competing with each other in selling “tourism & travel” concept in history. With so few international policies and guidelines restricting it.5% in total capital investment in the world. Local economic activities and resources are used less for the development of communities and increasingly for export and enjoyment of others.

8 41.1 7.881.6 8.5 1.2 7.0 5.7 12 .7 7.314. Travel & Tourism: Driver for economic growth India INR % of Tot Growth* INR (Billion) 6. Its vast geographical diversity.542.128. a vast coastline. offer tremendous potential for tourism.8 0.1 5.0 (Billion) 2006 Personal Travel and 935.5 302.0 2.0 7. India is a vast country with a history that goes back 5000 years.4 Tourism Business Travel Government Expenditures Capital Investment Visitor Exports Other Exports Demand T&T Industry GDP 713. 015.9 5.8 T&T Economy GDP T&T Industry Employment T&T Economy Employment 24.9 14.6 8.857.8 7.3 1.3 2.4 7.2 Travel and Tourism 2. fair and festivals.2 5.827.0 7.8 17.1 1.1 6.3 984.4 10.0 6.4 2. rich culture and heritage.3 10.are spending millions of dollars for the revamping of the existing facilities or the creation of new ones.6 681. snow capped mountains.8 1.7 8.0 2.9 8.0 1.6 8.3 1.6 -0.342.679.8 3.1 119.1 822.2 121.2 1.349.4 1.2 3.0 5.3 10.3 7.031.591.5 260.2 1.8 27.1 6.7 5.8 1. monumental attractions that span the entire country and the gaps in the infrastructure.6 2.3 % of Tot Growth** 2016 4.3 1.

6% of total employment in 2004 and are forecast at 12. 5.8 bn) of economic activity (Total Demand) in 2004.002.0 bn) in this same period.5 bn or US$64.1 per cent of total) by 2014.027.7% of total employment or 1 in every 17.8 bn (2.456.Source: World Travel and Tourism Council *2006 real growth adjusted for inflation (%) **2007-2016 annualized real growth adjusted for inflation(%) Total Demand: India Travel & Tourism is expected to generate INR1.7 bn (US$90. or 1 in every 17.846.4 bn or US$13.790. 5. US$21. in real terms.600 jobs in 2004.0 bn). The T&T Economy contribution (percent of total) should rise from 4.441.4 bn or US$31. By 2014.9 bn. Employment: India T&T Economy employment is estimated at 24.000 jobs.477. this should reach INR1. this should total 27. Capital Investment: India Travel & Tourism capital investment is estimated at INR485.8 per cent of total.6% of the total by 2014.000 T&T Industry jobs account for 2.2 per cent of total investment in year 2004.1 bn) to 5.4 bn) by 2014. between 2004 and 2014. The 11.0 per cent to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2004 (INR618.200 jobs or 2.5 jobs.4 bn or 7.3 bn. Personal And Business Travel & Tourism: 13 . rising in nominal terms to INR2.9 per cent (INR1.972.663. Gross Domestic Product: India's T&T Industry is expected to contribute 2.3 bn (US$38. Travel & Tourism Demand is expected to grow by 8. growing (nominal terms) to INR7.8 jobs.2 bn or 7.3 bn or US$25. US$10.2 per cent (INR4. By 2014.6% of total employment.8% per annum.404.

5 bn or 5. US$46.2 bn or US$6.5 bn or 6.1 per cent of total consumption. By 2014.0 per cent of total personal consumption in year 2004.4 per cent of total) in 2014.3 bn (5.612. US$19.4 bn in year 2004. India Travel & Tourism is expected to generate 6. this should reach INR387. 14 .267.3 bn or US$16. Exports: Visitor Exports play an important development role for the resident Travel & Tourism Economy.3 bn.4 bn or US$5. this should reach INR3. By 2014.0 bn.0 bn) in 2004.India Personal Travel & Tourism is estimated at INR927.5 bn.7 per cent of total exports (INR283. US$2. growing (nominal terms) to INR1.9 bn. India Business Travel is estimated at INR114.

Any person residing in a country who travels to a place within the country. religious and social functions. ii) Pilgrimage. iii) Business conferences and meetings. and iv) Study and health. and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. leisure. for a duration of not less than 24 hours or one night and for not more than 12 months at a time for any of the following purposes:i) Pleasure (holiday. 15 .Domestic Tourism in India Domestic tourist: A domestic tourist is a person who travels within the country to a place other than his usual place of residence and stays at hotels or other accommodation establishments run on commercial basis or in dharamshalas/sarais/musafirkhanas/agra-shalas/choultries etc. sports etc). outside his/her usual environment for a period not exceeding 12 months.

A National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) study says that Thirupathi in Andhra Pradesh is the largest recipient of religious tourists earning USD 224 million. Though there is a remarkable growth in the contribution to GDP through tourism industry of India. Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu contributing more than 50% of the total receipts. ii) Persons coming to establish more or less permanent residence in the State/ Centre. There are major states such as Uttaranchal. attending social and religious functions etc. There is a huge scope for domestic tourism in India. According to WTO. global domestic tourism flows at least 10 times greater than the international tourist flows. * Some-Day visitors: Visitors who do not spend one night in a collective or Private accommodation in the place visited. iii) Persons visiting their hometown or native place on leave or a short visit for meeting relations and friends. with or without a contract to take up an occupation or engage in activities remunerated from within the State/Centre. There were receipts of nearly $ 3. Others earn several million dollars but are not accounted for because most religious tourists travel meagerly as a pilgrimage and not as a luxury. One of the major drivers for domestic tourism is the pilgrimage tourism. Vaishnavo Devi USD 168 million.85 million receipts in the year 2005. and Ajmer Sharif in Rajasthan USD 83 million. The main purpose of travel 16 . Tourism is a generic term. and stay in their own homes or with relatives and friends and not using any sight seeing facilities.66 million from the domestic arrivals from among the total of $ 4. it is seen that the major of the receipts were not from the international arrivals but from the domestic arrivals. Thus domestic tourism accounts for the major contribution to the GDP.Domestic visitors include: * Tourists (overnight visitors) : Visitors who stay at least one night in a collective Or private accommodation in the place visited.. iv) Foreigners resident in India. There was almost growth of 30% from the previous year. which includes several types of travel and stay depending upon the motives that impel people to move form one place to another. The following are not regarded as domestic tourists: i) Persons arriving.

the land of geographical varieties offers several tourist destinations that not just de-stress but also rejuvenate you. Sustainable development needs to have social. Tourism has become one of the largest global activities and a way of paying for nature conservation and increasing the value of land. There are several ways to enjoy Mother Nature in most pristine way.determines the form of tourism. wilderness adventures. and learning new ways to live on the planet. Common interest tourism. fauna. personal growth. Recreational tourism. 17 . conserving energy and reducing and recycling waste. Health tourism. Eco tourism is defined as responsible travel to natural areas and sustains the well being of local people. Business travel. protecting threatened areas. typically involving travel to destinations where flora. and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. India. is a form of tourism which appeals to the ecologically and socially conscious. also known as ecological tourism. Following are the forms of tourism: Domestic tourism. economic ans social concerns. economic and environmental needs all together to occur. internal tourism. ecotourism focuses on local culture. species and scenic aesthetics. Cultural tourism. Generally speaking. Some of the major forms in India are as follows: Eco tourism: Ecotourism. The flow of dollars can flow back into conservation and make it pay for itself. The ministry of environment and forests issued guidelines under which all tourism projects in hills and forests have to get environmental clearance. Heritage tourism: Cultural heritage tourism (or just heritage tourism) is a branch of tourism oriented towards the cultural heritage of the location where tourism is occurring. Sports tourism. volunteering. The World Travel and Tourism Council is concerned about the increasing number of tourists worldwide and has issued guidelines focusing on being sensitive to conservation aspects. It is further an amalgamation of interests arising out of environmental. There are series of eco tours for India that provide the coolest hangouts to take pleasure in indulging oneself into the God gifted environs.

railways. as the development of the Grand Tour from the 16th century onwards attests.. it helps preserve the cultural heritage. it establishes and reinforces identity. A landscape of abundant forests. Heritage on wheels: A Journey into the Past. Here. Where Empires rose and fell. Bikaner and Shekhawati being lesser explored regions have been chosen for the Heritage on Wheels. battlegrounds. it supports culture and helps renew tourism. The overall purpose is to gain an appreciation of the past. history. it has a positive economic and social impact. some people have claimed. This trend is evident in the rise in the volume of tourists who seek adventure. experience the timeless spirit of ancient India.. archaeology and interaction with local people. The heart of heritage: Discover the heart of India as you travel through Madhya Pradesh. Cultural attractions play an important role in tourism at all levels. Heritage tourism involves visiting historical or industrial sites that may include old canals. leaving behind in forbidding fortresses and 18 . The entire Rajasthan has been a passion to be explored by the tourists. etc. with culture as an instrument it facilitates harmony and understanding among people. soaring hills and silver rivers that was once Kipling's India. In the 20th century. Backed by the global success of the Palace on Wheels. famous beholders of the Heritage of Rajasthan. culture. Cultural heritage tourism is important for various reasons. from the global highlights of world culture to attractions that underpin local identities. a luxury tourist train on meter gauge enroute to the unexplored regions of Bikaner and Shekhawati. culture ceased to be the objective of tourism: tourism is now culture. Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation and Indian Railways in their first ever endeavor takes you on board The Heritage on Wheels.Culture has always been a major object of travel. cultural heritage tourism is the fastest growing segment of the tourism industry because there is a trend toward an increase specialization among tourist.

With 19 . Apart from this there are sports like skiing. The quest to do the uncommon. wild life and bird watching. ballooning and hand gliding. the fun of watching the wildlife at the Corbett National Park gets multiplied when enjoyed riding an elephant. camel treks and desert safaris. Adventure Holidays: India’s vast geographical diversity provides a vast potential for adventure tourism. golf. You name the adventure and India has the right spot for it. badminton.ornate palaces. offering package deals for groups as well as individuals. Desert adventure in Rajasthan: Rajasthan still retains an elusive fairy-tale character. swimming and motor rallies amongst the sports Ever felt the waves of a river on your face. Besides this the prices here are lower as compared to international standards. the adventure holidays and tourism in India are just for you. the Ganges is irresistible for the water sports and the scenic beauty of Jammu is picture perfect for the paragliding. The terrain of the sand dunes and long stretches of barren land is ideal for desert safaris. Rajasthan is the 'Land of Kings'. Try out the aerial. India is the land of variety and diversity. the desire to meet challenges makes people take up any of the adventure activities and rejuvenate themselves. The pilgrim's route meanders through temples where stone carvings capture every facet of life. Mountaineering. polo. Travel agents and tour operators very often specialize in certain fields. And the faithful worship at Buddhist stupas. the memory of their past glory. wish to see to the land and everything on it from a height of 18. the queen of rivers. folk culture still retains all its colour and vivacity. tennis.000 feet? Fancy trotting from one palace to another riding a camel or perhaps get a better view of the jungle sitting smart on an elephant? Well if any of them is an affirmative. trekking and rock climbing. Where opulent palaces dot the desert landscape and battle-scarred fortresses appear on every hill like sentinels of the past. angling. for the beginners to the experts. A land where the tales of valour of its medieval Rajput warriors are still sung by its travelling bards. aqua or land adventures and enjoy. scuba diving and underwater coral viewing. All tastes are catered to and there is something for everyone. Here. white water rafting and river exploration are some of the exciting possibilities. Form the gentlest to the fast placed.

exuberant celebrations of fairs and festivals. camping equipment. The captivating landscape. The mighty mountains stretching across the northern borders of India have hundred of peaks. The Western Ghats. Himachal Pradesh. the aravalli hills. many yet unscaled and inviting the intrepid mountaineer. Peninsular India offers natural beauty of another kind of trekking. is a refreshing treat to the trekkers. Rock climbing: Rock climbing in India can be an enriching experience. each with a special lure of its own. the best season for mountaineering is from May to October and six months notice is required to book a peak. invoking visions of the spectacular Himalayas. transport. There are agents who can make all the arrangements for groups or individuals including food. The spectacular Himalayas are the abode of snow and evoke unmatched feelings of reverence and excitement and offer wonderful bevy of trekking routes.quite apart from the exhilarating experience of climbing on virgin solid granite. Uttar Pradesh and Sikkim offer bases for mountaineering expeditions.the greatest adventure of all. The four cities on your itinerary will create a perfect portrait of this exotically-beautiful desert land. modern protection and higher climbing standards and development of many superb climbing areas. the saptura range and the Nilgiri Mountains have a rich heritage of flora and fauna. A music that echoes across the desert emptiness and a tradition of craftsmanship with a highly developed aesthetic sense. Treks can be taken along the remote areas or the route pilgrims have trekked year after year to remote shrines in the mountains. the lush meadows. India too was introduced to sticky rubber. chalk. The states of Jammu and Kashmir. etc. Some of the areas 20 . Mountaineering: scaling the Himalayan peaks. porters. green woodland and fragrant orchards. indeed. with an incomparable diversity of flora and fauna: India is regarded as the 'trekkers' paradise' and. Trekking: India is the ultimate destination for a trekking holiday. As the climbing standards reached greater heights in the rest of the world. offering everything from short and easy excursions to the long challenges of the snowy peaks.

You can see Rajasthan on a jeep safari. the luxury train. While India has good thermal soaring effects during the summer months. if you've a penchant for the high life.000 cubic feet of hot air fills a giant nylon balloon to which a basket is attached. The sight is not only an exciting but also a thrilling experience. Delhi and Jaipur. the soaring in the winter months. Hot air ballooning is becoming a great adventure option in India. but during summer it is better to take off early in the morning. The best time to indulge in ballooning is after sunrise when the winds are at their calmest. Rock climbing. India's westernmost state is the very essence of exotic India. There are ballooning clubs in Guwahati.are superb and can easily be compared to some world class climbing areas. is constantly increasing its tribe of enthusiasts. Balloon Ride over The Taj Mahal: Hot-air ballooning in India is being given a new dimension by some travel agents/tour operators. Rock climbing uses a minimum of aids and the challenge is to find the toughest route and scale in the least possible time. 21 . They also offer a view of the Taj Mahal from a balloon. Dehradun. The Ballooning Club in India organizes numerous international balloon festivals and demonstration flights annually.rock climbing is the favorite spot. Hand gliding: The sport of hang gliding involves hanging suspended by a harness from a large flying instrument. Especially popular in the foothills of the Himalayas wherever there are rocks and hills. The climbing areas usually being close to interesting historical sites and unique monuments can provide a pleasant distraction. Or. Ballooning: About 50. stiff climbs and Sheer Mountain sides. Camel treks and Desert safaris: Rajasthan. A festival balloon mela is organized in Delhi every year and anyone can take a joy ride. Winter months provide the most reliable conditions. But to really get a hands-on feel of the desert state.a kind of kite shaped vehicle called a hang glider. With the help of certified instructors anyone can fly with only ten minutes of instruction on the ground hang gliding has really caught on with clubs coming up in cities such as Bangalore. aboard the "Palace on Wheels". and offers hill soaring almost round the year. with the Yamuna flowing by. They not only operate joy flights on the balloon but also conduct interesting tours like balloon-cum-horse or camel safaris. although too static-is also good for hang gliding. Bangalore.

for the Ship of the Desert walks in a way which would certainly remind any sailor of a rolling. Motor rallies: through out the year many rallies are held whose dates can be obtained through the nearest tourist office. Ganges. Jeep tours can be taken over remote desert tracks that are rarely taken by tourists. the Garhwali hills and Sikkim are some popular areas. This is a paradise for the white water sportsmen. Beas. Beach resorts: 22 .khilanmarg route is a great experience for ski mountaineering enthusiasts. The Himalayan car rally attracts the international participation and goes through the mountains of Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. A number of Lakes in the Kumaon Region and The Ganga with its upper tributaries (Alaknanda. and let the good times roll. hang on for dear life. Winter sports: Gulmarg in Kashmir is India’s most popular and developed ski resort with most modern equipment. The Indus. The Gulamrg. skiing is possible in summer also. lahul valley. Kufri also offers skiing. White water rafting and river running: Many a river in the country especially the North Indian Rivers present themselves as a collection of the best white water in the world within a small geographical location. which offers training courses. Bhagirathi and various other smaller tributaries) can be hailed as the Queen of the White Water Rafting Industry. Climb up on one of these seemingly ungainly beasts. pitching deck in turbulent waters. The Great Indian Desert provides the scene for exploring the old routes on camel carts. Shimla offers iceskating and speed skating. The mighty Indian rivers tumble and crash through the mountains to form whit water rapids and terraced cascades. Ladakh and Zaskar valley in Kashmir. Ravi. Along the rohtang pass. There is an institute of skiing and mountaineering.nothing comes close to a camel safari. These rivers are excellent for both beginners’ and experts. These rivers are excellent for canoeing and kayaking. Zaskar. Chenab and teesta are rivers with both rough and calm waters.

a peacock’s dance. This clear water permits exciting under water photography for enthusiasts. The great peninsula with the Indian Ocean in the middle and accompanied by the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal on each side besides the two archipelagos of Lakshadweep and Andamans is perfect for beach holidays for tourists the world over. It offers the perfect spot for the novice divers. India boasts of many beaches of Goa in the West. The photogenic dawn and dusks at the beaches are sure to be repetitive visitor to the shores. the beautiful waves. leaving behind sea shells and driftwood. India with its long coastline of 7500 kms. The blaze of glory. A sunrise over the horizon turning the sea into molten gold. So you may head towards any direction of the Indian peninsula and be invited to the sun bathed beaches. endless beaches offer you a balmy holiday. Go southwards to the white sands of Kovalam on the Malabar Coast. Sea and Surf ever tempted you to take a break from the daily monotonous chores that you perform so religiously? Then we have just the right package for you with the sure-shot itinerary to relax you completely. the 23 . fringed shadow of the palms. On the eastern and western coasts of Kerala. the swinging palms and the many hues of the sky. The balmy beaches of India are perfect escapade for the fun loving holiday tourism seekers. Scuba diving: the best spot for scuba diving and snorkeling is at the Andaman Islands. Wild life tourism: India is home to a rich diversity of wildlife supplemented by an equally rich variety of flora and fauna. The sight and sounds of a majestic elephant. The crashing surf streaming up the sand and then receding again. the stride of a camel. offers some of the most exotic beach holidays and beach tourism destinations in the world. These breathtaking beaches promise the perfect escape to tranquility. The never-ending shores and the untouched oceanic horizons seem to be mesmerizing. The swaying. Kovalam in the South and Gopalpur in the East. The young state of Goa certainly happens to be the Beach Capital of India. Sand. On the Coromandel Coast in the east are the rock-cut temples by the sea at Mamallapuram and the seaside retreat at Gopalpur-on-Sea.Has the combination of Sun. The Konkan coast in the west has the beaches of Goa and Diu. which has a vast plethora of coral and marine life that is equally interesting to the tourist and naturalist. the nature is for sure at its best at the beaches.

The immense heritage of wildlife in India comprises of more than 80 national parks and about 441 wildlife sanctuaries including the bird sanctuaries. in close proximity of Delhi. storks and cormorants share space with the ducks.roar of a tiger are unparalleled experiences in themselves. waterside birds. deer. Cultural Holidays: Ever wondered at the cultural diversity of India? The enticing unity represented by the people of the country who display a wide range of religions. travelled this land preaching his message of compassion. The country offers immense opportunities for wildlife tourism. The Keoladeo Ghana National Park popularly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in the Indian state of Rajasthan. griffon vulture and ravens. Indian wildlife has its share of native birds along with the migratory birds. simplicity and renunciation. and domestic land species. is home to indigenous water birds. a gentle sage taught the world the path to enlightenment. The Buddhist circuit: Two thousand five hundred years ago. customs and languages. The thrill spotting herds of wild elephants. Gautama Buddha. a rhino or even a tiger in its natural environment is very difficult to match. culture. their lifestyles and the inseparable culture cannot be done solved in words but can surely be enjoyed with experience. The rich and varied heritage happens to be one of the many sources of pride of the nation. Tourists from far and wide are attracted to the Bird Sanctuary. migratory water birds. This circuit is a pilgrim's passage through the palaces immortalised by the enlightened one. Tropical forests in its eastern contrast with pine and coniferous woodlands of western Himalayas. gees and teals. herons. The mysterious ways of the people. At the Dudhwa wildlife reserve migratory birds like Egrets. Sakyamuni. The highlight of your journey will be the Holy Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya under which he gained enlightenment. Visit Sarnath where he gave his first sermon and Kushinagar where he attained Parinirvana. Watching birds and animals in their natural habitats is an experience in itself. land migratory birds. Several hundred species of birds can be spotted across India. And among the ruins of Nalanda you can still hear a distant echo of the chants of scholars of ancient times. Ayurveda and Rejuvenation: 24 . The Himalayan region is well known to be the natural habitat for the Pheasant.

where healing is a ritual and nurturing life a tradition. Ayurveda recognizes that each individual is different and so treatment too should be customized. Golf Tours: If Golf. Be onboard the luxury trains of India. An extensive and well . Add that extra touch of versatility in you by playing the different surfaces in the various golf clubs developed in several cities of India.India adheres to the age-old philosophy of Ayurveda . the largest passenger train service in the world seem to invite you. i. Railway Tours: Kuuuuu& Chuk Chuk !!! Doesn't the whistle of the luxury train. the mounds. and Agra chugging through the culturally colorful states of Rajasthan and Gujarat. The Palace on Wheels lives by its name and is no less than a fort on the swing. Jodhpur and Bharatpur. the décor. Ayurveda. the yards of green all make golf better than ever before. The marvelous train that today is a joint effort of the Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation and the Indian Railways. the climate. The turfs.crafted out Ayurvedic treatment package that would rejuvenate your body and mind and make you face the hustle and bustle of the city life again. the train offering both 25 . step into the world. the Royal Orient and the Toy Trains are the pride of Indian Railways. e. Just catch up with the Golf fever that has caught the entire country in a big way. Jaisalmer. is what you are passionate about and you happen to be an avid traveler then the 21 day Golf Holidays package of India being offered is something you cannot refuse to go ahead with. the traditional Indian system of medicine holds out to the world the promise of a healthy long life. During this excursion. experience the magical power of Traditional Ayurveda. You may even opt for a voyage onboard the Royal Orient. The lavish lifestyle. the facilities.in a traditional way .that's what makes India a different locale to visit. Udaipur. the tourists are overwhelmed with the beauty at the major stations of Jaipur. The perfect break from the stressful routine religiously followed otherwise. Chittaurgarh. the Palace on Wheels. the comfort and the style have made the first tourist train of India the most sought after. Ayurveda and Rejuvenation programs include a few programs combining Ayurveda along with sightseeing and other aspects of tourism in India.

Backwater Tours in India: Cruising along the backwaters of Kerala is an ideal way to discover the real Kerala. Kottayam and Ernakulam. the toy trains of India have attracted many a tourists. Darjeeling. The Houseboats that float on the backwaters are the improved version of the Kettuvalloms. barramundi. which comprises of delectable fresh fish like pearl spotted fish. The ride on the train with a 4500 kilometers track chugs through the popular hill stations of the country like Shimal. Somnath/Sasan. The city hosts the International Yoga Week every year in the month of February attracting several experts and participants. The tourists may indulge into tourism activities like boating. Ahmedabad and Jaipur. The toy trains are called so because of the narrow gauge railway lines they ride on. Gir/Ahmedpur. Alappuzha. It is a project of the Tourism Corporation of Gujarat Limited along with the Indian Railways. Mandvi/Palitana/ Sarkhej. Yoga Tours in India: India has been the land of saints and sages who meditated and practiced yoga. The spiritual city of Rishikesh happens to be the Yoga capital of India. The tourists are left spell bound by the tranquility of the backwaters while riding the Houseboats. fishing and sightseeing while exploring the backwaters of Kerala.style and comfort. it's the most authentic and unexplored way to explore the beauty of the backwaters. Junagarh/Veraval. Tourists and travelers flock to contemplate and practice Yoga and meditation in the lap of Himalayas. crabs. Special theme parties: Under these the following options are available 26 . The rainbow of cities trotted by the royal extravagance of the bygone era include Delhi. The backwater cuisine. Besides the Royal trains. The frequently visited tourist destinations amongst the backwaters in Kerala comprise of Kovalam. The wondrous miniature of rail engineering that offers the most scenic beauties of the Himalayas from Kalka to Shimla and another from Jal Pai Guri to Darjeeling. Chittaurgarh. The placid backwaters that stretch for over fifteen hundred kilometers are covered with swinging palm trees. Ooty/ Udagamandalam or Ootacamund and Matheran. mussels and prawns is finger licking good.

From champagne bottles and confetti to photographers we can arrange it all for the special you and the very special occasion of your dream marriage. The feast to your eyes and ears will be equaled by the sumptuous food that will treat the taste buds at the dream marriage. dealers meet or any other relationship building activity in any destination in India. The various corporate incentive tours that are offered have been planned in a manner to rejuvenate and refresh the employees for the forthcoming assignments. workshops. board meetings. There is also a thrilling firework display. Corporate incentive tours: In today's world incentive travel is one of the most effective marketing and motivational tools especially in the corporate sector.in the most beautiful style. At your dream marriage there will be fun and festivity all around backed by the music of your choice and decorations with your favorite flowers. Get married at any of the captivating castles.Along with the corporate incentives tours arrangements can be made for conferences. After all those long hours at work let the corporate employee get the much-deserved break in the form of an incentive. pulsating palaces or the happening hotels and make your dream come true. training programs. conventions.Marriage. The setting for the realization of your dream will be splendid and the arrangements will be spectacular for your marriage that will bring smiles on every face and heart! 27 . specially decorated boat for a delightful moonlight cruise on the backwater of Cochin. client presentations.Moonlight Boat Cruise on the Backwater of Kerala: Guests are ferried aboard a spacious. Celebrate the biggest and the best occasion of your life . South Indian culinary surprises are served. Dream Marriages: Tie the knot with your knight in shining armor in the most royal way. seminars.

Yamuna and Saraswati rivers. The emphasis has not only been on protecting wildlife in 28 . The lure of jungle: The total area of India's protected wildness is approximately 140. The marble symphony of Shahjahan's Taj Mahal. Discover the ancient roots of Hinduism in these age-old cities. it is a way of life. At these temples.000 sq km and constitutes 4 percent of the century's total land area. And the ability of the sculptors to breathe such exuberant life into unyielding stone. Where religion is more than an act of worship. At Prayag. sounds and experiences. at Belur and Halebid. the sculptors and stone carvers of the ancient Hoysala kingdom built temples that show their joyous devotion through their creation. Here. A gorgeous panorama of majestic architectural creations and a rich tradition of art and culture. the interior and exterior walls are decorated with intricately-carved deities. Celebrating one of the oldest living religions of the world. Religion in stone: Discover the worship of the Almighty.The golden triangle: This triangle of three cities perfectly captures the pageantry of India. the pilgrims wend their way to the Jagannath Temple and the exquisite Sun Temple. through craftsmanship. From the tumultuous sea of Puri and Konark. For centuries. The great pilgrimage: As the sun rises over a holy river or the sea. the imperial elegance of Lutyen's New Delhi. An eternal dawn ritual asking for the benediction of the Gods. stylised motifs from nature and friezes depicting life during the reign of the Hoysalas. take a dip at the holy confluence of the Ganga. and the splendor of the desert city of Jaipur. the air echoes to the pilgrims' chant of mantras. travellers have marvelled at the delicate intricacies of the carvings. From the opulence of the Mughal empire to the vibrant life of modern India. while Varanasi is a city that sings out its prayers to Lord Shiva. Every city offers its unique blend of sights.

India's wildlife is a delight for the nature lover. While traditionally traveling on a holiday meant going to a hill station or a beach. Whenever a certain place became famous. the more the perceived risk of that place losing its identity. People are now adopting themselves to the fact that tourism pays and it can be a major source of income for them. but in areas where man and animal continue to live in harmony. of which 19 fall under the purview of Project Tiger. In addition. now places like Leh and Lakshwadeep are mentioned in the same breath as Goa or Kashmir. People became cautious. The wildlife parks and sanctuaries spread across the country offer a fascinating diversity of terrain. Goa was a haven for such hippies. flora and fauna. The more the amount of outside people coming into a place. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS Social: Tourism was always looked upon as something that led to the destruction of the social fabric of a place. tourism as a form of recreation has really caught on. Its climatic and geographic diversity makes it the home of over 350 mammals and 1200 bird species. 29 . especially of the international tourists. People themselves have started traveling and are willing to travel to a place that is out of the way and exotic. the peacock and the rhinoceros. However some places such as Kerala and Rajasthan have been able to strike a balance between their own culture and the demands of the international tourists and have profited handsomely in the bargain. the example of Goa was cited to discourage the inflow of international tourists. This had a ripple effect on the country. The land of tiger and the elephant. Here they came in thousands and changed the whole culture of the state. now people are willing to go in for adventure tourism and also visit places that might be exotic and cannot really be called hospitable.reserved forests. many of which are unique to the subcontinent. For example. A good example is Goa. From the late 60's to the early 80's when the Hippy culture was at its height. The country's protected wilderness consists of 80 National Parks and 441 Sanctuaries.

The more the people spend the more the industry grows. With respect to taxation. and Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1986. These do not set aside any specific area for tourism. including having a capital base proposal below US $143 million (Rs. In fact.75% in West Bengal. especially on food and beverages. but such areas have to be identified by the State Governments and obtain the required approvals/relaxations. there is considerable disparity between state level taxes. Since we are concentrating on 30 . Economic: The tourism industry not unlike the other industries grows with the increase in the spending of the people. clearance must be obtained from the Central government (RBI or Foreign Investment Promotion Board).g. e. In accordance. the sales tax on imported beverages varies widely. There are several Acts and laws. 51% foreign equity is automatically approved subject to meeting certain prescribed criteria. Many of the laws that are in effect are old and archaic. Dividends on such investments are repatriable. Such high taxation renders the tourism sector as a whole uncompetitive. The National Policy on Tourism lays emphasis on sustainable development of tourism. It is to be noted that the Ministry of Industry provides final clearance of FIPB approvals. 100% foreign equity is automatically approved. but are subject to FIPB approval. the Environment (Protection) Act 1986. Indian hotels charge about 40% tax compared to other Asian countries where it varies between 3% and 6%". The spending power of the people has been increasing in the country and all over the world. Foreign equity holding above 51 percent are possible. With respect to Foreign Investment in any tourism related venture. the Government has brought out a comprehensive Eco Tourism Policy and Guidelines. In the case of NRIs. and not geared to meet the challenges of the 21st century. the World Travel and Tourism Council has observed that “Tax paid by tourists in India is the highest in the world. 6 billion). These are the Wild Life Protection Act 1972. Further. which ensure sustainable tourism. 63% in Karnataka to 28.Legal: The laws that govern the industry are not the same in all the parts of the country.

Similarly. This has led to a tourism boom the world over and India has been no exception. That is under the control of the Government. through the Archaeological Survey of India. the large increase in the spending power in most developed countries has left a large amount of idle cash in their hands. there has been a change in many of the 31 . There have been more people coming into the country with more cash than ever before. The various archaeological sites and the places of historical importance.the international tourists. This has lead to an increase in the demand for better hotels. the Government charges high rates of taxes on the luxury and the star category hotels and this has always been a cause of disagreement between the hotel associations and the Government. The major reason as to why tourists visit India is for the vast and rich heritage that our country has. the airlines industry and the tourist operators to name some are heavily dependent on the support and the cooperation of the Government. Even the number domestic tourists traveling by air has dramatically gone up. the political turmoil in the state of Kashmir and now in Gujarat has caused a virtual decimation of the flourishing tourism industry. The increase in the spending is also evident in the increase in the number of people traveling by air. the roads and the railways are all in the hands of the Government. However. an increase in spending does not only limit itself to accommodation. Examples are the North East for the former and Kashmir for the latter. People who previously used to come to the country on a shoestring budget and hunt around for the cheapest accommodation can now afford to go in for luxury hotels. The Indian tourism industry is built on the backbone of Government support and the industry cannot sustain itself without it. However. For example. This has led to an increase in the number of hotels in the country. There are many areas where the growth of tourism has not been rapid or has seen dramatic fall because the political environment has not been conducive. Any policy change that comes into force can have dramatic effect on the way the industry players perform. Political: The political factors are the main driving force of the industry. The neglect of the Government in developing the North-East has led to a situation where there is practically no tourism in the seven states. All the support services like the hotel industry.

Government has finally taken the decision to privatize the airports. This connectivity has made these places visible to the world. it plays a major part in the promotion of a place. After years of tight control over airport infrastructure. Similarly better transportation facilities have lead to a dramatic increase in the number of tourists visiting any particular place. Improved technology in the field of communication at cheaper costs has resulted in many remote and inaccessible areas of the country getting connected to the rest of the world. And that is very important if any place wants to be on the world tourist map. The hotel industry has been getting many incentives and many State Governments are encouraging the growth of major hotels in their states. Better communication facilities are one of the first prerequisites for growth in the inflow of tourists.policies of the Government with regard to the tourism industry. This has been made possible with technology. Better communication means access to media. The presence of an airport and the availability of frequent flights are a great convenience to any traveler. Technological: Although technology does not seem to be a major influence at first glance. 32 .

forests. Thus. The road condition in India is very bad.  Limited market segmentation  Lack of awareness about India’s tourist potential 33 .  A wealth of archeological sites and historical monuments. The airlines in India.SWOT Analysis: STRENGTHS:  India's geographical location.  Manpower costs in the Indian hotel industry are one of the lowest in the world. the needs of the international tourists and travelers are seen to while they are on a visit to India. superstition. Foreigners still think of India as a land of snake charmers. a culmination of deserts. and beaches. for example. The case of Plague in Surat in 1994 led to a decrease of 36% in arrival of foreign tourists in India. There are many places where the image of India is one of poverty. There are international players in the market such as Taj and Oberoi.  Diversity of culture i. and diseases.  Political commitment to tourism development  Acknowledgement of public and private sector partnership WEAKNESSES:  Lack of adequate infrastructure. mountains.e. a blend of various civilizations and their traditions.  No proper marketing of India's tourism abroad. are inefficient and do not provide basic facilities at airports. This provides better margins for the industry  A very wide variety of hotels is present in the country that can fulfill the demand of the tourists.

 Political turbulence within India in Kashmir and Gujarat has also reduced tourist traffic  Aggressive strategies adopted by other countries like Australia. The advantage here is that domestic tourism and international tourism can be segregated easily owing to the difference in the period of holidays. Singapore in promoting tourism.  Cooperation among competitors  SAARC countries : a viable target  Restrategise offerings to corporate clients THREATS:  Economic conditions and political turmoil in other countries affects tourism.  Growth of domestic tourism.  India’s image of an unsafe country  Victim of seasonality  Under provision of infrastructure  Competition from existing and future destinations  Growing terrorism 34 . Political instability  Lack of awareness about potential for employment and economic development OPPORTUNITIES:  More proactive role from the government of India in terms of framing policies  Allowing entry of more multinational companies into the country giving us a global perspective.

facilities and comforts to satisfy the client’s at the most reasonable rates. This combination of carious industries has to work as one to increase the tourist traffic of the country. Standard Hotels. sight seeing. for eg. they can offer central reservations services. Other types of accommodations are also well established in tourist markets. adopting a consortium approach. In order to gain recognition in an increasingly competitive marketplace.We have seen in the SLEPT analysis how various environmental forces influence the tourism industry. With the innumerable dream destinations India offers the best of the accommodation facilities to the travelers to the land. this set of industries takes care of the activities like travel. Budget Hotels to the Heritage Hotels In India. notably self-catering apartments and club type complexes. accommodation. Then there are several Indian & International Hotel Chains in India. many smaller independent hotels have grouped together. major industries that support tourism are: Accommodation: Accommodation includes hotels. The services and the facilities are such that the hospitability of India gets 35 . ranging from the biggest international chains recognizable worldwide such as Hilton and Holiday Inn to small independent establishments. The variety of hotels and resorts in India ranging from Luxury Hotels. The hotels and resorts in India provide high standards of quality of accommodation. etc. and present a recognizable identity to consumers which enables them to compete against the larger. There are plenty of hotels and resorts in India that cater to the needs of tourists of all kinds. entertainment. Under a central brand name. The other aspect of this industry is that it is heavily dependent on a set of other industries that are in turn dependent on the tourist flow of their business. more established chains.

Throughout the length and the breadth of the country that is dotted with tourist destinations the hotels and resorts are available to make your experience of India unique. and types of guests accommodated. Strengths:  A very wide range and variety of hotels are present in the country that can fulfill the demand of tourists. infrastructure. These range from one star to five star deluxe depending upon the size and amenities. 36 . About 30% of the rooms fall under five star categories.  There are international players in the market such as Taj and Oberoi. Oriental hotels. Hotels in India have been categorized on different parameters all of them taking into account the factors such as service provided. Like many other countries worldwide.revealed always. hotel Leela venture and the Ashoka chain of hotels. owned and operated by the Indian tourism development corporation. Hotel industry: Hotels form one of the most important support service that affect the arrival of tourist to a country. The incomparable and incredible land of India offers plenty of accommodation options such that the visit to the wonderland suits all pockets. The country where tradition and trends fuse to give you the best the range of possible accommodations is vast. There are around 1000 classified hotels and the total room availability is pegged at 60000 rooms. heritage value. This will help us in understanding this industry and also identify the weak points. these categorizations help the common travelers zero down on the accommodation option he can afford or wanted to stay at during his/her visit. location. Hotels are classified into six categories according to the star rating assigned by the development of tourism. the Oberoi. There are the exclusive hotels and hotel chains that boast of luxurious amenities and world-class décor. To identify the present status of this industry we have done a SWOT analysis. The major players in the industry are Indian Hotels Company Ltd (IHCL) operating under the Taj brand.

 The hotel industry in India is heavily staffed. generally the summer months. This can be gauged from the facts that while Indian company have to staff to room ration3:1. Thus the magnet to pull the customers already exists.  The services currently offered by the hotels in India are only limited value added services. For India. this ratio is very high compared to international ratio which is 1:1.This is because India is an ideal destination for tourists as it is the only country with the most diverse topography. The expenditure tax. This act as a major deterrent to Indian hotel industry. Opportunities:  Demand between the national and the inbound tourists can be easily managed due to difference in the period of holidays.term the hotel industry in India has latent potential for growth . 37 .  The hotel industry in India has a major burden of tax over it. It is not comparable to existing world standards. luxury tax and the sales tax inflate the hotel bill by over 30%.  In the long. the inbound tourists are a mere 0. Manpower costs in the Indian hotel industry are one of the lowest in the world.This number is expected to increase at a phenomenal rate thus pushing up the demand for the hotel industry. Weaknesses:  The cost of land of India is high at 50% of total project cost as against15% abroad. This provides better margin for the industry  India offers a readymade tourist destination with the resources it has.  Only 58000 rooms are available in India today which is very less.4% of the global figures . For international tourists the peak season for arrival is between September to march when the climatic conditions are suitable where as the national tourist waits for school holidays.

coach and bus travel. and differing levels of service to meet different passenger needs. especially the ferry operators. not only in terms of frequency of flights and number of destinations. to the luxury of Palace on Wheels – where the train voyage is the holiday. Passenger rail services have also changed. the range of airline services has considerably. This is a growing trend in the west and is now catching up in the whole India. and their role in tourism is as wide as with.  The economic conditions in a country have a direct impact on the earnings in the hotel industry.Threats:  Guest houses replace the hotels. In India examples of the same are insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir & the Kargil war. for example. and to remain competitive. but also in terms of different services. are broadening and upgrading their range of services and facilities to meet consumer expectations. Euro rail tickets allowing extensive international travel at basic(service) standard for students and budget tourists. thus diverting the hotel traffic. cruise and ferry lines. Aviation industry: 38 . and other shipping lines involved in the tourist industry. Cruise lines are operating different services tailored to consumers’ budgets.  Changing trends in the environment which are difficult to implement due to high project costs.  Political turbulence in the area reduces tourist traffic and thus the business of hotels. Transportation industry: Tourism industry is heavily dependent on the transportation industry which comprises of airlines. car hire. Coach and bus companies have acted in a similar fashion and so have the car rental companies. Thanks to the increase in tourist traffic. This shows the important role marketing plays as competition and demand intensifies. passenger railways. over the years.

Similar is the case of cities like Agra. There are no major threats to this industry as there is no substitute at present. thus discouraging many a time conscious tourists form visiting these places. It would be surprising that renowned tourist’s destinations like jaipur do not have an international airport. More than 80% of the tourists have to use road network but the deplorable road conditions in India do not make the travelling easier. Udaipur and Varanasi. The major strength of this sector is that there is the avaibility of the largest road network. The major factor that hampers the development of road sector is the government control over all the road properties. the basic infrastructure to support the tourism industry is missing. Thus. tourists are forced to use roads. The major weakness is the condition of roads during the monsoon seasons. The major strength of this industry is that avaibility of number of domestic airlines affording at reasonable prices. The major threat to this is from competition from other basic modes of transportation and from the other transnational airlines. Travel agents and tour operators: 39 . Airlines are the only threat which will take time to develop to come up to have such extensive distribution as rail and roads. Many tourists have to travel via Mumbai or Delhi to reach the destination. There are facilities like the palace on wheels providing the feel of Indian majesty of the days gone by.Airports are the primary infrastructure facility that a country has to offer to the tourists. Secondly major strikes by the pilots and the maintenance problems are major cause of concern. where tourist account for more than 50%. Though its major weakness is the inefficiency. This makes thing cumbersome and time consuming. As the tourism industry expands the tourism industry expands the airline industry is also in for a boom. Road network and railways: Airports being a weak links in Indian tourism.there are number of instances that the flights are delayed or cancelled.

The major strength of this industry is the avaibility of various tour packages and acting as a tourism consultant.com. Travel agents and tour operators form the backbone of the industry. The travel agencies provide the package tours which extract the best of the places and give tourist a feel of the rich cultural diversity. who take the complete responsibility for the consumer needs. City Cross Travels Private Ltd. The major threat is from the role of internet due to which this company is facing a threat of extinction. They play an important role in promoting tourism. An independent local coach firm may also be a tour operator. Thomas Cook is one of the best known of such operators. incorporating travel and accommodation needs for the consumer. who customize every kind of trip that you can dream of. family. Similarly other travel agencies are also trying to project a peaceful picture of India. The major weakness is the structure of different taxes that levied on this industry. to large operators offering services at all different levels to cater for budget. Mumbai is promoting tourism in Jammu and Kashmir despite of the violence that took place sometimes ago. 40 . or singles holidays to ‘near’ or ‘faraway’ destinations. They range from highly specialized operations such as Indianvisit. and many transportation companies also offer holiday packages. An example. they also offer travel agency and financial services to their consumers.Tour operators are the firms which specialize in providing the whole holiday package.

The levels of satisfaction by an area accommodation facilities will. in large measure. “accommodation facilities are the places where tourists stop travelers and become guests. establishments with bed and breakfasts. inns. In the world of Charles Kaiser and Helberg. guest houses.8 million people. the success or failure of tourism industry mainly depends upon the avaibility and quality of accommodation facilities. 7000 stations and employment to 1. 41 . The approved hotels are of international standard and have a stamp of official recognition. Tourists have become highly conscious of better comforts and hygiene. motels. ministry of tourism and civil aviation.e. Accommodation facilities can be broadly grouped into hotels. For better comfort and conveniences and to meet the needs of the tourists the department of tourism.” Keeping this in view the government of India has taken efforts to development facilities. government of India has a system of categorizing the available accommodation as per certain criteria to measure the standards and enforce control. holiday camps.Infrastructure facilities for Development of Tourism Accommodation: The prime and paramount factor that facilitates tourism is accommodation i. paying guest accommodation. shelters etc. determine the total success of tourism program. It is the world’s largest network under single management with a travel route of 62500 kms. Railways: Railways were established in 1853 and are now in the 154th year of existence. The railways are the nations’ lifeline and prime carrier of men and material.

The economic objectives of tourism policies involve growth of national incomes. Despite the synergies.  Setting up of Railway Catering and tourism Corporation ( IRCTC) to provide necessary control and direction to the catering services on trains as well as stations. This makes thing cumbersome and time consuming.Rail tourism: to develop rail tourism the Indian railways have come up with various methods and innovative ways to promote travel by rail. where tourist account for more than 50%. It would be surprising that renowned tourist’s destinations like jaipur do not have an international airport.  Hotel infrastructure at 100 railway stations in places of tourists circuit  Discover India indrail passes for use from half a day to 90 days. Tourism related civil aviation development is not limited to licensing of operators for serving short haul routes. replacements and renewals are part of infrastructure requirements.  Super fast inter-city Rajdhanis and day return Shatabdi trains. foreign exchange earnings. Udaipur and Varanasi. Airport development. regional developments and government tax revenues.  Rail holiday package tours. thus discouraging many a time conscious tourists form visiting these places. The liberalization of civil aviation policies in India are marked by licensing of private airlines to operate on routes served for 40 years by the state owned carriers was prompted by the demands of tourism. They are:  Launching of 8 new exclusive luxury tourist trains on the palace of wheels pattern to operate on popular tourist circuits. Aviation and tourism: Airports are the primary infrastructure facility that a country has to offer to the tourists. up gradation and expansion of services. employment. Similar is the case of cities like Agra. there can be conflicts between aviation and tourism as for instance question of protection of airline in the context of growing tourist traffic. Many tourists have to travel via Mumbai or Delhi to reach the destination. In each of these 42 .

Airport and airspace congestion. Travel agents and airline offices are increasingly linked by the electronic information distribution systems. Precise evaluation of the economic benefits form increased tourism arising form the adoption of more liberal aviation policies will be possible if the database is strengthened. passenger facilitation. Even the plain old telephone has its uses in marketing. There are likely to aggravate as increased leisure time and disposable income increase of the people world over. connections and seat avaibility but also whole lot information useful to the traveler like car rentals. has enveloped the tourism sector as any other economic activity. The greatly publicized information super-highway is accessible to anyone with time. With customers becoming ever more demanding. Air transport has contributed to business travel and to conference tourism as well. Hospitality services are not only beneficiaries of these aids but also at times the cause of their creation. theatre shows and museum timings. hospitality services too offer a range of services by internet. Another travel aid is the satellite phone. The use of hand free tools gifted by the telecom industry has grown phenomenally in the tourism sector to extent that any establishment that fails to be one up loses to its competitors. A caller could get not only the information about the flights. Since there has been telecom revolution today tourism’s growth is greatly conditioned by the web and the net. 43 . environmental issues and constraints of resources are problems affecting the tourism and aviation sectors. Telecommunication and tourism: From the plain old telephone services to multimedia the telecom revolution. With the success of its successful implementation in the Rajdhani trains it was decided to equip all the trains with this service. hotel bookings. High incidence of internet access is illustrative of another instance of the great impact of telecommunications.aspects the civil aviation sector has a private role. in its rapid pace. Doubtlessly there is a need to increase international seat capacity to India. interest and curiosity. The electronic card door keys have become popular in most of the hotels in all big cities.

hospitality provided by sector have physical forms and therefore are intangible. entertainment center. the hotels alone are not sufficient to meet the tourist demand for the accommodation and therefore. facilities. motels. traveler’s lodges. clean and hygienic. Tourists product sold by the industry are intangible though the plant for creating the products are very much tangible in other words the courtesy. way side amenities like petrol pump. but also the facilities extended should be within their reach. mannerism. tourist inflow pattern. tourist activities. hotels. Among all these the hotels are the most popular and widely sought after as far as tourism industry is concerned. The role of supplementary accommodation depends upon the factors like type of tourist destination. The various infrastructure facilities are summarized below: Accommodation: it is one of the basic components of tourist system and improves all such provisions all such provisions necessary for the sojourn of a visitor such as hotels. auto service centers. according to their convenience as per their expectation and liking. However. which create these product. tourist rest houses. transport system. public toilets and eating house and opportunities of recreation and entertainment are to be provided by tourist plant. while the plants (infrastructure).Importance of infrastructure in tourism industry Goods and services consumed by the tourists are the product of the tourist. etc. state of tourism development and so on. It is not just enough to ensure that the tourist reaches their destination quickly and comfortably and our housed and fed suitably. i. its socio-economic background. 44 . water. airlines coach service. A successful tourist destination is compose of a serious of accommodation and attraction which draw predictable volume visit traffic therefore various infrastructure aspect related quality and availability of air. sports and shopping center. health club have physical form and therefore are tangible. other type of supplementary accommodation to hotels are required. good accommodation and catering. etiquette.e. resort hotels.

Also. For the development and growth of road transport there should be effective network of roads and avaibility of transport equipments. Tourists simply do not come in large numbers to unclean areas. telegraph and television services are available in the accommodation centers. Sewage and drainage: the capacity and quality of sewage and drainage facilities can be a major factor in the success of a tourism program. The term transport is broad and comprehensive and relates to 3 subsectors.Transport facility: transport forms an integral part of tourism. It is convenient.air transport. Water transport is also very important mode of transport but subjected to the avaibility of water bodies. It has thereby reduced the distance which separates the people. As travelling is an essential part of tourism. It is essential that long distance and local telephone. Transport is to tourism what Veins and Arteries to human body. cheap and fast. easier to reach distant places by the excellent network of connecting flights. Air transport has made movement form one place to another very fast and comfortable. road transport is the most feasible means of transport for regions. Sewage and drainage requires technical expertise. which lie in the interior. surface transport and water transport. There are many forms of travel on water such as ocean cruises. ferries. Large expenditures are also necessary in many instances. road transport has a high level of penetration. Therefore. While air transport is used for lone distance. Communication: Tourists regularly find it necessary to communicate with homes and offices from which they are getting away from. It is now therefore. natural or manmade lake or sea. ships and passenger cargo. The water bodies are river systems. road transport is important for both long and short distance. 45 . transport facility at any place should be excellent for speedy tourism development.

careful consideration is essential. All people do. Tourists are no exception. The health care facilities necessary to accommodate tourism will depend largely on anticipated visitor volume. Destination area planning must recognize. 46 . the age group expected. Recognizing and dealing with them on the other hand can be relatively easy and can lead to considerable goodwill. Health care facilities: people have medical emergencies. For example.Because it is virtually impossible to develop a major tourist destination without substantial investment in this infrastructure component.mountain resource will typically need a number of professional trained to evacuate accident victims and apply first aid measures. major medical facilities should be available for use by tourist Failure to recognize these needs can have drastic results. the types of activities they will engage and local geographical factors.

banks and other engaged in travel and tourism need distributors. insurance. Airlines. to large operators offering services at all different levels to cater for budget. they also offer travel agency and financial services to their consumers. and many transportation companies also offer holiday packages. 47 .com. An example. Similarly other travel agencies are also trying to project a peaceful picture of India. provision for foreign exchange and the like. They play an important role in promoting tourism. local travel and sight seeing. Mumbai is promoting tourism in Jammu and Kashmir despite of the violence that took place sometimes ago. City Cross Travels Private Ltd. family. car hire. or singles holidays to ‘near’ or ‘faraway’ destinations. the business has undergone a series of changes. Since then. Thomas Cook is one of the best known of such operators. An independent local coach firm may also be a tour operator. They range from highly specialized operations such as Indianvisit. The job of travel agent in the beginning consisted merely arranging simple reservations and some form of transport and arrange tickets. The unique feature is that agent gets his remuneration through commissions from producers of services and provides them free of cost to the passenger. who customize every kind of trip that you can dream of. planning. incorporating travel and accommodation needs for the consumer. accommodation. credit card and insurance companies. the passengers need specialists to provide advice and make services available.Role of Tour Operators and Travel Agents Tour operators are the firms which specialize in providing the whole holiday package. hotels. The travel agencies provide the package tours which extract the best of the places and give tourist a feel of the rich cultural diversity. Travel agents and tour operators form the backbone of the industry. pricing. Modern travel agency business is not mere ticketing and reservations bur covers a wide spectrum of activities including travel guidance.

The Principals who appoint Travel agents to represent them also depend upon their approved agents to follow the best traditions of salesmanship and ethical conduct. TAAI is the largest Travel Association of India. who felt that the time had come to create an Association to regulate the Travel industry in India. to promote its orderly growth and development and to safeguard the rights of the traveling public. The Travel Agents Association of India (TAAI) was formed towards the end of the year 1951 by a group of twelve leading Travel agents. etc. 50% of IATA head office cre concentrated in Mumbai an Delhi. General Sales Agents of Airlines. With a membership data base of over 1800 Active. The Association with an excellent and wide data base of membership comprises of Travel Agents. The growing number of Travel agents and their increased scale of activities require their adherence to fair dealing and ethical practices. Kolkata. 48 .branches. The Travel industry is now highly specialized and the average traveler depends upon the professional Travel agent to guide him wisely. ethical and dynamic in nation's Travel related activity and has been recognized as the voice of the Travel and Tourism industry in India.In India. Leading Hoteliers and other travel related partners. a total of some 850. Airlines. with sharp imbalances in its spread areas of over congestion and large stretches of inadequate representation. Therefore. Allied and Associate members comprising of IATA accredited Travel Agencies. Tour Operators (Inbound & Outbound). Airlines & General Sales Agencies. The primary purpose was to protect the interests of those engaged in the industry. the organized travel agency system came into being in late 1940s. one-third of the balance has their offices in four major cities of Chennai. On the whole. travel agency is yet a highly fragmented business. Hotels and Tour operators. Hotels . TAAI represents all that is professional. Bangalore and Ahmadabad.Room & Packages Selling Agencies. each TAAI member by reason of their membership admits and acknowledges that they are aware of the TAAI Code of Ethics and subscribes to and supports the precepts and principles contained therein. There are nearly about 720 IATA approved head offices locations.

Marketing of Tourism Services Marketing in tourism in words of krippendrof “marketing in tourism is to be understood as the systematic and coordinated execution of business policy by tourist undertakings whether private or state. analyzing. There are certain points on tourism marketing that needs to be given due importance:  Tourism marketing is a process creating a product or providing a service. communication to inform and promote. ensuring and facilitating sales. We are all aware of the fact that there have been fundamental changes in the traditional concept of marketing which have been influenced by multidimensional changes in business environment. 49 . A transformation in the attitudes.  Tourism marketing comprises fact findings. and expectations is the result of a number of developments. owned at local. lifestyles. it is essential that we assign due weight age to the three important considerations. national and international levels to achieve the optional satisfaction of the needs of identifiable consumer groups and in doing so achieves an appropriate return. Professionalism paves the way of excellence. coordination. data gathering. second world class services to the tourists which help them in satisfying them and the third positive contributors of tourist organization to the process of social transformation and ecological balance. While clarifying the perception of tourism marketing. regional. We find satisfaction of the users the focal point around which all the functional areas of marketing cluster. which opens doors for quality generation vis-à-vis competition almost all the organization providing goods and services have no option but to assign an over riding priority to quality up gradation that require innovations. control and evaluation. the first generation of profits by the tourist organizations. and selection of marketing planning. which determines its functional boundaries.” A clear perception of tourism marketing requires a brief analysis of marketing. developing professionally sound personnel. This necessitates a change in the concept of marketing.

The technological development in the fields of communications and computers would be profitable for establishing a tourist information network. every one who is providing the service in relation to tourism gets benefited. it is a device to transform the potential tourist into actual tourist.e. Once a destination is sold to a customer or customer group. These communication services can export information on tourist services and allied infrastructure. Tourism marketing is an integral effort to satisfy tourist and more so.  Tourism is the safest way to generate demand. 50 . which have gained popularity all over the world. In a highly competitive market where almost all countries are actively vying for attention of tourists. A major ingredient in tourism publicity is the information service.  Tourism marketing is a managerial process to promote business. India has just realized the potential of the software industry whose annual export earnings total Rs 4500 cores. The question that arises is how a one to attract tourists to Gujarat is – an industrial hub of India – that nothing as glamorous as the Tajmahal or the backwaters of Kerala or the beautiful landscapes of Kashmir to talk about. Germany. A destination can have a large variation of products or benefits to offer and a unique combination of features that cannot be duplicated elsewhere. expand market and increase the market share. This promotional activity should be a regular feature at trade fairs and exhibitions. hoe to develop and promote tourism in the state and maintain and strengthen the existing tourist infrastructure. Tourism on the other hand is already generating an annual forex income of Rs 12000 cores. The food-cum-cultural festivals have made invaluable contribution. In tourism marketing a destination is being marketed. Another effective marketing tool for india is its cuisines. Europe etc. They have proved very popular with foreigners. Therefore through high visibility advertising and promotional campaigns. Online connectivity amongst all supporting sector of the tourism industry facilitates the travel process for the international traveler. This was the task faced by TGCL in 1975 i. industry and government should work together to destroy India’s image of being a low priority country in markets such as the US. An updated information service with quick retrieval facilities leads to good tourist turnover. international connectivity becomes essential for promoting tourism.

Therefore some of the small airport and airstrips access to even to the remote areas without potential. transport. roads. A liberal should be adopted in allowing capacity expansion. Availability of basic infrastructure components like airports. Academics. Teens. Sex. Foreign Kids. Urban 4. seniors Students. Region. General: Domestic. particularly where the road segments are in poor condition.In order to attract tourists from abroad as well as from within the country. etc. The development of civil aviation sector would aid in the promotion of tourism. The number of air. TYPES OF CUSTOMERS & SEGMENTATION Users Of Tourism Services: The users of tourism services can be categorized in a number of ways. mini vans. Sex: Men. Illiterate 5. In order to facilitate movements of tourists. etc. Youths. conference and business travel infrastructure relating to travel. hospitality and communications become important focus area for potential consumers. it is important to develop after transport systems like cruises. 1. is a crucial requirement. Education. Region: Rural. waterways. catamarans. a proper infrastructure has to be put in place and maintained. Profession: Executives. Artists Politicians. Women 3. One such way of classifying the users is by dividing them into categories such as General. Movie stars 2. Poor 6. railways. India has a vast coast line of over 5000 kms and several navigable inland water resources. hydroplanes. etc in the private sector by providing attractive incentive and the necessary berthing facilities at the respective ports. Since tourism includes pleasure. Artists 51 . Executives.conditioned tourist coaches. The air traffic capacity into the country as well as within the country should be expanded. Sportsmen. Status: Rich. Education: Literate.

Need For Segmentation: Consumer behavior can be defined in psychological terms as the whole range of the generation of wants and their transformation into buying or using decisions. In this way they can identify the potential tourists. products and brands change constantly. Actual Users: They are already using the services generated by the tourist organizations 4. perceptions. Non-users: They lack the willingness. 3. preferences and expectations which are the result of environmental influences. Blue collar Another method of classifying users of tourism services is on the basis of the frequency of usage of services. In this way they can identify the potential tourists. 2. Users have values. tourist organizations need to undertake segmentation in order to simplify their task of creating and stimulating demand. one of the most important is Lifestyle. the users have become more discriminating in their using habits and therefore their needs for different services.7. C) Segmentation: Though there are a number of bases for segmentation of tourists. transform them into actual tourists and further into habitual tourists. Occupation: White collar. transform them into actual tourists and further into habitual tourists. This makes it essential that the marketers analyze their behavioral profile and undertake segmentation so that they know the level of expectations. In a nutshell. There are a number of factors that influence the behavioral profile of consumers. Traveling decisions are fantastically influenced by changing lifestyles. In recent years. In a nutshell. tourist organizations need to undertake segmentation in order to simplify their task of creating and stimulating demand. They are also 52 . desire and ability (income & leisure time). 1. Potential Users: They have the willingness but the marketing resources have not been used optimally to influence their impulse. Habitual Travelers: They have formed a habit and avail of the services regularly. Occasional Users: They have not formed the habit of traveling 5.

a newly married couple might prefer romantic holidays. Secondary. consumption of services might change. etc. Common Interest Convention  Age: Teens. For example: ♠ The mass market consists of vacationists that travel in large groups and prefer all-inclusive tours. ♠ Teens and youth might prefer adventure holidays whereas senior citizens would probably prefer more relaxing vacations. Sex. Religion. cities. Seniors  Such segmentation is useful when deciding the offerings to target a particular segment. Knowledge  Demography: Age. ♠ The popular market consists of smaller groups going on inclusive or semi-inclusive tours. etc. Opportunity. etc. senior executives.Illiterate  Purpose: Business Travel. Personal motive. This group includes pensioners and retired people.affected by other factors such as level of income. Youth. on the basis of religions.  Geography: International. they are as follows:  Holiday: Mass market. ♠ The individual market consists of chairmen. ♠ As the lifestyle changes. Cultural Tourism.  Demand: Primary. They are generally conservative. Marketing Mix 53 . Individual market. Popular market. Rural-Urban.  Psychographic: Lifestyle. but once they have children they would prefer family vacations where there are plenty of activities to entertain kids. availability of leisure time. literate. For example.  Socio-economic: Rich-Poor.

Price mix. Productivity and Physical evidence. touch or sample a package tour. It includes natural site.the tourism product is a non-material intangible thing. Neil Borden to coin a new terminology in the marketing literature. development and conservation of tourist 54 . events and cultural attraction. There is nothing fixed or fundamental about the tourism product. Like the manufactured product. Thus a tourism product is quite a complex one. Selling a holiday is ‘selling dreams’.James Gulliton described the marketing executives as a mixer of ingredients. occasional tangible products such as souvenirs. Gradually. Process. He was of the view that without the help of quality sub-mixes. a free bag or bottle of whisky. etc. Place mix. including the destination. the marketing executives would hardly be successful in accomplishing the organizational goals. because tourism is a multi-segment industry. Also. This inspired Prof. particularly to raise the acceptability of the tourist product by stimulating and penetrating the demand. The content factor is within the jurisdiction of the government that undertakes the maintenance. Marketing Mix. i. places of historic interest. Promotion mix. we find inclusion of some other mixes such as People. The way to win the customer’s heart is through the peripheral services provided along with the core product. Product mix: Tourism is a composite product with components like attraction facilities and transportation. The tourism product is essentially an intangible thing. Framing of a proper marketing mix is significant because it helps the tourist organization in accomplishing the objective and projecting a fair image. such as. airline seat. Attraction deserves an intensive care. potential users cannot feel. Product mix. Innovation in the tourism industry helps to raise the sensitivity in this regard. taste. This engineered a sound foundation for the frequent use of the term marketing mix in which initially four sub-mixes were included.e. The marketing concept for the travel and tourism industry is profit driven and customer centric (unlike sales which are volume driven and target centric). The designing of the marketing mix variables in case of tourism is significant as it helps the marketer in conceiving the right ideas. hotel room. the task of formulating a product mix becomes more difficult & challenging.

Local transport 4. etc. 4 star. the marketing professionals would never be successful in making the marketing resources productive. havelis. Tourism products: 1. Railways iii. Destination 3. Roadways iv. cottages. lodges. water. Accommodation • Hotels-5 star. and also developing and maintain hotels. Unless these factors are developed in the right fashion. Transportation • Local i.. Medicare facilities.attractions such as parks. beaches. historical treasures. 2 star. Airways ii. banking. etc. Waterways • • • • • • • • 2. 1 star Motels Boatels Flotels Natural Scenes Historic Excellence Artificial Beauties Social Cultural Excellence Infrastructural i. The government and private tourist organizations work together to undertake activities such as developing infrastructural facilities such as transportation. museums. Thus the direct or indirect patronage of the government is essential to get a positive response. etc. 3 star. Tour operators • • Travel companies Travel agents 55 .

A grade service at every stage Salient features of tourism product:  Tourism product is highly perishable: perishability is an important factor that influences the decision making behavior of the tourists professionals. CORE BENEFIT 2 BASIC PRODUCT 3 EXPECTED PRODUCT The fundamental benefit or service that Travelling the customer is buying Basic. Shopping BENEFIT MEANING WITH RESPECT TO THE TRAVEL AND TOURISM INDUSTRY 1. garments jewellery. etc PRODUCT ELEMENTS 5. spectacular sights. the product is used just when 56 . functional attributes Ticketing. comfortable and convenient trip. good food 4 AUGMENTED That meets the customers desires PRODUCT beyond expectations Prompt services. hotel reservation Set of attributes/conditions the buyer normally expects Customer friendliness. music 5 POTENTIAL PRODUCT The possible evolution to distinguish the offer Totally customized tour packages.• • • • • • • Guides Handicrafts Handloom Books artistic.

it is offered and therefore. the total cost of his traveling also includes the expenses incurred on transportation. it is pertinent that the users visit the place physically. transportation services are found non-existent.  Users are supposed to visit the center: for availing the services of the tourism industry.  Adequate infrastructure facilities fir the tourism product: no doubt. This makes it essential that tourist professional due weight age to creative marketing strategies which hare found proactive. the chance is lost. By visiting tourist resorts. since more than 40% of the total populations are below the poverty line. not that almost all the industries need infrastructural support. This necessities setting of product features in a right way. The users are supposed to come all the way to the spot. the business is lost. 57 . accommodation and communication. aircrafts remain vacant.  Service is for pleasure: it is right to mention that to enjoy use tourism services. bur the tourism industry cannot exist if hotels. we find infrastructural facilities essential to improve the quality of services. seasonality and varying demand affects the pricing decision. In India the pricing strategies become important for promoting or contracting the tourism industry. if it remains unused. In order to develop the tourism industry more and more potential users are to be transformed into actual users. sites. beaches. the business is lost.  Tourism product is a service product: we find services the only product used and sold in the tourism industry. Pricing: Pricing of the tourist product is complex. When a tourist proposes to visit a particular place. Geographical location of the destination. they get pleasure. spots. If the tourists do not visit a particular place the seats in the hotels. Thus.

They are required to think in favors of discounting price. 58 . they are either cost based or market based. demand based pricing and competition based pricing. student and retired persons can be more effective. The pricing strategy which includes low income group people. They have to set prices in line with the quality of services to be made available to the customers. the pricing strategy should be such that demand fluctuations are successfully handled. There are some basic guidelines for pricing of tourism which help in developing an appreciation of the framework for tourism policy:  For tourism. This is possible if the government concessional and subsidized infrastructural facilities to the potential tourist below the average income. With in these categories prices may be profit oriented. competitive or customer oriented. seasonal discounts. The different pricing methods generally used are cost based pricing.  The tourism pricing should be such as to provide value addition and quality indication. These may include discounts for cash payments. trade discounts etc.Liberal pricing strategy is found to be a productive pricing decision. government controlled.  Tourism prices should be based on costs so as to take into account the cost of tangible clues of intangible service. particularly in case of tourism industry. However the characteristics of tourism do influence the pricing and therefore different methods of pricing are to be followed. In pricing decisions. the product or the service mix of the tourist organization is important. Pricing decisions are influenced by internal and external factors. The tourism professionals are supposed to watch the emerging trends in both the markets.  The pricing strategy should be such as to cope with the degree of competition operating within a certain geographic and time zone. But while offering the discounts. it is not to be forgotten that it may also create image problem since some of the value sensitive tourists may doubt the quality Tourism pricing follows the principles and practices of pricing package and therefore.

 First is the planned market position for the tourism product.  Secondly. you have to see what strategic role the pricing can play in overall marketing strategy. price affects customers perceptual positioning.  Lastly.  Thirdly competition should be studied both from the point of view of inter brand and also from the point of view of the brand which provides the same need satisfaction. In a vast country like India with a divergent socioeconomic and cultural patterns. 59 . The site selected should have natural surroundings. increased accessibility and improved amenities. However. several factors in relation to overall marketing strategy of the corporation should be considered. Researchers in tourism must determine how and where potential customers prefer to buy tourism products and services. some important steps like promoting afforestation. transport and communication are important for development of tourist centres. Infrastructural facilities. in setting price objectives. At the same time it is also important that the ecological balance is not disturbed. Since growing ecological imbalances leads to pollution. Place: The tourist centers should be located at suitable points if the tourists spots are natural there is no question of selection. promotion and beautification may be undertaken in countering the side effects of atmospheric pollution and maintaining ecological balance Place or distribution management is concerned with two things – availability and accessibility. the promotion of domestic tourism encourages unity in diversity.Pricing objectives: the pricing to tourism is greatly influenced by basic tourism characteristics. the stage of life cycle of the tourism product and demand elasticity is important.

Good image projection can be made if the PRO manages the affair like a professional. for example. publicity. active. Other companies may also utilize more than one method of distribution. sales support and public relations. The intangibility feature in the service sector prevents intermediaries from taking possession or ownership of goods. and sell seats on flights to tour operators. Airlines. transportation becomes a major logistical component Promotions: The promotion mix includes advertising. Also. however some deal directly with the consumers and eliminate middlemen. 60 . Tourism. Effective slogans raise the effectiveness of advertisement. Advertising the sales promotion can be effective when supplemented by publicity and personal selling. and also offer travelers to book seats themselves through their own booking offices. It should be efficient. It depends largely on the channel type. It makes the destinations accessible to people from around the world. There exist. It helps in projecting the image of an organization. Radio. impressive. however. intelligent and well-behaved. sell tickets through travel agents. use of TV and travel journalists to promote editorial comment. in the case of tangible products in tourism such as souvenirs and cuisine. The word of mouth promotion is an important tool in tourism marketing. Public relation officer plays an important role. a number of intermediaries in the tourism marketing channel. newspapers. proves an exception where cuisine and souvenirs are goods and ownership is possible for the intermediaries. cinema and printings are some of the important vehicles for traveling of messages.Most tour operators sell their services through travel agents. Another important component of the promotion mix is public relation. TV. The purpose of promotion is to make available the information to the user. Transport also plays a major role in the tourism industry. Public relation and publicity include regular articles and photographs of tour attraction. It is said that word of mouth is the best form of publicity. however.

Travel guides especially. To realize its potential in internal marketing. development. are expected to have a lot of patience. linguistic skills etc. The travel guides need professional excellence since the projection of a positive image regarding a destination in particular requires their due cooperation. motivation and retention of qualified employee. tour operators and travel guides lack world class professional excellence. In the tourism industry the travel agents and the travel guides are the two most important people who speak a lot about the industry. The tourism industry is an amalgam of the services of a lot of people and hence this industry cannot work efficiently if the travel agents. Quality in a service business like tourism means investing in a product quality. “Internal marketing paves the way for external marketing” 61 . tact to transform the occasional tourists into habitual ones. The tour operators also need to manage human resources efficiently. failing which even the world class services offered by the travel agents are found meaningless.the attraction. Hence it is imperative that they have to be at their best at all times. A service is a performance and it is usually difficult to separate the performance from the people investing in people.People: The people who attend to the needs of the tourists form an essential ingredient in tourist marketing.customer through need meeting job products. good sense of humour. thorough knowledge of the places.

it becomes essential to find out ways and means to handle peak load to optimize different customer needs with varied expertise levels within the service organization. therefore.Process: The importance of process management is that it assures service availability and consistent quality. The size of the tourist firm determines the operation process of the firm. Without sound process management. balancing service demand with service supply is extremely difficult Service cannot be inventoried. The following steps are involved in the delivery system of the tourist product:  Provision of travel information  Preparation of itineraries(planned routes and journey)  Liaison with providers of service  Planning and costing tours 62 .

63 . These clues might be both intended and unintended ones and therefore managing evidence is integral to the service marketing mix. These three elements of service are not mutually exclusive. on the other hand. which can give adequate evidence to customer. employees. objects. brochures. the customer makes the purchase decision. communication material. To manage the evidence it is suggested that one should attempt to make the service more tangible. communication and price. Physical facilities are important in facilitating the delivery of service. Essentially evidence. In tourism marketing both the peripheral and the essential evidence are significant as they tangibalise the service. Ticketing  Provision of foreign currency and insurance Physical evidence: Though a customer cannot see a service. on the basis of this perception of the tangible clues. name of the place and the means of travel is essentially evidence. For tourism industry. In Parsuraman’s scheme of thinking the physical environment is one of the three elementsenvironment. rather they influence each other. price. The primary role of evidence management is to support the organizations marketing program me by making it possible to manage both intended and unintended clues. but definitely he can see various tangible clues of the service offers like facilities. other customers. Physical environment. is those which cannot be possessed. The tourist organizations like relating to tourism industry need to manage the evidence they use in a planned and systematic way to overcome the market challenges created by the intangible characteristics of services. etc. facilities and atmosphere give enough physical evidence to help shape customer perceptions.

Jainism. from common-place daily chores to education and politics. practiced by over 80% of the population. religion permeates every aspect of life. Sometimes. The noble class.C. Hinduism is the dominant faith. the Worker class and the Slave class still exist in India in 64 . Members of every major religion participate in pilgrimages. It is an integral part of the entire Indian tradition. legends and even culinary specialties. India was comprised of many small communities under different rulers. Buddhism. religious heavy area of the world. heroes. mingling in a unique diversity that is the very pulse of society.. the Merchant class. dance and feasting are shared by all communities. in to small city states. Secular India is home to Hinduism. Islam. A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim India has long been known as a very spiritual. Besides Hindus. For the majority of Indians. Christianity. some organized in to kingdoms but for the most part. In 600 B. Muslims are the most prominent religious group and are an integral part of Indian society. Each has its own pilgrimage sites. it is a journey to a sacred place or shrine of importance to a person's beliefs and faith. In fact India has the second largest population of Muslims in the world after Indonesia. Sikhism and other innumerable religious traditions. Common practices have crept into most religious faiths in India and many of the festivals that mark each year with music. Priestly Class. around the time of the birth of Siddhartha Gautama. Long had been in the process of the caste system which still exists today. religion is a way of life.Brief look on Pilgrimage Tourism In religion and spirituality. a pilgrimage is a long journey or search of great moral significance. better known as the Buddha. In India.

mind and the soul. Even so. All mankind needs purification of the body. and incorporates some of the legends from their religious texts. the South dominates religious and cultural tourism whereas the North the more lucrative business tourism. Also. and culture. etc are missing leaving out thousands who may be interested to see such heritage. With 2. over a 1300-year old Simachalam in Andhra Pradesh all lack access and facilities. However.some form or another currently. Maharashtra. religious tourism in India is turning out to be a major revenue earner although most of the revenues are not really accounted. since most of the religious places are located in places that are not well connected or provided for. Similarly. Others earn several million dollars but are not accounted for because most religious tourists travel meagerly as a pilgrimage and not as a luxury. facilities such as quality hotels. For instance. Vaishnavo Devi USD 168 million. A National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) study says that Thirupathi in Andhra Pradesh is the largest recipient of religious tourists earning USD 224 million. the Island of Ceylon (currently known as Sri Lanka) and the city of Bhimbhetka which is in relatively close proximity to current-day Bengal. Andhra Pradesh. most trips are only to nearby cities that have these facilities. Even the 2500 year old Buddhist shrine Bodh Gaya does not get tourists because of abject neglect for the last 15 years. The Rig Veda and the Bhagavad Gita. The current area is also comprised of two small villages. and Tamil Nadu rank very high in religious tourism while lawless Bihar the lowest. and Ajmer Sharif in Rajasthan USD 83 million. architecture. eating options. 800-year old Hampi or 700-year old Belur & Halebid in Karnataka. quality roads.5 million temples dating back several hundred years (and some several thousands). To achieve the same pilgrimage holidays have been designed. The current area takes what it can from the known history of the people of India. The secularism of India and the variety of religions followed by the people of the 65 . Karnataka. there are 5000 temples in Tamil Nadu’s Thanjavur area built more than a 1000 years ago that are rich in art.

with innumerable floating diyas and flowers is a must for all. India is dotted with pilgrimages. Thus. The aarti held every evening at the Har-ki-pauri. Rishikesh. The cradle of Buddhism.country are amazing. The yatra to the char-dhams comprise visit to holy places of Badrinath. Chamunda Devi and the Koteshwar temples. is a pilgrim destination for the Hindus. located at the confluence of the Alaknanda and the Bhagirathi rivers besides is renowned for the Raghunathji temple. The sources of the two most sacred rivers of India Ganga and Yamuna. Badrinath and Govind Ghat. 'Budham Sharanam Gachami' and 'Wahe Guru' all remind us of the Almighty and focus on the gospel of peace and love for humanity. The pilgrim spot of Devprayag. Gangotri and Yamunotri are amongst the four shrines in the Himalayas. The faith reflected in the chanting of 'Om'. the Sikhs walk up to a height of 4329 meters through the difficult terrain to reach the Hemkund Sahib. Kedarnath. the town of Uttarkashi is situated on the banks of the river Bhagirathi and its Vishwanatha temple. Similarly. The holy city of Varanasi is situated on the banks of Ganga. The Hindus flock to take a dip in the holy rivers. Being a country of the pious. The package is completed with visit to Joshimath. Great religions like Hinduism. devotes as well as the adventurers flock to Rishikesh. in the laps of the Himalayas happens to be the common point for all the four pilgrim spots besides being sacred itself. something not to be missed. Buddhism and Sikhism have originated on the Indian soil. It happens to be a great site for rafting and trekking as well. devotees from the world over frequent the holy city of Sarnath. Its name has been derived from the 66 . the visit the famous Gauri temple and bathe in the hot water pond. The unity in diversity is the keyword for the grand country. Haridwar. The Buddhists too have several pilgrim spots in the country that are associated with the birth and teaching places of Buddha. attracts several pilgrims. Gangotri and Yamunotri. Thus. or the door to God. Further up at Gaurikund. The holy city of Rudraprayag located at the confluence of Alaknanda and Mandakini draws several pilgrims to the Radranath. Pilgrimage tourism in India is extremely popular. at the foothills of Shivaliks. devoted to Lord Shiva. The char dham yatra is a major attraction for tourism in India.

the pilgrims cover the most difficult of terrains with ease. The city of Sarnath popular amongst the Buddhist as the spot for His first sermon. the mosque was earlier the Vishnu temple. M. Lumbini is noteworthy for being the birthplace of Buddha. Varuna and Assi.two steams flowing through it namely. 67 . For the Sikhs one of the most revered shrines is the Hemkund Sahib. It BHU was founded by Pt. there are a number of other spots for pilgrimage tourism in India. Make this experience your own. Another major attraction for the pilgrims happens to be the Bharat Mata temple. the residence and meditation spot for the Gurus. Devotes visit the Sri Guru Nanak Dev ji gurudwara at Manikaran known for the hot water springs with healing properties. which too is a pilgrimage for the Buddhists. The pilgrimage to Vaishali is significant as Buddha delivered His last sermon here and announced His Nirvana. Malviya. namely the Benaras Hindu University.M. The pilgrimage starts at the base camp of Govind Dham. Pilgrimage tourism in India is not just a fad but it is an experience of lifetime. which revealed the eight-fold path after His enlightenment. The Alamgir Mosque or the Beni Madhav Ka Darera close to the main city is an example of the beauty of amalgamation of the hindu and mughal styles or architecture. The campus has added attractions like the Vishwanath temple and a museum. Noticeably. Lord Buddha had attained Enlightenment under the Bodhi tree in Bodhgaya. which is not dedicated to any God or Goddess but Mother India. Similarly. Pilgrims trek to a height of 4329 meters to pray at the world's Highest Gurudwara. Pilgrims to the holy land. The sacred city of Poanta Sahib is visited to regard the tenth guru. Pilgrims also flock to Anandpur Sahib. Guru Govind Singh. It boasts of the largest residential university is Asia. follow the ageold tradition of bathing and performing puja at the ghats. With faith in the Almighty.

land ownership. water.g. Tourism development has resulted in.. Although the environmental diversity and sensitivity of Goa has been widely known. the prudent use of natural resources. accretion and siltation and depletion of groundwater. and transport). beaches. The Goan social scene is further complicated by the states porous borders with the rest of India.Case study: Development of Tourism in Goa Tourism plays an important role in the economies of Goa. among others. Tourism development has many social impacts. the growth of coastal tourism has been rapid and uncontrolled. and the depletion and deterioration of groundwater attributable to tourist inflows are. The Government has played a key role in promoting tourism on unoccupied islands (or abandoned islands where customary usufruct rights were compensated) through certain traditionally powerful families and with certain funding arrangements to encourage foreign investments. 7 percent of employment and 7 percent of tax revenues. the loss of biodiversity. and ineffective institutional and political structures seem to have made it difficult for Goa to define a tourism strategy and to enforce its implementation. the needs of tourists and the local population in Goa come into frequent conflict over the use of local resources (e. Goa promotes heterogeneous tourism development with upscale and inexpensive charter tourism to international and domestic audiences.7percent of the state’s net domestic product. erosion of sand dunes. the government has been closely monitored the development of tourism. While Goa’s geographical location improves domestic demand for 68 . a variety of stakeholders with very differing interests. Goa capitalizes on its comparative environmental advantages: beach and sunshine. Goa does not have land which is untitled or unowned or which is not of some historical significance. In Goa. For Goa. declining fish catches. Goa also capitalizes on its unique historical and cultural heritage while the Maldives on its unique archipelagic and coral reef marine environment. tourism generates 13. The preservation of the natural environment. disposal of solid waste and sewage. issues which the government of Goa face. a complex mixture of customary rights.

As in any other sector of an economy. should be highlighted. In Goa. who comprise 80 percent of all tourists. The active participation of all stakeholders in the planning process lends itself to greater sustainability of tourism in the long-run. while a MasterTourism Plan is in place. it has also lead to a large influx of labor from adjoining states. Consequently. as the Goan image holds a degree of mysticism. the implementation of the laws and regulations appears to be somewhat tardy. Tiswadi and Marmagao. Salcete. tourism requires a sound. These people come in search of the culture that is different. which has intensively documented its environmental impacts and brought environmental concerns to the public agenda. Over 90 percent of domestic tourists and over 99 percent of the international tourists frequent these areas. institutional strengthening is a clear issue. a sense of freedom and.tourism. such as the panchayats (. the various stakeholders and the public cooperate. well-defined and executed approach in which the government. further exasperating social impacts. although institutional responses and the development of a tourism strategy which integrates the needs of all stakeholders has lagged. and other sectors of the economy. The second is the international tourists who visit Goa 69 . but the long backlog of cases has delayed justice. In Goa. The situation in Goa is rather complex due largely to the number of stakeholders involved in tourism: luxury hotels. Similarly.) and the courts. Nature and Growth of Tourism in Goa: Most of the tourism in Goa is concentrated in the coastal stretches of Bardez. from the rest of India. Although the paper alludes to several government department charged with varies aspects of tourism planning in Goa.communidades. beach tourism is the only type that is avidly encouraged by policymakers and other concerned parties alike. local residents. the needs of tourists. The first is the domestic tourists. a systematic study of the environmental impacts of tourism and the implementation of a monitoring and management system would also aid Goa. Mechanism for resolving conflicts among the various resource users do exist. the active lobby of its citizenry at all levels. The high number of conflicts among users suggests that an improved institutional response is necessary. . Goa is visited by two types of tourists with distinct needs which this state satisfies. family-run guest houses. Environmental legislation and regulatory mechanisms are formulated by the government for development of tourism in Goa. dress style. unconventional.

as well as the tourist industry. who come throughout the year albeit in larger numbers in the non-monsoon months. sun and beaches. The discussion is very much economic in nature with some industry orientation and focuses on factors such as the revenues from 70 .  improved employment benefits. Conversely. as for them the use of the beach is the prime attraction to come to Goa.  greater advertising targeted at domestic tourists both by the central and the state governments. The timings of visits are clearly different for the domestic and the international tourists.  increased ownership of cars. so domestic tourists remain away from the places frequented by the international tourists. such as the leave travel concession. development of inexpensive mass transport and improved connections to various places of tourist interest  increased number of cheap accommodations and resorts. the beaches hold limited appeal. which is making domestic tourism more attractive. especially among the upper-middle and middle classes . Domestic and international tourists also differ in terms of the areas they frequent. Within the category of international tourists are there are two sub-categories: backpackers and charter tourists. Although both visit Goa for the beaches.purely for the natural environment. Whereas. international tourists avoid the monsoon months. In previous decades. The backpackers are not found in areas of charter tourists. they prefer to mingle and live with the local communities. The various factors that have contributed to this rise in domestic tourism are:  increased disposable income of the middle class. they stay away from each other. and  development of time sharing of holiday accommodations.  increased urbanization and stress of living in cities and towns. today this is not so for domestic tourists. For the domestic tourist. the charter tourists tend to stay in the luxury starred hotels. that is being targeted at the middle class Tourism development among policy-makers tends to be discussed in terms of the factors that are of concern to the national and the state governments. a clear off season for all tourists could be identified.

On an average. it has had a number of positive benefits in terms of increased incomes. The impacts of such a large-scale. Although tourism is concentrated along the coastal zone in Goa.tourism.7 percent of Net State Domestic Product. the effects result very much from the interactions among the tourists and the agents in the destination area. It is estimated that tourism contributes to around13. Moreover. Tourist receipts can be classified into five categories: accommodation and food. All these activities require extensive infrastructural networks and support services that may not remain limited to the geographical positions of a tourists movements. Tourists travel to and from their destinations. The micro level impact of tourism on the destination area immediately around it has been relatively less studied. These impacts have arisen as a result of the trajectory that tourism has followed in Goa and can be summed up as follows:  The growth of coastal tourism has been rapid and uncontrolled. if at all6. are accommodated. earnings in foreign exchange for the last three years were US$43-57 million8. there are also some socio-economic and environmental impacts associated with these benefits that need to be highlighted. increased revenue and increased foreign exchange earnings. taxes and employment. the foreign exchange earnings. shopping. and the international tourist have increasingly been more of the inexpensive charter packages. the employment created and the income generated5. The money spent by domestic and international tourists is received by different segments of the industry which provide the supporting goods and services. entertainment and miscellaneous items. diversely interactive activity as tourism should be more inclusive of all components. The focus has always been on the implications of tourism development on the economy of Goa and on the relations among the various components of its tourism industry. fed and entertained. internal travel. while state governments are more concerned with its contribution to local income. 7 percent of employment and 7 percent to state tax revenues. 71 . The foreign exchange earning potential of the tourism industry is one of the main attractions for its support by national governments. added avenues for upwardmobility for locals. increased employment. In the last few years indications are that the domestic tourist coming to Goa is increasingly from the more affluent segments of society. However.

 The seasonal nature of tourism has led to swings in employment and income most markedly in the small sector and to the unskilled worker.  There has been no clear nor firm policy relating to tourism; most decisions have been on a purely ad hoc basis, except for a marked predisposition to up market tourism. The policy initiatives that have been introduced are not attentive t o local concerns. This has led to some disaffection among locals toward tourists that needs to be studied.  There has been a marked spatial concentration of tourism development along the  coast, which is leading to heavy demand for resources in these places. Cumulatively, this results in concentration and congestion of population, enormous increase in the density of construction, and related infrastructure and facilities. Consequently, there has been an overall decline in the agricultural sector in the state.  It poses major changes in land use, shortages of resources, such as land and water, and damage to coastal aquifers, the sand dune system, and mangrove vegetation.  Spawning and breeding grounds have been lost due to anthropogenic activities related to tourism; consequently, fish populations are decreasing and traditional fishing activities are on the decline.  The principles of sustainability and the norms related to the conservation of the environment and ecology are generally ignored; the coastal environment is becoming irreversibly degraded as evidenced by the concretization of beaches

It is clear that there is much to be learned about the impacts of tourism in Goa, and that further planning and development requires information gaps to be filled. More specifically, the following actions are needed:


 A careful study on the type of tourism that best suits Goa: up-scale, low budget or a combination of the two.  Recognition that tourism is a vulnerable industry, subject to the fads of the trade; hence, tourism cannot be allowed to permanently change the face of the coast in the long run.  A systematic study of the environmental impacts of tourism, through perhaps, a life cycle analysis, and the valuation of the environment to enable its integration into decisionmaking.  Understandings of the processes that make the Goan coast a preferred tourist destination rather than the hills or the hinterland areas.  A monitoring and management system to ensure the effectiveness of coastal and environmental regulations. The development of sustainability markers would be a way to ensure this. Such markers will enable both the industry and government t o identify the emerging issues and to facilitate mitigation before problems becomes unmanageable. They can also serve as the basis for monitoring changes in the ecosystem, social and economic spheres.  The integration of the principles of coastal environment and ecology into the planning stage of any coastal activity, as preventative rather than remedial measures.
 An environmental impact assessment and studies of Goa’s coastal stretches including

estuaries and backwaters.  Policies which recognize the type of interconnections among tourism, local communities and the environment, to ensure that tourism contributes to a sustainable development agenda.

Suggestions for Development of Tourism in India:
The development and promotion of tourism sector should be done keeping on the basis of:  Planning

 Organizing structures  Business process re-engineering  Information systems  Technology planning  Human resource management  Operations management  Marketing, Economic & Financial planning  Strategy and Policy formulation  Regional planning and perspective/ development planning  Market strategy formulation  Market research and analysis  Infrastructure planning  Visitor management systems planning  Environment impact assessment  Land use planning  Economic and financial feasibility  Manpower development and training  Project implementation planning  Project management  Information systems and technology planning

 Public relations The seven key areas or the seven ‘S’ mantras which will provide thrust to the tourism development are:  Swagat( welcome)  Soochna( information)  Suvidha( facilitation)  Suraksha( safety)  Sahyog( cooperation)  Samrachna( infrastructure development) and  Safai( cleanliness)

The tourism industry, unlike many other industries, is a composite of several service providers. These service providers are generally in the private sector. In addition, public sector institutions such as the national or state departments of tourism are involved in the planning, development and management of tourism. The participation of different private and public agencies makes tourism industry a complex phenomenon requiring a strong cooperation for it to be developed and expanded along lines that will contribute to the overall national development objectives. Uncontrolled tourism growth could damage India’s socio- cultural structure, degrade its tangible and intangible cultural and natural heritage, and lead to adverse economic impacts such as high importation costs and weakening inter industry linkages. On the other hand, when industry is properly planned, developed and managed at all levels of government in partnership with the private sector, it will strengthen India’s socio- cultural structure. It would valorize its tangible and intangible cultural and natural heritage and lead to positive economic impacts including enhanced employment and income opportunities, lower importation costs and stronger interindustry linkages.

construction and improvement of highways linking the heritage sites and tourist place of significance. There should be development of integrated circuits. build . water supply. to encourage private sector participation. There should be promotion of small tour operators who specialize in planning short organized trips.There should be creation of world class infrastructure. India’s physical infrastructure is the very foundation on which tourism is to be built. hill railways. railway heritage tourism. operate and transfer to the tourism industry as has been done in the maldives. sewage and telecommunications amongst others.e. There should be development of theme based tour packages and network of facilities. and it ranges from ports of entry. to urban infrastructure supporting tourism facilities such as access roads. All states should follow the path of Rajasthan and Kerela in the promotin of tourism. railways or waterways. introduction of special tourist trains such as tourist trains. The government should help in funding to assit programs designed to set hig hset of professionalism for guides working in all sectors of tourism industry. India should apply the principle of BOT i. power and electricity. railway hotels. clean and hygenic accomodation. heritage railway buildings. etc. Tourism education and training are critical aspects of the tourism industry’s international competitiveness. roads. There should be promotion of 3-star or less luxurios functional. Appropriate incentives and income tax benefits may be provided to those who invest in infrastructure development for tourism. to modes of transport to destinations. by the airways. with good service near tourist attractive spots. Programs relating to the same should be carried out to develop the tourism sector. ANNEXURES Government laying stress on domestic tourism: Ms Ambika Soni 76 .

Commonwealth Games will push up share in tourist arrivals' New Delhi:March 25 The Commonwealth Games in 2010 will push up India's share in foreign tourist arrivals to about 1. according to Assocham. she would continue to promote domestic tourism with equal importance. But they have finally agreed to increase the abatement to 75 per cent although the industry was keen that it be increased to 90 per cent. “I have got an assurance. The decision needs to be notified by the Finance Ministry before it can come into effect. Le Passage to India. Union Minister for Culture and Tourism Ambika Soni said here Friday. “The decision was taken a few days back. It was not easy to convince the Finance Ministry. The Government plans to start issue of visa-on-arrival at Delhi and Mumbai airports.5 per cent.New Delhi :The central government is laying greater stress on domestic tourism as it helps unite the country.52 per cent in 2006 out of 842 million tourist arrivals globally. There is no problem in implementing the decision as Advance Passenger Information System is available now and unwanted people can be screened before they leave their country.” the Minister for Tourism and Culture. Soni said that even as she was promoting India as a tourist destination across the world. July 22 Travelling to India could become not only a bit cheaper but also a lot easier. The Government’s recent decision to levy service tax on only 25 per cent of international tourist packages instead of the existing 40 per cent could make such packages cheaper. 77 . Inbound travel set to turn cheaper with service tax relief Ms Ambika Soni New Delhi.' the minister said at a launch of a Hindi travelogue 'Safar Suhana Duniya Ka' written by Alok Mehta. senior journalist and editor of Hindi weekly Outlook Saptahik.” Ms Soni said. It is expected to reduce tour prices by about 1. When the modernisation of Delhi and Mumbai airports is completed the visa-on-arrival programme would be started on a trial basis. 'We are laying greater stress on domestic tourism as we believe it is an important factor in uniting the country. which though not written is as good as it gets. Mr Arjun Sharma said. The domestic industry has been seeking to get the abatement level raised since 2005. Ms Ambika Soni said while inaugurating a travel and tourism conference on ‘Managing Growth’ organised by the World Travel and Tourism Council. And that will lead to further development and progress.5 per cent in 2010 from mere 0. the Managing Director. India Initiative.

according to the Chamber. flyover. which already has a presence in Haridwar. Some of the leading devotional destinations are Tirupati. Yet.The Games will generate additional employment opportunities for over five lakh workforce in sectors such as airlines and airports. Sources say Iskcon (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) Bangalore is looking at opening accommodation facilities at nine devotional destinations." says Prabhat Pani. Major hotel chains and newer entrants into the hospitality industry see a potential business coming from the increasing demand for quality accommodation at affordable prices from the 150 million domestic devotional travellers. Around 90% visit with friends and families and stay on an average for two-three nights. airlines and airport industry will alone create over 2. says the market at religious destinations has tremendous potential for growth. besides medical and eco-tourism. which could range from being a budget hotel to a serviced apartment complex to full-fledged homes. BANGALORE: India's religious destinations and temple towns draw some of the largest numbers of tourists and devotees. will invoke the essence of the particular religious destination in which it is based. It's dominated by small standalone lodging places. cleanliness. "We are also keen on going to Tirupati. whose hygiene. some 5% of the travellers look at luxury offerings. as people look at quality accommodation to extend their trip for a few extra days. most of them can't speak much for their hospitality facilities. The offering. CEO of Boutique Hospitality Consultants. is on its way to open shop at Puri. CEO. Haridwar. With modernisation of Delhi and Mumbai international airports and revamping of 35 metro airports. Roots Corporation of Tata Group which owns Ginger brand. While. stadia developers. Velankanni. Puri. safety and food offerings often leave much to be desired. What's fuelling the interest of hospitality players is also the growing number of NRI and new age urban Indians to these pilgrim centres. On an average. in order to get more room nights. tour operators. which would boast of a unique product. Guruvayoor and Amarnath. people visit devotional places twice in a year. Rameshwaram. basic comfort and hygiene is what the masses want. is planning to offer wellness facilities at its leisure-cum-devotional destinations. The hotel. Taposh Chakraborty.5 lakh jobs. That could now change. Rishikesh. Budget hotel Ginger. 78 . There are some who visit temples every month. Shirdi. hotels. Hotel biggies bet on religious tourism 28 Sep 2007. Badrinath.

are now foraying into the hospitality sector with the launch of their debut luxury project Vaikundam Retreat in Guruvayoor. "The government would need to provide single window clearance and incentives that go along similar special zones." says Sudhir Gopi. The group is planning to build a chain of luxury serviced apartments across the pilgrim centres of south India. As per the sub-group. pioneers in the field of higher education services." it said." the sub-committee said in its report. Govt planning to set up Special Tourism Zones NEW DELHI: With a view to making a more focussed effort at developing the tourism industry. 79 . Velankanni. exemption from import duty on capital goods and raw material. While the state government would be required to create such STZs. Each STZ should be able to provide 2. The STZs are proposed to be located in the major tourist destinations. The idea to create STZs was approved at a recent meeting of the National Tourism Advisory Council (NTAC) chaired by Minister for Tourism and Culture Ambika Soni. the requirement of infrastructure will be of a high magnitude. The proposal will now be placed before the Planning Commission for its approval.Sudhir Gopi Holdings. CMD. entertainment etc. the Centre is considering a proposal to set up Special Tourism Zones (STZs) on the lines of Special Economic Zones (SEZs). about 100 odd restaurants. "All the concessions available to the Special Economic Zones could be fine tuned to the STZ. including Palani. cities as well as along the coastline. according to the recommendations of the subcommittee of the council on 'public-private partnership'. withdrawal of luxury tax and lower VAT.000 hotel rooms. facilities for shopping. Among the recommendations are that there should be 100 per cent tax exemption for a period of 10 years. the STZs are needed as in view of the tremendous growth potential of the tourism industry. "We are investing Rs 500 crore to set up luxury/religious hospitality properties.000-3. Tirupati and Puttaparti. the private sector would provide all the facilities and services inside the zones.

Ajanta.gov. In fact. Badrinath and Kedarnath. And this figure just includes people who spent a night in hotel in a city where they went as tourists and not those who also travelled but stayed with relatives or friends. Nalanda and Bodh Gaya. the ministry has earmarked Rs 650 crore of its fiscal’s budget allocation of over Rs 1. Among the chosen circuits is the famed Buddhist area of Rajgir. to draw up project reports. While the Centre will fund the projects. Jaisalmer. Union tourism minister Ambika Soni has decided to make this sector as the prime focus area.tourismofindia. Tourism ministry has for the first time been included in the committee of infrastructure that’s headed by the PM.indiainfoline. states will have to give land and implement the work.tourisminindia.tourism.indiavisitinformation. Among the places identified are — Hampi.com www. the Union tourism ministry says a whopping 420 million domestic tourists were recorded in 2006. NEW DELHI: Indians are travelling like never before to explore the charms of their ‘incredible’ country.’’ said a senior official.com 80 . highlighting the importance the sector could play in driving development of infrastructure. This figure is up from 236 million just four years ago. the Centre has now accepted tourism as one of the major drivers of economic growth. The ministry is now going to appoint consultants.com www.gooogle. ‘‘We are going to develop six circuits and 15 key destinations this year. Revealing last year’s figures. To prove that it means business. including ITDC. MoUs will be signed with states to ensure that the latter implements the projects within stipulated time periods. Ellora. This move came after Soni made a presentation to PM Manmohan Singh.com www.indiasta. The ministry will give a maximum of Rs 50 crore and Rs 25 crore to state governments to develop each circuit and destination.000 crore to develop sites within the country. ghats of Varanasi. Bibliography        www. Ajmer.com www.Nation on the move: 420 m domestic tourists in 2006 25 Apr 2007.com www. Buoyed by the sudden surge in number of domestic tourists.in www.

com  www.com  www.indiatimes.incredibleindia. www.com  www. 81 .M.world-tourism.JHA  India today November.yahoo. 2006 – Tourism special  Business India.org Books and magazines:  Service sector management By S.

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