Data Transmission Exercises Prof. Dr. J.
Habermann FH Giessen-Friedberg, University of Applied Sciences
1. Classify the following signals into the categories • • • energy signals power signals neither energy nor power signals.
Calculate, if possible, signal energy or signal power 1. x1 (t ) = e −t ⋅ cos(t ) 2. x 2 (t ) = sgn(t ) 3. x3 (t ) = A ⋅ cos(2πf 1t ) + B ⋅ cos(2πf 2 t ) 2. Determine if the following signals are energy or power signals. Calculate energy or power spectral density and the signal energy or signal power: 1. x(t ) = sin c(t ) = 2. x(t ) =
sin(t ) t
n = −∞
∑ Λ(t − 2n)
3. White Gaussian noise with zero mean and a power spectral density of N0/2 is transmitted over a low pass filter with bandwidth B. Calculate the autocorrelation function of the output process Y(t). 4. The output process of a LTI system is stationary if the input process is stationary. Is the opposite also true, i.e., can it be assumed that the input process is stationary if the output process is stationary ? 5. Calculate the power spectral density for the following processes: 1. X (t ) = A ⋅ cos(2πf 0 t + Θ) , where A is a constant and θ is a random variable. θ is uniformly distributed in [0, π/4]. 2. X(t) = X + Y, where X and Y are independent . X is uniformly distributed in [-1,1], and Y is uniformly distributed in [0, 1]. Oct-10 page
6. What is the equivalent noise bandwidth of a bandpass filter with bandwidth W ?
. Given are the following functions Ψn(t):
1. − 1.Lecture 2:
Show that the functions are orthonormal. Express the signal x(t) as a weighted linear combination of the above functions. 0 ≤ t ≤1 1< t ≤ 3 3<t ≤ 4
Calculate the weighting coefficients. 2. x(t ) = + 1. if
3.2. s4. 2. s2. Determine a set of orthonormal basis functions for the following four signals:
Determine the dimensionality of the functions and define a set of basis functions. s3. 3. Calculate the minimum distance between any pair of vectors. Give a vector representation of s1. Given are the four following functions:
6. 2. is given by r (t ) = s (t ) + n(t ) where s(t) is shown in the following figure and n(t) is AWGN with power spectral density of N0/2 W/Hz. 3. Calculate the variance of the noise at the output of the matched filter for t=3. Calculate the signal to which the filter is matched.
. A matched filter is defined by the transfer function:
H( f ) =
1 − e − j 2πfT j 2πf
1. Sketch the output signal of the matched filter (no noise n(t). The received signal in a binary communication system which applies antipodal signals.
5. Calculate the impulse response h(t).
1.4. Calculate and sketch the output signal of the three matched filters.
Sketch the impulse response of the filter which is matched to s(t). 2. Sketch the impulse response of the filters which are matched to the following signals.
otherwise + 1. m2(t). Determine the dimensionality of the signal space. The three signals m1(t). T / 2 ≤ t ≤ T 0. 0 ≤ t ≤ T m1 (t ) = 0. Die three signals are given by: 1. 2. Find a basis for the signal space (the basis may also be found without the Gram-Schmidt-procedure).7.
. otherwise 1. 3. The power spectral density of the noise is N0/2. 0 ≤ t < T / 2 m2 (t ) = − m3 (t ) = − 1. and m3(t) shall be transmitted over an AWGN channel. Sketch the signal space constellation.
1. Determine the structure of the optimal receiver.e. 3. otherwise A(1 − t / T ). Over an AWGN channel with N0/2 two signal waveforms with equal a priori probability are transmitted: At / T . Calculate and sketch the optimal decision regions Z1. Z2. 1. 0 ≤ t ≤ T s 2 (t ) = 0. Given is the signal constellation according to exercise 7 of lecture 2. T / 2 ≤ t ≤ T 0. for i =1. otherwise 1. 4. Determine the optimal receiver structure. Given is a detector with input signal r = ± A + n where +A and –A occur with equal probability and the noise is given by a Laplace distribution Oct-10 page
. and Z3 . 1.p1. 2. 0 ≤ t < T / 2 s1 (t ) = − s 2 (t ) = 2 A(1 − t / T ).3 is largest ? 2. In a binary antipodal signalling system the signal waveforms are given by: 2 At / T . Optional: Sketch the error probability as a function of p1. i. for 0 ≤ p1 ≤ 1. Which of the three signal waveforms is most errorprone. 2. Calculate the error probability. 0 ≤ t ≤ T s1 (t ) = 0. which of the probabilities Pe(z | mi was sent).. 3. 2. Calculate the average error probability.2. otherwise The channel is AWGN with Sn(f) = N0/2. The two signals have the a priori probabilities p1 and p2 = 1.
• the optimal threshold value. The signal waveforms are given in the following figure. Given is a biorthogonal signal set with M=8 signal points. 2.
6. Determine • the input signal of the detector. which minimises the average error probability. Compare with the result of a Gaussian noise distribution. where M = 2N. 8. 7. The PCM signal is transmitted with a M-ary PAM over an AWGN channel.p ( n) =
1. M = 4 Oct-10 page
. A Manchester coder maps a binary 1 to a 10 and a binary 0 to a 01. • the error probability. Calculate the average error probability as a function of A and λ. Given is a PAM system with the three signal points -A. The signal vectors define the corners of a hypercube. if 1. A sample is PCM encoded with 8 bits per sample. Determine the bandwidth. All signal points are equiprobable. 9. where Es is the symbol energy and N0/2 is the noise power density of the AWGN channel. 0. which is centred at the origin. All signal points are equally probable. Calculate the average error probability if both waveforms are equally probable. 5. Calculate the SNR which is necessary to obtain a error probability o 10-5. and N are the dimensions of the signal space. +A . Given is a M-ary DCS. Determine the union bound of the error probability as a function of Eb/N0. A speech signal is sampled at a rate of 8 kHz. Calculate the average probability of a symbol error as a function of ES/N0.
M = 8 3.2. M = 16
We may transmit these samples directly as PAM pulses or we may first convert each sample to a PCM and use binary (PCM) waveforms for transmission. 1. what is the minimum bandwidth required for the detection of binary (PCM) PAM waveforms if the samples are quantized to 8 levels ? 3. Calculate the Eb/N0 which is necessary to obtain a bit error probability of 10-7 within the whole system. 3. The channel is AWGN. 2. Oct-10 page
. Calculate the transmitted power of the regenerative system which is necessary to obtain the Eb/N0 of part (2). An analogue signal is PCM formatted and transmitted using binary waveforms over a channel that is bandlimited to 100 kHz. Assume that 32 quantization levels are used and that the overall equivalent transfer function is raised cosine type with roll-off r = 0. What is the symbol rate ? 2. Find the maximum bit rate that can be used by this system without introducing ISI. 1. Regenerators are used at distances of 50 km. Find the maximum bandwidth of the original analogue signal that can be accommodated with these parameters. Each segment of the channel can be assumed to be ideal (no linear distortion) in the frequency range of 0 ≤ f ≤ 1200 Hz. What is the maximal (r=0) bit rate. 4. Repeat part (2) using 128 quantization levels .6. What is the minimum system bandwidth required for the detection of PAM with no ISI and with a filter roll-off characteristic of r = 1 ? 2. What is the roll-off factor of the filter characteristic ? 2. when N0 = 4. 3. The system has a frequency response out to 2. which can be transmitted without ISI ? 2. Repeat parts (1) and (2) for transmission with 8-ary PAM´waveforms.4 kHz.Lecture 4:
1. The attenuation is 1 dB/km. Binary data at 9600 bit/s are transmitted using 8-ary PAM modulation with a system using a raised cosine roll-off filter characteristic. A voice signal in the range 300 to 3300 Hz is sampled at 8000 samples/s. 1. A transmission channel of length 1000 km is used to transmit data with the aid of binary PAM. 1. 3.1⋅10-21 W/Hz. Using the same roll-off filter.
3. A binary PAM-signal is generated by excitation of a raised cosine filter with a roll-off factor of r = 0.
300 Hz < f <
1. The data bit rate is 2400 bps. the matched filter to the signal does not maximize SNR any more. A speech telephone channel has a pass band of 3000 Hz. In this case a prefilter might be used. 6.5. Chose a symbol rate as well as a PAM format in order to efficiently transmit 9600 bps. The channel is AWGN. 2. The resulting signal is then multiplied with a carrier signal. Calculate the transfer function of the overall matched filter. Combine these two filters (whitening and overall matched filter) to a generalized matched filter. Sketch a block diagram of the optimal demodulator/detector. If the additive noise at the input of the receiver is coloured. The matched filter has then to be adapted to the signal and to the prewhitening process. 7.5. Determine and sketch the spectrum of the modulated binary PAM signal. Calculate the transfer function of this filter. Chose the roll-off factor for a raised cosine filter characteristic. 1. which whitens the coloured noise (prewhitening filter). if the received signal is composed of the transmitted signal and AWGN.
. 1. 4. Calculate the SNR at the input of the detector. 2. 2. Calculate the transfer function of the whitening filter.
m =1 m=0 m = −1 otherwise
. k = −2 0. Determine qm for m = ±2 and ±3 by convolving the impulse response of the equalizer with the impulse response of the filter characteristics. 2. 0. Calculate the output signal if a single pulse is transmitted.5. Binary PAM is used to transmit data over a non-equalized filter channel. xm = 0. k = 1 0. k = 2 0.3. m = ±1
b. the noise free output signal of the demodulator is:
0. m = 0 qm = 0. Calculate the remaining ISI and its time span in symbols.1. If the symbol a = 1 is transmitted.2.Lecture 5:
a. k = −1 1.05. Determine the coefficients of a zero-forcing equalizer with three taps. Determine the linear zero-forcing equalizer. 0. k = 0 xk = − 0. such that the output signal of the equalizer is:
1.9. b. Transmission of a signal pulse formed by a raised cosine filter (transmitter and receiver) over a transmission channel leads to the following sampled (noise free) signal at the demodulator output:
Given are the two signal constellations of a 4-PSK and a 8PSK. whereas in the right figure there are four points with a distance of 7 A . Determine the average transmitted signal power for the two constellations. In the left figure the minimum distance to the origin is 2A. Given is a 16-QAM signal constellation according to the following figure. Determine the radius of the two formats such that the minimum distance between two signal points is identical. The following figure gives two 8-QAM constellations. two points with 3 A .3.
The minimum distance between two signal points is 2A. Which constellation is more power efficient ? 5. assuming that the signal points are equally probable. and two points with distance A to the origin. Determine the decision regions.
. What is the additional power needed for 8-PSK to obtain the same performance as 4-PSK ? 4.
c.6. Calculate the radius a and the radius b.
a. All signal points are equally probable. Given are the two following signal constellations. The minimum distance for 8-PSK is also A. What is the relative power gain of one constellation against the other ? 7. The received signal is given by:
. The minimum distance for 8-QAM is A. Calculate the average transmitted power for both constellations. Given is the phase coherent demodulator for M-ary FSK signals:
a. b. Determine the radius r.
Calculate the output signals of the M correlators for t=T. b.r (t ) =
2ES cos(2πf c t + Φ). ˆ if Φ m ≠ Φ m .
. Show that the minimal frequency separation is ∆f = 1 / T .
.8. 4-FSK (non coherent) 10. 2-FSK (non coherent) c. Binary on-off keying is defined by the following two signals:
s0 (t ) = 0. 9. Tb
The corresponding signals at the output of an AWGN channel are:
r0 (t ) = n(t ). Derive the carrier phase estimator based on the MLcriterion for binary on-off keying. s1 (t ) = 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb
2 Eb cos(2πf c t ). r1 (t ) = 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb 0 ≤ t ≤ Tb
2 Eb cos(2πf c t + ϕ ) + n(t ). Sketch the block diagram of the optimal non coherent receiver. Digital information is transmitted over a AWGN channel with a bandwidth of 100kHz. a. 4-PSK b. Tb
here n(t) is the additive noise signal and ϕ(t) is the phase of the carrier signal due to the noise. Determine the maximum data rate which can be achieved with: a. Calculate the probability density function of the two decision variables at the receiver.
if the data rate is a. find a category of known modulation formats to which these sets may belong. c. Determine the signal vectors. d. Calculate the average symbol error probability for signal set I with coherent detection. A binary PSK-system is used for data transmission over an AWGN-channel with noise power density of N0/2 = 10-10 W/Hz. Which signal set (or sets) can be used if a relation R/W (bitrate to bandwidth) of at least 2 is desired ? 2.
a. b. when coherent detection is applied. i.Lecture 6:
1. Determine the symbol error probability with the aid of the union bound for signal set II. The lowpass equivalents of three signal sets are given in the following figure.e. 10 Kbps b. where T is the bit interval and A the signal amplitude. The energy of the transmitted signal is Eb = A2T/2.. Classify the signals in the sets I to III. Is it possible to use non-coherent detection for signal set III (explain) ? f. e. Determine the amplitude which is necessary to obtain a bit error probability of 10-6. Determine the average transmitted signal energy for the three sets. 100 Kbps Oct-10 18 page
Which signal constellation is more resistant against phase errors of the carrier signal (explain) ?
. Compare the SNR of the PSK with the SNR of the QAM if the symbol error rate is identical. a. A digital communication system applies QAM to transmit data over a speech telephone channel with 2400 symbols/second. d. a. b. Determine Eb/N0. Given is the signal constellation from exercise 6/lecture 5. Assign each point of the signal constellation 3 data bits.c. c. such that the symbol error rate is 10-5 at 4800 bps. Repeat a) with 19200 bps. 1 Mbps 3. Which conclusions can be drawn from the above results ? 4. The noise is AWGN. Repeat a) with 9600 bps. such that neighbouring points only differ in one bit position. c. b. if the desired data rate is 90 Mbps. Determine the symbol rate. d.
• Calculate R1ges[n] at the correlator output of receiver 1 for n = 6 und 8. a) Determine the bit rate of each transmitter.Lectures 7/8:
1. A direct sequence CDMA system is built up of 3 transmitters and the corresponding receivers. Transmitter 1: Data sequence 0 1 Spreading sequence 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 Transmitter 2: Data sequence 1 1 0 1 Spreading sequence 1 0 0 1 Transmitter 3: Data sequence Spreading sequence 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
The chip rate of the 3 transmitters is identical and is 1 Mchip/s. 1 → -1. c) The signal of transmitter 1 will not be delayed in the channel. The signal of transmitter 2 will be delayed in the channel by 1 chip and the signal of transmitter 3 will be delayed by 2 chips. Oct-10 20 page
. which generates the spreading sequence. • Compare with the nominal values at the decision time. • Determine the signal at the input of the receiver. What can be said about the orthogonality of the signals ? b) Determine the signals at the output of the 3 transmitters. The figure below shows the block diagram of a direct sequence spread spectrum coder. PPGEN1_I: Generator. Spread spectrum coder HOLD_I: holds a data bit for one period of the spreading sequence.
The output sequence of the spreader is mapped to a bipolar sequence with: 0 → 1 . noise has not to be considered. If both signals are equal. CMPEQ_I: compares both signals. the device outputs a 0. The signals will be added in the channel. • Give an interpretation with respect to the results of a). otherwise a 1.
The additive Gaussian noise of the receiver can be neglected. The data rate of each user is 10kbps. A DSSS system is used to resolve the signal components in a two path mobile radio channel. 5.2. A DSSS system with a 2-PSK modulation uses a processing gain of 500. Calculate the margin against a single tone interference if the desired error rate is 10-5. Calculate the number of users. A CDMA system is based on DSSS with a processing gain of 1000 and 2-PSK modulation.
. Recalculate for a processing gain of 500. DSSS is used with 2-PSK. 10-5 is obtained. 10-5 should be achieved. if all users transmit the same power and a bit error rate of approx. 3. 30 users with the same transmitting power share a communication channel by CDMA. Determine the minimum chiprate if the two path have a difference in transmitter to receiver distance of 300 meter. 4. Determine the minimum chiprate such that a bit error rate of approx.
The OFDM-coder uses 3 frequencies with minimal frequency spacing. an OFDM-coder and a baseband/bandpass conversion. b) Sketch the spectrum (absolute values) of the first OFDMsymbol.
a) Determine OFDM symbol rate and OFDM symbol interval. c) OFDM-coding is performed with the IDFT.Lecture 9:
The modulator uses a QAM according to the figure. An OFDM-transmitter is composed of a modulator. Sketch the absolute values of the time samples and mark the boundaries of an OFDM-symbol.
. Calculate the first time sample of the first OFDM-symbol and all time samples of the second OFDM-symbol.
I Modulator Q -sin(ωot) OFDM Coder X
The following binary data sequence 11010 00101 01010 01000 01000 01000 of bit rate 1Mbps is transmitted.
Exercise 2.symbol rate and the symbol interval. Determine the bit rate. Note: For DFT use:
d( n) = 1 N −1 ⋅ ∑ x( k ) ⋅ e − j 2 πnk / N N k =0
c) The demodulator/detector uses optimal decision regions (AWGN/maximum likelihood). Insert the decision thresholds into the above figure. Determine the bit sequence at the output of the receiver. OFDM-Decoding is performed with the DFT. are:
x(0) x(1) x(2) x(4) * 7
= = = =
A received OFDMSymbol is made up of 4 complex values.
j j j j
The sampling interval between two values x(k) and x(k+1) ist1µs. Determine the OFDM. The first four samples.5 . corrupted by the channel. Calculate the complex frequency values and sketch the absolute value of the spectrum for the first OFDM-symbol.9 . A OFDM receiver according to the following figure is composed of an OFDM-decoder and a demodulator /detector.
complex time samples of received OFDM
The demodulator/detector uses the following mapping of a 16QAM signal.