Database Upgrade Guide Upgrade to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.

2): UNIX
Target Audience ■ Technology Consultants ■ System Administrators

PUBLIC Document version: 1.14 – 2010-09-10

Document History

CAUTION

Before you start the implementation, make sure you have the latest version of this document. You can find the latest version at the following location: http://service.sap.com/instguides Database Upgrades Oracle The following table provides an overview of the most important document changes.
Version Date Description

1.14 1.13 1.12 1.11 1.10 1.01 1.00

2010-09-10 2010-08-25 2010-08-03 2010-06-15 2010-06-09 2010-04-27 2010-04-01

Chapter Changing the Location of the JDBC Driver added Various corrections Various corrections Change to section Updating BR*Tools Major update including upgrade from Oracle 9.2.0.8 Various corrections Initial Version

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.4.7 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Chapter 4 4.1 4.2

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAP Notes for the Upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . More Information on SAP Service Marketplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 6 6 7

Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Checking the Original Version of Your Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Checking Hardware and Software Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Reviewing the Oracle-Specified Kernel Parameters and Shell Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Checking Additional Requirements for the Upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking the Correct UNIX Users, Groups, and Authorizations . . . . . . . . . . . Checking the Directory Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking the Prerequisites for the Oracle Universal Installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . Database Software Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking and Setting the Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Backing Up the Oracle Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Running the Oracle Universal Installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installing the Current Patch Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installing the Required SAP Bundle Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Symbolic Link for the Data Shared Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Copying and Adapting the SQL*Net Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Running the Pre-Upgrade Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Running the Pre-Upgrade Scripts (Oracle 9.2.0.8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking the SAP System Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Updating the Oracle Instant Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 13 13 15 16 16 18 18 20 20 21 21 22 23 24 25

Oracle Database Upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Backing Up the Oracle Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Shutting Down the SAP System and Oracle Listener Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

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4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17

Database Structure Upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking the oratab Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting the Database Upgrade Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting the Database Upgrade Assistant (Oracle 9.2.0.8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Post-Upgrade Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finalizing the Environment of the ora<dbsid>User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking the Upgraded Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Updating BR*Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Performing Post-Upgrade Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Backing Up the Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting the Listener Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renaming the Old $ORACLE_HOME/bin Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renaming the Alert Log File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking the Read Authorization of the <sapsid>adm User . . . . . . . . . . . . . Updating the SAP Kernel from 640_REL to 640_EX2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing the Environment for the <sapsid>adm user . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Updating the SQL*Net Configuration Files for the <sapsid>adm and ora<sid> Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking SAP Profile Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing the Location of the JDBC Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting the SAP System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checking the National Character Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuring the New Features for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1

Introduction

1 Introduction

This documentation explains how to upgrade the Oracle database for the SAP system on the UNIX operating system: ■ From Oracle 9.2.0.8 and Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2.0.4) or higher ■ To Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
CAUTION

Oracle 11.2 is only supported for SAP systems with an EX2 kernel. If you have a 640_REL kernel, you need to switch to the 640_EX2 kernel immediately after the database upgrade to Oracle 11.2. We do not support running a 640_REL kernel with the Oracle 11.2 database. This documentation covers upgrades from both Oracle 9.2.0.8 and 10.2.0.4 to Oracle 11. If your source database is Oracle 9.2.0.8, there are some differences in the procedure and these are clearly marked in the text.
Implementation Considerations

■ For more information about implementation considerations, including the most important SAP Notes for the upgrade, see Planning [page 9]. ■ Be sure to read the relevant SAP Notes before beginning the upgrade. These notes contain the most recent information about the upgrade, as well as corrections to the documentation. You can find the most recent version of the SAP Notes at http://service.sap.com/notes ■ You might find useful information for the upgrade in the following Oracle documentation: ● Oracle 11gR2 Upgrade Companion [ID 785351.1] ● Operating Systems Installation and Configuration Requirements Quick Reference (8.0.5 to 11.2) [ID 169706.1] ■ You use the tools Oracle Universal Installer (OUI), Oracle SQL*Plus, and Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) to perform the upgrade.
NOTE

Make sure you are using the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) shipped with the installation CDs for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).
Naming Conventions

■ We use <DBSID> for the database instance identifier and <SAPSID> for the SAP system identifier. These can be different if your: ● Database system uses Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) ● SAP system uses Multiple Components in One Database (MCOD)

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1 1.1

Introduction New Features

1.1 New Features
For the complete list of new features of the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), see the New Features documentation from Oracle.
RECOMMENDATION

We recommend that you check the most important new features in the Oracle documentation since some new features might affect the operation of your production system. You can access the complete Oracle documentation at the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) website, which you can find here:
http://otn.oracle.com

1.2 SAP Notes for the Upgrade
Make sure that you read the following SAP Notes:
Number Title Remarks

1431800 1454627 1398634 1431798

Oracle 11.2.0: Central Technical Note Additional Info / Corrections to Oracle 11g Upgrade Guide Oracle Database 11g: Integration into the SAP environment Oracle 11.2.0: Database Parameter Settings Oracle 11.2.0: Troubleshooting the Software Installation Oracle 11.2.0: Troubleshooting the Database Upgrade Oracle 11.2.0: Current Patch Set Oracle 11.2.0: Patches/ Patchcollections for 11.2.0.1 Oracle 11.2.0 Upgrade Scripts Oracle 11.2.0: Instant Client Oracle Critical Patch Update Program Importing the SAPDBA role (sapdba_role.sql) Oracle Database 10g: New database role SAPCONN

Provides a starting point for information about Oracle 11g with multiple links to notes on Oracle 11g. Required late-breaking information Provides information about integration of Oracle 11g products and options within SAP Provides information about Oracle initialization parameters that need to be reset to their default values or that need to be removed Describes software installation problems and solutions or workarounds Describes database upgrade problems and solutions or workarounds Describes the current Oracle patch set Lists the status of Oracle patch sets and interim patches for 11.2.0.1 Describes the shell and SQL upgrade scripts for 11.2.0 Required for upgrading Oracle client software to Oracle 11g Release 2 (11.2) Describes the current Oracle security fixes Describes how to update the SAPDBA role after the upgrade Describes the new SAPCONN role, which replaces the native CONNECT role from Oracle

1431796 1431797 1431799 1431795 1431793 1431794 850306 134592 834917

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1 1.3

Introduction More Information on SAP Service Marketplace Title Remarks

Number

839182 1027012 1430669

Using OPatch to install Oracle patches MOPatch – Install Multiple Oracle Patches in One Run BR*Tools Support for Oracle 11g

Describes how to use OPatch with Oracle – Windows only Describes how to use MOPatch with Oracle – UNIX only Describes the support offered by BR*Tools for Oracle 11g

1.3 More Information on SAP Service Marketplace
You can find more information as following on SAP Service Marketplace:
Description Internet Address
http://service.sap.com/notes www.sdn.sap.com/irj/sdn/

Title

SAP Notes Oracle Database Administration

None SAP Database Guide: Oracle

SAP ON ORACLE KNOWLEDGE CENTER Documentation
ora

SAP None Upgrade to Oracle Database <Version>: UNIX

SAP Software Distribution Center Oracle Database Upgrade Guide – that is, the guide you are now reading Oracle patch download area

http://service.sap.com/swdc

http://service.sap.com/ instguides

Database Upgrades

Oracle
https://service.sap.com

Oracle Patches Download Area

oracle-download

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This page is left blank for documents that are printed on both sides.

2 2.1

Planning Checking the Original Version of Your Database

2 Planning

RECOMMENDATION

Before the production upgrade, make sure that you perform a test upgrade on your backup system. 1. 2. 3. 4. You check the original version of your database [page 9]. You check the hardware and software requirements [page 9]. You review the Oracle-specified kernel parameters and shell limits [page 10]. You check additional requirements for the upgrade [page 11].

2.1 Checking the Original Version of Your Database
You need to check the original version of the database you want to upgrade and, if necessary, obtain more information.
Prerequisites

In the following special cases you need to obtain more information: ■ If you are upgrading from Oracle 10.2.0 to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) in manual mode ■ If the source database runs Oracle 10.2.0.2, you need to first update the source database to patch set 10.2.0.4 or later.
Process

For more information in these special cases, see the documentation for the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) upgrade at the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) website.

2.2 Checking Hardware and Software Requirements
You need to check that you meet the hardware and software requirements for running the new Oracle release. The complete list of hardware and software requirements for every platform is included in the Oracle documentation. You can access the complete Oracle documentation as a member of the Oracle Technology Network (OTN).
CAUTION

To make sure that the checks complete successfully, you must complete this procedure before running the Oracle Universal Installer [page 18].

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2 2.3

Planning Reviewing the Oracle-Specified Kernel Parameters and Shell Limits

Procedure

1.

Obtain the full and updated list of hardware and software requirements from the relevant Oracle database installation guide for your operating system, which you can find at the Oracle website. Select the appropriate documentation for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).
CAUTION

2.

3.

If your database resides on Network Attached Storage (NAS) you need to review and implement the Oracle NAS guidelines. You need to mount network file systems with specific mount options, which you can find in the Oracle installation guide. Note the following general hardware requirements: ■ At least 1024 MB of physical RAM ■ About 1024 MB free space in the /tmp directory ■ Swap space about 1.5 times the available memory for memory up to 2 GB. For memory of 2 GB and above, the amount of swap space should be the same as the memory ■ At least 10-15 GB for the Oracle Home directory, consisting of: ● 3 to 5 GB for the Oracle software ● About 5 GB for the patch information stored by OPATCH tool This high space requirement is necessary due to the large number of patches that must be applied on top of any given Oracle patch set. Check that your operating system meets the software requirements for running the new Oracle release, including all required patches. You might need to upgrade your operating system before you start.
RECOMMENDATION

If you have access to My Oracle Support (formerly Oracle Metalink) at https:// support.oracle.com, we strongly recommend that you read document 169706.1. This document provides information on all operating system prerequisites and is regularly updated.

2.3 Reviewing the Oracle-Specified Kernel Parameters and Shell Limits
You need to review the Oracle-recommended kernel parameters and shell limits for your operating system with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). These are only recommendations from Oracle for optimizing the system performance in production environments. If the recommended settings are not suitable for your system you must tune the kernel parameters accordingly.
Procedure

Obtain the recommended shell limits and kernel parameters from the relevant Oracle database installation guide for your operating system, which you can find at:

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Planning Checking Additional Requirements for the Upgrade

www.oracle.com/technology/documentation

Select the appropriate documentation for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).

2.4 Checking Additional Requirements for the Upgrade
You need to check the additional requirements for the Oracle database upgrade as described in this section.
Procedure

1.

Make sure you have read the SAP Notes for the upgrade [page 6], which you can find at
http://service.sap.com/notes

2.

3.

Download the recommended documents from My Oracle Support (formerly Oracle Metalink) at https://support.oracle.com. For access to My Oracle Support, see SAP Note 758563. Make sure your operating system and initial database version meets SAP requirements. Oracle 11.2 is released and certified for SAP products running with SAP BASIS 640 and above, and SAP kernel release 640_EX2 and above. To check for your application or product, see the Product Availability Matrix (PAM) at http://service.sap.com/pam. To upgrade from a remote PC, you need X-Windows software on the PC, as described in SAP Note 432861.
RECOMMENDATION

4.

In some situations the OUI and DBUA screens are not displayed correctly when started remotely. In such cases we recommend you to start the OUI and the DBUA directly from the console. Download the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) installation guide for your operating system from the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). You need this document to review the hardware and software requirements and to configure the kernel parameters and shell limits.
RECOMMENDATION

5.

If you have access to My Oracle Support, we strongly recommend that you read document 169706.1. This document provides information on all operating system prerequisites and is regularly updated. Download the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) software and the latest patch sets and required patches or patch collection. The SAP Note with the list of patches is referenced in SAP Note 1431800. You can download the patches from:
http://service.sap.com/oracle-download

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2 2.4

Planning Checking Additional Requirements for the Upgrade CAUTION

6. 7.

The patches listed in the SAP Note referenced in SAP Note 1431800 are mandatory. To avoid severe database problems, make sure that you install all these patches. Download the latest version of the Oracle 10.2 Instant Client software from:
http://service.sap.com/oracle-download

Download the latest version of the DBATOOLS (BR*Tools) to be used immediately after the database upgrade from:
http://service.sap.com/swdc

8.

BR*Tools supports the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), as of release 7.10 (patch level 30).or Release 7.20 (patch level 1) . For more information, see SAP Note 1430669. If your source database is Oracle 9.2.0.8 and your SAP kernel is 640_REL kernel, download the 640_EX2 kernel from SAP Service Marketplace. Make sure that you download the complete 640_EX2 kernel: both SAPEXE.SAR and SAPEXEDB.SAR.

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3 3.1

Preparation Checking the Correct UNIX Users, Groups, and Authorizations

3 Preparation

You have to complete the following preparations: 1. You check the correct UNIX users, groups, and authorizations [page 13]. 2. You check the directory structure [page 13]. 3. You check the prerequisites for the Oracle Universal Installer [page 15]. 4. You install the database software [page 16]. 5. If your source database is Oracle 10.2.0.4, you run the pre-upgrade scripts [page 22]. 6. If your source database is Oracle 9.2.0.8, you run the pre-upgrade scripts (Oracle 9.2.0.8) [page 23]. 7. You check the SAP System prerequisites [page 24]. 8. You update the Oracle Instant Client [page 25].

3.1 Checking the Correct UNIX Users, Groups, and Authorizations
You need to check that the ora<dbsid> user has write authorization for the /oracle directory, since the ora<dbsid> user performs the database installation.
Procedure

1.

Enter the following commands:
touch /oracle/write_test rm /oracle/write_test

If the user ora<dbsid> does not have write authorization, log on to your system with the user root and enter the command:
chgrp dba /oracle chmod 775 /oracle

2.

Check if you are able to start an XTERM as the Oracle user since this is the user who starts the OUI. Enter the following command with the user ora<dbsid>:
umask 022

3.2 Checking the Directory Structure
You need to verify the availability and correctness of the following Oracle directories: ■ stage directory

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3 3.2

Preparation Checking the Directory Structure

■ Oracle inventory directory ■ Home directory
Procedure

1.

Check the Oracle stage directory, usually called /oracle/stage. If this directory does not exist, create it manually. If it already exists it might contain software stages from previous installations or upgrades. 1. For the upgrade to Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) create the staging directory /oracle/ stage/112_64. 2. Ensure that the stage directories contain enough freespace prior to extraction of the SAR files. For the database upgrade, only the software contained within the component database is used. The Oracle Database DVD contains a total of seven SAR files, which include the various Oracle 11.2 components such as database, client, grid, gateways, and so on.
NOTE

On HP-UX PARISC, the Oracle Database DVD contains a total of only six files because the gateways component is not released for this platform. 3. If there is not enough space, you can delete previous stage directories. When the RDBMS CDs have been mounted, use the SAP tool SAPCAR to extract all the RDBMS CDs to /oracle/stage/112_64 as user ora<sid>. For example, the following command extracts a single CD (the fifth in this example):
SAPCAR –xvf OR511264.SAR

After you have finished the extraction of all the RDBMS CDs, the following subdirectories exist under /oracle/stage/112_64: ■ database ■ client ■ grid ■ examples ■ gateways ■ deinstall Check the Oracle inventory directory. The Oracle inventory directory maintains the inventory of all Oracle software installed on the system. The path to the Oracle inventory directory is mentioned in the file oraInst.loc, which you can find under /var/opt/oracle or under /etc. Before starting the installation of the new Oracle software on the database host, make sure that the file oraInst.loc is present in either the directory /etc or directory /var/opt/oracle and check that it has the following entries: ■
inventory_loc=<location of the oracle inventory>

2.

3.

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3 3.3

Preparation Checking the Prerequisites for the Oracle Universal Installer

■ inst_group=dba If the Oracle Universal Installer has already been run on this host, make sure that the variable inventory_loc in the file oraInst.loc points to the location where the Oracle inventory is located. If this is the first time that the OUI has been executed on this host, enter the location where you want the inventory log files to be written to.

3.3 Checking the Prerequisites for the Oracle Universal Installer
You must check the prerequisites for the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI).
Prerequisites

Make sure that the DISPLAY environment variable is set correctly.
Only valid for: AIX |

On AIX, call the script rootpre.sh:
End of: AIX | Only valid for: AIX |

1. 2.

Change to the directory /oracle/stage/112_64/database using the following command:
cd /oracle/stage/112_64/database

As the user root, call the script rootpre.sh:
./rootpre.sh

End of: AIX |

Procedure

1. 2.

Log on as the Oracle user ora<dbsid>. Execute the following commands: ■ 32-bit platforms:
cd /oracle/stage/112_32/database

Checking prerequisites for the OUI:
./runInstaller –executeSysPrereqs

Checking operating system requirements (release, patches, kernel parameters):
./runInstaller –executePrereqs

■ 64-bit platforms:
cd /oracle/stage/112_64/database

Checking prerequisites for the OUI:
./runInstaller –executeSysPrereqs

Checking operating system requirements (release, patches, kernel parameters):
./runInstaller –executePrereqs

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3 3.4

Preparation Database Software Installation

If the OUI still complains of missing patches or OS kernel parameters, you need to apply these before you can proceed with the software installation.

3.4 Database Software Installation
As part of preparations, you install the Oracle 11.2 software.
NOTE

You can install the database software while the SAP system is still running with the existing database (that is, Oracle 10.2). Therefore, to reduce downtime you can perform the following steps before you stop your system.
Process Flow

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

You check and set the environment variables [page 16]. You back up the Oracle inventory [page 18]. You run the Oracle Universal Installer [page 18]. You install the current patch set [page 20]. You install the required SAP bundle patch [page 20]. You create a symbolic link for the data shared library [page 21]. You copy and adapt the old Oracle SQL*Net files [page 21].

3.4.1 Checking and Setting the Environment Variables
To install the database software, you need to check and set the environment variables of user ora<dbsid> because this user installs the Oracle software.
NOTE

For more information about changes to the environment of the SAP user <sapsid>adm, see Changing the Environment for the <sapsid>adm User [page 39].
Prerequisites

Make sure that you set the environment variables as described below for the duration of this session only.
CAUTION

Do not make the changes to the environment permanent while the old database is still running. You make them permanent in the database structure upgrade. We recommend you to back up the old environment files before making the changes permanent.

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Preparation Database Software Installation

Procedure

1.

Make sure the following environment variables are not set: ■ TWO_TASK ■ ORA_NLS ■ ORA_NLS32 ■ ORA_NLS33 ■ ORA_NLS10 Set the following environment variables:
Environment Variable
DISPLAY

2.

Value
<hostname>:0.0

NOTE
<hostname>:0.0 is the host on which the

Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) is to be displayed.
ORACLE_BASE ORACLE_SID ORACLE_HOME /oracle <DBSID>

One of the following values:
/oracle/<DBSID>/112_32 /oracle/<DBSID>/112_64

NLS_LANG

One of the following values:
AMERICAN_AMERICA.WE8DEC AMERICAN.AMERICA.UTF8

If your database still runs with the character set US7ASCII, we strongly recommend moving it to UTF8 before the upgrade.
SAPDATA_HOME ORACLE_HOME_SRC /oracle/<DBSID> ORACLE_HOME of the source system to be upgraded

EXAMPLE

If you are upgrading from Oracle 10g Release2, set this as follows:
/oracle/<DBSID>/102_64

This environment variable is only relevant if the DBUA wrapper script from SAP is to be used. You only need to set it if your ORACLE_HOME is not the SAP standard path. Delete this environment variable when the upgrade has finished.
NOTE

If you are updating from Oracle 9.2.0.8, you do not need to set this variable.

The setting of the DISPLAY environment variable is described in SAP Note 432861. To make sure that the OUI screen can be displayed correctly on your system, you might have to start an X terminal (xterm) session and run the command:

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3 3.4

Preparation Database Software Installation $ xhost +

3.

Set the corresponding environment variable for the library path:
Operating System Environment Variable
LIBPATH LD_LIBRARY_PATH SHLIB_PATH

Value
$ORACLE_HOME/lib:$LIBPATH $ORACLE_HOME/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH $ORACLE_HOME/lib:$SHLIB_PATH

AIX Solaris, HP Tru64 UNIX, Linux HP-UX

4.

This makes sure that dynamic libraries are loaded first from $ORACLE_HOME/lib. Include $ORACLE_HOME/bin in your PATH or path variable, where $ORACLE_HOME is the variable that you set in step 2 above.
NOTE

5.

Make sure there is only one $ORACLE_HOME/bin in your PATH or path variable. Make sure that the path variable does not contain the old $ORACLE_HOME/bin from the source database. Check if the temporary directory (usually /tmp) has at least 1024 MB of free space. If not, set up the TEMP or TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory on the filesystem.
RECOMMENDATION

You can check the correctness of the new environment with the UNIX env command. Or you can run the UNIX umask command and check that the returned value is 22.

3.4.2 Backing Up the Oracle Inventory
Before you install the database software, you need to back up the Oracle inventory.
Procedure

1.

If the Oracle inventory exists, check its location by looking at the entry in one of the following files: ■ /var/opt/oracle/oraInst.loc ■ /etc/oraInst.loc The location is shown as follows:
inventory_loc=<path to Oracle inventory>

2.

Make a backup of your existing Oracle inventory before you start the Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) software installation.

3.4.3 Running the Oracle Universal Installer
To install the database software, you run the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI).
Procedure

1.

Log on as user ora<dbsid>.

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2.

Since you are already logged on as user root, you can switch to user ora<dbsid> by entering the following command: su – ora<dbsid>. Make sure that the DISPLAY environment variable is set to <host_name>:0.0, where <host_name> is the host on which you want to display the GUI of the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI).
Shell Used Command
DISPLAY=<host_name>:0.0 export DISPLAY

Bourne shell (sh) C shell (csh) Korn shell (ksh)

setenv DISPLAY <host_name>:0.0 export DISPLAY=<host_name>:0.0

3.

Start the OUI with the user ora<dbsid> as follows: ■ For 32-bit systems, enter the following:
cd /oracle/stage/112_32/database/SAP ./RUNINSTALLER

■ For 64-bit systems, enter the following:
cd /oracle/stage/112_64/database/SAP ./RUNINSTALLER

4.

You see a message that a response file is being generated. It might take several minutes before you see the OUI screen. Respond to the OUI as follows:
Prompt or Condition Action

Configure Security Updates

Select Installation Option Grid Installation Options Select Product Language Select Database Edition Specify Installation Location

Privileged OS Groups

Perform Prerequisite Checks

Do not select the checkbox. The runInstaller issues a warning. Choose OK and then Next. Confirm the default selections by choosing Next. Confirm the default selection Single Instance Installation and then choose Next. Confirm the default option English and then choose Next. Confirm the default option Enterprise Edition and then choose Next. This screen displays the value for ORACLE_BASE which is set in the environment. It also displays the value for ORACLE_HOME, which should be /oracle/DBSID/ 112_64. Select this option and then Next. This screen displays the operating system groups for the DBA and the operator. Normally, these are dba and oper. This screen checks if all the required system prerequisites for installation of the database software

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have been met. If some of the checks are displayed as Failed, you can fix these problems (either by installing the missing patches or configuring the kernel parameters) and run the check again by choosing Check Again.
RECOMMENDATION

Summary Finish

We strongly recommend you to make sure that there are no failed checks before starting the software installation. Review the information displayed on this screen and choose Finish. Finish the software installation by executing the root.sh script as the root user from another session.

5.

To exit the OUI, choose Exit and confirm the dialog box that appears.

3.4.4 Installing the Current Patch Set
After the database software installation [page 16], you need to install the current patch set for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).
Prerequisites

■ For more information on the latest patch set available for Oracle 11.2, see SAP Note 1431799. ■ For more information about how to install the patch set, see the patch set README file.
CAUTION

Do not perform any of the post-installation steps mentioned in the patch set README file. Only perform the post-installation steps on an existing Oracle 11.2 database. At this stage, you have only installed the Oracle 11.2 software. The database itself is still not Oracle 11.2. Therefore, make sure that you do not perform the post-installation steps mentioned in the README file. ■ You only have to install the latest (that is, the current) patch set.
Procedure

1. 2.

Log on at the operating system level with the ora<dbsid> user. Install the patch set as described in the patch set README file. For more information, see SAP Note 1431799.

3.4.5 Installing the Required SAP Bundle Patch
After the Oracle database software installation, you need to install the required SAP bundle patch, using the Oracle tool MOPatch. You need the SAP bundle patch in addition to the current patch set.

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You must install the SAP bundle patch in a single step using the Oracle tool MOPatch, which you can find at SAP Note 1027012. You only need to install the latest SAP bundle patch because these patches are cumulative. After installing the SAP bundle patch, you do not need to install any critical patch updates (CPUs). The SAP bundle patch also delivers a set of upgrade scripts that automate most of the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade tasks.
Prerequisites

■ Make sure you have downloaded and installed OPatch from SAP Service Marketplace as described in SAP Note 839182. ■ Make sure you have already installed the current patch set [page 20]. ■ Check SAP Note 1431800 to find a cross-reference to the current SAP Note with the list of required patches to be installed. ■ Check SAP Note 1027012 for instructions on how to use MOPatch.
Procedure

1. 2.

Log on at the operating system level as the ora<dbsid> user. Install the SAP bundle patch according to the instructions in the SAP bundle patch README file.

3.4.6 Creating a Symbolic Link for the Data Shared Library
You need to create this link so that BR*Tools (which is linked to the Oracle 10.2 client) can use the newer Oracle 11.2 clients.
Procedure

1.

After the software installation has finished, create a symbolic link in $ORACLE_HOME/lib as follows:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/lib
Only valid for: AIX;Linux;Solaris |

ln –s libnnz11.so libnnz10.so
End of: AIX;Linux;Solaris | Only valid for: HP-UX |

ln –s libnnz11.sl libnnz10.sl
End of: HP-UX |

3.4.7 Copying and Adapting the SQL*Net Files
After the database software installation, you must copy and modify the old SQL*Net files, that is, listener.ora, sqlnet.ora, and tnsnames.ora.

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Procedure

1. 2. 3. 4.

Log on as user ora<dbsid>. Copy the SQL*Net parameter files from <old_ORACLE_HOME>/network/admin to <new_ORACLE_HOME>/network/admin. Edit the new SQL*Net files by adapting all file paths for the new directory. Be sure to adapt the value of ORACLE_HOME in the listener.ora file. Add the following entry to the file listener.ora:
ADR_BASE_LISTENER = /oracle/DBSID/saptrace

Since your database is still running in the old environment, do not start the listener with the new listener.ora file at this point.

3.5 Running the Pre-Upgrade Scripts
You run the Oracle pre-upgrade scripts, which automatically perform various tasks and checks on your database. See SAP Note 1431793. This section only applies if your source database is Oracle 10.2.0.4. If your source database is Oracle 9.2.0.8, see Running the Pre-Upgrade Scripts (9.2.0.8) [page 23]. The scripts do the following on your pre-upgrade database: ■ Provide information on the database ■ Suggest any changes that you need to make to the database before you start the upgrade ■ Perform some of the pre-upgrade tasks on the database
NOTE

You always execute these scripts as the ora<dbsid> user connected to the database as sysdba in the Oracle 10.2 environment.
Prerequisites

You are logged on as user ora<dbsid> in the Oracle 10.2 environment with the database also started up. The directory where the upgrade scripts are installed is called ora_upgrade. By default, the scripts are installed as part of the SAP bundle patch in the relevant Oracle 11.2 software home directory: ■ 64-bit: /oracle/<DBSID>/112_64/sap/ora_upgrade ■ 32-bit: /oracle/<DBSID>/112_32/sap/ora_upgrade
Procedure

1.

Change to the correct directory by entering the relevant command (since the scripts have been extracted to the Oracle 11.2 software home): ■ 64-bit: cd /oracle/<DBSID>/112_64/sap/ora_upgrade/pre_upgrade

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2.

■ 32-bit: cd /oracle/<DBSID>/112_32/sap/ora_upgrade/pre_upgrade Execute the following commands to check the pre-upgrade status of your database:
sqlplus / as sysdba SQL> @pre_upgrade_status.sql

3.

Execute the following commands to perform pre-upgrade tasks, which can improve the performance of the upgrade process:
sqlplus / as sysdba SQL> spool PRE_UPGRADE_TASKS.log SQL> @pre_upgrade_tasks.sqlSQL> spool off

Result

You can check the results of the pre-upgrade scripts by looking at the following log files: ■ PRE_UPGRADE_STATUS.log ■ PRE_UPGRADE_TASKS.log Make sure that you check any warnings issued in the log files. You can run the pre-upgrade scripts as often as you like on the pre-upgrade Oracle 10.2 database.
CAUTION

Make the changes listed in the log file, otherwise you might have problems during the upgrade. However, you must ignore the warning regarding the database parameter remote_os_authent, which is reported as DEPRECATED. Do not touch this parameter. The post-upgrade script sets it to TRUE again after the database upgrade. This parameter must be set to TRUE for the SAP logon mechanism to work correctly after the database upgrade.

3.6 Running the Pre-Upgrade Scripts (Oracle 9.2.0.8)
You run the Oracle pre-upgrade scripts, which automatically perform checks on your database. This section only applies if your source database is Oracle 9.2.0.8. If your source database is Oracle 10.2.0.4, see Running the Pre-Upgrade Scripts [page 22].
NOTE

You always execute these scripts as the ora<dbsid> user connected to the database as sysdba in the Oracle 9.2 environment.
Prerequisites

■ You are logged on as user ora<dbsid> in the Oracle 9.2 environment with the database also started up. ■ The directory where the upgrade scripts are installed is called ora_upgrade. By default, the scripts are installed as part of the SAP bundle patch in the relevant Oracle 11.2 software home directory:

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● 64-bit: /oracle/<DBSID>/112_64/sap/ora_upgrade ● 32-bit: /oracle/<DBSID>/112_32/sap/ora_upgrade
Procedure

1.

2.

Change to the correct directory by entering the relevant command (since the scripts have been extracted to the Oracle 11.2 software home): ■ 64-bit: cd /oracle/<DBSID>/112_64/sap/ora_upgrade/pre_upgrade ■ 32-bit: cd /oracle/<DBSID>/112_32/sap/ora_upgrade/pre_upgrade Execute the following commands to check the pre-upgrade status of your database:
sqlplus / as sysdba SQL> spool utlu112i.log SQL> @utlu112i.sql

Result

You can check the results of the pre-upgrade script by looking at the following log file utlu112i.log. Make sure that you check any warnings and perform the suggested corrective actions mentioned in the log file. You can run the pre-upgrade script as often as you like on the pre-upgrade Oracle 9.2 database.
CAUTION

Make the changes listed in the log file, otherwise you might have problems during the upgrade. However, you must ignore the warning regarding the database parameter remote_os_authent, which is reported as DEPRECATED. Do not touch this parameter. The post-upgrade script sets it to TRUE again after the database upgrade. This parameter must be set to TRUE for the SAP logon mechanism to work correctly after the database upgrade.

3.7 Checking the SAP System Prerequisites
Procedure

1.

For SAP systems 7.XX, apply SAP Notes 1416108, 1414733, and 1433301 if you are running any of the following support packages: ■ SAP_BASIS 7.00 SP21 ■ SAP_BASIS 7.01 SP06 ■ SAP_BASIS 7.02 SP02 ■ SAP_BASIS 7.10 SP10 ■ SAP_BASIS 7.11 SP05 ■ SAP_BASIS 7.20 SP02

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2.

3.

This resolves an error in an ABAP program that causes it to report problems during the consistency checks within transaction SE14. This error is seen only after the database has been upgraded to Oracle 11.2. The error is fixed in later support packages. If your SAP system is SAP BASIS 7xx, apply the advanced correction from SAP Note 1417124 This correction resolves an Oracle issue that results in an ABAP short dump during statistics updates. If your SAP system uses SAP Kernel 711, you need to use DBSL (dboraslib.so) patch level 81 or higher. For more information, see SAP Note 1456323.

3.8 Updating the Oracle Instant Client
You need to ensure that the SAP system runs with at least Instant Client release 10.2.0.4 Version 3 (V3).
NOTE

This step also applies to SAP systems running the 640_REL kernel with the Oracle 9.2.0.8 database. The Instant Client 10.2.0.4 is used immediately after the kernel switch to 640_EX2.
Procedure

Update the Oracle Database Instant Client for UNIX as described in SAP Note 1431794.

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4 4.1

Oracle Database Upgrade Backing Up the Oracle Database

4 Oracle Database Upgrade

This section describes how to upgrade the Oracle database. 1. You back up the Oracle database [page 27]. 2. You shut down the SAP system and Oracle listener process [page 27]. 3. You upgrade the database structure [page 28].
NOTE

If you have problems during the upgrade, see SAP Note 1431797.

4.1 Backing Up the Oracle Database
You must have a complete and usable database backup otherwise you might lose data.
Procedure

1.

Create a complete database backup and back up any archive logs from Oracle 10g.
RECOMMENDATION

Before backing up the archive logs, switch the log files with the following SQL command:
alter system switch logfile

2.

Make sure that you do a log file switch for all online redo log files. Check that the backup is usable. If for any reason you have problems during the upgrade you must be able to restore the database from this backup.

4.2 Shutting Down the SAP System and Oracle Listener Process
You need to shut down the SAP system and the Oracle listener running process running in the old ORACLE_HOME, for example, in /oracle/<DBSID>/102_64 or /oracle/<DBSID>/920_64.
Procedure

1. 2.

Stop the SAP application server by entering the following command as user <sapsid>adm:
stopsap

Stop the Oracle listener by entering the following command as user ora<dbsid>:
lsnrctl stop

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Make sure that processes that log on to the database, such as CRON jobs, are not active during the upgrade. Make sure that you reschedule these processes when the upgrade has finished.

4.3 Database Structure Upgrade
As part of the Oracle database upgrade [page 27], you upgrade the database structure.
Prerequisites

You have installed the database software [page 16].
Process Flow

1. 2. 3.

You check the oratab entry [page 28]. If your source database is Oracle 10.2.0.4, you start the Database Upgrade Assistant to perform the upgrade [page 29]. If your source database is Oracle 9.2.0.8, you start the Database Upgrade Assistant to perform the upgrade (Oracle 9.2.0.8) [page 31].

Result

Now continue with the Post-Upgrade Steps [page 35].

4.3.1 Checking the oratab Entry
To upgrade the database structure, you need to check the entry for the oratab file.
Prerequisites

You can find the oratab file as follows: ■ ■
Only valid for: AIX;HP-UX;Linux |

/etc
End of: AIX;HP-UX;Linux | Only valid for: Solaris |

/var/opt/oracle
End of: Solaris |

Procedure

1.

Make sure that the oratab file contains the following entry:
<DBSID>:<old_ORACLE_HOME>:N

Where old_ORACLE_HOME stands for the path to the old oracle software installation.
EXAMPLE

The entry for a system with a <DBSID> equal to C11 is as follows: ■ Oracle 10.2 source database

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■ Oracle 9.2 source database
C11:/oracle/C11/920_64:N

2.

If this entry does not exist, insert it using a text editor.

4.3.2 Starting the Database Upgrade Assistant
To upgrade the database structure, you need to start the Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA). The DBUA tool is a graphical tool that leads you step by step through the upgrade. This section only applies if your source database is Oracle 10.2.0.4. If your source database is Oracle 9.2.0.8, see Starting the Database Upgrade Assistant (Oracle 9.2.0.8) [page 31].
Prerequisites
CAUTION

Make sure that you start the DBUA in the Oracle 11.2 user environment. To do this, carefully check the first point below. ■ Confirm that the following environment variables point to Oracle 11.2 directories: ● ORACLE_HOME points to /oracle/<DBSID>/112_64 ● PATH ● LD_LIBRARY_PATH, SHLIB_PATH, or LIBPATH ■ Before you start the DBUA make sure that the DISPLAY environment variable is correctly set. ■ Ensure that you have write permissions on /etc/oratab.
Procedure

1.

Start the DBUA. dbua.sap.sh is a wrapper script to automate most of the post-upgrade tasks. 1. Change to the correct directory:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/sap/ora_upgrade/post_upgrade

2. 3.

Run this script in query mode initially to verify that the environment is correct:
./dbua.sap.sh -q

Run this script in either of the two following ways: ■
./dbua.sap.sh

Calling the script without any option ensures that the compatible parameter is automatically set to 11.2.0 after completion of the database upgrade. Note that activating the compatible parameter invalidates any restore points that were defined before the start of the upgrade. If you call the DBUA with this option, you do not need to perform the first step – “Change database compatibility...” – in Performing PostUpgrade Tasks [page 37].

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./dbua.sap.sh -no_compatible

2.

Calling the script with the no_compatible option ensures that the database is upgraded and all the post-upgrade steps are performed. However, the compatible parameter is not set to 11.2.0. Therefore, you need to manually perform the first step – “Change database compatibility...” – in Performing Post-Upgrade Tasks [page 37]. For more information on how to use dbua.sap.sh, see SAP note 1431793 or run dbua.sap.sh -help. Respond appropriately to the DBUA dialogs: The Welcome screen provides information about the upgrade assistant 1. Choose Next to continue. The Databases screen lets you select the database to be upgraded. 2. Select the correct database and choose Next. The DBUA now analyzes the database to be upgraded, performs pre-upgrade checks, and issues warnings if necessary.
RECOMMENDATION

If the DBUA warns you of issues that need to be fixed before the upgrade, you need to analyze and act on these warnings. The most common warning or information messages are as follows:
Message Explanation or Solution

Information message: Database is using a timezone file older than version 11 Warning message: Database contains schemas with stale optimizer statistics Warning message: Database contains INVALID objects prior to upgrade

Explanation: Upgrade of TSTZ data is done automatically if the DBUA was started using dbua.sap.sh. Solution: Run the following command:
brconnect -u / -c -f stats -t oradict_stats

Solution: To recompile any invalid objects, use SQL*Plus to execute the script $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql. Any invalid SYS/SYSTEM objects found before upgrading the database are stored in table registry$sys_inv_objs Any invalid non-SYS/SYSTEM objects found before upgrading the database are stored in table registry $nonsys_inv_objs. After the upgrade, run ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/ utluiobj.sql to identify any new invalid objects due to the upgrade.

The screen Recompiling Invalid Objects lets you choose whether the DBUA has to automatically recompile all PL/SQL modules after the upgrade. If the database server has multiple CPUs, the DBUA automatically proposes the number of parallel processes to be used for the recompilation.

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3.

Since you have already performed the database backup [page 27], you do not need to select the Backup option on this screen. 3. Accept the default values, select Recompile invalid objects after the upgrade, and choose Next. The screen Move Database Files lets you move the database files during the upgrade process. 4. Select Do not move the database files as part of the upgrade and choose Next. 5. On the screen Recovery and Diagnostic Location, select Specify Flash Recovery Area if you have set up a restore point on the database to facilitate database recovery in the event of problems. If you select this option, make sure that you also specify the location and the size of the flash recovery area and its files. The screen Management Options lets you set up the database so that it can be managed with the Enterprise Manager. 6. Make sure that Configure the database with Enterprise Manager is not selected and choose Next. Before you start it, the DBUA displays a summary of the changes to be made. This includes the warnings that you ignored or did not fix, components to be upgraded, parameters to be added, removed, and changed after the upgrade. Review the summary of changes and choose Back to make any final adjustments, if required.
NOTE

4.

5.

For a complete list of obsolete and deprecated parameters, see the documentation for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). Start the database upgrade by choosing Finish. The DBUA automatically removes the database initialization parameters that are now obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). The upgrade process itself runs for some time, depending mainly on the size of the database and the capacity of the hardware. When the DBUA has completed successfully the results of the upgrade are displayed Review the changes made and exit the DBUA.

4.3.3 Starting the Database Upgrade Assistant (Oracle 9.2.0.8)
To upgrade the database structure, you need to start the Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA). The DBUA tool is a graphical tool that leads you step by step through the upgrade. This section only applies if your source database is Oracle 9.2.0.8. If your source database is Oracle 10.2.0.4, see Starting the Database Upgrade Assistant [page 29].
Prerequisites
CAUTION

Make sure that you start the DBUA in the Oracle 11.2 user environment. To do this, carefully check the first point below.

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■ Confirm that the following environment variables point to Oracle 11.2 directories: ● ORACLE_HOME points to /oracle/<DBSID>/112_64 ● PATH ● LD_LIBRARY_PATH, SHLIB_PATH, or LIBPATH ■ Before you start the DBUA make sure that the DISPLAY environment variable is correctly set. ■ Ensure that you have write permissions on /etc/oratab.
Procedure

1. 2.

Switch to $ORACLE_HOME/112_64/bin. Start the DBUA as follows:
./dbua -diagnosticDest /oracle/<DBSID>/saptrace -recompile_invalid_objects true initParam audit_file_dest=/oracle/<DBSID>/saptrace/audit -emConfiguration NONE postUpgradeScripts /oracle/<DBSID>/112_64/sap/ora_upgrade/post_upgrade/ post_upgrade_tasks.sql,/oracle//<DBSID>//112_64/sap/ora_upgrade/post_upgrade/ upgrade_TSTZ.sql,/oracle//<DBSID>//112_64/sap/ora_upgrade/post_upgrade/ set_remote_os_authent.sql,/oracle//<DBSID>//112_64/sap/ora_upgrade/post_upgrade/ set_compatible.sql

3.

Respond appropriately to the DBUA dialogs: The Welcome screen provides information about the upgrade assistant 1. Choose Next to continue. The Databases screen lets you select the database to be upgraded. 2. Select the correct database and choose Next. The DBUA now analyzes the database to be upgraded, performs pre-upgrade checks, and issues warnings if necessary.
RECOMMENDATION

If the DBUA warns you of issues that need to be fixed before the upgrade, you need to analyze and act on these warnings. The most common warning or information messages are as follows:
Message Explanation or Solution

Information message: Database is using a timezone file older than version 11 Warning message: Database contains schemas with stale optimizer statistics Warning message:

Explanation: Upgrade of TSTZ data is done automatically using one of the postupgrade custom scripts. No action is necessary. Solution: Run the following commands:
brconnect -u / -c -f stats -t oradict_stats brconnect -u / -c -f stats -t system_stats

Solution: To recompile any invalid objects, use SQL*Plus to execute the script $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql.

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Database contains Any invalid SYS/SYSTEM objects found before upgrading the database INVALID objects prior to are stored in table registry$sys_inv_objs upgrade Any invalid non-SYS/SYSTEM objects found before upgrading the database are stored in table registry$nonsys_inv_objs. After the upgrade, run ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/utluiobj.sql to identify any new invalid objects due to the upgrade. Warning message: Solution: Deprecated CONNECT The default connect role is deprecated as of Oracle 10g. You need to run role granted to some user/ the sapconn_role.sql script after the database upgrade as described in roles. Updating BR*Tools [page 36]. Information Message: Explanation: Obsolete/Deprecated The pre-upgrade check script lists the obsolete or deprecated parameters. Parameters: No action is necessary as these parameters are automatically removed by Information Message the DBUA. If the check asks for space extension in any particular Tablespace Size tablespace, you need to perform this. Warning Message Solution: Parameter Update "compatible" must be set to at least 10.1.0. For this warning, no further action is necessary as the DBUA automatically switches this parameter after the upgrade. You need to adapt all other parameters as suggested by the pre-upgrade check. Information Message: Explanation: SYSAUX Tablespace No action is necessary as the tablespace is created automatically by the DBUA.

3. 4. 5.

6.

The screen Recompiling Invalid Objects lets you choose whether the DBUA has to automatically recompile all PL/SQL modules after the upgrade. If the database server has multiple CPUs, the DBUA automatically proposes the number of parallel processes to be used for the recompilation. Since you have already performed the database backup [page 27], you do not need to select the Backup option on this screen. Accept the default values, select Recompile invalid objects after the upgrade, and choose Next. The screen Move Database Files lets you move the database files during the upgrade process. Select Do not move the database files as part of the upgrade and choose Next. On the screen Recovery and Diagnostic Location, select Specify Flash Recovery Area if you have set up a restore point on the database to facilitate database recovery in the event of problems. If you select this option, make sure that you also specify the location and the size of the flash recovery area and its files. On the screen SYSAUX Tablespace, specify the location for the datafiles along with the size and other attributes by entering the following: Datafile: /oracle/<SID>/sapdata1/sysaux_1/sysaux.data1 Check Reuse Existing Filename. Size: 2048 MB

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4.

Check AUTOEXTEND ON. Increment Size 100 MB Maximum Size: Unlimited Choose Next to continue. 7. On the screen Management Options, you can set up the database so that it can be managed with the Enterprise Manager. 8. Make sure that Configure the database with Enterprise Manager is not selected and choose Next. Before you start it, the DBUA displays a summary of the changes to be made. This includes the warnings that you ignored or did not fix, components to be upgraded, parameters to be added, removed, and changed after the upgrade. Review the summary of changes and choose Back to make any final adjustments, if required.
NOTE

5.

6.

For a complete list of obsolete and deprecated parameters, see the documentation for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). Start the database upgrade by choosing Finish. The DBUA automatically removes the database initialization parameters that are now obsolete in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2). The upgrade process itself runs for some time, depending mainly on the size of the database and the capacity of the hardware. When the DBUA has completed successfully, the results of the upgrade are displayed Review the changes made and exit the DBUA.

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Post-Upgrade Steps Finalizing the Environment of the ora<dbsid>User

5 Post-Upgrade Steps

After the Oracle database upgrade, you need to perform the steps described here. 1. You finalize the environment of the ora<dbsid> user [page 35]. 2. You check the upgraded database [page 36]. 3. You update BR*Tools [page 36]. 4. You perform post-upgrade tasks [page 37]. 5. You back up the database [page 38]. 6. You start the listener process [page 38]. 7. You rename the old $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory [page 38]. 8. You rename the old alert log file [page 39]. 9. You check the read authorization of the <sapsid>adm user [page 39]. 10. If your SAP kernel is 640_REL, you update the SAP kernel to 640_EX2 [page 39]. 11. You change the environment for the <sapsid>adm user [page 39]. 12. You update the SQL*Net configuration files for the <sapsid>adm and ora<sid> users [page 40]. 13. You check the SAP profile parameters [page 41]. 14. If your source database is Oracle 9.2, you change the location of the JDBC driver [page 41]. 15. You restart the SAP system [page 44]. 16. If necessary, you change the national character set of your database to UTF8 [page 45]. 17. You configure the new features for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) [page 45].

5.1 Finalizing the Environment of the ora<dbsid>User
You need to make sure that the changes you made to the Oracle user environment are permanently stored in the profiles (.cshrc, .dbenv_<hostname>.csh, and so on).
Procedure

Check the values for the environment variables as described in Checking and Setting the Environment Variables [page 16].
NOTE

Make sure that the environment does not contain any variables that still refer to the old database release.

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Post-Upgrade Steps Checking the Upgraded Database

5.2 Checking the Upgraded Database
You need to check the upgraded database.
Procedure

1.

Check that the database is now running with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) software in an Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) environment by entering the following commands: 1. Log on to the database as the ora<sid> user. 2. Change to the correct directory:
cd $ORACLE_HOME/sap/ora_upgrade/post_upgrade

3. 4.

Enter the following command to start SQLPLUS:
sqlplus / as sysdba

Run post_upgrade_status.sql:
SQL> @post_upgrade_status.sql

Check the log POST_UPGRADE_STATUS.log.
EXAMPLE

This is an example of the output from this command:
COMP ID VERSION STATUS CATALOG 11.2.0.1.0 VALID CATPROC 11.2.0.1.0 VALID

2.

Make sure that the command returns the status VALID. Check that the value for the version returned from the above command is the same level as the installed patchset. For example, if the installed patchset is Oracle 11.2.0.2, the above command should also report the version for the CATALOG and CATPROC components as 11.2.0.2.
RECOMMENDATION

If the old database used an initialization file init<DBSID>.ora, the DBUA automatically creates an spfile. We recommend that you continue to use the spfile. Do not switch back to the initialization file after the upgrade.

5.3 Updating BR*Tools
You update BR*Tools to the latest release, with the latest patch level. If your source database was Oracle 9.2.0.8, you need to update the SAPDBA role using the script sapdba_role.sql and create the SAPCONN role using sapconn_role.sql. This is essential so that the new release of BR*Tools works correctly. The script is automatically extracted when you extract BR*Tools.
Procedure

1.

Download the most current version of the BR*Tools from SAP Service Marketplace at:

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Post-Upgrade Steps Performing Post-Upgrade Tasks http://service.sap.com/swdc CAUTION

2.

Perform the following steps only if your source database was Oracle 9.2.0.8. Execute the following commands as the ora<dbsid> user to update the SAPDBA role:
cp /usr/sap/<SAPSID>/SYS/exe/run/sapdba_role.sql $ORACLE_HOME/dbs cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
Only valid for: ABAP |

sqlplus /nolog @sapdba_role <SAPSCHEMA_ID>
End of: ABAP | Only valid for: Java |

sqlplus /nolog @sapdba_role <SAPSCHEMA_ID>DB
End of: Java |

NOTE

If you have an ABAP+Java system, you have to enter both commands.
CAUTION

3.

Make sure that you execute this command for every SAPSCHEMA_ID in your database. Execute the SQL script sapconn_role.sql as follows:
cp /usr/sap/<SAPSID>/SYS/exe/run/sapconn_role.sql $ORACLE_HOME/dbs cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs sqlplus /nolog @sapconn_role

5.4 Performing Post-Upgrade Tasks
You need to perform certain post-upgrade tasks.
Procedure

1.

Check database compatibility by executing the following command:
SQL> show parameter compatible

If not set to 11.2.0, do the following: 1. Change database compatibility by executing the following SQL command as the ora<dbsid> user:
SQL> alter system set compatible='11.2.0' scope = spfile;

2.

2. Restart the Oracle database. Gather Oracle optimizer statistics by executing the following commands as the ora<dbsid> user:
brconnect -u / -c -f stats -t system_stats brconnect -u / -c -f stats -t oradict_stats

3.

Check the Oracle database parameters against SAP Note 1431798 and adjust them if necessary. You can find an automated script in SAP Note 1171650 to help you check whether your SAP system complies with the database parameter recommendations at any given point in time.

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Post-Upgrade Steps Backing Up the Database

4.

Update the Oracle database statistics with BRCONNECT as follows:
brconnect -c -u / -f stats -t all –f collect -p 4 NOTE

For more information about update statistics, see the documentation SAP Database Guide: Oracle at: www.sdn.sap.com/irj/sdn/ora SAP ON ORACLE KNOWLEDGE CENTER SAP Documentation

5.5 Backing Up the Database
You need to back up your upgraded Oracle Database 11g database.
CAUTION

You risk losing data if you do not back up your database.
Procedure

Perform a full database backup.

5.6 Starting the Listener Process
You start the listener process.
Prerequisites

Make sure that you have copied the SQL*Net configuration files from the old Oracle installation to the location of the Oracle Database 10g or 9.2 software, as described in Copying and Adapting the SQL*Net Files [page 21].
Procedure

1. 2.

Start the listener:
lsnrctl start

Check that you can remotely connect to the database through the listener:
sqlplus SAP<SAPSCHEMA_ID>/pwd@SID

5.7 Renaming the Old $ORACLE_HOME/bin Directory
Once the database is running correctly, you need to rename the bin directory from the old $ORACLE_HOME to prevent accidental usage of the old binaries.
Procedure

Rename the old Oracle home directory bin with the following command:

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Post-Upgrade Steps Renaming the Alert Log File

mv <old_oracle_home>/bin <old_oracle_home>/bin-old CAUTION

Do not rename the entire old_oracle_home in case you have SAP systems (SAP kernel release 6.40 and lower) running on the database server. This is because the SAP system running on the database server might still use the Oracle 9i client software.

5.8 Renaming the Alert Log File
You need to rename the old alert_<SID>.log file to avoid confusion with the new alert log file used in Oracle 11g.
Procedure

Enter the following command:
mv alert_<SID>.log OLD_alert_<SID>.log

5.9 Checking the Read Authorization of the <sapsid>adm User
You check the read authorization of the <sapsid>adm user.
Procedure

1. 2.

Make sure that the <sapsid>adm user has read authorization for the directory $ORACLE_HOME. If this is not true, enter the following command as the ora<dbsid> user:
chmod 755 $ORACLE_HOME

5.10 Updating the SAP Kernel from 640_REL to 640_EX2
If you are running a 640_REL kernel, you must update it to 640_EX2. We do not support running a 640_REL kernel with an Oracle 11.2 database.
Prerequisites

You have an SAP System running with 640_REL kernel and you just upgraded your Oracle 9.2.0.8 database to Oracle 11.2.
Procedure

Update your SAP kernel to 640_EX2, performing the kernel switch as described in SAP Note 1058988.

5.11 Changing the Environment for the <sapsid>adm user
You have to change the environment for the <sapsid>adm user, but only on the database server.

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Post-Upgrade Steps Updating the SQL*Net Configuration Files for the <sapsid>adm and ora<sid> Users NOTE

You do not need to change the environment for <sapsid>adm on application servers because SAP applications still use Oracle 10g clients.
Procedure

1.

On the database server, set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to point to the location of the Oracle Database 11g software installation, for example:
/oracle/<DBSID>/112_<32>/<64>

2. 3. 4.

Make sure that the change to the user environment is permanently stored in the profiles (.cshrc, .dbenv_<hostname>.csh, and so on). Log out and log on again as the <sapsid>adm user. Check whether R3trans can connect to the database:
R3trans –d

5.12 Updating the SQL*Net Configuration Files for the <sapsid>adm and ora<sid> Users
You need to update the tnsnames.ora file for the <sapsid>adm and ora<sid> users after the upgrade: ■ For the ora<sid> user, you need to adapt the SQL*Net files are located in the directory $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin. ■ For the <sapsid>adm user, you need to adapt the SQL*Net files that are located in the directory pointed to by the environment variable TNS_ADMIN.
Procedure
Adapting the SQL*Net Files for the ora<sid> User

1.

Add the following entry to the tnsnames.ora file that is used by the <sapsid>adm user:
LISTENER_<DBSSID>.WORLD = (ADDRESS = (COMMUNITY = SAP.WORLD)(PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = <hostname>)(PORT = <listener_port>)) NOTE

Although this entry is only needed on the database server or on central systems where the startdb or stopdb scripts are used, it is recommended to repeat the change described above on all application servers. Without this entry, the startdb or stopdb script fails with the following error message:
ORA-00119: invalid specification for system parameter LOCAL_LISTENER Adapting the SQL*Net Files for the <sapsid>adm User

1.

Determine the SQL*Net files used by <sapsid>adm as follows: ■ If the environment variable TNS_ADMIN is set, the SQL*Net files are used from the specified location (even if ORACLE_HOME is set).

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Post-Upgrade Steps Checking SAP Profile Parameters

2.

■ If the environment variable TNS_ADMIN is not set, look for a tnsnames.ora file under /etc and use this file for the change described below in the next step. Add the following entry to the tnsnames.ora file that is used by the <sapsid>adm user:
LISTENER_<DBSSID>.WORLD = (ADDRESS = (COMMUNITY = SAP.WORLD)(PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = <hostname>)(PORT = <listener_port>)) NOTE

Although this entry is only needed on the database server or on central systems where the startdb or stopdb scripts are used, it is recommended to repeat the change described above on all application servers. Without this entry, the startdb or stopdb script fails with the following error message:
ORA-00119: invalid specification for system parameter LOCAL_LISTENER

5.13 Checking SAP Profile Parameters
You have to check the following SAP profile parameters: ■ ■ ■
DIR_ORAHOME DIR_CLIENT_ORAHOME DIR_SERVER_ORAHOME

Procedure

1.

2.

Set DIR_ORAHOME and DIR_CLIENT_ORAHOME in the instance profiles to the corresponding values of the ORACLE_HOME environment variable of the <sapsid>adm user. These variables point to the ORACLE_HOME used by the application server. Set DIR_SERVER_ORAHOME in the default profile to the value of the ORACLE_HOME environment variable of the ora<dbsid> user on the database server.

Only valid for: ABAP+Java;Java;Java Add-In |

5.14 Changing the Location of the JDBC Driver
If you have an SAP system with Java components, you might have to change the location of the JDBC driver after you have upgraded the database server or client software. Otherwise the J2EE Engine cannot start because the location of the JDBC driver might still point to the path of the old Oracle server or client software home.
NOTE

■ You only need to perform this procedure if your source database was Oracle 9.2. ■ At the publication time of this guide, the Oracle client major version as used in the procedure below is Oracle 10. So you need to replace occurrences of the variable <Oracle_client_major_version> with 10.

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Post-Upgrade Steps Changing the Location of the JDBC Driver

You change the location of the JDBC driver as follows: ■ In files that are located in the database, you use the J2EE Engine Config Tool to change the JDBC driver location. ■ In files that are not located in the database, you use a text editor to change the JDBC driver location.
CAUTION

Depending on your SAP version, some of the JDBC driver references stated in this procedure might not exist in your SAP system. Make sure that you nonetheless replace the old driver location in all locations belonging to your SAP system.
Procedure

1.

Change the file config.properties as follows: 1. Change to the correct directory containing the file config.properties: ■ ■ 2. 3.
Only valid for: Java |

/usr/sap/<SAPSID>/JC<instance_number>/j2ee/configtool
End of: Java | Only valid for: ABAP+Java;Java Add-In |

/usr/sap/<SAPSID>/DVEBMGS<instance_number>/j2ee/configtool
End of: ABAP+Java;Java Add-In |

Open the file with your text editor and search for the property rdbms.driverLocation. Replace the old driver location with the new one:
/oracle/client/<Oracle_client_major_version>x_<32/64>/instantclient/ <java_class_archive>.jar

where <Oracle_client_major_version> is the major version of the Oracle client that you are using after this upgrade.
CAUTION

Do not change the file <java_class_archive>.jar, which is one of the following: ■ classes12.jar ■ ojdbc14.jar ■ ojdbc5.jar ■ ojdbc6.jar In the same directory as in the first step, start the J2EE Engine - ConfigTool by double-clicking the configtool.sh file. 1. Change to Configuration Editor mode. 2. Use the Edit mode to replace the driver location in the following property sheets that contain the string rdbms.driverLocation= followed by the driver location: ■
cluster_data/Propertysheet instance.properties.IDXXXXXXX/ IDXXXXXXX.JavaParameters

2.

where XXXXXXX is the instance number

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Post-Upgrade Steps Changing the Location of the JDBC Driver NOTE

Make sure that you change all occurrences. There might be several IDXXXXXX.JavaParameters properties in the property sheet. ■ ■
cluster_data/dispatcher/IDXXXX/kernel/propertysheet ConfigurationManager cluster_data/server/IDXXXX/kernel/propertysheet ConfigurationManager

where XXXX is the instance number
NOTE

3.

If you have more than one server or dispatcher you must modify all relevant property sheets. 3. Close the J2EE Engine - ConfigTool. Change the driver location in the instance profile as follows: 1. Change to the correct directory containing the instance profile <SAPSID>_JC<instance_number>_<host>:
/usr/sap/<SAPSID>/SYS/profile

2. 3.

Open the file with your text editor and search for the property j2ee/dbdriver. Replace the old driver location with the new one:
/oracle/client/<Oracle_client_major_version>x_<32/64>/instantclient/ <java_class_archive>.jar

4.

Change the file bootstrap.properties as follows: 1. Change to the correct directory containing the file bootstrap.properties: ■ ■ 2. 3.
Only valid for: Java |

/usr/sap/<SAPSID>/JC<instance_number>/j2ee/cluster/bootstrap
End of: Java | Only valid for: ABAP+Java;Java Add-In |

/usr/sap/<instance_ID>/DVEBMGS<instance_number>/j2ee/cluster/bootstrap
End of: ABAP+Java;Java Add-In |

Open the file with your text editor and search for the property rdbms.driverLocation. Replace the old driver location with the new one:
/oracle/client/<Oracle_client_major_version>x_<32/64>/instantclient/ <java_class_archive>.jar

5.

Change the file sdmrepository.sdc as follows: 1. Change to the correct directory containing the file sdmrepository.sdc: ■ ■ 2.
Only valid for: Java |

/usr/sap/<SAPSID>/JC<instance_number>/SDM/program/config
End of: Java | Only valid for: ABAP+Java;Java Add-In |

/usr/sap/<SAPSID>/DVEBMGS<instance_number>/SDM/program/config
End of: ABAP+Java;Java Add-In |

Search for the following text:

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Post-Upgrade Steps Starting the SAP System <Param type="String" hide="false" name="jarPaths" encrypted="false" displayName="Driver Paths (separated by ;)">

3.

If required, replace the old driver location with the new one:
/oracle/client/<Oracle_client_major_version>x_<32/64>/instantclient/ <java_class_archive>.jar

6.

Change the file rdb.properties as follows: 1. Change to the correct directory containing the file rdb.properties: ■ ■ 2. 3.
Only valid for: Java |

/usr/sap/<SAPSID>/JC<instance_number>/j2ee/deploying
End of: Java | Only valid for: ABAP+Java;Java Add-In |

/usr/sap/<SAPSID>/DVEBMGS<instance_number>/j2ee/deploying
End of: ABAP+Java;Java Add-In |

Open the file with your text editor and search for the property rdbms.driverLocation. Replace the old driver location with the new one:
/oracle/client/<Oracle_client_major_version>x_<32/64>/instantclient/ <java_class_archive>.jar

7.

Change the file templateconfigurator.properties as follows: 1. Change to the correct directory containing the file templateconfigurator.properties: ■ ■ 2. 3.
Only valid for: Java |

/usr/sap/<SAPSID>/JC<instance_number>/j2ee
End of: Java | Only valid for: ABAP+Java;Java Add-In |

/usr/sap/<SAPSID>/DVEBMGS<instance_number>/j2ee
End of: ABAP+Java;Java Add-In |

Open the file with your text editor and search for the property RDBMS_DRIVER_LOCATION. Replace the old driver location with the new one:
/oracle/client/<Oracle_client_major_version>x_<32/64>/instantclient/ <java_class_archive>.jar

End of: ABAP+Java;Java;Java Add-In |

5.15 Starting the SAP System
You need to restart the SAP system.
Procedure

1. 2.

If R3trans connects without problems, start the SAP system:
startsap

Check the new Oracle version using SAP transaction ST04.

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Post-Upgrade Steps Checking the National Character Set

5.16 Checking the National Character Set
If your database still runs with a national character set (NLS_NCHAR_CHARACTERSET) different from UTF8, you need to change it to UTF8. You can expect to experience severe problems during SAP upgrades if the database national character set is not set to UTF8. If you already use a Java system or plan to use one in the future, the national character set must be UTF8.
Procedure

If necessary, follow SAP Note 669902 to change the national character set to UTF8.

5.17 Configuring the New Features for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2)
You need to configure the new Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) features.
Procedure

For more information about new features with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) see SAP Note 1431800. This note provides links to other SAP notes that describe how to configure or activate each new feature.

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Typographic Conventions

Example
<Example>

Description

Example Example Example
Example

Angle brackets indicate that you replace these words or characters with appropriate entries to make entries in the system, for example, “Enter your <User Name>”. Arrows separating the parts of a navigation path, for example, menu options Emphasized words or expressions Words or characters that you enter in the system exactly as they appear in the documentation Textual cross-references to an internet address Quicklinks added to the internet address of a homepage to enable quick access to specific content on the Web Hyperlink to an SAP Note, for example, SAP Note 123456 ■ Words or characters quoted from the screen. These include field labels, screen titles, pushbutton labels, menu names, and menu options. ■ Cross-references to other documentation or published works ■ Output on the screen following a user action, for example, messages ■ Source code or syntax quoted directly from a program ■ File and directory names and their paths, names of variables and parameters, and names of installation, upgrade, and database tools Technical names of system objects. These include report names, program names, transaction codes, database table names, and key concepts of a programming language when they are surrounded by body text, for example, SELECT and INCLUDE Keys on the keyboard

http://www.sap.com /example

123456 Example

Example

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

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© Copyright 2010 SAP AG. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. Microsoft, Windows, Excel, Outlook, and PowerPoint are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. IBM, DB2, DB2 Universal Database, System i, System i5, System p, System p5, System x, System z, System z10, System z9, z10, z9, iSeries, pSeries, xSeries, zSeries, eServer, z/VM, z/OS, i5/OS, S/390, OS/390, OS/400, AS/400, S/390 Parallel Enterprise Server, PowerVM, Power Architecture, POWER6+, POWER6, POWER5+, POWER5, POWER, OpenPower, PowerPC, BatchPipes, BladeCenter, System Storage, GPFS, HACMP, RETAIN, DB2 Connect, RACF, Redbooks, OS/2, Parallel Sysplex, MVS/ESA, AIX, Intelligent Miner, WebSphere, Netfinity, Tivoli and Informix are trademarks or registered trademarks of IBM Corporation. Linux is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the U.S. and other countries. Adobe, the Adobe logo, Acrobat, PostScript, and Reader are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation. UNIX, X/Open, OSF/1, and Motif are registered trademarks of the Open Group. Citrix, ICA, Program Neighborhood, MetaFrame, WinFrame, VideoFrame, and MultiWin are trademarks or registered trademarks of Citrix Systems, Inc. HTML, XML, XHTML and W3C are trademarks or registered trademarks of W3C®, World Wide Web Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Java is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. JavaScript is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc., used under license for technology invented and implemented by Netscape. SAP, R/3, xApps, xApp, SAP NetWeaver, Duet, PartnerEdge, ByDesign, SAP Business ByDesign, and other SAP products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries all over the world. All other product and service names mentioned are the trademarks of their respective companies. Data contained in this document serves informational purposes only. National product specifications may vary. These materials are subject to change without notice. These materials are provided by SAP AG and its affiliated companies (“SAP Group”) for informational purposes only, without representation or warranty of any kind, and SAP Group shall not be liable for errors or omissions with respect to the materials. The only warranties for SAP Group products and services are those that are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services, if any. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty.
Disclaimer

Some components of this product are based on Java™. Any code change in these components may cause unpredictable and severe malfunctions and is therefore expressly prohibited, as is any decompilation of these components. Any Java™ Source Code delivered with this product is only to be used by SAP’s Support Services and may not be modified or altered in any way.

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Documentation in the SAP Service Marketplace

You can find this document at the following address: http://service.sap.com/instguides

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© Copyright 2010 SAP AG. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice.

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