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Vivaldi's Esoteric Instruments

Author(s): Eleanor Selfridge-Field


Source: Early Music, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Jul., 1978), pp. 332-338
Published by: Oxford University Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3125802 .
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Vivaldi'smusichas been curiouslyservedby modern
Vivaldi S; scholarship,for despitean enormousamountof well
intended effort and a high degree of public recog-
esoteric instruments nition, a balancedand thorough impressionof the
composer'sfull statureremainselusive. This is one
reflectionthat can be made on the thirdcentenaryof
ELEANOR Vivaldi'sbirth(4 March1678).
SELFRIDGE-FIELD Becauseeditions,performancesandrecordingshave
given heavyemphasisto Vivaldi'sconcertos,so much
so that his name has become synonymousin some
minds with the solo concerto,it is little appreciated
that some important questions about even this
categoryof his oeuvreremain. Praiseand familiarity
that rest on an acquaintancewith the well-known
sonatacollection,II op. 13 (containingsix
works usually edited pastor.fido,
for cross flute) are irrelevant,
since the opus is now believedto be spurious.'Our
impressionof Vivaldi'scapabilitiesin other musical
domainstendsto be vague.Of his 48 survivingoperas,
only Laninfafidahad up to this yearbeen edited.The
current season brings four Vivaldi operas to the
stage-Farnaceat La Fenice,Venice;TitoManlioat La
Scala,Milan;Orlandofurioso underClaudioScimonein
Verona (also on record);and L'incoronazione di Dario
underNewellJenkinsfor Siena(26August)and Castel-
franco (2 September);and there is the EnglishBach
Festival'sconcertperformanceof Griselda in the Queen
Elizabeth Hall, London, this year. A New York
productionof FarnaceunderJenkins, scheduledfor
November,will be the firstmodernstagingof a Vivaldi
opera in the English-speakingworld. Apart from
Judithatriumphans (happilyservedby a facsimile,two
modern editions and at least five recordings),which
could laysome claimto beingthe finestoratorioof the
Italianbaroque,none of Vivaldi'soratorioshavecome
to the noticeof the modernpublic.Witha fewnotable
exceptions,suchas the imposingBeatusVir,Gloria, and
DixitDominus, his cantatasand the bulk of his sacred
vocalworksareknownonly to a handfulof specialists.
Given this state of affairs,it would seem that our
knowledgeof Vivaldi'sinstrumentalworksshouldrest
on relativelysecurefoundations.This is only trueto a
degree,however,for Vivaldi'smusic, havingbeen in
the vanguardof pre-Bachexplorations,began to be
revived rather sooner than standards for editing early
instrumental music became differentiated from those
pertaining to any music for orchestra. In particularthe
identification of instruments merits careful scrutiny.
Baryton byJacques Sainprae (London, Victoria& Albert Museum no. 1444-
1870). Originally having six gut and 25 wire strings, this instrument is
rumouredto have belongedto Quantz, a great admirer of Vivaldi.
the substitution of modern for ancient instruments
introduces an essential misconception which, in these
times of increasing numbers of virtuosos on authentic
instruments, it is unnecessaryto perpetuate.
Against this background it must, however, be
pointed out that even with the best intentions and
access to all the scholarly tools that have become avail-
able since 1947, the modern editor still faces some
genuine difficulties in making precise designations for
the instruments Vivaldi names. Three factors con-
tribute to this problem. The first and most funda-
mental is that Vivaldi's working years, 1700-40, corre-
sponded to a period of immense vitality and change in
instrument manufacture. Particularly among the
woodwinds there was constant revision; some of the
instruments available to Vivaldi in his last years (he
died in 1741) were quite different from those available
to him for his first works. Although stringed instru-
ments of high quality were readily available in
northern Italy, Vivaldi had to rely on Austrian and
German makers for the newer woodwinds. It is diffi-
cult to determine the date at which specific wind
instruments would first have become available to
Vivaldi, and the task of dating the Vivaldi manu-
scripts proceeds slowly anyway,3leaving the inquirer to
match variable with variable in a most uncertain way.
Portraitof AntonioVivaldi(1678-1741) engravedbyF. M. La Cave,1724.
All of this is compounded further by the fact that with
regard to works of which variants exist, it is some-
While Vivaldi was meticulous in designating instru- times the variant prepared by German pupils or
ments, the wide assortment for which he scored is not copyists that is in circulation. The resources available
alwaysportrayed accurately,that is, in accordancewith for performance in Saxony, from whence came several
what was available in early 18th-centuryVenice. of these pupils, were somewhat different from those in
Despite countless modern editions of the two war- Venice, particularly in making greater use of ripieno
horses op. 3 (containing the bulk of the concertos tran- brass and wind instruments.
scribed by Bach) and op. 8 (containing The Four Another problem is that Vivaldi's use of
Seasons),the backbone of the recorded repertory is terminology is not always certain. A new vocabulary
formed by the complete edition published by Ricordi arose with the improvement of instruments, but it did
and prepared under the guidance of Gian Francesco not emerge instantly or fully formed. Thus it is diffi-
Malipiero.2 It comprises 530 instrumental pieces. In cult to determine when a single word that at the time
the case of variant versions, the earliest is not invari- had multiple meanings refers to an instrument and
ably the one included, for the choices were based more when to a manner of playing, a special register, or
on expediency than chronology. Initiated in 1947, the some other attribute of performance. A related issue is
complete edition was geared to the instruments avail- that of differentiating notated pitch from sounding
able in the modern orchestra. A brief comparison of pitch, an ever present capacity for the doubleentendre
designations in the original sources with those in the that lurks in scores of the early 18th century.
complete edition reveals that wherever Vivaldi strayed Finally one must consider the possibility that given
from the familiar territoryof violins, flutes, oboes and his fascination with sonority, Vivaldi did not turn
bassoons, his aberrations have been set right by the exclusively to nascent instruments for unusual effects
editors with the substitution of such decidedly non- but also explored the realm of obsolescent instru-
baroque instruments as the cor anglais. Since Vivaldi ments. There are several evidences of what might be
was so intrepid an explorer of timbre and technique, termed an early music revival in Venice in the late 17th

333
and early 18th centuries, and the Venetians tended to was introduced at the conservatoire of the PietA,
persist in outmoded habits more consistently than Vivaldi's principal place of employ, in 1708. Vivaldi
their contemporaries elsewhere. Cornetts, which used the instrument to good effect injuditha (RV 644,
remained in use at St Mark'suntil nearly the end of the 1716) and in his setting of Psalm 126, 'Nisi, nisi
17th century, are the only antique instruments of Dominus' (RV 608). Heller's watermark study reveals
Vivaldi's time that he can definitely be said to have that two of the solo concertos, RV 392 and 397, are
ignored. The possibility that he scored for viols, which preserved on paper manufactured only from 1725 to
were in use at the Venetian conservatoire of the 1730. The concerto for viola d'amore and lute, RV
Mendicanti in the 1670s, and shawms, which were in 540, was written in 1740. Vivaldi's tuning for the
use generally in Venice to the end of the 17th century, instrumentwas d-a-d'-f'-a'-d". *
is distant but not invisible. Theorbos, the popularity of Vivaldi's violeall'inglesecould have been viols but are
which declined markedly after 1700, were still used in marginally more likely to have been an exotic species
Vivaldi'slast concertos. of viola d'amore, the so-called English violet. Leopold
Mozart, in his Treatiseon the FundamentalPrinciplesof
Unusual stringed instruments ViolinPlaying (1756), described the English violet as
The problems of identification for string instruments having seven ordinary gut and fourteen sympathetic
are fortunately few. The viola d'amore, for which wire strings. The additional sympathetic strings, he
Vivaldi wrote six solo concertos (RV 392-3974), was said, made it louder than the parent instrument. Its
rapidly rediscovered with the first publication of these tuning is uncertain, but it is generally believed that the
works, and although live performances are still rare, sympathetic strings were tuned in choirs that corre-
the works have avoided the fate of being corrupted to sponded in pitch to the main strings. The earliest
suit a substitute instrument. St Mark'sBasilicaengaged surviving specimen may be an instrument built in
someone to play the viola d'amore in 1689,5and one Munich in 1724 by Paul Alletsee, now in the
Boomkamp Collection in Holland.
Vivaldi's scoring for the viola all'ingleseis in some
ways quite different from his scoring for viola
d'amore. InJudithaand elsewhere the viola d'amore is
employed as a solo instrument. In contrast, the viola
all'ingleseis rarely employed singly. An ensemble of five
appear in Juditha, a group of three in the Funeral
Concerto RV 579, and two in the concerto RV 555. Only
in the score of the opera L'Incoronazione di Dario(17 17)
is one used singly. The musical style associated with the
instrument is somewhat variable but in certain cases,
especially that presented byJuditha, it is entirely con-
sistent with the Italian notion of English viol scoring.
Comparable scoring may be seen in the two sonatas
for four viols in Giovanni Legrenzi'sop. 10 (1673).6
There can be little doubt that Vivaldi's violoncello
all'inglese,featured with violin in the concerto RV 546,
must be of the same family as the violaall'inglese.There
is even a documentary reference to this species in
Coronelli, the renowned Venetian geographer and
man of letters. He wrote of a young lady at the Pietai
named Prudenza who 'with the same naturalness
A South-German orAustrian
violad'amore,1719 (London, [francheza]sings, plays the violin, and the violoncello
Victoria&dAlbertMuseumno. inglese'.'Vincenzo Coronelli'sstatement establishesthat
722-1878). Theviolad'amore we are dealing with an instrument as distinct from a
survivesin bothviol and violin style of playing. The violaall'inglesein Dario,I. xv, could
shapes-this instrument once
appropriatelybe called a violoncello because of its low
belongedto PrincebishopFranz
Antonof Salzburg * [Note: c' = middle C1

334
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Theopeningof theConcerto de Viole all'InglesefromVivaldi'sJuditha, Turin,BibliotecaNazionaleMS Foa28n. 65 276v, 277

pitch; the part could be played on a bass viol. This is a difficult to account for all the instruments once
virtuoso part, with six-note chords and a cadenza at additions and subtractionsbegin to occur.
the end of the aria. While virtuosity on the gamba was It is possible to regard the cover designation as
valued at this time, it is difficult to conclude that being in error, although it is a very curious expression
Vivaldi can have intended anything other than a that would have required conscious thought to invent.
baryton (the bass member of the English violet family) Although trumpets, as given in the modern edition,
here. By inference, then, the entire class of viole are workable (except for the double stops found later),
all'inglesewould have been English violets. This con- here it seems more likely from a linguistic point of
clusion leaves the modern performer out on a limb, view that Vivaldi really wished to call attention to a
for not only is the English violet (apart from the special manner of playing the violin. The 1740
baryton member) extinct but the nearest substitute, the concertos, presented to the Saxon Prince Friedrich
viola d'amore, is availableonly in its treble size. Christian on the occasion of his visit to Venice, gave
Comparably problematical are the two violini in Vivaldi the last opportunity he was to have to display
trombamarina mentioned on the cover only of the his ingenuity at orchestration. Given all we know of
manuscript score of the Concerto in C major RV 558, Vivaldi's own skill as a violinist and the possibility that
written in 1740. The score itself indiscriminatelygives he would have been involved in the performance of
trombefor these parts. As in countless other cases, only these works, a solution recently proposed to me by
ten staves have been used to show fifteen parts; it is Sibyl Marcuse seems quite probable. This is that

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RV558 showingtherequirementfor
Coverpageof theConcerto 'Due Violiniin
TrombaMarina'(Sdichsische MS. Mus. 2389-0-4)
Landesbibliothek, FirstpageofthescoreoftheConcerto
RV558
335
Vivaldiintendedthesepartsto be playedwitha lightly worksnot knownin variantsscoreddifferently.Nos. 1,
touched string, producing harmonics or so-called 2 ('LaNotte'),3 ('I1Gardellino'),and 6 of op. 10 are
flageolettones.The practiceof touchingthe stringbut all knownin chamberconcertoarrangements(RV98,
not actuallystoppingit was of courseassociatedwith 104,90 and 101).Op. 10, no. 4 is for transverseflute,
the single-stringtrombamarina.The earliest known whilethe versionfor transverse flutepublishedas no. 5
practical use of harmonics byJean de Mondonville in (RV 434) must havebeen written laterthana recorder
his sonatasLesSonsharrnoniques, op. 4 (1735)is entirely version,RV 442, on account of the factthatthesecond
compatible with thisview. movement of the published work has been transposed
Unusualbut not perplexingis Vivaldi'scall for a from F minor to G minor, while the firstmovement
psalteryin Giustino,II. xiv, RV 717 (Rome,1724).The remains in F major. The only solo concerto for
requiredcompass b to c"'.Three-tonechordsthat recordernot knownto havea variantis RV441. The
is
appearin thispartprobablywereto be arpeggiated. concertoRV533 is for twotransverse flutes.
Among the concerticalling multiplesoloistsRV
for
Unusualwoodwinddesignations 104 and 570 (both variantsof op. 10, nos. 2 and 1)
Two generalpoints about the repertorythat involves seem to requirecross flute, as would the B0 Sinfonia
wind instrumentsshould be made. First,some of the RV 162. In the companyof oboes and bassoon,flute
ripieno wind and brass parts in Vivaldi'sconcertos may seem an appropriatechoice to the modern
appearonly in the Dresdenmanuscripts,not in the concerto-goer,but 20th-centuryconcepts of timbre
more numerousTurin sources. These works could familieshave a short lineage.The recorderseems to
originally have been written with a purely string have been Vivaldi'schoice in at least seven of the
orchestrain mind, for as a performerVivaldi'sexperi- chamberconcerti(whichare scoredfor violin, 'flute',
ence was with strings and except for bassoon, the and bassoon,sometimeswithaddedoboe): RV87, 92,
stapletwelve-pieceorchestraat the Pietaseemsto have 94, 95, 101, 103, and 105.Two recordersare among
been a stringone. It should also be recognizedthat the solo instrumentsusedwithdoubleorchestrain the
manyworksthat featuresolo wind and brassinstru- concerto RV 577, and four are requiredin another
mentsstillrelyon violinsforvirtuosity. double-orchestra concerto,RV585.
Second,the matterof distinguishingbetweenflute Even in his use of the recorder,Vivaldiwas not
and recorderwas largelyignoreduntilrecently.'Flute' quick to explore its possibilities.His earliestuse of it
is given indiscriminatelyin most modern editions, seemsto haveoccurredduringhis three-yearresidence
while it appears that up to 1725 or thereabout in Mantua(c1718-21),althoughrecorderswereusedin
wasa recorder.Butmakingchoicesfor Venetian chamber music before this. Benedetto
Vivaldi's.flauto
individualworksis difficult,both becausemanyworks Marcello'ssonatas for the instrument,op. 2, had
remainundatedand becausemany works originally appearedin 1712. Vivaldiemployedtenor recorders
writtenfor recorderwererevisedby Vivaldihimselfto (flautigrossi)in his operasTitoManlio(RV738)of 1719
accommodate cross flute. In several cases both and Laveritdin cimento (RV739),producedin Venicein
versions,scoredfor 'flute',are in circulation.Happily, 1720.
Ryom'scatalogueis quite specificin designatingsolo Although the one-keyed cross flute has been
partscarefully. proposed as one meaningof Vivaldi'sterm
.flautino,8
Among the 'flute'sonatas,RV 48-51 are for trans- Lasocki's closely argued case for the use of the
verseinstruments,whileRV52 is a recorderwork.The sopraninorecorderin the concertosRV 443 and 444
six 'flute'concertipublishedas op. 10 (c1728)were suits these workswell.9The writtencompassin both
broughttogetherfor the convenienceof the publisher worksis c'-f"'. Moreperplexingis the flautinopart in
Le Cenefrom miscellaneousearlierworks.In fact,of the concertoRV 445, in whichthe lowestwrittennote
fifteenVivaldiconcertosreckonedby Ryomto be for is e. No instrumentthat meritsa diminutiveending
cross flute (RV 426-40), there are only six complete could accommodate such a part, suggesting the pos-

:""F:;'?
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"
???
: n~ir
k
I??c;a'a:..lc~

Italiantreblerecorder,
earlyormid-18thcentury.Theveneeris of tortoise-shell
withgoldpique'andmother-of-pearl
inlay.Thisinstrument
wasonceownedby
Rossini(London,Victoria&rAlbertMuseumno. 1124-1869)

336
sibility that the part was simply notated at a :on-
venient pitch and played higher.
CONCERTI .
Argumentsagainstthe flageoletas an appropriate
choice for flautino focus on customary usage of the Suonati: dallo liglie de4 Pio Ospitale dellaPiet'i
"avar,ti
term flautino. There is no specific documentary R EALE
evidence for the use of the flageolet in Venice, even -SUAAALTEZZA
among Vivaldi's well-known treasure trove of rare F DERICQ .CHRISTIANO -
instruments. However, an anonymous aria found in
the same manuscriptwith Juditha(Turin National
d Pooi
L.IS ElrlSafson'a.
Library,Fod 28, ff. 104-6) contains parts for two.flasolet
requiring a compass of g'-f"'.'0 Several chromatic diP'D.An to
: oV•n
notes (c#, ft, bio)are used. If Vivaldi or his contem- Maetira de Coarti -o.i•Jr- sr~ett;o .
dddI'OJtitale
. ,e' CI'(J?•
hl d, /
fill"/ '//If •f "•/4, o
r7

poraries knew the flageolet as a.flasolet,it is certain he


could have designated it appropriately in instru-
mental pieces. Title-pageof the last collectionof his concertos
assembledduring Vivaldi's
lifetime(SichsischeLandesbibliothek,Dresden)
Vivaldi's clarenrepresents the difficult problem of
determining whether he was referring to an instru- limited extent by a number of 18th-century com-
ment or a register. If the context were known to be the posers, had a compass of an eleventh, which is too
trumpet, then clarencould be taken as an indication of restrictive for some of Vivaldi's scoring. Surviving
the upper register. But Vivaldi's context in the two C specimens of descant clarinets made by J. C. Denner
major concertos RV 559 and 560 is string orchestra (d 1707) givef as a lowest note and can ascend to c"'.
with two oboes, and some species of early clarinet This kind of instrument could accommodate the
seems the most likely choice. Scoring for the clarenis compass d'-c'" found in the single salmoeparts of the
stepwise melodically and graceful rhythmically, 'Funeral Concerto', RV 579 (possibly written in c 1719)
suggesting a reed rather than a brass instrument. and d'-g" in the concerto RV 555. The more limited
In the concertos RV 559 and 560 the written compass b' flat-b"flat found in the salmodobbligato of
compass of the two clarini,which absent themselves in Judithareminds us that B flat was more easily obtained
excursions outside the principal key, is c'-c"'.A unison than B natural on the early two-keyed clarinet." A
part for two in Juditha is confined to notes of distinctly lower compass, G-e', in the paired salmod
.clarini
the major scale between b' flat and b" flat. The parts in the concerto RV 558 (1740) could have been
presence of a cue for 'clarinetti' in the basso continuo intended to exhibit the then new bass member of the
of the 'San Lorenzo' concerto, RV 556, which happens clarinet family."
to call for two clarini(compassg-c"'),could be the later Etymology also does not exclude the simple shawm
addition of a performer (although the work is an auto- as a possible equivalent for the bass salmodrequired in
graph). The slow movement can be regarded as little juditha and RV 579. As late as 1724 St Mark's Basilica
more than a sketch, if one takes seriously its copious added a bombard player to its orchestra,13so that
list of intended instruments:a clarinosolo,arpeggios on instrumentshould have been known to Vivaldi.
the lute, a cello, a pizzicato violin, and 'tutti li bassi' Vivaldi's sparing use of brass instruments causes
are called for, but the only written obbligato parts are very little perplexity apart from his call for paired
for violin and cello. The large number of chromatic trombonida cacciain Orlando.finto pazzo(RV 727; 1714)
notes and the downward extension of the compass to and in the concerto RV 574 (1725-30). These must
e flat were, according to present information, un- have been lower pitched relatives of the 18th-century
obtainable on any instrument of the clarinet family trombada caccia,which was pitched in F. B natural and
available to Vivaldi. B flat are used more freely than in horn literature of
Coupled with the problem of the claren is the the time, but among modern equivalents there seems
problem of the salm3or salmod,because at face value to be little alternativeto the horn.
one would take it, too, to represent an early species of The judicious reader will by now have realized that
clarinet, but Vivaldi did not use the terms clarenand very few of the problems discussed have been resolved.
salmodinterchangeably. The salmodwas undoubtedly It is hoped that their airing will encourage performers
known in various sizes, for its registervaries from work with the appropriate resources to explore the alter-
to work. The folk chalumeau,which was used to a native possibilities to which most of these questions

337
can be reduced and to report on the results of their 4 RV Ryom Verzeichnis. For a discussion of the other systems for
efforts. Used in that way, the tricentenaryprovides an identifying Vivaldi's works see E. Selfridge-Field, Venetian
Instrumental Musicfrom Gabrielito Vivaldi(Oxford, 1975), pp. 223-5.
opportunity which was not available to recent genera- Ryom's catalogue gives concordances with the Pincherle, Rinaldi
tions of Vivaldi enthusiasts and which, if it succeeds in and Fanna systems and with the Ricordi edition. These concord-
ances have also been published separatelyby Ryom, AntonioVivaldi:
bringing new sonorities to a repertory generally Table de concordancesdes oeuvres (RV) (Copenhagen, 1973).
thought to be well known, will have been used in a Concordances for the works cited here are given at the conclusion of
most worthwhile way. the footnotes.
5 Selfridge-Field, op cit, p. 304.
I The volume was published in Paris in c 1737 by Mme Boivin for 6 Modern edition by RaffaeleCumar (Milan, 1965).
'Musette, Viele, Flite, Hautbois, [ou] Violon', but its authenticity 7 Guidade'forestieriperle cittddi Venezia(Venice, 1706),p. 21.
has been questioned by Peter Ryom, Verzeichnis der WerkeAntonio 8 Dale Higbee, 'Michel Corrette on the Piccolo and Speculations
Vivaldis,KleineAusgabe(Leipzig, 1974), pp. 151 and 213, on the Regarding Vivaldi's "Flautino" ', GalpinSocietyJournal, XVII (1964).
ground that many of the movements seem to be reworkings of 9 David Lasocki, 'Vivaldi and the Recorder', TheAmericanRecorder,
concerto movements by Vivaldi, Alberti and Meck. IX (1968), p. 104.
2 Milan, 1947-71. Substantial though it is, the edition is not 10 I am grateful to Dr Michael Talbot for calling my attention to this
complete, partly because it contains no vocal works and partly work.
because around 50 new instrumentalpieces were discovered after the " The early history of the clarinet is well treated in F. Geoffrey
edition was commissioned. These later instrumental pieces are Rendall, TheClarinet,3rd edn. rev. by Philip Bate (London, 1971),
itemized in the Appendix to Antonio Fanna, Catalogonumerico- pp. 64-77.
tematicodelleoperestrumentali
di AntonioVivaldi(Milan, 1968), which is 12 J. H. Van der Meer, 'The Chalmueau Problem', GalpinSociety
the official guide to the Ricordi edition; Ryom, 'A propos de Journal, XV (1962), 91, chooses to consider this a tenor chalumeau
l'inventaire des oeuvres d'Antonio Vivaldi: Etude critique des part written an octave lower than sounded, but he presents little
catalogues et de nouvelles decouvertes (48 manuscrits inconnus)', rationale for his argument.
Vivaldiana,I (1969); Ryom, Verzeichnis,pp. 209-12; and Michael The suggestion, loc cit, that cues reading 'Grande Bassone solo' in
Talbot, 'Some Overlooked MSS in Manchester', MusicalTimes,CXV the continuo of RV 576 refer to a bass chalumeau is difficult to
(1974). support. These cues occur whenever thefagottoexercises its concertino
Instrumentalpieces not represented in the Ricordi edition include function (for example, to accompany the horn duo in Bars 13-15
a Sinfonia in G (RV 147), ed. Talbot (Copenhagen, 1972), and the and the oboe solo in Bars 21-4) and no other accompaniment is
twelve Manchester sonatas by Vivaldi (RV 754-760 et al.) ed. Talbot shown. As such its primary purpose seems to have been to keep the
(Madison, Wisconsin, 1977). keyboard player informed of changes in continuo responsibility.
3 The principal sources on the dates of Vivaldi's works are Karl 'Grande' might suggest the contrabassoon as opposed to the simple
Heller, Die deutsche Oberlieferungder InstrumentalwerkeVivaldis bassoon while 'Bassone' strictlymeant any large bass instrument.
(Leipzig, 1971), and Ryom, Les Manuscritsde Vivaldi(Copenhagen, 13 Selfridge-Field,p. 307.
1977).

Concordances for works mentioned in the article


Ryom(RV) Pincherle Fanna Ryom(RV) Pincherle Fanna Ryom(RV) Pincherle Fanna
48 - XV:3 395a - II:3 444 78 VI:5
49 Son. 7/9 XV:5 396 233 II:1 445 83 VI:9
50 - XV:6* 397 37 11:6 533 76 VI:2
51 - - 426 - VI:17* 540 266 XII:38
52 Son. 7/10 XV:4 427 203 VI:3 546 238 IV:6
87 81 XII:30 428 155 VI:14 555 87 XII:23
90 155 XII:9 429 205 VI:10 556 84 XII:14
92 198 XII:7 430 - - 558 16 XII:37
94 207 XII:25 431 139 - 559 74 XII:2
95 204 XII:29 432 142 - 560 73 XII:1
98 - - 433 261 VI:12 566 297 XII:31
101 - XII:13 434 262 - 570 - XII:28
103 402 XII:4 435 104 VI:15 574 319 XII:18
104 - XII:5 436 140 VI:8 576 359 XII:33
105 403 XII:20 437 105 VI:16 577 383 XII:3
147 Sinf. 6 - 438 118, 141 VI:6 579 385 XII:12
162 Sinf. 11 XII:44 439 342 VI:13 585 226 XII:48
392 166 11:5 440 80 VI:7
393 289 11:4 441 440 VI:11
394 288 11:2 - VI:1 * Work is
442 represented in the Fanna
395 287 - 443 79 VI:4 catalogue but not in the Ricordi edition.