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instruments ELEANOR SELFRIDGE-FIELD Vivaldi'smusichas been curiouslyservedby modern for scholarship.Vivaldi esoteric S. this instrument is rumouredto have belongedto Quantz.Of his 48 surviving operas.Venice. Victoria& Albert Museum no.II op. London. This is one of reflectionthat can be made on the thirdcentenary birth(4 March1678).The current season brings four Vivaldi operas to the at at stage-Farnace La Fenice. scheduledfor productionof Farnace will November. Vivaldi's and have Because editions. cantatas and the bulk of his sacred vocalworksareknownonly to a handfulof specialists. Praiseand familiarity categoryof his oeuvre with the well-known that rest on an acquaintance six sonatacollection. could laysome claimto beingthe finestoratorioof the Italianbaroque.Milan.fido.Tito Manlio La under Scala. and Vir. a great admirer of Vivaldi. In particularthe identification of instruments merits careful scrutiny. 13 (containing pastor.Witha fewnotable suchas the imposingBeatus Gloria. a balancedand thorough impressionof the composer'sfull statureremainselusive. exceptions.it is little appreciated that some important questions about even this remain. . since the opus is now believedto be spurious. Baryton byJacques Sainprae (London. had only Laninfafida up to this yearbeen edited. Given this state of affairs. havingbeen in the vanguardof pre-Bachexplorations. Originally having six gut and 25 wire strings. 14441870).it would seem that our of instrumental worksshouldrest knowledge Vivaldi's This is only trueto a on relatively securefoundations. be the firstmodernstagingof a Vivaldi world.and L'incoronazione and underNewell Jenkinsfor Siena(26August) Casteland franco (2 September).for Vivaldi'smusic.performances recordings to Vivaldi's concertos.so much given heavyemphasis so that his name has become synonymousin some minds with the solo concerto. there is the EnglishBach in of concertperformance Griselda the Queen Festival's Elizabeth Hall. Apart from opera in the English-speaking (happilyservedby a facsimile. A New York underJenkins.none of Vivaldi's oratorios havecome to the noticeof the modernpublic.'Our in impressionof Vivaldi'scapabilities other musical domainstendsto be vague. this year. despitean enormousamountof well intended effort and a high degree of public recognition.began to be revived rather sooner than standards for editing early instrumental music became differentiated from those pertaining to any music for orchestra. degree. works usually edited for cross flute) are irrelevant.two Judithatriumphans which modern editions and at least five recordings).Orlandofurioso ClaudioScimonein di Dario Verona (also on record).however. his DixitDominus.
his aberrations have been set right by the editors with the substitution of such decidedly nonbaroque instruments as the cor anglais. a special register.that is. A related issue is that of differentiating notated pitch from sounding pitch. corresponded to a period of immense vitality and change in instrument manufacture.2 It comprises 530 instrumental pieces. M. were somewhat different from those in Venice. and the task of dating the Vivaldi manuscripts proceeds slowly anyway. Despite countless modern editions of the two warhorses op. or some other attribute of performance. the substitution of modern for ancient instruments introduces an essential misconception which.Portrait Antonio Vivaldi(1678-1741) engraved F. particularly in making greater use of ripieno brass and wind instruments. be pointed out that even with the best intentions and access to all the scholarly tools that have become available since 1947. Although stringed instruments of high quality were readily available in northern Italy. In the case of variant versions. in accordancewith what was available in early 18th-centuryVenice. Initiated in 1947. Particularly among the woodwinds there was constant revision. the wide assortment for which he scored is not alwaysportrayed accurately. by of While Vivaldi was meticulous in designating instruments. flutes. oboes and bassoons. Three factors contribute to this problem. for the choices were based more on expediency than chronology. All of this is compounded further by the fact that with regard to works of which variants exist. It is difficult to determine the date at which specific wind instruments would first have become available to Vivaldi. There are several evidences of what might be termed an early music revival in Venice in the late 17th 333 . an ever present capacity for the doubleentendre that lurks in scores of the early 18th century. The resources available for performance in Saxony. it is unnecessaryto perpetuate. but it did not emerge instantly or fully formed. Vivaldi had to rely on Austrian and German makers for the newer woodwinds. La Cave. however.the backbone of the recorded repertory is formed by the complete edition published by Ricordi and prepared under the guidance of Gian Francesco Malipiero. Another problem is that Vivaldi's use of terminology is not always certain. 8 (containing The Four Seasons). the modern editor still faces some genuine difficulties in making precise designations for the instruments Vivaldi names. Finally one must consider the possibility that given his fascination with sonority. 1700-40. the earliest is not invariably the one included. the complete edition was geared to the instruments available in the modern orchestra. Against this background it must. A new vocabulary arose with the improvement of instruments. Thus it is difficult to determine when a single word that at the time had multiple meanings refers to an instrument and when to a manner of playing. some of the instruments available to Vivaldi in his last years (he died in 1741) were quite different from those available to him for his first works. A brief comparison of designations in the original sources with those in the complete edition reveals that wherever Vivaldi strayed from the familiar territoryof violins. Since Vivaldi was so intrepid an explorer of timbre and technique. in these times of increasing numbers of virtuosos on authentic instruments.1724. The first and most fundamental is that Vivaldi's working years. from whence came several of these pupils. 3 (containing the bulk of the concertos transcribed by Bach) and op.3leaving the inquirer to match variable with variable in a most uncertain way. it is sometimes the variant prepared by German pupils or copyists that is in circulation. Vivaldi did not turn exclusively to nascent instruments for unusual effects but also explored the realm of obsolescent instruments.
I. The possibility that he scored for viols. and the violoncello [francheza] Vincenzo Coronelli'sstatement establishesthat inglese'. all'inglese. The violaall'inglese Dario. described the English violet as having seven ordinary gut and fourteen sympathetic wire strings. were still used in Vivaldi'slast concertos. which remained in use at St Mark'suntil nearly the end of the 17th century. In contrast. InJudithaand elsewhere the viola d'amore is employed as a solo instrument. the renowned Venetian geographer and man of letters. plays the violin. but it is generally believed that the sympathetic strings were tuned in choirs that corresponded in pitch to the main strings. 1716) and in his setting of Psalm 126. he said. Vivaldi's principal place of employ. The additional sympathetic strings. are preserved on paper manufactured only from 1725 to 1730. the works have avoided the fate of being corrupted to suit a substitute instrument. which were in use generally in Venice to the end of the 17th century. RV 540. are the only antique instruments of Vivaldi's time that he can definitely be said to have ignored. could appropriatelybe called a violoncello because of its low * [Note: c' = middle C1 334 . Victoria Albert &d 722-1878). is even a documentary reference to this species in Coronelli. which were in use at the Venetian conservatoire of the Mendicanti in the 1670s. was rapidly rediscovered with the first publication of these works. Comparable scoring may be seen in the two sonatas for four viols in Giovanni Legrenzi'sop. xv. Only di in the score of the opera L'Incoronazione Dario(17 17) is one used singly. The viola d'amore. was written in 1740. in his Treatise the Fundamental of Principles ViolinPlaying (1756). especially that presented byJuditha. Theorbos. 10 (1673).6 There can be little doubt that Vivaldi's violoncello featured with violin in the concerto RV 546. nisi Dominus' (RV 608). is distant but not invisible. Theviolad'amore survives bothviol and violin in once shapes-this instrument to Franz belonged Princebishop Antonof Salzburg was introduced at the conservatoire of the PietA. Vivaldi used the instrument to good effect injuditha (RV 644. * could have been viols but are Vivaldi's violeall'inglese more likely to have been an exotic species marginally of viola d'amore. Vivaldi's tuning for the instrumentwas d-a-d'-f'-a'-d". 1719 (London. is Vivaldi's scoring for the viola all'inglese in some ways quite different from his scoring for viola d'amore. Museum no. He wrote of a young lady at the Pietai named Prudenza who 'with the same naturalness sings. Leopold on Mozart. and two in the concerto RV 555. An ensemble of five appear in Juditha.and early 18th centuries. made it louder than the parent instrument.' we are dealing with an instrument as distinct from a in style of playing. and shawms. it is entirely consistent with the Italian notion of English viol scoring. a group of three in the Funeral RV Concerto 579. and the Venetians tended to persist in outmoded habits more consistently than their contemporaries elsewhere. Heller's watermark study reveals that two of the solo concertos.5and one Unusual stringed instruments A South-German Austrian or violad'amore. The problems of identification for string instruments are fortunately few. Cornetts. The earliest surviving specimen may be an instrument built in Munich in 1724 by Paul Alletsee. for which Vivaldi wrote six solo concertos (RV 392-3974). The musical style associated with the instrument is somewhat variable but in certain cases. and although live performances are still rare. the popularity of which declined markedly after 1700. There must be of the same family as the violaall'inglese. now in the Boomkamp Collection in Holland. 'Nisi. RV 392 and 397. the viola is all'inglese rarely employed singly. the so-called English violet. The concerto for viola d'amore and lute. in 1708. St Mark'sBasilicaengaged someone to play the viola d'amore in 1689. Its tuning is uncertain.
.. with six-note chords and a cadenza at the end of the aria. P14 1 AX"'" 11- " ? -..... 16%1.. the viola d'amore. As in countless other cases... . although it is a very curious expression that would have required conscious thought to invent. By inference. is availableonly in its treble size. -Flu Ira.. 65 276v. ? •i +i-----?.. Although trumpets... Theopening theConcerto de Viole all'InglesefromVivaldi's Biblioteca MS of Nazionale Foa28n. then. This conall'inglese clusion leaves the modern performer out on a limb... .. The 1740 concertos. . written in 1740. as given in the modern edition. ?4. pitch. ~-ON •][.. are workable (except for the double stops found later)... i :i ii=. . It is possible to regard the cover designation as being in error..:)tT~ RV5 the Cover in 'Due pageof theConcerto 58 showing requirementfor Violini Tromba MS. ... •.. . ?. . the part could be played on a bass viol. .... .. . . gave Vivaldi the last opportunity he was to have to display his ingenuity at orchestration. Marina' (Sdichsische Landesbibliothek.~ :j ~ t() r~~t~i: kv 'lu til 004 S-pop. presented to the Saxon Prince Friedrich Christian on the occasion of his visit to Venice... . The score itself indiscriminatelygives trombe these parts... Comparably problematical are the two violini in trombamarina mentioned on the cover only of the manuscript score of the Concerto in C major RV 558. Given all we know of Vivaldi's own skill as a violinist and the possibility that he would have been involved in the performance of these works... . a solution recently proposed to me by Sibyl Marcuse seems quite probable..- ? . only for ten staves have been used to show fifteen parts..... . . it is difficult to account for all the instruments once additions and subtractionsbegin to occur... ..+-:=---•- .+. 2389-0-4) First ofthescore theConcerto RV558 page of 335 .. the entire class of viole would have been English violets. .. . 1ti~ ~F J 4t. 277 Juditha. TIMM ?11 ..-. " S.. . it is difficult to conclude that Vivaldi can have intended anything other than a baryton (the bass member of the English violet family) here... This is a virtuoso part.. Mus. -..~~ ...... for not only is the English violet (apart from the baryton member) extinct but the nearest substitute.....W V-4-: . . While virtuosity on the gamba was valued at this time. . here it seems more likely from a linguistic point of view that Vivaldi really wished to call attention to a special manner of playing the violin.. Turin. This is that C:ali't P" 4'.-.
In the companyof oboes and bassoon. First. and four are requiredin another many double-orchestra concerto. seemsto haveoccurred duringhis three-year wereusedin (c while it appears that up to 1725 or thereabout in Mantua 1718-21). althoughrecorders But wasa recorder. had individual works remainundatedand becausemany works originally appearedin 1712.The practice touchingthe stringbut all knownin chamberconcertoarrangements 98.the matterof distinguishing His 'Flute' quick to explore its possibilities. Happily. It should also be recognizedthat the solo instruments withdoubleorchestra the worksthat featuresolo wind and brassinstru.3 ('I1Gardellino'). both becausemanyworks Marcello'ssonatas for the instrument. Moreperplexingis the flautino in the concertoRV 445.1724). No instrumentthat meritsa diminutiveending cross flute (RV 426-40).'? :: : n~ir I??c.The sopraninorecorderin the concertosRV 443 and 444 whileRV52 is a recorder verseinstruments.chamberconcerti(whichare scoredfor violin. 103. 95.producedin Venicein versions.RV585. for as a performer experi.The remains in F major.op. RV 717 (Rome. concertoRV533 is for twotransverse wereto be arpeggiated. The requiredcompass flutes. Vivaldiemployedtenor recorders in (RV wererevisedby Vivaldihimselfto (flauti writtenfor recorder grossi) his operasTito Manlio 738)of 1719 in (RV accommodate cross flute. was residence in is given indiscriminately most modern editions.a'a:. scoreddifferently. by no.flautois difficult. in psaltery Giustino.RV442. In several cases both and Laveritd cimento 739). These works could familieshave a short lineage. as would the B0 Sinfonia Two generalpoints about the repertory should be made. ormid-18thcentury.Op.sometimes are at orchestra the Pietaseemsto have 94. makingchoicesfor Venetian chamber music before this. 101. with 104. Benedetto Vivaldi's. 4 is for transverse not actuallystoppingit was of courseassociated flute. ence was with strings and except for bassoon. and 105.The recorderseems to originally have been written with a purely string have been Vivaldi'schoice in at least seven of the Vivaldi's in orchestra mind. parts .concerto RV 577. 2 and 1) woodwinddesignations Unusual that involves seem to requirecross flute.. in the concerto-goer.flute wind instruments ripieno wind and brass parts in Vivaldi'sconcertos may seem an appropriatechoice to the modern not concepts of timbre appearonly in the Dresdenmanuscripts. suggesting the pos:""F:.Nos. there are only six complete could accommodate such a part.lc~ ~-a~~i :: " ??? k Italiantreble is with and The was recorder.of Le Cenefrom miscellaneous fifteenVivaldiconcertosreckonedby Ryomto be for is e. 1720. as flute marina.but 20th-century more numerousTurin sources. 10 are (RV of flageolettones. veneer of tortoise-shell goldpique' mother-of-pearl Thisinstrument onceowned early inlay.In fact. Vivaldiintendedthesepartsto be playedwitha lightly worksnot knownin variants and touched string.RV 48-51 are for trans.Vivaldiwas not betweenflute Second.are in circulation.8 Among the 'flute'sonatas. six 'flute'concertipublishedas op. no. nos. the and bassoon. 6 of op. 1. op. Museum 1124-1869) Rossini Victoria Albert (London. withaddedoboe): RV87. 5 the single-stringtromba in (RV434) musthavebeenwrittenlaterthana recorder use by practical of harmonics Jean de Mondonville 4 (1735)is entirely version.9The writtencompassin both of part broughttogetherfor the convenience the publisher worksis c'-f"'.scoredfor 'flute'.Two recorders among stapletwelve-piece in used been a stringone. producing harmonics or so-called 2 ('LaNotte'). earliestuse of it and recorder largelyignoreduntilrecently. 'flute'. Even in his use of the recorder. compatible Unusualbut not perplexingis Vivaldi'scall for a from F minor to G minor. solo is quite specificin designating Although the one-keyed cross flute has been Ryom'scatalogue proposedas one meaningof Vivaldi'sterm carefully.flautino.some of the RV 162. 10. The earliest known whilethe versionfor transverse published no. The only solo concerto for is b to c"'. in whichthe lowestwrittennote earlierworks. 92.90 and 101).Three-tonechordsthat recordernot knownto havea variantis RV441. 10. 10 (c1728)were suits these workswell. mentsstillrelyon violinsforvirtuosity. appearin thispartprobably the concerticallingfor multiplesoloistsRV Among 104 and 570 (both variantsof op. while the firstmovement II. xiv. 2. on accountof the factthatthesecond his sonatasLesSons harrnoniques. workhas been transposed movementof the published withthisview. &r 336 .Lasocki's closely argued case for the use of the work.
These must have been lower pitched relatives of the 18th-century tromba caccia. RV 556. The folk chalumeau.13so that instrumentshould have been known to Vivaldi. too. ff. Vivaldi's clarenrepresents the difficult problem of determining whether he was referring to an instrument or a register. (Sichsische Dresden) lifetime limited extent by a number of 18th-century composers.IS ElrlSafson'a. even among Vivaldi's well-known treasure trove of rare instruments. There is no specific documentary evidence for the use of the flageolet in Venice.i•Jr. which happens to call for two clarini (compassg-c"'). sibility that the part was simply notated at a :onArguments againstthe flageoletas an appropriate CONCERTI ALTEZZA -SUAA . unobtainable on any instrument of the clarinet family available to Vivaldi. hl diP'D. RV 579 (possibly written in c 1719) and d'-g" in the concerto RV 555.'0 Several chromatic notes (c#.arpeggios on the lute. The slow movement can be regarded as little more than a sketch.ti R EALE the same manuscriptwith Juditha(Turin National Library. 104-6) contains parts for two. bio)are used. If the context were known to be the could be taken as an indication of trumpet. The salmodwas undoubtedly known in various sizes. B natural and da B flat are used more freely than in horn literature of the time. a pizzicato violin. The large number of chromatic notes and the downward extension of the compass to e flat were. dddI'OJtitale o •f "•/4.e' d.finto da pazzo(RV 727. but the only written obbligato parts are for violin and cello. suggesting a reed rather than a brass instrument. But Vivaldi's context in the two C major concertos RV 559 and 560 is string orchestra with two oboes. Vivaldi's sparing use of brass instruments causes very little perplexity apart from his call for paired tromboni cacciain Orlando. C. and 'tutti li bassi' are called for.venient pitch and played higher.flasolet. However.Fod 28.it is certain he could have designated it appropriately in instrumental pieces. Coupled with the problem of the claren is the because at face value problem of the salm3or salmod. in the paired salmod parts in the concerto RV 558 (1740) could have been intended to exhibit the then new bass member of the clarinet family. r7 assembled Title-pageof the last collection his concertos of during Vivaldi's Landesbibliothek.could be the later addition of a performer (although the work is an autograph). The judicious reader will by now have realized that very few of the problems discussed have been resolved.sr~ett.flasolet requiring a compass of g'-f"'. As late as 1724 St Mark's Basilica juditha added a bombard player to its orchestra.An to n : oV• Coarti fill"/ / '//If -o. is c'-c"'. according to present information. G-e'. to represent an early species of one clarinet. for its registervaries from work to work. 1714) and in the concerto RV 574 (1725-30). . an anonymous aria found in Suonati: dallo liglie de4Pio Ospitale dellaPiet'i "avar. if one takes seriously its copious list of intended instruments:a clarino solo." A distinctly lower compass. which was used to a F DERICQ . but Vivaldi did not use the terms clarenand salmodinterchangeably. would take it.which absent themselves in excursions outside the principal key. If Vivaldi or his contemporaries knew the flageolet as a.which was pitched in F. This kind of instrument could accommodate the compass d'-c'" found in the single salmoeparts of the 'Funeral Concerto'." Etymology also does not exclude the simple shawm as a possible equivalent for the bass salmod required in and RV 579. had a compass of an eleventh. ft. The presence of a cue for 'clarinetti' in the basso continuo of the 'San Lorenzo' concerto. a cello. choice for flautino focus on customary usage of the term flautino. In the concertos RV 559 and 560 the written compass of the two clarini. de MaetiraCI'(J?• .CHRISTIANO d Pooi L. It is hoped that their airing will encourage performers with the appropriate resources to explore the alternative possibilities to which most of these questions 337 . and some species of early clarinet seems the most likely choice. but among modern equivalents there seems to be little alternativeto the horn. Surviving specimens of descant clarinets made by J. Denner (d 1707) givef as a lowest note and can ascend to c"'. then claren the upper register.o .clarini the major scale between b' flat and b" flat. Scoring for the clarenis stepwise melodically and graceful rhythmically.A unison in Juditha is confined to notes of part for two . The more limited compass b' flat-b"flat found in the salmod obbligato of reminds us that B flat was more easily obtained Juditha than B natural on the early two-keyed clarinet. which is too restrictive for some of Vivaldi's scoring.
rev. 'A propos de l'inventaire des oeuvres d'Antonio Vivaldi: Etude critique des catalogues et de nouvelles decouvertes (48 manuscrits inconnus)'. 223-5. will have been used in a most worthwhile way. Rendall. Vivaldiana. 1971). 10 I am grateful to Dr Michael Talbot for calling my attention to this work. Concordances for works mentioned in the article Ryom(RV) 48 Pincherle Fanna XV:3 Ryom(RV) 395a Pincherle - Fanna II:3 Ryom(RV) 444 Pincherle 78 Fanna VI:5 49 50 51 52 87 90 92 94 95 98 101 103 104 105 147 162 Son. Selfridge-Field. Ryom. on the ground that many of the movements seem to be reworkings of concerto movements by Vivaldi. Ryom's catalogue gives concordances with the Pincherle. Geoffrey 3rd edn.) ed. but its authenticity has been questioned by Peter Ryom. These concordances have also been published separatelyby Ryom.I (1969). 'Grande' might suggest the contrabassoon as opposed to the simple bassoon while 'Bassone' strictlymeant any large bass instrument. Talbot (Madison. As such its primary purpose seems to have been to keep the keyboard player informed of changes in continuo responsibility. These cues occur whenever thefagottoexercises its concertino function (for example. 'Michel Corrette on the Piccolo and Speculations XVII (1964). Regarding Vivaldi's "Flautino" '. the tricentenaryprovides an opportunity which was not available to recent generations of Vivaldi enthusiasts and which. and the twelve Manchester sonatas by Vivaldi (RV 754-760 et al. pp. 'Vivaldi and the Recorder'. pp. Hautbois. 104. Viele. to accompany the horn duo in Bars 13-15 and the oboe solo in Bars 21-4) and no other accompaniment is shown. 5 Selfridge-Field. TheClarinet. 91.KleineAusgabe(Leipzig. by Philip Bate (London. 21. Les Manuscrits Vivaldi(Copenhagen. partly because it contains no vocal works and partly because around 50 new instrumentalpieces were discovered after the edition was commissioned. Verzeichnis. loc cit. I The volume was published in Paris in c 1737 by Mme Boivin for 'Musette. 9 David Lasocki. identifying Vivaldi's works see E. and Ryom. 209-12. 1947-71. 'The Chalmueau Problem'.p. Wisconsin. 1972). Die deutsche Oberlieferung de (Leipzig. 12 J. 64-77. Ryom. For a discussion of the other systems for 4 RV Ryom Verzeichnis. Used in that way. 1977). The suggestion. pp. TheAmerican IX (1968). 1706). XV (1962). Substantial though it is. Antonio Vivaldi: Table de concordancesdes oeuvres (RV) (Copenhagen. Venetian Instrumental Music to from Gabrieli Vivaldi(Oxford. 1974). 7/10 81 155 198 207 204 402 403 Sinf. Galpin SocietyJournal. 11 XV:5 XV:6* XV:4 XII:30 XII:9 XII:7 XII:25 XII:29 XII:13 XII:4 XII:5 XII:20 XII:44 396 397 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 233 37 - II:1 11:6 VI:17* VI:3 VI:14 VI:10 VI:12 VI:15 VI:8 VI:16 VI:6 VI:13 445 533 540 546 555 556 558 559 560 566 570 574 576 577 579 585 83 76 266 238 87 84 16 74 73 297 319 359 383 385 226 VI:9 VI:2 XII:38 IV:6 XII:23 XII:14 XII:37 XII:2 XII:1 XII:31 XII:28 XII:18 XII:33 XII:3 XII:12 XII:48 203 155 205 139 142 261 262 104 140 105 118. 1971). ed. Flite. Recorder. MusicalTimes. 1977).can be reduced and to report on the results of their efforts. which is the official guide to the Ricordi edition. Instrumentalpieces not represented in the Ricordi edition include a Sinfonia in G (RV 147). Talbot (Copenhagen. if it succeeds in bringing new sonorities to a repertory generally thought to be well known. Catalogonumericodelleopere di tematico strumentali Antonio Vivaldi(Milan. Rinaldi and Fanna systems and with the Ricordi edition. 1965). * Work is . H. and Michael pp. Talbot. GalpinSociety Journal. " The early history of the clarinet is well treated in F. per 7 Guidade'forestieri le cittddi Venezia 8 Dale Higbee. These later instrumental pieces are itemized in the Appendix to Antonio Fanna. chooses to consider this a tenor chalumeau part written an octave lower than sounded. 1968).CXV (1974). 304. 1973). Concordances for the works cited here are given at the conclusion of the footnotes. 7/9 Son. 307.p. (Venice. [ou] Violon'. but he presents little rationale for his argument. Verzeichnis WerkeAntonio der Vivaldis. that cues reading 'Grande Bassone solo' in the continuo of RV 576 refer to a bass chalumeau is difficult to support. 3 The principal sources on the dates of Vivaldi's works are Karl der Instrumentalwerke Vivaldis Heller. Van der Meer. 'Some Overlooked MSS in Manchester'. 6 Modern edition by RaffaeleCumar (Milan. 151 and 213. the edition is not complete. 13 Selfridge-Field. p. 141 342 392 393 394 395 166 289 288 287 11:5 11:4 11:2 - 440 441 442 443 80 440 79 VI:7 VI:11 VI:1 VI:4 represented in the Fanna catalogue but not in the Ricordi edition. 6 Sinf. 1975). op cit. p. Alberti and Meck. 2 Milan.
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