Lucimeire PILON2, Marília OETTERER3,*, Cláudio R. GALLO4, Marta H. F SPOTO5 . SUMMARY
The postharvest losses of horticultural products justify the use of preservation techniques. The processing not only adds value to the products, but also makes the products more convenient to the consumers. The objective of this research was to define the methodologies for the minimal processing of carrot and green pepper as to the type and intensity of the adoption of conservation techniques, and to monitor the products after processing through microbiological, physicochemical and nutritional analysis. The vegetables were washed and they were immersed in cold (7ºC) water with 100 mg L-1 free chlorine for sanitation, followed by centrifugation for 5 min. The product was put into BOPP/LDPE (biaxially orientated polypropylene/low-density polyethylene) plastic bags, which were sealed under atmospheric air, vacuum and modified atmosphere (2% O2, 10% CO2, 88% N2) and stored at 1ºC�1ºC. �1ºC. 1ºC. The approximate composition of the vegetables stayed stable during the storage period, in the three tested treatments. The contents of vitamin C for the samples of minimally processed carrot and green pepper did not present differences among treatments. The contents of β-carotene decreased slightly during the storage period for the minimally processed carrot and green pepper. After processing, carrot and green pepper had psychrotrophic counts of 102-105 and 103-106 CFU g-1, respectively. Anaerobic mesophiles and total coliforms were found in green peppers, representing 1.6x103 – 7.4x105 and <10.g-1 – 7.4x105, respectively. Total and fecal coliforms, anaerobic mesophiles and Salmonella were not found in carrots. Salmonella was not found in green pepper. Keywords: vegetable, minimal processing, modified atmosphere, vacuum packaging, refrigeration.

VIDA ÚTIL DE CENOURA E PIMENTÃO MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADOS. As perdas pós-colheita de alimentos hortícolas justificam a adoção de técnicas de conservação. Uma vez beneficiados, esses produtos permitem agregar valor à produção primária e se tornam de conveniência ao consumidor. Este trabalho teve como objetivo definir as metodologias do processamento mínimo de cenoura e pimentão quanto ao tipo e intensidade de adoção das técnicas de barreiras e monitorar os produtos após o processamento, através de análises microbiológica, físico-química e nutricional. As hortaliças foram lavadas e sanificadas com hipoclorito de sódio, 100 mg L-1 de cloro livre, durante 15 min em água refrigerada (7ºC), e a seguir centrifugadas por 5 min. O produto foi acondicionado em sacos plásticos com filme BOPP/PEBD (polipropileno biorientado/polietileno de baixa densidade), selados sob ar atmosférico, vácuo e atmosfera modificada (2% O2, 10% CO2 e 88% N2), e a seguir armazenados a 1ºC±1ºC. A composição centesimal das hortaliças permaneceu estável durante o período de armazenamento, nos três tratamentos testados. Os teores de vitamina C, para as amostras de cenoura e pimentão minimamente processados, não apresentaram diferenças entre os tratamentos. Os teores de β-caroteno diminuíram ligeiramente durante o período de armazenamento para a cenoura e pimentão minimamente processados. Após o processamento, a cenoura e o pimentão obtiveram contagens para psicrotróficos de 102-105 e 103-106 UFC g-1, respectivamente. Foram constatados anaeróbios mesófilos e coliformes totais em pimentões, da ordem de 1,6x103 a 7,4x105 e <10/g a 7,4x105, respectivamente. Nas cenouras, não foram detectados coliformes totais e fecais, anaeróbios mesófilos e Salmonella em nenhum dos tratamentos. Salmonella não foi detectada nos pimentões. Palavras-chave: hortaliças, processamento mínimo, atmosfera modificada, embalagem a vácuo, refrigeração.

In Brazil, despite of the availability of agricultural products there are still significant losses due to inadequate use of technology during cultivation, handling, storage and conservation. An alternative technology to minimize postharved losses is the minimal processing of fruits and vegetables [9]. The demand for minimally processed vegetables has promoted an increase in the quality and variety of the products. Conservation technologies, especially refrigeration and modified atmosphere assure the quality of these products. Temperatures between 0ºC and 3ºC can extend the shelf life
Recebido para publicação em 6/4/2005. Aceito para publicação em 23/1/2006 (001504) 2 USP/ESALQ – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos 3 USP/ESALQ – Depto. de Agroindústria, Alimentos e Nutrição, C.P. 9 13418-900 - Piracicaba, SP - Brasil. E-mail: 4 USP/ESALQ – Depto. de Agroindústria, Alimentos e Nutrição, C.P. 9 - 13418-900 - Piracicaba, SP - Brasil 5 USP/ESALQ – Depto. de Agroindústria, Alimentos e Nutrição, C.P. 9 - 13418-900 - Piracicaba, SP - Brasil *A quem a correspondência deve ser enviada

of minimally processed vegetables from 5 to 18 days, since the quality degradation is retarded by the lower temperature causing a reduction in the respiratory rate [39]. Reviews by ZAGORY & KADER [46]; CARLIN et al. [8]; IZUMI et al. [19]; GIL et al. [16] and JAYAS & JEYAMKONDAN [21] show the relevance of the use of O2, CO2 and N2 modified atmosphere in the storage of minimally processed vegetables. The natural variability in the raw material and its dynamic response to processing and storage conditions may render it impossible to identify a truly optimal storage atmosphere. Additional refinements in recommendations for the controlled atmosphere (CA) and modified atmosphere (MA) storage of fruits and vegetables will continue to accrue through empirical observations derived from traditional experiments [38]. The effect of minimal processing on the maintenance of the nutritional quality of vegetables has not yet been established. Therefore, there is a need for information on the effects of minimal processing, type of package and the contents of nutrients in these products [17]. The objective of this research was to define methodologies for minimal processing of carrot and green


Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 26(1): 150-158, jan.-mar. 2006

All the utensils used were previously sanitized in 200 mg L-1 of free chlorine. For Salmonella analysis the “Oxoid Salmonella Rapid Test” . 1997 [3]. The flasks were incubated at 35±2ºC for 24 h.) harvested after 120 days in the field were obtained at CEASA (Centrais de Abastecimento e Serviços Auxiliares) in Piracicaba. 47º25’W. For psychrotrophics. was used. The “Simplate” methodology was used for the total and fecal coliforms count. which consists of an extraction. except for potassium which was quantifyed by flame photometry. peeled with sharp stainless steel knives and immersed in cold water at 7ºC for 15 min.Microbiological analysis For microbiological analysis samples were collected on the 1st. The three treatments were air.Raw material ‘Nantes’ carrots (Daucus carota L. Moisture. 546 m).Minimally processed carrot and green pepper. The products were put into multilayered laminated BOPP/LDPE (biaxially orientated polypropylene/low-density polyethylene) plastic bags. The sanitation of the process was ensured by personal hygiene and the use of aprons and gloves.Statistical analysis The experiments were installed using a completely randomized factorial design (3x4) with two replications. 900 m). This methodology received an approval certificate (970301) by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) on March 05. Aliment. 2006 151 .MATERIAL AND METHODS 2. 10-2 and 10-3 and the incubation was carried out for 10 days at 7ºC. 26(1): 150-158. The percentages of nitrogen were transformed into protein content by multiplying by a conversion factor of 6.25. followed by centrifugation at 550900 G for 5 min. according to VANDERZANT & SPLITTSTOESSER [45]. 2. Bags with 400 g of chopped carrots and bags with 250 g of sliced green pepper were sealed under air. Titratable acidity of the filtered sample was measured with sodium hydroxide at 0.Carrot and green pepper processing Carrot samples were placed in ice boxes. Mineral contents were determined by the method of SARRUGE & HAAG [36] with quantification by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.) were harvested after 120 days in the field. 2. After discarding the excess.1% and then were inoculated in Plate Count Agar (PCA) and incubated at 35ºC for 48 h in anaerobiosis. These were then immersed in cold water (7ºC) with 100 mg of free chlorine L -1 at pH 7. vacuum and modified atmosphere and the four storage periods were 1. and to monitor the storage after processing through microbiological. the plates were inverted and incubated at 35ºC for 24 h for a later reading of the results. 2.3 . with kits composed of disposable plates with 84 cavities. lipids and ash contents were assessed using the AOAC [2] method. 10% of CO2 and 88% of N2).0 for 15 min. One mL of the pre-enriched sample and the kit were inoculated at 41ºC for 24 h and the results were interpreted according to the sample colorations after incubation [41]. samples were diluted at 10-1.-mar. in 1996.1 . pepper as to the type and intensity of the adoption of conservation techniques.4 . Campinas. The results were expressed in milligrams of β-carotene per 100 g of the sample. The products were kept at 1ºC±1ºC for 21 days. 7. inoculating 25 g of the vegetable in an Erlenmeyer with 225 mL of sterilized peptonized water. manufactured by Idexx Laboratories. and 21st day of storage in triplicates for each treatment. vacuum or modified active atmosphere (2% of O2. 14th.9 cm) with a vegetable chopper processor.FT201A kit. followed by pigment separation by column chromatography and reading in a spectrophotometer. The content of ascorbic acid was determined with Tillman’s reagent (2..2 . 2. 14 and 21 days. Ciênc.6 dichlorophenolindophenol) titration until a slightly pink coloration was stabilized for 15 sec. Pilon et al. The samples were randomly collected in the morning for the experiment in Piedade.5 . 47º38’W.01N (the results for the carrot and green pepper were expressed in % of malic and citric acids. SP and placed under refrigeration . A previous enrichment of each sample was done. physicochemical and nutritional analysis. Tecnol. 7th. The carrots were washed in running water. Determination of β-carotene contents were based on RODRIGUEZ-AMAYA et al. ‘Magali’ green peppers (Capsicum annuum L. SP (22º42’S. The plates were inoculated with 1mL of dilutions 10-1 and 10-2 and agitated with circular movements. All analyses were performed in triplicate. at 1ºC±1ºC overnight. [33] procedure. Green pepper samples were brought from CEASA in the morning in plastic boxes. The data obtained were submitted to analysis of variance by the Statistical Analysis System – SANEST [48] and polynomial regression analysis. transported by ground to Piracicaba. for sanitation.0x0. respectively) and pH was determined in the triturated sample by a digital potentiometer [2]. For the total count of anaerobic mesophiles. Green peppers were transversally sliced with stainless steel knives (2 mm – thick slices). The results were expressed in mg of ascorbic acid per 100 g of sample [31]. SP (23º43’S. Carrots were cut in cubes (1.Physicochemical analysis Total nitrogen content was detected using the Kjeldahl method based on SARRUGE & HAAG [36]. samples were diluted at 10-1 with peptonized water at 0. 2 . jan.

09 a 5. The values found for protein varied from 0. 26(1): 150-158.16 b 94. 12ºC and 21ºC. pH. cv.06 mg 100 g of citric acid in sliced green peppers packed in polystyrene trays and stored for 10 days under temperatures of 5 and 10ºC and CARLIN et al.Vitamin C The contents of vitamin C for the samples of minimally processed carrot and green pepper did not present differences among treatments (Table 1). [4] found a decrease from 0. Similar results were obtained by FANTUZZI [10] and BITTENCOURTT et al.114 a 0. 14 and 21 days) for moisture.2 to 6. [26] and the contents of lipids (Table 1) are in agreement with FRANCO [12]. The vitamin was lost through an exsudate that occurred from the green pepper.055 a 0.0 to 4.706 a 0. Vitamin C levels oscillated with a slight decrease during the period of storage for green peppers (Table 3). [42] reported that on the 13th 152 Ciênc.Minimally processed carrot and green pepper. Different letters in the columns show that samples are significantly different by the test of Tukey at 0.3 (Table 3).86 a ------------------------.851 c 0.253 b 0. however they were stable during 21 days storage at 1ºC�1ºC for both in all 3 treatments. vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA).08 to 0.59 to 0. ‘Gialla’) placed in plastic boxes sealed with a film with high permeability to gases.265 a pH 6.073 b Vitamin C -1 3. No significant changes were observed in titratable acidity.273 a 0. packed under air. Vitamin C was retained until 21 days of storage for carrots in all treatments carried out.081 a 0.24 b 5. citric.3 a 130.226 a 0. concluding that this reduction could be related to the higher concentration of CO2 found at this temperature.800 b 0. differently from the fresh fruit in which oxalic.08 a 90.0 g 100 g-1 for carrot and 0. [7].3 . malic and succinic acids were dominant. At 20ºC..879 a 0. KAKIOMENOU et al. The minimally processed green pepper had the pH average significantly affected during storage. Similar results were found by BENEDETTI et al. however. Pilon et al.635 a 0.-mar.055 a 0. and stored at 1ºC±1ºC. LAMIKANRA & WATSON [24] evaluated the biochemical changes compared to stored whole melons at 20ºC.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3. TABLE 1 – Average values of the four storage periods (1. being similar to those mentioned in the Brazilian Table of Composition of Foods [43]: 1.0 after 9 days of storage at 15ºC. jan. The pH increased in both experiments.77 a 6.24 a 132. Protein 0.54 a 14.pH In the minimally processed carrot.080 a 0. lipids.48 a 94.1 . titratable acidity.112 a 0.180 b Ash 0.35 ab Titratable acidity Carrot Air Vacuum MA Green pepper Air Vacuum MA 0. The protective effect on the vitamin C retention expected for the vacuum packing was not observed. in a mixed salad made of carrots.g 100 g-1 ------------------------- --------------. characterized by softening of the tissues during storage. BENEDETTI et al.91 g 100 g-1 for carrot and 0.625 a β-carotene 3.78 to 0. during the refrigerated storage. degrees Brix and organic acid content over a period of 14 days.77 g 100 g-1 for green pepper (Table 1). lettuce and purple cabbage.3 a 3. vitamin C. [1]. TELES et al. [8] reported a decrease in malic acid in grated carrots packed under modified atmosphere (10% O2 and 40% CO2) for 10 days at 10ºC.4 to 6.21 a 94.509 b 4.Proximate composition analysis Moisture.2 .056 a Lipids 0.108 a 0. β-carotene and pH in minimally processed carrot and green pepper.707 a 0. ash. Tecnol. by 14 days. Aliment. [4] in sliced green peppers packed in expanded polystyrene trays and wrapped in PVC (polyvinylchloride) film stored at 5ºC for 10 days.Titratable acidity The contents of titratable acidity were not affected by the storage period and did not present statistical differences among treatments for carrot and green pepper (Table 1).05 3. The results found in this research differed from those reported by ABDUL-RAOUF et al.178 b 0. lipids and ash values for green pepper. [22] studied the sensory alterations in minimally processed carrots and demonstrated that there was an increase in its organic acids resulting in a reduction in the values of texture.59 a 14.32 a 90. showed significant pH and acidity changes without. protein.651 a 0. showed differences among treatments (Table 1).836 ab 0. a pH decrease from 7.061 a 0.062 a 0. lettuce and cucumber salad packed under modified atmosphere (3% O2 and 97% N2) and stored under temperatures of 5ºC. presenting a variation of 5.69 g 100 g-1 for green pepper. The moisture content for carrot and green pepper are in accordance with the data published by LUENGO et al.064 a 0. the average values found for pH ranged from 6. Cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.704 a 0. adversely affecting the sensorial properties [30]. 7. 2006 . 3 .8 a 125.5 during the different storage periods (Table 2). and kept at 4ºC for 9 days. The ash content for carrot and green pepper were also in accordance with the Brazilian Table of Food Composition [43]. GARCÍA-GIMENO & ZURERA-COSANO [14] observed. which can be related to the lower organic acid values found. 100 g --------------13.53 a 6. Average Treatments Carrot Air Vacuum MA Green pepper Air Vacuum MA Moisture 90. and protein values for carrot.4 .000 a 2. lactic acid was by far the dominant acid present after two days. In experiments with cut cantaloupe melon stored at 4ºC.39 a 6. who found a pH decrease with minimally processed mixed carrot.

Similarly.15 to 2.312 A 2. in cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.257 B pH 5. Tecnol.05 Ciênc.270 A 0. stored during four periods (1.255 B 0.322 C 2. magnesium and phosphorus in minimally processed green pepper. Aliment.99 to 0.935 B 5. lipids.617 A 126. Otherwise. iron. at 1ºC±1ºC Carrot Period (days) 1 7 14 21 Variables Moisture 89. pH.241 A -------------------------.023 A 1.656 B 90.516 A pH Cu mg kg-1 8. pH.022 AB 90. Vitamin C. 14 and 21 days).769 A 2.77 g kg-1) and phosphorus (2.05 TABLE 3 – Average values of the three treatments (air. Vitamin C and its antioxidant capacity were studied by PIGA et al.767 B P 2. magnesium and phosphorus in minimally processed carrot.123 A 0. Magnesium (0.160 B Mg 0. [30].162 B 0. the content of magnesium (0. zinc and manganese oscillated only once along the period with no significant differences.010 A P 2. ash.372 A Vitamin C 138.196 B 0. remaining stable until the end of the experiment (Table 3). copper. and kept at 4ºC for 9 days.090 A Ash 0.174 B 2. HUSSEIN et al. TABLE 2 – Average values of the three treatments (air.205 B Mg 0.970 A 0. β-carotene.062 A 6.01 g kg-1) and phosphorus (2. Pilon et al. the content of copper (8. [17] reported a reduction in contents of β-carotene in vacuum-packed green peppers on the 10th day of storage. copper. 1 3.5 . they were lower than the ones found by FURLANI et al.MA) for moisture. Otherwise.-mar. storage day at 5ºC.389 A 90.Minimally processed carrot and green pepper. at 1ºC±1ºC Green pepper Period (days) Variables Moisture 94. manganese and zinc during the storage period. soil fertilization and type of soil [27]..442 B 5.956 A 0.150 A βcarotene 0.077 B 0.275 A 0. however they were practically stable during the storage period (Table 2). calcium. The values for the vacuum-packed samples were higher than the others during the whole storage period for both carrot and green pepper (Table 1). The macro and micronutrients found in this study for the carrot samples in the four storage periods were higher than those found in fresh carrots in foods chemical composition tables.05).281 AB 6. β-carotene.809 A 3.g 100 g-1 -------------------------1 7 14 21 -------------. stored during four periods (1. vacuum and modified atmosphere .20 mg kg) reduced in the last two weeks to practically half of the initial value.73 to 2. The contents of β-carotene decreased continuously during the storage at 1ºC in peeled carrots packed in polymeric film bags. calcium. the mineral content variation in the same variety of vegetables are due to several factors such as harvest time.6 . 7.477 A 6. 26(1): 150-158.g kg-1 -------------- Different letters in the columns show that samples are significantly different by the test of Tukey at 0.13 g kg-1) presented statistical differences (p<0.383 A 120.g kg-1 --------------- Different letters in the columns show that samples are significantly different by the test of Tukey at 0. with approximately 33% of the initial content after 28 days. iron. Generally. lipids.752 B 6.98 to 5.g 100 g-1 -------------------------.091 B 0.Minerals All treatments for minimally processed carrots did not present significant variations of potassium.500 A 4. the content of potassium.117 A β-carotene mg 100 g-1 3.730 A 2.91 to 1. For the minimally processed green pepper.150 B 2.114 AB 0.768 B 3. Campinas.983 A 8. However.850 A 132. time of the year.993 A 0. which is in accordance with LI & BARTH [25]. 3. there was a reduction in the β-carotene content in the treatment under air.755 A Lipids 100 g-1 -------------- --------------. ‘Gialla’) placed in plastic boxes sealed with a film with high permeability to gases.914 D 6. 5% CO 2 and 85% N 2) had 80% of the vitamin C found at the beginning of the study.161 A 94. showing that the atmospheres used in the packaging are unlikely to have influenced the variations. Between the 14th and 21st days.073 B 0. jan.268 B 6.β-carotene The values of β-carotene in the minimally processed carrot and green pepper in all treatments varied significantly.505 A Lipids 0.164 B 2.260 A 0. 7. such as IBGE [18] and FRANCO [12].657 B 0. The green peppers had their contents of β-carotene reduced after the first week of storage for all treatments.276 A 94. vacuum and modified atmosphere . The content of β-carotene in the carrot packed under modified atmosphere presented the lowest values during the storage period (Table 1). The contents and types of minerals were different for each product and treatment analyzed.MA) for moisture.903 B 1. 2006 153 . [13]. 14 and 21 days). cv. minimally processed cabbages packed in polyolephine plastic films at modified atmosphere (10% O2.072 B 0.391 A 94.134 B ------------.31 g kg-1) showed statistical differences during the storage period (Table 3).

phosphorus. Pilon et al. and the storage period as a predictor variable (Figure 2).6505+0.8 .3591+0.0059-0.80 1 1.00 89.80 90.04 1 7 Lipids Lipids=0.0013 period **R2=0.73 4.00 1 7 β-carotene b-carotene=3. phosphorus and magnesium for green pepper.s 2 R =0.40 1 7 14 Period (days) 21 Copper Copper=9. Tecnol.10 0. However.81 ADM=4.80 0.021 0.Minimally processed carrot and green pepper.0025 period n. magnesium and copper for carrot (Figure 1)..07 0. vacuum and modified atmosphere (Table 5). and moisture. 3.20 1. Campinas.10 5.00 0.20 1 7 14 Period (days) 21 Moisture=89. anaerobic mesophiles and Salmonella.57 3.40 2.223 period **R2=0.90 g kg-1 Magnesium Magnesium=1.837-0.-mar. The minimally processed green Moisture 91.047 period **R2=0.50 3.70 g kg-1 2.0 1 7 14 Period (days) 21 FIGURE 1 – Linear regression analysis for the components of carrot and corresponding statistics R-square and AMD (Average Mean Deviation) 154 Ciênc.00 2.0971+0.60 89.60 7 14 Period (days) 21 0.26 ADM=1.0 4.Linear regression A linear regression analysis was done using as response variables the contents of moisture.50 4. Aliment. β-carotene.50 2. pH.40 6.3019-0.10 1. 26(1): 150-158.5 10.80 1 7 Period (days) 14 21 pH=6.00 6.82 ADM=11. β-carotene.20 g 100 g-1 90.70 6.13 0.0 mg kg-1 8.00 g 100 g-1 3.40 90. pH.0361 period **R2=0.9582+0.93 ADM=2.Microbiological analysis Results of microbiological analysis of minimally processed carrot were negative for total or fecal coliforms.22 14 Period (days) 21 pH 7.0 2.0 6.63 ADM=9.94 ADM=0. 2006 .0148 period **R2=0. psychrotrophics grew slightly during the storage period of the samples packed under atmospheric.61 ADM=7. vitamin C.16 g 100 g-1 0.7 .05235 period **R2=0. jan. lipids. 3. lipids.41 14 Period (days) 21 Phosphorus Phosphorus=2.00 2. ash.

40 5. slowing down the microorganisms growth rate.27 0.06 0.0705+0. Therefore. but it is selective for psychroMoisture 94.21 2.80 1 1. [6] demonstrated that these microorganisms continued growing in asparagus. Campinas.04430 period **R2=0.0 100.90 0.82 ADM=8.60 94.0 130.63 150. jan.66 14 21 Period (days) Vitamin C Vitamin C=138. Pilon et al.20 2. BERRANG et al.046 trophic microorganisms. such as the Listeria monocytogenes.74 mg 100 g-1 β-carotene β-carotene=0.60 g kg-1 2. 26(1): 150-158.40 94.0009 period **R2=0.-mar.85-0.61 ADM=5.26 0.00 1 7 pH pH=5.57 ADM=3.62 ADM=1.0 1 150.24 1 7 14 Period (days) 21 Ash=0.79 6.00 1 7 14 Period (days) 21 Moisture=94.0 110. there is a concern about pathogens. The refrigeration temperature below 7ºC used in the storage of minimally processed fruits and vegetables extended the shelf life of these products.60 6.25 ADM=3.20 5. The presence of mesophile and psychrotrophic bacteria in lettuce.0043 period ns 2 R =0.161+0.0 100. Aliment.9273+0.0 mg 100 g-1 140.00 1. SENESI et Lipids 0.80 g 100 g-1 94.10 1.0 120.38 1 7 14 Period (days) 21 Ash 0. pepper contained total coliforms and anaerobic mesophiles (Table 4 ) and psychrotrophics during the storage period of all treatments (Table 5).0 130.01639 period **R2=0.0033 period ns 2 R =0.56 ADM=3.2737-0.0 120.08 0.0007 period **R2=0.87 ADM=0.00 0.. even if the sensory characteristics remained the same.2475-0.0049 period **R2=0.25 0.28 g 100 g-1 0.90 ADM=1. 2006 155 .46 g kg-1 Magnesium Magnesium=0.44167-0.89074 period **R2=0. cabbage and chicory has been reported by some authors [29.04 Lipids=0.0 140.20 94.2541-0.0 110.Minimally processed carrot and green pepper.20 1.0 1 7 14 Period (days) 21 7 14 Period (days) 21 Phosphorus Phosphorus=2. 47].80 7 14 Period (days) 21 1 7 14 Period (days) 21 FIGURE 2 – Linear regression analysis for the components of green pepper and corresponding statistics R-square and AMD (Average Mean Deviation) Ciênc. which develop under refrigerated temperatures. Tecnol.80 5.40 2.10 g 100 g-1 0.

3%) were of satisfactory or acceptable microbiological quality according to Public Health Laboratory Service microbiological guidelines. Method validation programs. FRANCIS & O’BEIRNE [11] on lettuce. or because of a L.0x10 4. levels in excess of 101 CFU g-1. nutritional and microbiological analysis of the two products. the count of psychrotrophics in minimally processed carrot and green pepper in all treatments was 102 to 105 and 103 to 106 CFU g-1. we could observe similarities between the treatments carried out.LIBRARY REFERENCE [1] ABDUL-RAOUF U. The content of β-carotene decreased slightly during the storage period for the minimally processed carrot and green pepper.3x103 1. 16ª edição. the products are safe when processed in hygiene conditions and stored under refrigeration temperatures. 2006 .852 samples. .4x10 3 3 7 <10/g 4. packed under air.5x103 2.2x103 4. [32] on celery. or does not exceed specified levels at the point of consumption [35].5x102 8. The content of vitamin C for the minimally processed carrot and green pepper did not present differences among treatments.4x105 Total Coliforms (MPN g-1) Ready-to-eat salads and vegetables evaluated revealed that the vast majority (3.9x105 5. [23] on cabbage. vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) stored under refrigeration at 1ºC±1ºC Psychrotrophics (CFU g-1) Treatment Air Vacuum MA Air Vacuum MA Storage (days) 1 1. 1999-2006.0x102 4. phosphorus and magnesium oscillated during the storage period. packed under air. such as MANVELL & ACKLAND [28] on mixed cabbage. [2] ASSOCIATION OF OFFICIAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS – AOAC.0x102 6. Carrot packed under air.5%) samples were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality due to Escherichia coli and Listeria spp.9x105 1. [40] demonstrated that there was a fast proliferation of microorganisms. AMMAR. However. Arlington: AOAC.2x105 Green peppers In this research. For the minimally processed carrot. Listeria risk assessment. presented a low microbial contamination.0x10 <10/g 4. [3] ASSOCIATION OF OFFICIAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS – AOAC.2x 10 4 . showing the importance of the combined conservation methods for safer products with a longer shelf life. Aliment.9x103 6.6x105 1.8x102 7. Campinas. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. M. who observed an increase of 105 to 107 CFU g-1 in the count of psychrotrophic microorganisms in mixed lettuce.M. Disponível em: 156 Ciênc. TABLE 4 – Total coliforms and anaerobic mesophiles in minimally processed green peppers.Minimally processed carrot and green pepper.0x105 2.6x102 4.. v.0x102 7. Survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on salad vegetables. p. magnesium and copper decreased during the storage period. BEUCHAT. including lactic acid bacteria.0x104 3. 1993. Fecal and total coliforms. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods at an international level ranges from absence in 25 g to 1. GARG et al. monocytogenes level of 660 CFU g-1. For the minimally processed green pepper.0x103 1. ROBBS et al.5x102 5. anaerobic mesophiles and Salmonella could not be observed in any of the treatments for the minimally processed carrot. Anaerobic Mesophiles (CFU g ) 3. according to FAO/WHO.-mar.2x10 5 21 1. The sanitary quality of minimally processed vegetables was studied by several authors. Anaerobic mesophiles and total coliforms were present in minimally processed green pepper. L. carrot. which indicates a health risk [37].6x10 2. carrot and purple cabbage salad packed in polypropylene film without gas injection for 9 days of storage under a temperature of 4ºC. 26(1): 150-158.5x103 3.4x103 4.9x10 2 7 Carrots 1. [15] on cauliflower and spinach.1x104 9. respectively (Table 5). however decreased during the storage period for the green pepper.8x10 2 14 1.4x105 6. in stored green peppers under modified atmosphere with high concentrations of CO2.000 colonies forming units per gram or milliliter. 59.R. while 20 (0. six (0.3x102 3. KALLANDER et al.. 99. [29] on chicory. al. the content of phosphorus. The counts of psychrotrophic bacteria in minimally processed carrots.8x106 3.CONCLUSIONS Through the results of the physical-chemical. [5] on wild chicory. Tecnol.0x106 4. Psychrotrophics were found in all the treatments of the minimally processed carrot and green pepper.8x104 1. Official methods of analysis.2x10 4. vacuum and modified atmosphere and stored under at 1ºC. jan.2%) samples were of unacceptable microbiological quality because of the presence of Salmonella. [20] on mixed lettuce.1x10 3 3 14 <10/g <10/g <10/g -1 21 4. 5 .1x103 6.S. Pilon et al.1x102 1. BENNIK et al. vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) stored under refrigeration at 1ºC±1ºC Storage (days) Treatment Air Vacuum MA Air Vacuum MA 1 <10/g <10/g <10/g 2. NGUYEN-THE et al. JACKSENS et al. These counts were lower than those found by GARCÍA-GIMENO & ZURERA-COSANO [14]. 1995. to L.4x10 4 4 4. beetroot and mixed salad from different commercial brands were high with initial indices of 106 to 109 CFU g-1 [34]. TABLE 5 – Psychrotrophics in minimally processed carrots and green peppers. [44] on garlic and in general. green pepper and cucumber salad and VALERO et al. onion and green pepper salad.826 from 3..

analíticas do Instituto Adolfo Lutz: métodos quími- Ciênc. Dissertação (Mestre em Tecnologia de Alimentos). J. SCHMIEG. p. CARLIN. <http://www. I. and cauliflower stored under controlled atmosphere. [20] JACKSENS. M. 31-38. v. 50p.C... KO. edição. GARCIA. 51-60. PREGNOLATTO. M. H. D. 4p.R.S. [31] PREGNOLATTO.. DEBEVERE. LANCETTE.. 3). L. 42. 2000. VITTI.. p. L. L. SILVA.A...J. HITCHINS.. [6] BERRANG.J.. R. A.M. Modified atmosphere storage of grains. [8] CARLIN. p. HAGER.. v. 1989. FAULKNER. A. 1999. VANETTI. 481-487. 302-304. sticks and shreds. 25. v. 1998.I. G. 2002. 18. 25. [24] LAMIKANRA. n.. 26(1): 150-158. SOFOS. p. C. 2000. Microbial... 2000. p. 1986. Avaliação de pimentão minimamente processado em rodelas e tiras. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE.. v. HALNA-D. PINNA. 1999. SOLOMON. fruits and vegetables. [26] LUENGO. D.P Normas . BATAGLIA. 36. v. 199-207...>.. A.. OLIVEIRA. 3.M. edição. NGUYEN-THE. read-to-use grated carrots. 1ª. 9. Changes in ascorbic acid. Composição centesimal de diversas hortaliças. Biochemical changes associated with fresh-cut fruit processing and storage..Minimally processed carrot and green pepper.F . Effects of controlled atmospheres on microbial spoilage. 165-172. 1990. [11] FRANCIS. DEVLIEGHERE. R. Bragantia. O. International Journal of Food Science Technology. F.. Acesso em 27 jan. Postharvest Biology and Technology. M. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. p. v. 257-262. P BARTH. D. [5] BENNIK. Food Microbiology. TASSOU. 2003.. v. Microbi. 359-366.A.C.G. Viçosa: UFV.P DOUGLAS. MCNAB. p. v. A. 54.I.D.. H. in fresh-cut tomato as affected by modified atmosphere packaging.N. J. 202p. Piracicaba: ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA PARA PESQUISA DA POTASSA E DO FOSFATO. 32. hortaliças.. Controlled atmosphere storage of carrot slices. PUSCHMANN. GOLINELLI.. [28] MANVELL. JEYAMKONDAN. 14.R. M. (Estudo Nacional da Despesa Familiar. broccoli. Journal of Food Protection. nal de hortaliças.C. AYANBADEJO. p. [19] IZUMI. [27] MALAVOLTA. 1977. 1997. J.T. H. 33-34.M..R. 701-703. meats. [7] BITTENCOURT. AGABBIO.M. Food Science and Technology.A. PARENTE.7.. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. Determination of ready-to-eat vegetable salad shelf-life. 31. G.... v. 2002.F Processamento mínimo de frutas e . FURLANI.2. Freshness and Shelf Life of Foods.. São Paulo: ATHENEU.M. 2002. 31. 37. B.. polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in minimally processed cactus pear fruits. n. Porto Alegre: SBCTA. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in shredded cabbage stored at 5 and 250C under a modified atmosphere.. p. B.. 1990. Effect of processing conditions on the microflora of fresh-cut vegetables. Tabelas de composição dos alimentos. N.. p.A. CHUREY.. Campinas. [22] KAKIOMENOU. M. HIROCE. [25] LI. ology of minimally processed. Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV). [18] INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DE GEOGRAFIA E ESTATÍSTICA. Biosystems Engineering. R.. Brasília: EMBRAPA Hortaliças. CONESA. [10] FANTUZZI. In: ENCONTRO NACIONAL SOBRE PROCESSAMENTO MÍNIMO DE FRUTAS E HORTALIÇAS.. Postharvest Biology and Technology. PARMAGNANI.. Postharvest Biology and Technology. v. R. [23] KALLANDER. Postharvest Biology and Technology.R. p. p. S. Tabela de composição química dos alimentos. monocytogenes on minimally processed lettuce. 2006 157 .. 36. M. Atividade microbiana em repolho (Brassica oleraceae cv. International Journal of Food Microbiology. In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA DE ALIMENTOS.C. p. Aliment. capitata) minimamente processado. de F . v. 1996.. Effects of gas atmosphere.H. v. WATSON. G. eletrolyte leakage and sugar content on fresh.W.A. G. 82.. 1996. N. Tecnol.. 59-73. ARTÉS. . J. E. 33. H. P ..C. Postharvest Biology and Technology.. A. O. C. p. v. C. [14] GARCÍA-GIMENO. 235-251.-mar.A. G... color and textural qualities of fresh asparagus. [16] GIL. C. A. BEUCHAT.J. M.. armazenado nas temperaturas de 5 e 10ºC.E. N. GORRIS.I. Journal of Food Protection. 52-68. 2002. 53. 26. 1997. Effects of processing and packaging on vitamin C and β-caroteno content of ready-to-use (RTU) vegetables.G. Food Research International. p. 59-65. 2002.M. J. Journal of Food Protection. L.E. U-FRÉTAY. M. 1996. E.M. p.E. SARANTÓPOULOS. M. J. Impact of edible coatings on nu. C. 209-221. DEL CARO. R. [13] FURLANI.. A. 836.. W. tritional and physiological changes in lightly-processed carrots. Pilon et al. ODUMERU. [4] BENEDETTI. The microbiology of mixed salad containing raw and cooked ingredients without dressing. M. P . Atividade microbiana em couve minimamente processada. 1996. H. REICH. [17] HUSSEIN. 2. jan. 1991. K. K. Temperature dependence of shelf-life as affected by microbial proliferation and sensory quality of equilibrium modified atmosphere package fresh produce. v.. 2003.C. NGUYEN-THE. Viçosa. modified-atmosphere packaged chicory endive. v. F. SPLITTSTOESSER.. v. 26). [9] CHITARRA. antimicrobial dip and temperature on the fate of L. R. [12] FRANCO..R. v. F Quality changes . p. (Documentos. SZIJARTO. Tecnologia e Treinamento Agropecuário. Avaliação do estado nutricional das plantas: princípios e aplicações.A.F . Microbiological. v. Y.. BRACKETT.aoac. [30] PIGA.... 141-151.A.A. WATADA. S. GALLO. O’BEIRNE. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. G. E. 1978. p. 9. [15] GARG.. Rapid detection of microbial growth in vegetable salads at chill and abuse temperatures. W. [29] NGUYEN-THE.R. M. 391-395. physicochemical and organoleptic changes of shredded carrots stored under modified storage. LIMA. de. G. p. innocua and L. 1999. v.B. 1990. M. F SMID.. ZURERA-COSANO.1241-1245. v. p. T. p. 110-119. NYCHAS. p. M. 9. [21] JAYAS. PEPPELENBOS.. M.D. 53. 131-136. W..D.. ACKLAND.F Tabela de composição nutricio. C.B.L.

J. 263-267.. v.C.A. . 2003. C. p. 42. 2003. RODRIGUEZ-AMAYA. 2.. edição. Embalagens plásticas para conservação de couve minimamente processada sob atmosfera modificada ativa. PRINZIVALLI. R.M. C. p. Journal of Food Protection. v.. 2000. 1996.F Compen.. V. [42] TELES. KADER. Microbiota associada a produtos hortícolas minimamente processados comercializados em supermercados. J. HODGE..M. v. Washington: APHA.. JUNQUEIRA.. Acesso em: 15 nov. v...E.Minimally processed carrot and green pepper. Physicochemical and microbiological changes in fresh-cut green bell peppers as affected by packaging and storage. LITTLE. 26(1): 150-158. FARBER. Pelotas: UNIVERSITÁRIA. SILVEIRA.S. D. SALTVEIT. Disponível em: <http://fcf. p. SENESI.. SCHLUNDT. SAGOO. v. E. 66. Characterization of Bacillus cereus isolates from fresh vegetables and refrigerated minimally processed foods by biochemical and physiological tests.S. plantas..O. Aliment. [48] ZONTA. L.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) for financial support. 40. MCFIE. Carotenoids pigments changes in ripenning Momordica charantia fruits. 55-64. SCOTT. Campinas. P SANEST: .T. R. CAMPOS. p. 1996. HERNÁNDEZ-HERRERO. G. A. WARD. 1976. A.A. Piracicaba: ESALQ. Interaction of factors to control microbial spoilage of refrigerated foods. C. T. N. N. 1989. 1ª. M.C. Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA). p. Is it possible to find and optimal controlled atmosphere?.. N. S.A. SALA. R. [44] VALERO. The effects of various disinfectants against Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut vegetables. M. Food Microbiology.. K.-mar.39.P MACHADO. RAMOS. São Paulo: LIVRARIA VARELA.P Análises químicas em . 1ª. Postharvest Biology and Technology.C. edição..A.L.. n. P .. 615-624. ROSA. 3. Lavras. Food Microbiology. Quantitative risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods: the FAO/WHO approach. P TOYOFUKU. 6 . [46] ZAGORY. da.. 1974. 70-77. 52. 35. M. 1992. edição.. sistema de análise estatística para microcomputadores.O. p. 61. 2002. [41] SILVA. p.S. 1985. HAAG. FERNÁNDEZ. 12. p.C. dium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. 120p. D.. 2002. 3-13. 1ª.K. In: ENCONTRO NACIONAL SOBRE PROCESSAMENTO MÍNIMO DE FRUTAS E HORTALIÇAS. M. O. [47] ZANGH. C.N. de métodos de análise microbiológica de alimentos.. p. Italian Journal of Food Science. J. Fems Immunology and Medical Microbiology. MITCHELL. SPLITTSTOESSER. Journal of Food Protection. Causes of decay of fresh-cut celery. PUSCHMANN. V. RAYMUNDO... edição. v. v. 444-455.A.R. 403-409.. v. Viçosa: UFV. SALMERÓN.M.php>. LEE.. H.usp. Modified atmosphere packaging of fresh produce.. 491-499. Tese (Doutora em Ciências dos Alimentos). M. 431-435. SILVEIRA JR. P . 27. 1988. Journal of Food Science. v. BENEMBAREK. . Tecnol. A. H. 19. 2000. [45] VANDERZANT. GENNARI.. C. SIMPSON. Microbiological study of ready-to-eat salad vegetables from retail establishments uncovers a national outbreak of salmonellosis. ROCOURT.. jan. [43] UNIVERSIDADE DE SÃO PAULO. I. p. 158 Ciênc. [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] cos e físicos para análise de alimentos. J. ROBBS. CHICHSTER. L. E. 2003.... Food Technology. São Paulo: INSTITUTO ADOLFO LUTZ. 1ª. edição. br/tabela/tbcamenu. 2001.F Manual . J. 311-321. L. Pilon et al.C. p. 1997.. 1986. S. Tabela brasileira de composição de alimentos. v.A. BARTZ.. SARRUGE. Annals of Botany..L.G. 13.. GILLESPIE. 2006 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful