CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.0

INTRODUCTION

The inefficiency on the part of power supply authority to adequately ensure the availability of power supply to consumers has led to a common practice where the three phases are combined to a single phase to power their single phase loads. (See figure 1.1). Most worrisome is method used in selecting these phases which is manually done. The risk of electrocutions in this practice is very high as every Tom, Dick and Harry always jumps at the cut-out fuse board as soon as a phase fails. Though the idea of consumers changing phases on their own is not quite safe for the power distribution equipment which could result in a situation where one phase could be overloaded while the other is under loaded. This creates an unbalanced situation in the power distribution network. Since our people have wrongfully accepted this practice, to ensure safety, however, the idea of automating this culture now forms the basis of this project. As soon as the power supply authorities rises up to this challenge, the system to be developed in this project could still be there but will not create any harm on the power distribution network. Furthermore, an improvement on the manual method of phase change is the low voltage detector that takes a low voltage below a preset value which could be

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dangerous to our equipment as no power supply will be available and consequently isolate the load.

Figure 1.1 manual looping of three phases to one phase

1.1

AIM

The aim of this project is to design and construct an automatic phase selector for safety of human life and equipment.

1.2

OBJECTIVES
y To detect the availability of voltage supply in existing phase y To measure the value of voltage in each phases y Compare the different values of the phases y Automatically lock and connects the best phase to the load

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1.3

APPLICATIONS
The work finds applications in: y Power supply stability in cell sites, hospitals ± during operation y Fire Prevention in homes y Security Efficiency in banks y Energy Efficiency y System Protection for file servers y Locations where Automatic selection of available phase for single phase load required y As a safety equipment in industries and also where unmanned operations are required

1.4

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The design of the project will involve the use of discrete components as well as integrated circuits. It is will be a prototype which will be assembled on a board. An average load of 25A will be considered in selecting main switching contactor, however, with appropriate rating of the contactor the project can be used to control heavier load switching without human involvement.

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1.5

UNIQUENESS OF PROJECT

Being an improvement to the manual method of phase change, the device can be used to secure maximum safety of equipments and human life.

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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Older fuse boxes use rewirable fuses with no other protective device, and basic 4 ways boxes are very common. A lot of these boxes are made of brown-black Bakelite, some times with a wooden base. Although their design is historic, these were standard equipment for new installs as recently as the 1980s, so are very common. Users should be wary of these fuse boxes, as typically pulling a fuse carrier out with the power on results in fingers grasping live connections, and these boxes are wide spread even in modern installations. The popular 4 way box usually usually takes heavy or sustained loads such as immersion heaters and oven on a socket circuit. This arrangement is not a recommended practice today, but it is common in existing installations. Hence these fuse boxes do not have sufficient breaking capacity for safe reliable operation in many premises.

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1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF UNIT Scanning circuit Single phase Load Red phase Voltage sensor Red phase Low voltage detector Blue Phase Voltage sensor Blue phase Low voltage detect .1:The Block Diagram of the Unit 6 .2.or Switching circuit Load interface Yellow Phase Voltage sensor Yellow phase Low voltage detector Neutral Comparators Figure 2.

filter. filter. a rectifier.2. The switching will be done by electromechanical relays and contactors.1 FUNCTIONAL PARTS OF THE BLOCK DIAGRAM Voltage Sensor: The three phases usually available on a 220v supply will be monitored by a voltage sensor on the device.2 above. The power supply will be uninterrupted as the system must run even when there is total power failure. 2. Low and Comparator Voltage Detector: The low voltage detector is made up of a step down transformer.2. The block diagram of the unit is as shown in figure 1. a rectifier. If the voltage is low the unregulated voltage will be low since there is a linear relationship between 7 . a regulator and a comparator.2 METHODOLOGY The approach to be adopted in the design of the automatic phase selector is to develop a scanner and a full voltage presence sensor that is capable of detecting the availability of supply in a phase automatically locking and connecting that phase to the load. a regulator and a comparator. The scanner is made up of an astable multivibrator and a counter and the low voltage detector is made up of a step down transformer. The regulated (Reference) and the unregulated voltages are compared. The three phases are each having a voltage sensor that is capable of determining the availability of supply in a phase. The sole aim of this sensor is first to detect if there is voltage at all on the phases and there by sending a signal to the scanner.

capacitors. in his chapter. Now the output of the comparator will be low if the input voltage is low hence the counter gate can be opened to allow the counter to advance to the next available phase. I will review the theory behind these components as well as their applications to this project 8 . 2. They include resistors.3 REVIEW OF COMPONENTS USED Electronic systems are made from units which are in turn made from components Basic circuit components have been used in this project. transistors and integrated circuit chips like the 555 timer.the input and the output voltages of a transformer. operational amplifier. The astable multivibrator is used as a clock for the counter though gated such that the counter receives the clock pulse only when the load is not powered. Switching Circuit: The switching circuit turns ON or OFF the interface electromechanical relays and contactors which closes only on the availability of correct voltage in that phase and only one is connected at a time so the short between phases is completely avoided. diodes. Scanning Circuit: The scanner is made up of an astable multivibrator and a decade counter.

the types of resistors that were used can be classified in terms of their value. The symbols used to represent resistance is shown in figure 2.e. as well as stabilities.3. 2.2 Resistor symbols 2.1. with each having different maximum ohmic values. fixed resistors and variable resistors).3.3.1 CLASSIFICATION OF RESISTORS` Furthermore.1 RESISTORS Resistors are electronic devices designed to limit the amount of current flow in a circuit. different tolerances.2 FIXED RESISTORS These are resistors whose ohmic values cannot be changed in a circuit except when replaced. They are mainly of carbon wire wound types of resistors.1.2. This ability to limit the flow of current in a circuit is called resistance of a resistor and its unit is ohm. 2. In other words they offer opposition to the flow of current in a circuit. (i.2 Fixed [Variable] Fig. power or wattage ratings. 9 .

g.Their resistance values are usually marked on their bodies.3. These rotary variable resistors have power ratings ranging from 0. as in volume control in Radio and TV. either in colour code or by letters. The LOG stands for logarithmic with the effect that the log of the resistance of the resistor is proportional to the position of the movable metal contact wiper. Sets). available nowadays are resistors with their resistance values given on their bodies in the form of a colour code consisting of four or five coloured bands 2.3 VARIABLE RESISTORS These are the type of resistors used when it is required to vary resistance while the circuit is in use (e. Some variable resistor may have additional indications such as LOG or µLIN¶. The maximum resistance values of this type of resistors are often indicated on the casing. Similarly.1. the resistance of the resistor is directly proportional to the position of the movable contact wiper on the track.25W to 5 W and are available in ganged (resistance boxes or decades) and single forms. these are commonly referred to as rotary variable resistors or simply potentiometers. LIN stands for Linear and the effect is that. 10 . They consist of a circular carbon track on an insulating base upon which a metal contact wiper moves. However.

3.3. There are however two major types of capacitors that were used which are: 2.2. and they come in various shapes and sizes ranging from the small button shaped or disc ceramic capacitors (usually used in power stations and industries) and the electrolytic capacitor. Essentially. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Electrolytic capacitor has electrolyte as dielectric Air capacitor has air as dielectric Mica capacitor has mica as dielectric Paper capacitor has paper as dielectric Capacitance is the measure of the capacitor ability to store charge. Capacitors derive their names from the kind of dielectric employed in making them e.g. They are usually classified according to the kind of insulator (dielectric) used. which stores electrical energy or charges.1 THE FIXED CAPACITORS The fixed capacitors have values that cannot be altered or varied. Electrolytic capacitors belong to a class of capacitor made through an electrochemical process. A capacitor is simply a device. It is made from rolling up two aluminum strips 11 .d. a capacitor is made up of two sets of metal plates separated by an insulator called dielectric.2.2 CAPACITORS Capacitors are some of the widely used components in the electronic aspect of my project. gives it a charge of 1C. The unit of capacitance is the Farad with a unit symbol µF¶ and it is defined as the capacitance of the capacitor when 1V p.

3. They usually have large capacitance of the order of about 5 F to hundreds of F Figure 2. This varies the area of the contact.sandwiched with strapped gauze cloth soaked in borax. 12 . The borax serves as an electrolyte for the electrochemical process involved in the manufacture.3: The circuit symbol of a capacitor 2. This type of capacitors have polarity indicated on their bodies the positive being connected to the more positive part of a circuit and the negative to the more negative part of the circuit.2.3 This instruction should be observed otherwise the capacitor will be damaged. It is made up of two half-moon shaped metal plates separated with a piece of mica. The symbol is as shown in figure 2. One of the plates is fixed while the other can be rotated with a screwdriver in and out of mesh with the fixed one.2 THE VARIABLE CAPACITORS There variable capacitors used is: (i) Variable Trimmer Capacitors This is a much smaller type of variable capacitors.

Modern field effect transistors or FET's including 13 . 2.3.4 Capacitor Symbols 2.4 shows the circuit symbol of a variable capacitor figure 2.4 circuit symbol of a variable capacitor + Fixed value capacitor (Non ± polarized) Variable capacitor Fixed value capacitor (Polarized) Fig. Figure 2.3 TRANSISTORS Generally transistors are semiconductor devices. either the more common NPN bipolar transistors or the less common PNP transistor types.Typical values of these small variable capacitors are as from a minimum of about 2pF to maximum of about 30pF. There is a further type known as a FET transistor which is an inherently high input impedance transistor with behavior somewhat comparable to valves. The transistors fall into the category of bipolar transistor.

the Base leg is in the middle. the FET is not used in this project. If the round side is facing you.5 is used in circuit drawings (schematics) to represent a transistor.3. Base (B). and the Emitter leg is on the right for the small type while the power types has a flat face with metal at the back. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. Transistor Symbol The symbol of figure 2. Sometimes they are labeled on the flat side of the transistor.5: The circuit symbol of an NPN transistor 2. However. the Collector leg is on the left.1 BASIC CIRCUIT The Base (B) is the On/Off switch for the transistor. If a current is flowing to the Base. Restart your computer. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. and Emitter (E).3. Figure 2. The transistor has three legs. there will be a path from the Collector (C) to the Emitter (E) where current 14 . If the red x still appears. The image cannot be displayed. the Collector (C). and then open the file again.JFETS and MOSFETS now have some very rugged transistor devices. Transistors always have one round side and one flat side. or the image may have been corrupted.

It is common fashion to omit the power supply connections as they are implied. The Bipolar are low-noise and replacing the old style op-amps. in practice. (The Switch is Off. Nowadays.3.) If there is no current flowing to the Base. The term op-amp was originally used to describe a chain of high performance dc amplifier that was used as basis for the analogue type computers of long ago. Shown in the figure 2. input resistance. there is no such thing as an ideal op-amp. It is one of the most versatile device in electronics. then no current can flow from the Collector to the Emitter. In fact.) 2. Non-inverting input Inverting input +V output -V Figure 2. referring actually to the so-called ideal operational amplifier with infinite openloop gain. no op-amp can meet these ideal characteristics. the µ A741 is a frequency compensated device and although still widely used.6 is an op-amp symbol as used today. The op-amp without any external devices is called µopen loop¶ mode. bandwidth and a zero output resistance.4 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OP-AMP) An operational amplifier is 1C is a solid-state integrated circuit that uses external feedback to control its functions.6 Symbol of an op-amp 15 . However.can flow (The Switch is On.

1.As indicated in the symbolic diagram. Absolute Maximum Parameters Maximum means that the op-amp safety tolerate the maximum rating given in the data section of such am op-amp without the possibility of destroying it. Table 2. high common mode range and exceptional temperature stability. It is usually operated using symmetrical positive and negative dc power supplies.7 (a) and (b) below. it has two inputs and a single output. Additional terminals are also made available to which resistors may be connected to correct any offset dc levels. internal compensation.1 : A741 manufacturer data Maximum Ratings Supply Voltage Internal power dissipation Differential input voltage s 18 volts 500mw s 30volts 16 . The QA741 is short-circuit protected and allows for nulling of the off set voltage. The integrated type op-amp such as the A741 may be represented by its schematic and the equivalent circuit of the figure 2.1 QA 741 OP-AMP The QA741 is a high performance operational amplifier with high open loop gain.4.3. 2. Fairchild semiconductor manufactures it and the data provided are as shown in table 2.

Input voltage: The maximum input voltage that can be simultaneous sly applied between both input and ground also referred to as the common mode voltage. 2. solder 60sec Output short circuit s15 volts s 0. the maximum voltage is equal to the supply. Operating temperature: This is the ambient temperature range for which the op-amp will operate within the manufacturer¶s specifications. Supply voltage (+/-Vs) the maximum voltage (positive and negative) that can be safely used to feed the op-amp.5 volts 00 to + 700C -650C to + 1500C 3000C Indefinite 2. Differential input voltage (Vid): This is the maximum voltage that can be applied across the positive and negative inputs.2 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. 5. 6. 4. 17 .Input voltage Voltage offset null/v Operating Temperature range Storage temperature range Lead temperature. In general. Dissipation (pd): the maximum power the op-amp is able to dissipate by specified ambient temperature (500mw at 800C) 3.3.4. Output short-circuits Duration: This is the amount of time that an opamp¶s output can be short circuited to either supply voltage.

the op-amp that is used in more realistic circuits today does not have infinite gain and bandwidth.35/rise time. One additional parameter is worth mentioning. The reference signal determines the level at which comparison is made when the input signal exceeds VR. From electronics circuit theory.3. If a voltage signal Vs is applied to the non-inverting input. the rise time is related to the bandwidth of the op-amp by the relation: BW = 0. the comparator output takes on a value which is different in magnitude from when Vs (t) is less than VR Assume the inverting input is grounded at zero volt. In this project.5 THE OPERATIONAL COMPARATOR A comparator is a circuit which compares a time varying input signal Vs (t) with a reference signal VR with a view to determining whether or not the analogue input signal is greater than or less than the reference signal. 2.Unlike the ideal op-amp. In the absence of feedback. The uses of op-amp are numerous. it has been used as a comparator. the voltage gain Ao of the Op amp is 18 . then the difference voltage Vi across the input is (Vs ± O) = Vs. the transient response or rise time is the time it takes for the output signal to go from 10% to 90% of its final value when a step-function pulse is used as an input signal and is specified under closedloop conditions.

low-level input dc bias currents flow because the transistors used in the internal amplifier draws bias currents needed for their correct operation. if Vs>O (ie Vs is positive). then the output voltage will be inverted. unless it is otherwise limited. It is of the order of 100nA for the A741 op-amp.infinite.9 (a). The output voltage is however limited to the value of the power supply voltage (Vcc). In the circuit of figure 2. 19 . In practice however. the difference current (11-12) = Ios is called the input offset current it is typically 10 to 20nA. If the currents at the input terminals are I1 and I2 when the output voltage Vo is zero. there should be no current flowing into the input of the basic op-amp. Thus. and if Vs < O (ie negative). This is illustrated in the associated waveforms in figure 2. since the output voltage Vo is AoVs. 2.3. then input bias current is given by I bias = ½ (I1 + 12 ).5.1 OFFSETS IN OP AMP A re-occurring assumption in the analysis of op amp circuits is that the input current is zero. Again I1 should equal 12. Ideally.9 (b). When I1 and 12 differ in value. We should note that if the signal is applied to the inverting input. the output will latch to the negative power supply ± Vcc. the output voltage Vo is latched to the positive power supply +Vcc. the slightest departure of Vs from zero volt produces a very large output voltage.

in practice however.The flow of the bias current drops voltages across the internal resistors R1 and R2. Such fluctuation in dc condition is not Thus in measurement Offset voltages can be distinguishable from the signal to be amplified. It provided circuit designers and hobbyists with a relatively cheap. If the dc paths to ground are not identical for both input terminals due perhaps to mismatch in the op-amp circuit elements. and user-friendly integrated circuit for both monostable and astable applications. the offset voltage is of the order of 1mv for the A741 op amp.3. The offset voltage is defined as the input voltage needed to reduce the output voltage to zero.8. serious measurement error can occur. an offset voltage Vos is develop which is amplified at the output. The schematic diagram of the internal structure is as shown below in figure 2.6 THE 555 TIMER IC The 555 timer IC was first introduced around 1971 by the Signetics Corporation as the SE555/NE555 and was called ³The IC Time Machine´ and was also the very first and only commercial timer ic available. the op-amp output voltage should be zero for zero input voltage. minimized by making the dc paths to ground as nearly equal as possible.. Ideally. applications. 20 . stable. 2. using offset adjust bias circuits. but is also known to drift as a result of temperature and power supply variations.

Triggering is accomplished by taking 21 . This is the beginning of the timing sequence in monostable operation.7 Definition of Pin Functions: Refer to the internal 555 schematic of the Figure2.The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. Pin 2 (Trigger): This pin is the input to the lower comparator and is used to set the latch. and then open the file again. If the red x still appears. or the image may have been corrupted.5 -16V Ground The 555 schematic is shown in figure 2. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. Positive Vcc 4.10 above. Restart your computer. Pin 1 (Ground): The ground (or common) pin is the most-negative supply potential of the device. which is normally connected to circuit common (ground) when operated from positive supply voltages. which in turn causes the output to go high.

in general. which causes the output to go low. It also allows indirect access to the lower comparator. Transistors Q21 and Q22 provide drive for source-type loads. Pin 3 (Output): The output of the 555 comes from a high-current totem-pole stage made up of transistors Q20 . allowing slow rate-of-change waveforms. resetting of the comparator. the reference level for the upper comparator.1mA from this pin is required to reset the device.7 volts less than the V+ supply level used.7 volt. and their Darlington connection provides a high-state output voltage about 1. one-half the voltage appearing at pin 5). Pin 5 (Control Voltage): This pin allows direct access to the 2/3 V+ voltagedivider point. Q13. etc. Pin 6 (Threshold): Pin 6 is one input to the upper comparator (the other being pin 5) and is used to reset the latch. Resetting via this terminal is accomplished by taking the terminal from below to above a voltage level of 2/3 V+ (the normal voltage on pin 5). The reset voltage threshold level is 0. and a sink current of 0.Q24. Pin 4 (Reset): This pin is also used to reset the latch and return the output to a low state. A dc 22 . The action of the threshold pin is level sensitive. Use of this terminal is the option of the user. The voltage range that can safely be applied to the threshold pin is between V+ and ground.R9) from this point to the lower-comparator reference input. as there is a 2:1 divider (R8 .the pin from above to below a voltage level of 1/3 V+ (or. but it does allow extreme flexibility by permitting modification of the timing period.

Supply-voltage operating range for the 555 is +4.1: MODES OF OPERATION OF 555 TIMER The 555 timers have two basic operational modes: one shot and astable.5 volts (minimum) to +16 volts (maximum). the 555 acts like a monostable multivibrator (figure 2. It then returns to its stable state. must also flow into this terminal from the external circuit. Thus the name one-shot. the monostable switches to its temporary state. the emitter of which goes to ground. 23 .3. Whenever an input pulse triggers it. Usually the timing capacitor is connected between pin 7 and ground and is discharged when the transistor turns "on".6. termed the threshold current. Pin 8 (V +): The V+ pin (also referred to as Vcc) is the positive supply voltage terminal of the 555 timer IC. In the one-shot mode.current. 2. the monostable circuit generates a single pulse of fixed time duration each time it receives and input trigger pulse. A monostable is said to have a single stable state--that is the off state.9). It remains in that state for a period of time determined by an RC network. and it is specified for operation between +5 volts and + 15 volts. Pin 7 (Discharge): This pin is connected to the open collector of an NPN transistor (Q14). It is also used to generate delays. One-shot multivibrators are used for tuning some circuit or external component on or off for a specific length of time. so that when the transistor is turned "on". In other words. pin 7 is effectively shorted to ground.

In the application of the 555 timers in the monostable mode. a variety of sequential timing pulses can be generated. The astable multivibrator generates a continuous stream of rectangular off-on pulses that switch between two voltage levels. The other basic operational mode of the 555 is as and astable multivibrator (figure 2.10).8: The 555 as a monostable multivibrator. 24 . Those pulses will allow you to time and sequence a number of related operations. R2.14 Figure 2.When multiple one-shots are cascaded. The frequency of the pulses and their duty cycle are dependent upon the RC network values. and C1.693xC1x (R1+2xR2))««««««««««««««««««.1 x R1 x C1 (in seconds)««««««««««««««««««2. the frequency of operation of the astable circuit is dependent upon the values of R1.. the duration of the output pulse in seconds is approximately equal to: T = 1.2. An astable multivibrator is simply an oscillator.13 On the other hand. The frequency can be calculated with the formula: f=1/ (.

On the rise of the second clock cycle. It has 10 outputs. When RESET (pin 15) is taken HIGH. the chip will make output ³0´ go HIGH and remain HIGH. This process continues across the ten outputs and cycles to output ³0´ on the eleventh cycle. Output ³0´ goes HIGH on the rise of the first clock cycle.7 DECADE COUNTER The CD 4017 is called a counter or divider or decade counter.3.9: The 555 as an astable multivibrator 2. the counter will FREEZE on the output that is currently HIGH The CD 4017 is a divide-by-10 CMOS chip. 25 . output ³0´ goes LOW and output ³1´ goes HIGH. When ³Clock Inhibit´ (pin 13) is taken HIGH.Figure 2. The ³Carry Out´ pin goes LOW when output ³5´ goes HIGH and goes HIGH when output ³0´ goes HIGH. It is a very handy chip for producing ³Running LED effects´ which is scanning.

3. usually referred to as 0 and 1.10: the decade counter 2. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. figure 2. 1 means there is a voltage (usually 5 volts) and 0 means the voltage is 0 volts. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again. We can summarize the operation of this device in a 26 . and then open the file again. Restart your computer. So for an inverter. or the image may have been corrupted. If the input is 0 then the output is 1 and if the input is 1 then the output is 0. An inverter (also called a NOT gate) is a basic digital device found in all modern electronics. If the red x still appears.Minimum supply voltage 6v Maximum supply voltage 15v Max current per output 15mA Maximum speed of operation 5MHz The image cannot be displayed. it's output is the opposite of the input (Output is NOT the Input). as the name suggests.8 INVERTER (NOT GATE) In digital devices there are only two values.

Figure 2.12 shows the circuit symbol of the NOT gate table2.2.13 shows a circuit analogy. the output would be 0 if and only if both its inputs are 0. there an output when any or all the inputs have a high logic.13.The electronic symbol for 2 two-input OR gate is shown in figure 2.2: the NOT truth table Input 1 0 Output 0 1 Figure 2.3.truth table 2.11: the circuit symbol of the NOT gate 2.3. In terms of the switching conditions. Obviously. The above logic operation of the OR gate can be summarized with the help of the truth table given in truth Table 2. In other words. Figure 2. the lamp will light up (logic 1) when either switch A or B or both are closed.9 THE OR GATE The OR gate has an output of 1 when either A or B or both are 1. it means that lamp would be OFF (logic 0) only when both switches A and B are OFF. 27 .

The electronic (or logic) symbol for 2.9.The electronic symbol for 2 two-input OR gate 2. The AND gate has a µ1¶ output when both A and B are 1.3.14. Table 2.10 THE AND GATE The AND gate gives an output of a high logic only when all its inputs are high. 28 . Therefore.Table 2. Its output would be µ0¶ if any of its inputs is µ0¶.1: OR GATE TRUTH TABLE A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 C 0 1 1 1 Figure 2.12:.4 shows the truth table for a 2-Input AND gate.input AND gate is shown in figure 2.3. in the AND gate its output would be µ1¶ only if all its inputs are all µ1¶s true.

13: The electronic (or logic) symbol for 2. 29 . and those contacts are usually (but not always) normally-open. while the contacts closed or opened by a magnetic field set up may be able to conduct hundreds of times that amount of power to a load.1 AND GATE TRUTH TABLE A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 C 0 0 0 1 Figure 2. The contactor coil which produces the magnetic field may only consume fractions of a watt of power. so that power to the load is shut off when the coil is deenergized.10. The contactor was used as a means of switching either of the phases to the load.11 CONTACTORS Contactors are extremely useful when we have a need to control a large amount of current and/or voltage with a small electrical signal.3.input AND gate 2.Table 2. Contactors typically have multiple contacts.3.

From the block diagram of figure 2. The clocking of the counter is done via an oscillator configured using a 555 timer IC in a free running (astable multivibrator) The output of the oscillator is gated to the counter with the output of the phase voltage presence sensor. The eight . 3 and 5 are used to scan for the red. Low voltage detector for each phase. (iii). 1 THE SCANNING UNIT The unit is made up of a decade counter (4017) restricted to seven counts. the following units can be identified: (i).1. Switching and load interface unit 3. (iv).CHAPTER THREE DESIGN OF THE AUTOMATIC PHASE SELECTOR 3. 30 .output is used as reset to the beginning of the counting process. Count 1. The scanning unit (ii).0 INTRODUCTION This chapter is dedicated to the application of basic theories of electrical and electronic Engineering to the development of a circuit diagram that is capable of physically realizing the objectives of this project. Voltage presence sensor for each phase. yellow and blue phase respectively.

Each output Q0-Q9 goes high in turn as counting advances.2.1.1 Design of 555 Astable multivibrator The chosen astable The supply voltage The minimum current Operating temperature NE555 18V 20mA 0 ± 70 oC The frequency of the oscillator in Hertz is given as f = Choosing a frequency of 1Hz.1.3. given (R1 + 2R2) =     = 14430Ÿ Taking R1 = 470Ÿ 2R2 = 14430 ± 470 @ R2 = 13960 /2 =6980Ÿ 3.1. 31 . Counting to less than 9 is achieved by connecting the relevant output (Q0-Q9) to reset.3 connect Q4 to reset. and setting capacitor C1 as 100 F.2 Design of the CD4017 Decade Counter The count advances as the clock input becomes high (on the rising-edge). for example to count 0.

When a phase is encountered and thus in voltage. 32 .1:. the output of the phase detector produces a 1 which is then inverted to a zero and consequently disallows the clock phase generated by the oscillator to getting through. 10 seconds) 260 C The circuit diagram of the scanning unit is as shown in figure 3.1. oscillator) cannot get to the center except when the phase detection given an output of zero which is then inverted to 1. Figure 3.Power Dissipation (PD) Dual-In-Line 700 mW Small Outline 500 mW Lead Temperature (TL) (Soldering.The circuit diagram of the scanning unit The clock pulse (output of the.

2 Design of the bridge rectifier diode The chosen diode is Peak reverse voltage Forward voltage drop D3SBA10 800V 0.2 VOLTAGE PRESENCE SENSOR.7V This diode satisfies the requirement because the maximum expected voltage is far less than the peak reverse voltage rating. a filter capacitor and regulator.2.2.2.1 Design of the step down transformer The chosen step down transformer has the following ratings Voltage rating Current rating 240V/12V 500mA 3. This unit is made up of a step down transformer selected as 12V. 3.s Vmax = ¥2 12 = 16. 3.3. 300mA a bridge rectifier. The power supply unit is as shown in Fig 3.2.3 Design of the filter capacitor The maximum expected voltage (Vmax) = ¥2Vr. This unit is expected to produce an output of µ1¶ when there is power in the encountered phase.m.97V Peak to peak ripple voltage (¨ Vp-p) = 10% Vmax / 2 33 .

5) / š = 0. there will be no voltage in its regulated output.m.s / š = (2¥2 * 0. It can serve the purpose since its capacitance and voltage ratings are higher than the minimum values required (1531.45 / (4¥3 * 50 *0. If there is voltage in any of the phases.4 Design of D.97v).2. 12V T1 Mains 220V Output 25V 2200uF Fig 3. 3.03 F A capacitor value of 4700 F.8485) = 1531.¨ Vp-p = (10 * 16.c = 2 Imax / š = 2¥2Ir.8485v Id.97) / (100 * 2) = 0.C Power supply Two 9volts batteries was used as an alternative to provide the 12volt supply needed by this project in the event of A. there will be voltage at the output of the regulator. 34 .03 F and 16. The selection of the phase is done when the output of the counter closes and interface relay. 25V was used.C power failure.45A Minimum required filter capacitor value is given by C = Idc / (4¥3f*¨Vp-p) C = 0.2 ± Block diagram of power supply. when there is no power in that selected phase.

300Ÿ to be switched by an NPN transistor (BC547) with amplification factor ( ) of 60. IB = RB =     = = = 0. The interface relay selected in 12V. the base resistor requirement = RB = But IB = Then IC is the current that will flow when the transistor is saturated = 30mA So.3 35 .54mA 16600Ÿ R3 = R4 = R5 is selected as for the three phases.The output of the counter is approximately the supply voltage (Vcc) which is 9V. The circuit diagram of the voltage presence sensor is as shown in figure 3. Therefore.

3 LOW VOLTAGE DECTECTOR.3: The circuit diagram of the voltage presence sensor 3. 36 RE . The capacitor output will be high if the voltage is within the acceptable and low when the unit voltage is outside the range. This unit is made up of a comparator and two preset resistance which is used to set the reference voltage and sample of the output voltage to be checked. The minimum voltage selected is 180V. Since the output of the step down transformer is proportional to the input supply voltage the wider the value of the output voltage is a function of the unit voltage.Figure 3. This unit becomes necessary so that the power being supplied to the load is within acceptable limits (and hence trigger the load interface contactor).

3.834kŸ Therefore using angular variation to set the potentiometer 37 .4 3.8 = 12 R2 = R1= R = 8.The outputs of the low voltage detectors are combined using an OR ±gate which is then inverted and then used as a gating pulse to the scanning clock low voltage detector is as shown in figure 3.166kŸ R2 =10 8.1 Design of the UA741 Comparator VCC Supply Voltage Vi Input Voltage Vid Differential Input Voltage Ptot Power Dissipation Output Short-circuit Duration Toper Operating Free Air Temperature Range Tstg Storage Temperature Range Since Transformer (T1-T3) = 220V/12V Then setting reference voltage to (R10) to 180V V2 = V2 = V Where R = R1+ R2 = 10kŸ = 9.166= 1.81V 22V 15V 30V 500mW Infinite 0 to +70°C -65 to +150°C V2= 9.

3 Design of Resistor for Light emitting Diode = 5V = 25mA Output of Comparator Current Red and Green LED V = IR I= For Yellow LED I= = 300Ÿ = 0.3.3. 3.2 Design of the Light Emitting Diodes Parameter Power Dissipation DC Forward current Peak Forward Current Reverse Voltage Bright Red 120 25 120 5 Green 105 25 140 5 Yellow 105 30 140 5 Units mW mA mA V 3.3k 38 .

Gate propagation time: typically 30ns for a signal to travel through a gate with a 9V supply y y y y y y Frequency: up to 1MHz Figure 3. small fluctuations are tolerated Inputs have very high impedance (resistance) Outputs can sink and source only about 1mA Fan-out: one output can drive up to 50 inputs.3. 4049(INVERTER). 39 .3. 4081(AND gate) Supply: 3 to 15V.4 design of 4002(OR gate).4: low voltage sensor circuit.

The contactors selected are based on the load estimate.The current wiring of the switch and load interface 40 . the scanning moves to the next available phase and switch it to replace the failed phase. The combined circuit diagram of the automatic phase selector system is as shown in figure 3. the contractors used are D0910Q7 which has the capacity of supplying 25A. the unit is energized by 220V AC The current wiring of the switch and load interface is as shown in figure 3.5:. yellow and blue phase step down transformers respectively are also used to switch power to the Red blue and yellow phase contractors. Since these relays are energized only one at a time. In this project. There connections when energized supplies power to the load.6 Figure 3. RY2. As soon as the phase fails.4 SWITCHING AND LOAD INTERFACE UNIT Relays RY1.5. and RY3 which switch power to the red.3. then only one phase supply gets to the load hence the load µsees¶ only a single phase supply.

6: The complete circuit diagram of the automatic phase selector system 41 .Figure 3.

Transistor Interface Relay Transformer Step Down Value 800 100uF 2200uF 10k 470 6980 16600 0.3k 500m 18 3-15 3 -15 3 .Contactor BC 545 . Ÿ V Unit V F F Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ W V V V V V A 42 . 300 220/12 V.15 3 .5 LIST OF COMPONENTS Component D1 ±D21 C1 ± C2 C3 ± C8 R2.Diode Capacitor Filtering Capacitor Variable Resistor Fixed Resistor Fixed Resistor Fixed rsistor Fixed Resistor uA 741.15 25 60 12. R9 ± R14 R1 R2 R3 ± R5 R6 ± R8 IC6 ± IC8 IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 IC5 CCT1 ± CCT3 Q1 ± Q3 RY1 ± RY3 T1 ± T3 Description IN4004 .3.Comparator NE 555 4017 4081 4049A 4002 D0910Q7 .

operational amplifier and resistor for phase power indicator LED. The sequence followed was that the components got from the design analysis were bought and connected on breadboard to see their response according to the circuit diagram on a bread board. All units were tested to ensure proper functioning before it was soldered them on the veroboard. The Voltage presence sensors for each phase and low voltage detectors for the three phases were first breadboarded. capacitors. rectifiers. After it was tested it was transferred to veroboard for soldering. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 4. filtering capacitor. logic gates. diodes. The components were mainly CMOS types because of their low power consumption as compared to TTL logics. The transformers.CHAPTER FOUR CONSTRUCTION. diodes.0 CHOICE OF COMPONENTS The components used for this project are operational amplifiers. TEST. 4. regulators as well as discrete components like resistors. counters. 555 timer. regulators. light emitting diodes and transistors. The output 43 .1 FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY The system was divided into blocks and each block was tested to ensure that the desired result was obtained and it agrees with the characteristics desired for the design.

2 PACKAGING The complete unit is housed in a metallic box with lagoon blue colour measuring (410) mm x (110) mm x (250) mm (length. The unit was tested with the output of the counter connected to the base of the switching transistor. The output was monitored using and LED. The components were transferred to the veroboard for permanent soldering.after construction was tested with a digital voltmeter and reading shows that the performance is acceptable. The output line and the three phase input are also attached to the casing. height) having three LED indicator attached to it which represents each of the phases with the scanning power on toggle switch. The next stage was the scanning unit. However all malfunctioning observed were corrected by proper trouble shooting of the faulty section before proceeding to the next stage. The relays and contactors were connected. In spite of the successes mentioned above. The oscillator and the counter as well as the gate were assembled next. . 44 . The result shows a satisfactory performance. The components were connected on breadboard to see their response according to the circuit diagram. The section that followed is switching and load interface unit. breath. All connections were made according to the circuit diagram. minor difficulties were encountered after some blocks were transferred from breadboard to veroboard. The output frequency was fine tuned by adjusting R9. 4.

1 shows the front and back view of the packaged project.1: The photograph of the packaged project. Diagram of Completed Project Front View of Casing Figure 4.The cover of the casing is a little bit gaped as to allow proper ventilation and prevent external effects such as moisture. 45 . Photograph of figure 4.

aligning and inserting them. The tests carried out include connecting the three phases to power supply and switching off one after the other and systems response noted. Excessive heat was avoided during soldering because it could damage the components by soldering as quickly as possible so as not to exceed the temperature each component could tolerate. the terminals to be soldered were scrapped off to remove oxidation in order to ensure good connection. When the construction was completed. In the case of arranging the component onto a vero board.4 PRECAUTIONS Many precautions were taken in the course of the construction of this project so as to ensure a reliable result at the end of the project. 46 . care was taken in bending. 4. series of test were carried out to ascertain the performance of the project. During the soldering. 4. the component terminals are held with pliers for this will absorb most of the heat generated.Provision was made for connections terminals by proper drilling using drill bits and other cutting tools. This was found to be working perfectly.3 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS. Also.

4.5 BILL OF ENGINEERING MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION The cost of the electrical and electronic components employed in this design is shown in table 4. Table 4.1 below. 1 Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation QUANTITY 3 21 8 6 8 8 1 3 3 2 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 1 UNIT PRICE N 280 10 10 20 60 20 50 100 50 150 50 10 50 60 150 150 150 180 150 600 50 60 AMOUNT N 840 210 80 120 480 160 50 300 150 480 300 50 30 150 60 150 150 150 360 150 1800 100 120 1800 1700 9.940 COMPONENT Transformer 220V/12V IN4004 Resistors (fixed) Resistors (variable) Capacitors Ic sockets NE555 Relay KA7809( Regulator ) Wire connectors Veroboard Toggle Switch LED Transistors Plug 4002 4081 4082 4017 4049 Contactors Battery contact 9V battery Miscellaneous Casing Total 47 .

The system has been designed using locally available materials and the cost has been relatively minimized using cost effective circuits.0 CONCLUSION The design and construction of the automatic phase selector system has been successfully carried out. the system is relatively sensitive and reliable it is subject modification as explained in the recommendation for further work.CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5. the size of the contactors can be increased. control and management of phases in the power supply system. The system is one that will ease coordination. 48 . The system could also be adapted to switch ON standby generator when the three phases fails. The system when tested fully met the specification described in the preceding chapters and can be installed in real s(physical) installation. Though. The system was designed using discrete electronic components and integrated CMOS circuit devices. Should higher load is required to be switched.

Other circuit could be added to switch ON a standby generator when no phase is available and switch OFF the standby generator when any phase returns. A complete phase failure alarm could be incorporated into the system.5. 49 . 2. These areas include: 1.1 RECOMMENDATION Some more work can be carried out on this project to make it more versatile and efficient but will also make it costlier. The system could be interfaced with an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) to make sure that only voltages within the acceptable limits are supplied to the load. 3.

1989 ³The Art of Electronics´.com/tutorials/index.html. Comer D J.net//electricCircuits/Semi/SEMI_4. 18/04/2008 50 . 1995 ³Electronic Components and Materials´. Europe. 4. pp 17 ± 45.. 22/07/2008 http://openbookproject. McGraw-Hill press. Great Britain. prentice Hall.´Modern Electronic Circuit´.htm. 8. Holdsworth B and R C Woods µdigital logic design¶ (2002).C Chand and company. 2nd Edition.com. Ltd. New Delhi. Theraja A. 12. http://www.2005 ³A textbook of electrical technology´ illustrative multicolored edition. 13.K. Donald A Neamem µElectronic Circuit Analysis and Design¶ (2001). pp 375 ± 378 3. 9.com .discovercircuits. Charles brooks µmicroelectronics: devices and applications µ (1985). USA. pp 5 -30 6. Second Edition. 2nd edition.L. 21/01/2008 http://www. published by S. Paul H. pp-572. 13/03/2008 http://www. Barry W µthe essence of digital design¶ (1998).Eng Project)unpublished 2007.allaboutcircuits.(B.. Oxford. Theraja B. Published by McGraw-Hill Inc.England .. Cambridge University Press. 2. pp 45-52. 7. New York. Wheeler Publishing & Co. Essien Mmekutmfon S. national education corporation . 11. 10.. ³Design and construction of a human body resistance and temperature measurement device´. 5. 1975.opamp-electronics. Winfield H. Second Edition. Newess press.REFERENCE 1... Madhuri J A.

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