c

POSTLAUNCH REPORT FOR MERCURY-REDSTONE NO. 2

NOTE: This docwnent

GO

n unauthorized person i pro s

Project MERCURY
Space Task Group
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPAC
February 13, 1
L1

s z e
2

(ACCESSION NUMBER)

(THRUI

4
(NASA

//n
(PAGES)

COPIES
CR
OR TMX OR AD NUMBER)

(CATECSORYI

DOSTLAUlCH REPORT FCE HERCURY-REDSTONE

N75-75682 \

NO.

2(HE-2)

(NASA)

110 p

I
Unclas
00/98
29272

,q

"

POSTLAUNCH REPORT

MI~RCURY-RED'STONE
(-2)

FOR

NO.

2

I

Edited by:

<

J . B. Hammack

V Y - R e d s t o n e Project Engineer

I
Approved :

D. Hodge Operations Coordi &tor

Chief, F l i g h t Systems D i v i s i o n

I

Approved :

e h w!!! C, W . %thews

Chief Approved :

Operations D i v i s i o n

/J. A. ChamberliYi
ChiQf Engineering D i v i s i o n

y/%L&c
- I

Director of P r o j e c t Mercury

Proj ec t MERCURY Space Task Group
I

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION February 1 3 , 1961

TABLE OF CONTENTS SUBJECT 1.0
2.0
3.0

PAGE

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION VEHICLE DESCRIPTION 3.1 Ca.psule

4.0 5.0

MISSION RESUME CAPSULE PREPARATIONS AND LAUNCH OPERATIONS 5.1 5.2
5.3

9

12 11 12 14
16
16

Capsule Preparation Launch Operations Weather Conditions at b u n c h

6.0 TRA J W T O R Y AND BOOSTER PZXF"RFRIUAN.CE

8.1
6.2

Trajectory Booster Performance

27

7.0

CAPSULE MEASUREMENTS AND SYSTEM$ P ~ W O R W N C ~ 28

7.1. deasurehents
7.1.1 7.1.2
7.2

28
28

Accelerations Temperatures

31 33 35 37 40

Automatic Stabilization and Control 8ys tern (ASCS) Reaction Control System ( W S )

7.3

7.4 Environmental Control System

7.5 Electrical and Sequential
i

TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) SUBJECT 7.6
I'

PAGE 42 45 45 46
46 46

Communications and Tracking Systems Instrumentation 7.7.1 Telemetry ,System Performance Cameras Onboard Tape Recorder Peak-reading Accelerometers Instrumentation Preparation

7.7

J

7.7.2
7.7.3

7.7.4
7.7.5 7.8

46 47
47

Mechanical Systems 7.8.1 Pyrotechnics

7.8.2 ,Parachute System
7.8.3 Landing Bag Quick-Opening Hatch

47

47
47
48

7.8.4
8.0

AEROMEDICAL R E h R T
8.1
8.2

Preflight Operations Flight Recovery Equipment Performance Primate Performance

48 48 57
59

8.3
8.4
8.5
c

59
60

9. o

FLIGHT CONTROL AND MERCURY C O N T R ~ LCENTER
PERFORMANCE 9.1
9.2

Flight Control Telemeter Reception and Real Time Displays ii

60

61

c_
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)
SUBJECT 9.3
I #

PAGE 61
62

Communications Computer Operations and Trajectory Displays Mercury Network Participation

9.4 9.5

62 63 65 67

3

10.0

RECOVERY 10.1 10.2 Recovery Plan Recovery Operations 10.2.1 10.2.2 Retrieval Observations Performance of Recovery Aids

72
73

11.0

CAPSULE POSTFLIGHT INSPECTION
11.1 11.2 $tructure Capsule Interior

74

as
81
83
83

12.0

AMR SUPPORT, DATA COVERAGE, AND FILM =VIEW
12.1 12.2

AMR Support and Data Coverage
Film Review
12.2.1 Engineering Sequential

84 84 84

I

18,2.2 Onboard Film CONCL~J&I~)NS
APPENDIX 14.1 14.2 Capsule Telemetry Inserumentation Modifications to Capsule Instrumentation 14.2.1

13.0 14.0
c

85
86 86 88 88

Biomedical:.Instrumentation

14.2.2
14.3

General Systems Modifications

88
93

Computer and Data Flow Systems Operation iii

LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e No.
3.1-1 Title

Page -

..

Capsule No. 5 and t h e Escape System

......

4

3.1-2
Y

P r o j e c t Mercury Axis System f o r I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , C.G. L o c a t i o n s , and Moments of I n e r t i a . .

.....................

5
8 13
15

3.2-1 5.2-1

M - Booster-Capsule C o n f i g u r a t i o n a t R2 Launch.. MR2

................................. Launch Sequence .....................

5.3-1
6.1-1
8.1-2
8.1-3 . L

.................. Ground T r a c k . . . . . ........................ A l t i t u d e v e r s u s Range .................... Time H i s t o r y of A l t i t u d e and Range .......
i

Cape Wind P r o f i l e from Rawinsonde Run a f t e r Launch...........

18

19
20

6.1-4
,

Time H i s t o r y of ,Mach Number and Dynamic Pressure..

...

o . . : .

.......................

$ 1

6.1-5
.6. 1-:6
6 . I-? ' 6 . 1-'8

Time H i s t o r y of h n g e n t i a l Load F a c t o r . . .

22

Time H i s t o r y of I n e r t i a l and R e l a t i v e Velocity..

....... .......................

23
24 25 26 29

Time H i s t o r y of I n e r t i a l and Relative F l i g h t P a t h Angle

........................

Ground Track n e a r Landing P o i n t . . . . . . . . . . I n e r t i a l Velocity i n t h e Region of Fuel D e p l e t i o n and Tower Rocket F i r i n g Longitudinal Acceleration

6.1-9
c

7.1.1-1 7.1.1-2

........ ( E x i t ) .........

L

L o n g i t u d i n a l A c c e l e r a t i o n (Re-entry)

.....
..

30

7.1.2-J.
7.2-1

V a r i a t i o n of Outer S k i n and H e a t . S h i e l d . Edge Temperature with T i m e . . . . . . . . . . . . ,

32
34

:Gyro A t t i t u d e s d u r i n g Weightless P e r i o d . .

LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. 7.3-1 7.4-1 7.5-1 Title Reaction Control System Fuel Consumption.. Variation of Suit, Cabin, and Static Pressures with Time from Launch Page 36

...........

39 41 43

Time Histories of DC Current, DC Voltage and AC Voltage

.............................

7.6-1

Communications and Trar,king Sgs+,e=: Performance.

7.6-2
8.1-1 8.2-1
8.2-2
?L

.............................. C and S.Band Radar Tracking Summary ....... Chimpanzee Before Flight .................. Aeromedical Functions - Prelaunch Phase.. ..

44
49 51
52

:

,

High G Boost Aeromedical Functions Phase.....................,........-..*... Aeromedical Functions Escape Rocket Firing
r:

-

-

8.2-3

- Five Seconds after ......................

53
i :

8.2-4
'<
i

-*

Aeromedical Functions After Approximately 64 Minutes of Zero Gravity..

-

..............

54
55
.>

8.2-5
.
.>

.

Aeromedical Functions Force...

- High Re-entry ..................................G:

8.2-6
..

Aeromedical Functions Approximately 4 Minutes,After Main Chute.Deployment Chiqpaqzqe

-

.......

5 6 58

8 . 3,-1

- Wter ;f light;+*
c

9.5-1
<-

MR-2 Radar Angles as seen from Bermuda FPS-16.......... Chart of Recovery Operations

..........................

64
66

10.1-1

10.2-1.

io. +ai
Id. $4

.............. Capsule - Soon After Landing .............. Capsule Shortly Before Pickup,............
Capsule Being Placed on LSD, DONNER.......
V

69

70
71

LIST O FIGURE6 F F i g u r e No. 11.0-1 11.0-2
11.0-3 Title

Page -

Photograph Showing Broken R e t e n t i o n S t r a p s and Torn Impact Landing S k i r t

.......

75
76 77

V i e w of Cuts i n F i b e r g l a s s 3 h i e l d Beneath Large P r e s s u r e Bulkhead...... V i e w of Punctures i n Large p r e s s u r , e Bulkhead.. V i e w of Cspsule-Booster Umbilical.

..............

.................................

11.1-1

.................................
.................
............
” .

Interface

79

11.1-2 14.2-1 14.2-2 14 4 3-1 14.3-2

V i e w of Damaged Crushable Couch Bupport I3O k 35 C

.......................................
,

89
90
92

Time H i s t o r y of Temperature of 250KA.. I n v e r t e r d u r i n g Countdown. E@r&&QtnBJ&~.,Camera Alignment.

W r c u r y C o n t r o l C.enter, Real Time P l o t b o a r d

No. l . . . . . . . . . . . . O .

........................
a&aL

94

& r c u r y C o n t r o l C e n t e r &a1 Time Plotboard

No. 2 . . .
NQ. 4 . . . .

...................................

e5

Mercury Control mter

..................................

Time Pllotbostrd

vi

N O T I -E ----C -

RANGE ZBRO T I W FOR THE MR-2 FLIGHT TEST PAS
ESTABLISHED A 6 $654: 51 ZULU ( 1 1 5 4 : 51 E3T) OFF TIME WAS 1 6 5 4 : 5 1 . 8 2 .
a

LIFT-

EX(=-EPT W E NOTED, ALL HW

TIWES mFERRED TO I N THIS REPORT ARE PRESENTED AS
~ ~ A P S FTIW IN Y I N W ~ S D AND

swoms

FROM RANGE

ZERO.

FOR ELAMPLE, AN ELAPSFD T I @ OF

9

MINUTES

AND 3$ @3#3QNp8 PI&L BE PRESENTED

AS 0 2 : 3 1 .

vii

1.0

SUMMARY

The MR-2 f l i g h t w i t h a p r i m a t e onboard was made on January 31, 1961. The b o o s t e r burning r a t e was g r e a t e r t h a n normal because of f a u l t y t h r u s t r e g u l a t i o n . P r o p e l l a n t dep l e t i o n was reached 0 . 5 seconds b e f o r e v e l o c i t y c u t o f f arming and a b o r t s y s t e m t h r u s t chamber p r e s s u r e s w i t c h disarming. Thereupon t h e chamber p r e s s u r e switches i n i t i a t e d a c a p s u l e a b o r t a t 02:18.

The h i g h e r t h a n normal b o o s t e r t h r u s t combined w i t h t h e escape motor f i r i n g produced g r e a t e r t h a n normal c a p s u l e e x i t v e l o c i t y . E x i t v e l o c i t y was 7540 f t / s e c as compared t o a This greater velocity normal mission v e l o c i t y of 6465 f t / s e c . and t h e l a c k cf retrc f i r i n g ( r e t r o rockets a r e j e t t i s o n e d i n t h i s a b o r t mode) r e s u l t e d i n a range of 363 n a u t i c a l m i l e s , a maximum a l t i t u d e of 136.2 n a u t i c a l m i l e s , a p e r i o d of weightl e s s f l i g h t of about 6-1/2 minutes, w i t h a maximum r e - e n t r y a c c e l e r a t i o n of 14.6g. The m a j o r i t y of t h e test o b j e c t i v e s were m e t w i t h t h e following exceptions:
1. The l a n d i n g bag s y s t e m d i d n o t o p e r a t e p r o p e r l y i n two important r e s p e c t s : a. The h e a t s i n k s t r u c k t h e bottom of t h e c a p s u l e a t impact p u n c t u r i n g two h o l e s i n t h e lower p r e s s u r e bulkhead. b. The h e a t s i n k g r a d u a l l y broke away from t h e c a p s u l e because of f a t i g u e a c t i o n of t h e waves a f t e r impact a l l o w i n g t h e c a p s u l e t o e v e n t u a l l y l a y over on its s i d e . As a r e s u l t of these f a c t o r s , t h e c a p s u l e took on a l a r g e amsunt of w a t e r .

2. The s n o r k e l inflow v a l v e opened d u r i n g a s c e n t a t about 18,000 f e e t s o t h a t t h e c a b i n d i d n o t m a i n t a i n p r e s s u r e . With t h i s e x c e p t i o n , t h e environmental c o n t r o l s y s t e m performed as d e s i g n e d , w i t h t h e emergency s u i t s y s t e m p r o v i d i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y environment f o r t h e a n i m a l occupant. A l l o t h e r c a p s u l e s y s t e m s performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The primate occupant of t h e c a p s u l e w i t h s t o o d t h e f l i g h t w i t h no a p p a r e n t ill e f f e c t s , c o n t i n u o u s l y performing h i s given task. Recovery of t h e c a p s u l e was made 2 hours and 56 minutes a f t e r launch and i t was r e t u r n e d t o Cape Canaveral i n t h e a f t e r n o o n of t h e f o l l o w i n g day. P o s t f l i g h t i n s p e c t i o n r e v e a l e d t h e c a p s u l e t o be i n good c o n d i t i o n e x c e p t f o r t h e damage caused by t h e h e a t s i n k .
1

2.0

INTRODUCTION

The Mercury-Redstone F l i g h t 2 was t h e second of a s e r i e s u t i l i z i n g McDonnell-built Mercury c a p s u l e s and Redstone b o o s t e r s . These f l i g h t s are designed t o q u a l i f y . t h e W r e u r y c a p s u l e f o r o r b i t a l f l i g h t and as a f l i g h t s y s t e m for b r i e f manned s p a c e flights.

*

MR-2 had a m e d i u m - s i z d p r i m t e aboard'. The a a i m a l w a s s u p p l i e d and handled by t h e Aeromedical F i e l d : E a b o r a t o r y of t h e A i r Force Missile Development Center, HoIltoman A i r Force Base, N e w Mexico. Mercury-Redstone b o o s t e r number 2 and -. Merc-wy cz~psuLezuzber 5 compriaecl t h e fright s y s t e m . m e t e s t o b j e c t i v e s were as f o l l o w s :
a. Qualify t h e environmental c o n t r o l system and aietromedical knstrumentation.

b, QuaLify the automatic s t a b i E i m a t i o n a ' o n t r o l dc system, am3 asrsociktad camponents.
c. 2mpac t bag.

Q u a l i f y t h e l a n d i n g system, w i t h emphasis on t h e PsurtPstllly q p a d i f y t h e v o i e e eommunications system..

d.

e. QuiaIify t h e mschamical quick opening h a t c h t o be ased on the f i r s t manbed; dPight.
f. Q h a i n a c l o s & Ioop evzduation of t h e booster a u t o m a t i c a b o r t s e n s i n g system.
g , Obtain p h y s i o l o g t c a l and g&rform;ance data on a p r i m a t e i n b a l l i s t i c space f l i a t .

The S l i g h t p l a n w a s cbesigaed t 6 produ&e r hllistie: trajectory having z m a i m u m rItitude of atbdut 180. n a u t i c a l miles and a range of 234 nhutical miles. About 5 minutes of w e i g h t l e g s f l i g h t would thereby rksult, t o g e t h e r with a d.ece3sration of about 1 g on re-entry. 1

2

3.0
3.1

VEHICLE DESCRIPTION

Capsule

Mercury c a p s u l e number 5 with i t s escape s y s t e m is shown i n f i g u r e 3.1-1. The main c a p s u l e s e c t i o n c o n t a i n e d t h e p r e s s u r i z e d c a b i n , recovery equipment, b e r y l l i u m heat s i n k , and a l l of t h e major c a p s u l e s y s t e m s . The c o n i c a l a n t e n n a f a i r i n g housed t h e main b i c o n i c a l antenna s y s t e m , t h e drogue p a r a c h u t e , and t h e horizon scanner s y s t e m . The e s c a p e system c o n s i s t e d of a tower s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e , t h e c a p s u l e e s c a p e r o c k e t , t h e tower j e t t i s o n r o c k e t , a b l a s t d e f l e c t o r f o r t h e conical a n t e n n a f a i r i n g , ballagq, and an aerodynamic s p i k e . The major c a p s u l e s y s t e m s c o n t a i n e d i n Mercury c a p s u l e no. 5 were as f o l l o w s :
a.

E l e c t r i c a l power and s e q u e n t i a l I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n (Appendix

b.
made)

-

shows measurements

c. Communications. A l l communications s y s t e m s were onboard, b u t thebe w a s no p r o v i s i o n f o r e x e r c i s i n g t h e €IF v o i c e t r a n s m i t t e r s . The HF recovery beacon and t h e HF p o s t d e s c e n t a n t e n n a were n o t used.
d. Environmental Control. There w a s no p r o v i s i o n f o r measuring t h e h i g h p r e s s u r e oxygen o r t h e oxygen p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e in e i t h e r t h e s u i t c i r c u i t o r t h e c a b i n . A l s o , the water c o l l e c t i n g system was d i s a b l e d .

e.

Automatic S t a b i l i z a t i o n and C o n t r o l

f . Reaction C o n t r o l . Both automatic and manual r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m s w e r e onboard.
g.

Landing and Recovery Rockets

h.

A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e major c a p s u l e s y s t e m s c a n be found i n NASA working paper No. 138.

The f o l l o w i n g are measured p h y s i c a l d a t a which w e r e o b t a i n e d d u r i n g prelaunch p r e p a r a t i o n s of t h e c a p s u l e . Refer (Capsule t o f i g u r e 3.1-2 f o r a d e f i n i t i o n of t h e axis s y s t e m . maximum d i a m e t e r is l o c a t e d at Z s t a t i o n 1 0 3 . 4 4 . )
3

'C_

Y

3.0

VEHICLE DESCRIPTION (CONT'D)

a. E x i t c o n f i g u r a t i o n ( i n c l u d e s c a p s u l e , r e t r o p a c k , and escape s y s t e m ) .
(1)
(2)

Gross w e i g h t
CG location

3978.01 l b

Longitudinal Transverse Normal

-

distance from c a p s u l e m a x . d i a .
2
X
= =

66.07 i n -.23 i n
-.26 i n

Y

=

b.

Re-entry c o n f i g u r a t i o n ( c a p s u l e only)
(1)
(2)

Gross w e i g h t
CG l o c a t i o n

2541.06 l b

Longitudinal Transverse Normal

-

d i s t a n c e from c a p s u l e m a I d i a . 2 = 19.91 i n
X = 7.16 i n

Y

=

-.55

in

c.

F l o t a t i o n configuration (1)
(2)

G r o s s weight CG l o c a t i o n

2286.18 l b

Longitudinal Traneverse Normal
d.

-

d i s t a n c e from c a p s u l e max, dia. Z = 16.1 i n
X
= =

-.40 i n

Y

-.43

in

.Moments of I n e r t i a of r e - e n t r y c o n f i g u r a t i o n 2 Ix ( p i t c h ) 519 s l u g f t

Ip (yaw) IZ ( r o l l )
' 6 1

532 s l u g f t 2
271 slug f t 2

3.3

VEHICLE DESCRIPTION (CONT'D)

3.2 Capsule

-

Booster Launch Configuration

Redstone booster configuration is The Mercury capsule shown in figure 3.2-1 at time of launch. No change in configuration as outlined in NASA working paper No. 138 was made. The Automatic Abort Sensing System in the booster was operated closed loop during this flight.
c

-

7

Figure 3.2-1.

- MR.-2 Booster-Capsule
8

Configuration at Launch

4.0

MISSION R S M EU E
A

MR-2 was launched a t 1154 hours EST, January 31, 1961. chimpanzee was onboard.

The launch countdown was accomplished w i t h only minor problems. In t o t a l , approximately 4 hours of hold t i m e were r e q u i r e d . One r e s u l t of e a r l y h o l d s was a h i g h e r than normal r i s e i n i n v e r t e r t e m p e r a t u r e which then r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r h o l d t i m e i n o r d e r t o c o o l t h i s component. The weather c o n d i t i o n s were good a t t h e launch s i t e a l l o w i n g good photographic coverage. The boosted phase of t h e f l i g h t was abnormal. Because of a f a u l t y t h r u s t r e g u l a t o r i n t h e b o o s t e r e n g i n e , a wide open throttle cnniitiem e x i s t e d , and +,he e n g i n z cor;sr;;;;ed p r o p e l l a n t a t a r a t e t h a t produced g r e a t e r t h a n normal t h r u s t , and i n f a c t reached p r o p e l l a n t d e p l e t i o n 0 . 5 seconds b e f o r e t h e v e l o c i t y c u t o f f s e n s o r was armed. Because of p r o p e l l a n t d e p l e t i o n t h e chamber p r e s s u r e a b o r t s w i t c h e s gave a c a p s u l e a b o r t s i g n a l . Abort occurred a t 0 2 ~ 1 8 .
The r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t y of t h e b o o s t e r a t burnout was 7100 f t / s e c , r a t h e r t h a n t h e planned 6465 f t / s e c . The e s c a p e rocket was f i r e d when t h e a b o r t s i g n a l from t h e b o o s t e r was r e c e i v e d , adding an a d d i t i o n a l 440 f t / s e c f o r a t o t a l e x i t v e l o c i t y of 7540 f t / s e c .
The c a p s u l e and tower p i t c h e d about 160" d u r i n g t h e escape maneuver, a t which time t h e .05g s e n s o r was a c t u a t e d , s w i t c h i n g t h e ASCS t o t h e r e - e n t r y damping mode ( a t 0 2 : 2 3 ) . This a c t u a t i o n was caused by f o r c e s 0 1 p t h e c a p s u l e .

A f t e r tower s e p a r a t i o n (02:51), t h e p i t c h and yaw r a t e s were damped i n about 1 minute t o z e r 0 and a r o l l r a t e e s t a b l i s h e d T h i s v a l u e of r o l l r a t e is normal f o r t h e r e - e n t r y a t 9.50/sec. damping mode. The c a p s u l e r o l l e d a t an a t t i t u d e of -50" yaw for about 5 minutes.
t h e capsule s t a r t e d t o re-enter

p i t c h and +225Q

.

No commands were given by t h e ASCS d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . When t h e atmosphere, i t was r e o r i e n t e d b l u n t - f a c e forward by aerodynamic f o r c e s . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e ASCS c o n t i n u e d &S respond properly i n t h e r e - e n t r y damping mode. Thougb,rthe a c t u a t i o n of t h e .05g s e n s o r had n o t been e n v i s i o n e d f o r a l a t e a b o r t , t h e ASCS performed a s designed.
The c a p s u l e s y s t e m s performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d u r i n g f l i g h t e x c e p t t h a t c a b i n p r e s s u r e was n o t maintained. The i n f l o w s n o r k e l v a l v e i n a d v e r t e n t l y opened d u r i n g a s c e n t a t about 18,000 f e e t . The emergency s u i t s y s t e m , however, maintained a s a t i s f a c t o r y environment f o r t h e chimpanzee. 9

The chimpanzee w a s d i s t u r b e d very l i t t l e by t h e f l i g h t . H e t o l e r a t e d t h e peak a c c e l e r a t i o n of 17g d u r i n g a b o r t , 6-1/22 minutes of w e i g h t l e s s f l i g h t , and t h e peak 1 4 . 6 g ree n t r y SLcceleration, continuously performing h i s given t a s k . Capsule l a n d i n g w a s 363 n a u t i c a l m i l e s downrange, 109 m i l e s f u r t h e r t h a n planned. I t had reached a n a l t i t u d e of 136.2 n a u t i c a l m i l e s , 36.6 higher t h a n planned. The l a n d i n g a t 1 6 : 3 9 followed normal o p e r a t i o n of t h e p a r a c h u t e s y s t e m , The f i r s t e l e c t r o n i c bearing w a s o b t a i n e d a t 12 minutes and t h e f i r s t s i g h t i n g a f t e r l a n d i n g w a s by a i r c r a f t a t 45 minutes, a t which t i m e t h e c a p s u l e appeared u p r i g h t and normal. By the time the r.apsi~lewsrs p i c k & by helicopter a t 2 h o u r s , 56 minutes, it was l y i n g on its s i d e w i t h t h e c y l i n d r i c a l p a r t of t h e c a p s u l e almost submerged i n t h e water. A t pickup, t h e bag w a s shredded, t h e s t r a p s w e r e broken and t h e h e a t s i n k w a s missing. The c a p s u l e w a s d e l i v e r e d t o an a w a i t i n g LSD where t h e chimpanzee w a s removed, a l i v e and w e l l . Approximately 800 pounds of sea water w a s i n t h e capsule. L a t e r i n s p e c t i o n of t h e c a p s u l e showed t h a t t h e h e a t s i n k had s t r u c k t h e f i b e r g l a s s p r o t e c t i v e s h i e l d on t h e bottom of t h e c a p s u l e , which drove t w o b o l t ends through t h e p r e s s u r e bulkhead, The l a r g e r of t h e two h o l e s w a s about 0.16" i n d i a m e t e r . C o n s i d e r a b l e water undoubtedly e n t e r e d t h e c a p s u l e t h r o u g h t h e s e holes. In a d d i t i o n , water e n t e r e d through t h e o u t l e t s n o r k e l and t h e c a b i n p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e once t h e c a p s u l e t u r n e d on its s i d e .

10

5.0

CAPSULE PREPARATIONS AND LAUNCH OPERATIONS

5.1

Capsule P r e p a r a t i o n

.

Mercury c a p s u l e number 5 w a s d e l i v e r e d t o Cape Canaveral, F l o r i d a , on October 11, 1960, upon completion of s y s t e m s tests a t t h e McDonnell A i r c r a f t Corporation and s d s e q u e n t compatib i l i t y t e s t s w h i l e mated t o t h e Redstone b o o s t e r a t t h e Marshall Space F l i g h t Center. The p r e f l i g h t p e r i o d .at Cape Canaveral w a s d i v i d e d i n t o s y s t e m s t e s t s a n d scheduled rework p e r i o d s . The t o t a l p r e f l i g h t p e r i o d took 111 days, roughly 50 d a y s of s y s t e m s tests and pad t i m e and 6 1 days of rework.
A ii-mber sf changes were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n c a p s u l e number 5 a f t e r d e l i v e r y t o Cape Canaveral. T h e more s i g n i f i c a n t ones ape o u t l i n e d below:

1. H e a t s i n k s added t o i n v e r t e r s t o p r o v i d e d i s s i p a t i o n of t h e heat g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g long o p e n a t i o n .
2 . Twenty-one thousand f o o t b a r o s t a t s w i t c h e s f o r deploying t h e drogue p a r a c h u t e r a t h e r than t h e forty-two thousand f o o t b a r o s t a t s t o p r e v e n t early i n i t i a t i o n of t h e recovery .sequenoe d u r i n g a p o s s i b l e tumbling .re-entry.

3. The main p a r a c h u t e risers were t r e a t e d w i t h <aqrot‘crctive c o a t i n g t o p r e v e n t d e t e r i o r a t i o n of lortd - a b i l i t y i n the event t h a t H ‘ impinged on them during f u e l j e t t i s o n . 0
2 8 4. The 0.05 g i n v e r t e r bus t r a n s f e r s y s t e m w s d i s a b l e d . a C a p a b i l i t y of s w i t c h i n g t o t h e standby i n v e r t e r i n t h e e v e n t of AC power f a i l u r e w a s r e t a i r r e d . P r o v i s i o n f o r dbactivatiamg t h e a t t i t u d e gyros .at 0.05 ‘g w a s n o t r e t a i n e d .

5 . A l i m i t sMitch w a s i n s t a l l e d to provide p o s i t i v e means of iperiscope motor c u t o f f . a f t e r r e t r . a c t i o n .
6 . The c a b i n pres6ur.e m l i e I vailve was replaced w i t h one t h a t c o u l d n o t open u n t i l a head of 0.4’7 p s i .was reached. This w a s done i n an attempt t o reduce t h e leakage of water i n t o t h e c a b i n from t h e Pecovery compartment.

7 . P r o v i s i o n was made t o monitor t h e t e m p e m t u r e of the main 250 VA i n v e r t e r .
‘8. P r o v i s i o n was madre t o bypass the 0.2 g s e n s o r as w e l l as t h e 1Qsec timer t o provide a means f o r c a p s u l e s e p a y a t i o n i n t h e a , o r t mode in t h e event of f a i l u r e of t h e s e slensors,

5.1

Capsule P r e p a r a t i o n (Cont d )

9. Rewiring w a s done t o provide f o r an a d d i t i o n a l tower s e p a r a t i o n s e n s o r r e l a y c o n t a c t t o g i v e redundancy t o t h e l a n d i n g s y s t e m arming c i r c u i t .

5.2

Launch Operations

The launch procedures were a r r a n g e d i n a split-countdown of 250 minutes on one day and 390 minutes on t h e f o l l o w i n g day. The o p e r a t i o n s scheduled during t h e f i r s t p o r t i o n of t h e countdown were completed approximately i n t h e a l l o t t e d t i m e .
problems rnzountered diirLng t h e Pa-uacli day

caused t h e launch t o be delayed f o r t h r e e hours and 54 minutes. Minor d e l a y s were encountered because of a n o n o p e r a t i v e e l e v a t o r on t h e g a n t r y , t o o many nonoperational people on t h e pad f o r s a f e o p e r a t i o n , and o t h e r i n c i d e n t a l i t e m s . The ECS p r e p a r a t i o n s r e q u i r e d 20 minutes more t h a n w a s provided f o r i n t h e f i n a l p r i n t e d scheduze. This t i m e requirement w a s a n t i c i p a t e d b e f o r e p i c k i n g up t h e c o u n t , and t h e problem w a s r e l i e v e d by h o l d i n g f o r 20 minutes a t -60 minutes. During the l a t t e r s t a g e s of t h e count it appeared t h a t t h e 250 VA inverter t e m p e r a t u r e , which w a s s t e a d i l y r i s i n g , might be c r i t i c a l l y h i g h b e f o r e launch. A t -35 minutes when a hold was c a l l e d t o complete r e q u i r e d work, i t was found n e c e s s a r y t o repair a b o o s t e r t a i l plug c o v e r f l a p . I t w a s then d e c i d e d t o open t h e c a p s u l e and cool t h e i n v e r t e r . The h o l d r e q u i r e d t w o hours and 2 4 minutes. The count was r e c y c l e d t o -120 minutes a t t h e end of t h e h o l d . However, i t was jumped a t o t a l of about 30 minutes by v i r t u e of d e l e t e d o p e r a t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y accomplished. The launch occurred a t 1 5 EST. A sequence of photographs showing t h e launch is 14 p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 5.2-1.

Figure 5.2-1

MR-2 Launch Sequence

13

5.3

Weather Conditions a t Launch
A t t i m e of l i f t - o f f ,

t h e weather was r e p o r t e d as f o l l o w s :

.

Planned l a n d i n g a r e a : Clouds - . 6 coverage Waves 5 feet Surface winds 18 knots" Visibility 10 m i l e s

-

-

-

Launch S i t e C.louds .3 coverage Winds 9 knots from E a s t Sea . L e v e l P r e s s u r e 30.31 inches Visibility 10 m i l e s
~

-

-

-

These atmospheric c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t t e d good photographic coverage.
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6.0 6.1 Trajectory

TRAJECTORY AND BOOSTER PERFORMANCE

The t r a j e c t o r y d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s r e p o r t are based on t h e real t i m e o u t p u t of t h e Range S a f e t y Impact P r e d i c t o r (IBM 709 Computer), t h e quick look AZUSA, and t h e quick look GBI XN-2 radar d a t a . From l i f t - o f f t o about 0 2 : 1 3 , A U A w a s used Z S A t t h i s t i m e t h e A U A s y s t e m f a i l e d and t h e XS i n real t i m e . Between 02:19 and 02:25 i n p u t w a s s w i t c h e d t o t h e Cape FPS-16. t h e s e d a t a were unusable because of e x c e s s i v e n o i s e d u r i n g t h e escape maneuvers. A t approximately 07:17 t h e i n p u t w a s s w i t c h e d t o XN-2. These d a t a were used u n t i l l o s s of s i g n a l n e a r 10:47. The d a t a p r e s e n t e d in t h i s s e c t i o n are based on t h e f o l lowing tracking f a c i l i t i e s : Facility AUA Z S

Range Time. Minutes: Seconds
0O:ll 02:13 02:26

- 02:13
02~18
06:40

Cape FPS-16

XIQ-2

06:40

10:47

A comparison o is shown below:
-

L e planneb

and a c t u a l cutoff c o n d i t i o n s
Actual
._

Quantity Cutbff sig n a l

Planned

Difference
-00.85' -00.69'

Fuel D e p l e t i o n

L a t i t u d e , deg North 28020.95' Longitude, deg West 80012,19' Altitude, f e e t 198,967

28020.1 '

02 :18

Inertial Velocity f t/sec Inertial f l i g h t p a t h a n g l e , deg

7,408

80011.5' 218,000 Before A f t e r Abort Abort

20,033
592

8o o , o m ;
42.27O

1,042

40.680

1.61"

16

6.1

T r a j e c t o r y (Cont'd) Quantity Planned 6,465
48.30°

Actual Before A f t e r

Difference

.

Earth-fixed v e l o c i t y , ft/sec Earth-fixed f l i g h t - p a t h a n g l e , deg

7,540
49.540

635
1.240b

1,075

A comparison of a c t u a l and planned t r a j e c t o r y parameters
4A 0

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Quantity Range, n.m. Apogee, n.m. Zero g t i m e , min. Max.booster l o a d f a c t o r , g Max,capsule e x i t l o a d f a c t o r , g Max. e n t r y l o a d f a c t o r , g

Planned 254.1 99.64 4.89 6.23 10.94

Actual 363 136.2 6.60 6.6 17.0 14.6

The ground t r a c k of t h e f l i g h t i s shown i n F i g u r e 6.1-1 and t h e a l t i t u d e range p r o f i l e is shown in F i g u r e 6.1-2. Time h i s t o r i e s of p e r t i n e n t q u a n t i t i e s are shown i n F i g u r e s 6.1.-3 t o 6.1-7. In each f i g u r e t h e measured v a l u e s d e r i v e d from A U A and FPS-16 r a d a r d a t a are compared w i t h the p r e f l i g h t Z S planned t r a j e c t o r y ( z e r o winds) and t h e p o s t f l i g h t c a l c u l a t e d t r a j e c t o r y i n c l u d i n g t h e e f f e c t s of t h e b o o s t e r e n g i n e m a l f u n c t i o n , t h e e s c a p e r o c k e t burning, t h e actual measured wind p r o f i l e , and r e t r o r o c k e t s . P r e f l i g h t and postT1ight d a t a (based on t h e cuto3'L condit i o n s ) i n t h e t e r m i n a l r e g i o n of f l i g h t are shown i n F i g u r e 6.1-8. The i n e r t i a l v e l o c i t y %n t h e r e g i o n of fuel d e p l e t i o n and e s c a p e r o c k e t f i r i n g is shown i n F i g u r e 6.1-9. Smoothed Cape FPS-16 d a t a and r a w GBI Xw-2 d a t a were used t o hepiye veXocity. The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p o i n t s from XN-2 a t t h e t i m e of 02:19 are b e l i e v e d t o be e r r o n e o u s because of t h e method of d a t a r e d u c t i o n used. The i n e r t i a l v e l o c i t y gained from t h e escape r o c k e t is about 450 f t p e r sec. This is approximately t h e v a l u e t h a t would be expected f o r t h e s e f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s . A d i s c u s s i o n of t r a j e c t o r y computing eqgipment, d a t a from syqtem o p e r a t i o n , and P l o t b o a r d d i s p l a y s &re presented in t h e Appendixv 17

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6.2

Booster Performance

The b o o s t e r ' s p r o p e l l a n t consumption s e r i o u s l y exceeded t h e r a t e planned f o r i n t h i s m i s s i o n . Consequently, p r o p e l l a n t d e p l e t i o n o c c u r r e d 0 . 5 seconds p r i o r t o t h e preprogrammed arming of t h e v e l o c i t y c u t o f f f u n c t i o n , and 0 . 5 seconds p r i o r t o t h e disarming of t h e chamber p r e s s u r e s w i t c h i n t h e a b o r t s e n s i n g network. Thus, when p r o p e l l a n t d e p l e t i o n o c c u r r e d , an a b o r t s i g n a l was generated and s e t t o t h e c a p s u l e .

.

During t h e f l i g h t t h e t h r u s t chamber p r e s s u r e reached a maximum of 342 p s i a , dropping slowly t o 334 p s i a , a s compared t o 317.5 p s i a f o r normal o p e r a t i o n . Abnormal o p e r a t i o n of t h e r o c k e t e n g i n e was, i n t u r n , caused by abnormal o p e r a t i o n of t h e t u r b i n e pump f e e d i n g LOX and p r o p e l l a n t a s a r e s u l t of two f a c t o r s :
1. There was a malfunction of t h e t h r u s t r e g u l a t i o n s y s t e m . T h i s caused a wide open hydrogen p e r o x i d e flow t o t h e gas g e n e r a t o r f e e d i n g t h e steam t u r b i n e pump.

2. The hydrogen peroxide f e e d p r e s s u r e was above normal v a l u e . Normally t h e hydrogen p e r o x i d e tank is r e g u l a t e d t o a p r e s s u r e of 590 p s i g . I n t h i s case t h e p r e s s u r e exceeded t h e upper l i m i t s of t h e range of t h e telemetered s i g n a l which cannot i n d i c a t e p r e s s u r e above 600 p s i g . Booster s e q u e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s were a s shown below:
Time (Min :Sec)
1.

2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Flow r a t e s t a r t s d e c r e a s i n g F i r s t combustion p r e s s u r e decay A c c e l e r a t i o n drops P r e s s u r e chamber switches 1 and 2 closure Abort bus h o t Electrical separation Adapter r i n g v i b r a t i o n Abort from c a p s u l e I n t e g r a t o r c u t o f f and p r e s s u r e s e n s o r disarm

02317.6 02:17.6 02:17.8 02:17.8 02:17.8 02 : 18 02:17.9 02 :18 02 :18.3

The Automatic Abort Sensing System f u n c t i o n e d normally. No f a l s e s i g n a l s were generated, b u t t h e t h r u s t chamber p r e s s u r e s e n s i n g s w i t c h e s i n i t i a t e d an a b o r t s i g n a l when p r o p e l l a n t d e p l e t i o n o c c u r r e d and chamber p r e s s u r e dropped.

27

7.0 CAPSULE MEASUREMENTS AND SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE Capsule systems generally performed satisfactorily throughout the MR-2 flight, with three major exceptions:

1.

Failure to maintain cabin pressure during flight.

2. Failure of the landing bag system to perform satisfactorily.
3. Failure of the pressure vessel to remain watertight after landing.

A summary of measurements obtained and general systems performance is presented in the following paragraphs.
7.1 Measurements 7.1.1 Accelerations The longitudinal acceleration data are presented in Figures 7.1.1-1 and 7.1.1-2 fsr the exit and re-entry, respectively. The acceleration increased from 1.2 g at lift-off to 6.5 g at 02:17, the time of booster cutoff. At 02:18 the capsule began the abort sequence. Peak acceleration during escape rocket firing was 17.0 g. After escape rocket firing, the acceleration decayed to zero and the period of weightlessness began and continued for about 6-1/2 minutes. First measurable deceleration occurred during re-entry at 09:20, reaching a maximum of 14.6 g at 09:36 and decaying to 1.3 g at loss of telemetry signal (10:20) at Cape Canaveral. Examination of onboard records showed that drogue Chute deployment caused a pulse of less than 0.5 g at 10 :54 and that a 3 g pulse was experienced at deployment of main chute at 11:28. Throughout the flight, lateral and normal accelerations were small prior to landing.

Landing accelerations as recorded by the three peakreading accelerometers installed in the instrumentation pallet were as follows: Z (longitudinal) Y (normal) x (lateral) +20g o r greater* +3.5g +3.4g -4.7g -16.8g -7g *Amount over 20g is not accurately known because of instrument limitations. Both the maximum longitudinal and normal accelerations were roughly twice the values experienced in qualification air drops of the impact bag system in a rough sea condition. It was not possible to determine the sea condition, surface winds, and capsule attitude at impact for the MR-2 flight, but the rate of descent is known to be normal.
28

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7.1.2 Temperatures Thermocouples were i n s t a l l e d t o measure c a p s u l e t e m p e r a t u r e s as f o l l o w s :
1.

Outer s k i n temperature on t h e conicall a f t e r b o d y , I n n e r s k i n temperatune on t h e c o n i c a l a f t e r b o d y .
H e a t s h i e l d temperature.

2.
3.
4.

I n v e r t e r temperature.

Cabin a i r and s u i t i n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e s were also measured and are d i s c u s s e d i n paragraph 7 . 4 . Outer s k i n temperature, F i g u r e 7.1.2-1, rose t o a m a x i m u m of 310°F d u r i n g e x i t . Maximum o u t e r skin temperatuve d u r i n g r e - e n t r y was 255OF. T h e s e t e m p e r a t u r e s are as would be expected. I n n e r s k i n temperature rose g r a d u a l l y from an i n i t i a l v a l u e of 96OF a t l i f t - o f f t o 120°F a t 1O:OO and c o o l e d t o 114OF a t l o s s of s i g n a l (1.0:20). H e a t s i n k edge t e m p e r a t u r e , F i g u r e 7.1.2-1, d i d n o t r i s e a p p r e c i a b l y u n t i l r e - e n t r y , at which t i m e a maximum temperat u r e change of -OF was measured. The above temperatures are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t r a j e c t o r y flown. The i n v e r t e r temperature caused c o w i d e r a 0 l e c o n c e r n i n t h e p r e l a u n c h phase and i s d i s c u s s e d i n detail i n t h e Appendix.

31

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7.2

Automatic S t a b i l i z a t i o n and C o n t r o l System (ASCS)

I

A t t h e t i m e of c a p s u l e s e p a r a t i o n 02:18, t h e c a p s u l e ( w i t h t h e e s c a p e tower a t t a c h e d ) r o t a t e d about a l l three axes. The motions i n p i t c h , yaw and r o l l c o n t i n u e d a f t e r tower separ a t i o n , and a t 03:54 t h e c a p s u l e became a t t i t u d e s t a b i l i z e d i n p i t c h (-50') and yaw (225O) w i t h a s t e a d y r o l l r a t e of 9.5O/ sec. The e x a c t motions of the c a p s u l e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from 02:18 t o 03:54 are as y e t unknown because t h e r o l l i n g motions of t h e c a p s u l e made t h e a t t i t u d e measurements u n r e l i a b l e . The p i t c h and yaw motions were imparted t o t h e c a p s u l e by e s c a p e r o c k e t f i r i n g . The r o l l rate of t h e c a p s u l e r e s u l t e d because t h e .05g relay c l o s e d and p l a c e d t h e ASCS i n t h e dampiag and constant r o i l r a t e mode n o r m a l l y calied f o r d u r i n g ree n t r y . The closure of t h e .05g r e l a y r e s u l t e d from e i t h e r one o r a31 of t h e f o l l o w i n g :
1 .

I

( a ) Drag r e s u l t i n g from a combination of 3 . 5 p s i dynamic p r e s s u r e and t h e heat s i n k forward o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e capsule a t t h i s t i m e .

(b) (c)

Tail-off

of the e s c a p e r o c k e t f i r i n g .

C e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s r e s u l t i n g from capsuhe

rotat ion.
From 03:54 u n t i l 08:53, t h e c a p s u l e a t t i t u d e remainect approximately c o n s t a n t i n p i t c h and yaw w i t h a s t e a d y r o l z rate This r o l l r a t e is v e r y c l o s e t o t h e d e s i g n r e q u i r e of 9.5O/sec. ment of 10°/sec t o 12O/sec. There were no p u l s e s from t h e RCS d u r i n g t h i s t i m e i n t e r v a l . The measurements o b t a i n e d from t h e a t t i t u d e g y r o s d u r i n g t h i s time i n t e r v a l were s i n u s o i d a l i n a l l t h r e e a x e s and t h e amplitude and p e r i o d s were c o n s t a n t . See F i g u s e 7.2-1. I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e ASCS damped t h e p i t c h and yaw r a t e s t o aero a t about 03.54 and t h a t no rates i n p i t c h and yaw in excess of t h e boundaries r e q u i r e d t o i n i t i a t e AWS a c t i o n were e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g t h i s f i v e minute p e r i o d . A t 0 8 : 5 5 t h e c a p s u l e began t o respond t o r e - e n t r y aerodynamic d i s t r u b a n c e s and t h e ASCS showed t h e proper r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e d i s t u r b a n c e s . A l s o , a t t h i s t i m e , t h e c a p s u l e began t o t u r n around, and r e - e n t e r e d t h e atmosphere w i t h t h e h e a t s h i e l d p o i n t e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of f l i g h t . From d a t a o b t a i n e d , it appears t h a t t h e automatic s t a b i l i -

a

zation and c o n t r o l system f u n c t i o n e d as d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s mode
of o p e r a t i o n ,

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7.3

Reaction C o n t r o l System (RCS)

The RCS f u n c t i o n e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e m i s s i o n . Between 0 . 0 5 g r e l a y a c t u a t i o n and tower s e p a r a t i o n , t h e automatic system expended approximately 13 pounds of hydrogen peroxide. A n a n a l y s i s of t h e r e s u l t i n g r e a c t i o n of t h e c a p s u l e t o t h i s e x p e n d i t u r e of f u e l i n d i c a t e d t h a t a s p e c i f i c impulse of 120 sec was achieved. This v a l u e a p p e a r s t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y . The s y s t e m w a s n o t c a l l e d upon t o o p e r a t e f o r approximately f i v e minutes a f t e r tower s e p a r a t i o n . During r e - e n t r y approxim a t e l y 14 pounds of hydrogen peroxide were expended, and t h e f u e l w a s exhausted a t n e a r l y t h e same t i m e as drogue c h u t e deployment. The p u l s e d u r a t i o n w a s s o s h o r t d u r i n g r e - e n t r y t h a t i t w a s i m p o s s i b l e to determine sc Isp. The manus; system r w a s emptied 45 seconds. a f t e r t h e s i g n a l w a s given t o j e t t i s o n f u e l . The v a r i a t i o n of f u e l consumption w i t h f l i g h t t i m e is p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 7.3-1.
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7.4

Environmental C o n t r o l System

-

Although t h e cabin f a i l e d t o m a i n t a i n p r e s s u r e d u r i n g t h e f l i g h t , t h e emergency s u i t s y s t e m o p e r a t e d as d e s i g n e d and provided a s a t i s f a c t o r y environment f o r t h e a n i m a l occupant, F i g u r e 7.4-1. The f o l l o w i n g sequence of e v e n t s has been est a b l i s h e d as a r e s u l t of a n a l y s e s of t h e a v a i l a b l e data:

(a) During a s c e n t , a t 0 0 : 5 7 , t h e i n f l o w s n o r k e l v a l v e opened, p l a c i n g t h e s u i t c i r c u i t i n t h e p o s t l a n d i n g mode, and c a u s i n g t h e c a b i n p r e s s u r e t o decay t o a v a l u e s l i g h t l y above ambient through t h e n e g a t i v e p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e and t h e n through t h e open i n l e t d n o r k e l . T h i s c o n d i t i o n o c c u r r e d a t approximately 18,000 f e e t .
(b) The s u i t c i r c u i t m a i n t a i n e d approximately d e s i g n c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e f l i g h t .

(c) The c a b i n p r s s s u r e iwreased d u r i n g descent, a t f i r s t through t h e c a b i n relief v a l v e . a n d t h e n through t h e o u t flow s n o r k e l v a l v e when t h i s opened a t 20,000 f e e t . I t is b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i n l e t s n o r k e l v a l v e w a s o p e r a t e d e i t h e r by v i b r a t i o n o r by premature s q u i b f i r i n g . A t a c t u a t i o n of t h i s v a l v e , three e v e n t s p r o p e r l y occurred:
1. The emergency mode w a s i n i t i a t e d . board f i l m s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h i s .

On-

2 . The cabin fan was t u r n e d off 9s evidenced by a r e d u c t i o n i n DC c u r r e n t &tt h i s t i m e . 3.
The s u i t fan rkept o p e r a t i n g .

The s u i t maintained p r e s s u r e because of t h e oheck v a l v e i n *he i n l e t s n o r k e l v a l v e l i n e provided f o r t h l i ipurpose. The suit c i r c u i t w a s r e g u l a t e d t o 5 , s p $ i a , which i s above s p e c i f i c a t i o n , The p r e s s u r e traosduow was ind-ting 0.4 psi above normal a% launch and t h e r e f o r e t h e r‘egulator wae probably O p e r a t i n g abov6 t o l e r a n a d ,
The c a b i n p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e appears t o have o p e r a t e d as d e s i g n e d . P o s t f l i g h t tests i n t h e a l t i t u d e chamber showed i t t o be i n normal working c o n d i t i o n . Onboard f i l m r e c o r d s were used f o r this ; a n q l y s i a , because t h e r e are s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , d i r e c t - r e i a d i n g , p r e s s u r e gapges-.”on’cthe i n s t r u m e n t panel. Telemetry r e c o r d s of pressur.e are somewhat c o n f u s i n g because d u r i n g descent, t h e y show t h a t t h e c a b i n p r e s s u r e 37

7.4

Environmental C o n t r o l System (Cont'd)

w a s about 1 p s i a above ambient, These data are o b t a i n e d from t r a n s d u c e r s w i t h a range of 0-25 psia.-and w i t h an accuracy of
about

+ -

1 psia.

A f t e r t h e f a i l u r e of t h e i n f l o w v a l v e , t h e ECS o erated a s designed. S u i t and c a b i n temperatures ranged from 58' and 102OF a t launch, t o 6 6 O and 1090F a t l a n d i n g , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The c a b i n t e m p e r a t u r e reached a m a x i m u m o€ 115OF a t e i g h t minutes after launch.

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7.5

E l e c t r i c a l and S e q u e n t i a l

A l l d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c a p s u l e e l e c t r i c a l and s e q u e n t i a l s y s t e m s perTormed a s e x p e c t e d f o r an-h.t)ort maneuver. The t i m e of major e v e n t s was a s shown below: I
1.'

,

.

Lift-off

-

1154 :51.82 FST

Range z e r o

-

1154:51 EST
...

SEQUENCE OF EVENTS EVENT Mayday Tower escape r o c k e t Capsule s e p a r a t i o n Retropack J e t t i s o n .05g s i g n a l Tower j e t t i s o n Time of r e t r o f i r e s i g n a l Drogue deploy Main c h u t e deploy L o s s of s i g n a l ( p r o b a b l e impact) PRFtDICTED FwY TIME ZEm
,

ACTUAL TIME

FROM 'RANGE ZERO
p2:18.0 02:18.0 02:18.8 02:23.0 02:50.7 04:52.6 10.54.3 11.28.0 16:39.0

p2:23.32 92 :23.32 06 : 11.82 07:41.22 02.23.32 04 :41.82 09: 33.82 10:13.12

~

A t 00:57, t h e PC current started of 28?6 amps, and reached a low valud w a s m a i n t a i n e d u n t i l th$ beginning' of s T h i s r e d u c t i o n i compa'tibae with t'h?

ECB.

t o d e c , r e w e from a v a l u e of 25.3" amps. T h i s v a l u e t h e escape maneuver. changg h * . i mode of t h e
I.

.

I

-

Time h i s t o r i e s of c u r r e n t , Idc v o l t a g p , and AC v o l t a g e are p r e s e n t e d i n FigureL'x.5-1".' ;
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.

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7.6

Communications and Tracking Systems

The data reviewed f o r t h e YR-2 mission d i d n o t r e v e a l any major i m c o m p a t i b i l i t i e s between v e h i c l e and ground r a n g e equipment o r major problem areas r e q u i r i n g c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n .

The playback of t h e UHF v o i c e , as recorded a t t h e Grand Bahama I s l a n d S t a t i o n and in t h e c a p s u l e , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e v o i c e communication w a s f a i r f o r t h e ranges i n v o l v e d . See F i g u r e 7.6-1. For UHF r e c e p t i o n i n t h e Mercury C o n t r o l Center see S e c t i o n 9.3.
The t r a c k i n g data from t h e A t l a n t i c Missile Range radar s i t z s (teii C ziiif radar sthtionsj iocated a t Cape Canaverai, F l o r i d a ; P a t r i c k A i r Force B a s e , F l o r i d a ; Grand Bahama I s l a n d , and San Salvador, i n d i c a t e d continuous t r w k i n g throughout t h e t r a j e c t o r y from launch t o m a i n p a r a c h u t e deployment ( F i g u r e 7.6-2). I n m o s t cases t h e radars a c q u i r e d t h e target a t lout e l e v a t i o n a n g l e s and l o s t track a t Oo e l e v a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l , t h e C and S band beacons and ground radars performed as i n t e n d e d .

Retrocommand w a s t r a n s m i t t e d a t 04 :41. However, because of t h e a b o r t on t h i s m i s s i o n and a consequent r e t r o j e t t i s o n , c o n f i r m a t i o n by t e l e m e t r y w a s n o t p o s s i b l e . Telemetry t r a n s m i s s i o n was c o n s i d e r e d good throughout t h e m i s s i o n e x c e p t f o r occ4,sional d r o p o u t s which a f f e c t e d real-time d i s p l a y s a t t h e Mercury C o n t r o l C e n t e r . The UHF recovery beacon performed wela, as recovery a i r c r a f t i n d i c a t e d t h a t beacon s i g n a l s were receivcxj up t o one hundred and t h i r t y n a u t i c a l m i l e s a f t e r main p a r a c h u t e deployment (time of beacon a c t i v a t i o n ) .

UHF v o i c e T/R CW mode w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o perform w e l l . Recovery a i r c r a f t qpported r e c e i v i n a s i g p a l s a t a 50 m i l e ra;nge. T h i s mode is a c t u g t k q g t a n a l t i t u d e of @,OOO f e e t .

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7.7

Instrumentation

I n g e n e r a l , c a p s u l e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n performed very satisf a c t o r i l y throughout t h e f l i g h t . Photographic data from t h e three onboard cameras were adequate f o r e n g i n e e r i n g e v a l u a t i o n , and t h e t a p e from t h e onboard recorder w a s of good q u a l i t y .
The i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of the f o l l o w i n g :
1.

Telemetry

(a)
(b)
2.

Commutated c h a n n e l s Continuous channels (biomedical)

Cameras (a)
(b)

(c)
3.
4.

Instrument panel (16 mm) Primate o b s e r v e r (16 mm) E a r t h and Sky (70 mm)

Onboard t a p e recorder Peak-reading impact a c c e l e r o m e t e r s Telemetry s y s t e m performance

7.7.1

*

1. Commutated channels a l l ommutated c h a n n e l s o p e r a t e d p r o p e r l y throughout t h e f l i g h t , w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g exceptions:
*

-

(a) Commutator A , segment 20, o u t e r s k i n t e m p e r a t u r e t r a n s d u c e r and Commutator 'B, segment 19, heat s h i e l d temperature t r a n s d u c e r .
(b) Cammutator A and B, time-since-launch segments, i n t e r i m clock. The time-fron-launch c o u n t e r stopped d u r i n g p e r i o d s of h i g h a c c e l e r a t i o n a n d a p p e a r e d t o be runnkng f a s t d u r i n g f l i g h t . T h i s same r e s u l t o c c u r r e d - on t h e MR-1A f l i g h t and was e x p e c t e d on t h i s f l i g h t . Tlie q u a l i t y of t h e t r a n s m i t t e d s i g n a l s w a s e x c e l l e n t d u r i n g p e r i o d s of u s a b l e s t r e n g t h . The s y s t e m n o i s e was l e s s t h a n , t w o p e r c e n t and t h e decommutated data were a c c e p t a b l e .

.

2. Continuous channels a l l three c o n t i n u o u s c h a n n e l s performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . These c h a n n e l s t r a n s m i t t e d biomedical i n f o r m a t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g of EgG and r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e and depth measurements.

-

7.7.2

Cameras

1. Instrument panel camera O p e r a t i o n of t h i s camera was e x c e l l e n t d u r i n g f l i g h t . T h i s camera w a s p a r t i a l l y emersed i n water d u r i n g t h e recovery period. Salt water pene-

-

t r a t e d t h e c o v e r s and caused some dark l i n e s a l o n g t h e edge of t h e f i l m . The p i c t u r e s o b t a i n e d were s a t i s f a c t o r y and acceptable p r i n t s of t h e f i l m have been made.
2 . Primate o b s e r v e r camera - O p e r a t i o n of t h i s camera w a s s a t i s f a c t o r y . P i c t u r e s of t h e animal were o b t a i n e d The mirror normally viewed by t h i s throughout t h e f l i g h t . oamera t o add t i m e c o r r e l a t i o n w a s obscured by t h e couch, making t i m e C o r r e l a t i o n d i f f i c u l t .

3. E a r t h and Sky camera The p i c t u r e s o b t a i n e d from t h i s camera d u r i n g f l i g h t were e x c e l l e n t . Superanscochrome color f i l m w a s used.
7.7.3

-

Onboard tape r e c o r d e r

T h i s r e c o r d e r operated c o n t i n u o u s l y throughout t h e f l i g h t and a l l tracks recorded. When t h e recordBr w a s removed from the c a p s u l e a f t e r recovery, s a l t w a t e r w a s s t i l l d r a i n i n g from t h e case, i n d i c a t i n g a n i n a d e q u a t e water s e a l . The tape w a s washed i n f r e s h water, d r i e d , and tape copies were made. The data appeared t o b e of e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y .
7.7.4

PahL-read%n@accelerometers

S i n c e t h e s t a n d a r d Mercury i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n c o u l d n o t measure l a n d i n g a c c e l e r a t i o n , three peak-reading accelerL ometers of +20 g range were added. Data w e r e good, a l t h o u g h t h e y cannotube t ime-correlated.
7.7.5

Instrumentation preparation

S e v e r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s of equipment were necessary These m o d i f i c a t i o n s are d i s c u s s e d i n t h e Appenflix.

t o make t h e system f l i g h t w o r t h y

.

46

7.8

Mechanical Systems 7.8.1 Pyrotechnics

A l l p y r o t e c h n i c s f i r e d w i t h no a p p a r e n t m i s f i r e s . However, t h e c a p s u l e lower u m b i l i c a l d i s c o n n e c t d i d n o t s e p a r a t e @ee S e c t i o n 1 1 . 1 ) . As d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 7 . 4 , premature s q u i b f i r i n g could have caused t h e i n l e t s n o r k e l v a l v e t o open prematurely.
7.8.2

P a r a c h u t e System

gain prachu+,es openes at design

T e l e m e t r y records i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e drogue and 81+_f+_U&!S prQdEQj.ng p_y_gepfpd d e c e l e r a t i o n s . The c a p s u l e rate of d e s c e n t w h i l e on t h e main p a r a c h u t e n e a r l a n d i n g impact was 28 f t / s e c . A l l j e t t i s o n i n g d e v i c e s worked p r o p e r l y .

7.8.3

Landing Bag

The l a n d i n g bag s t r u c k t h e bottom of t h e c a p s u l e at impact p u n c t u r i n g t w o small h o l e s i n t h e lower p r e s s u r e bulkhead (see S e c t i o n 1 1 . 0 ) . I t is b e l i e v e d t h a t a t some t i m e a f t e r impact, wave a c t i o n f a t i g u e d t h e s t r a p s , b r e a k i n g them from t h e c a p s u l e and a l l o w i n g t h e h e a t s h i e l d t o s i n k . The reduced water s t a b i l i t y of t h e c a p s u l e without t h e h e a t s i n k caused it t o e v e n t u a l l y l a y o v e r on its s i d e i n a n e a r h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n . Water may t h e n have e n t e r e d t h e c a p s u l e through t h e o u t l e t s n o r k e l and c a b i n p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e s . The c a p s u l e took on a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of water. In f a c t , as r e p o r t e d l a t e r i n S e c t i o n 10, i t w a s n e a r submersion a t t h e t i m e o f r e c o v e r y . 7.8.4 Quick-opening Hatch

The mechanical type quick-opening h a t c h a p p a r e n t l y +performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y and no problems were i n d i c a t e d .

47

8.0

AEROMEDICAL REPORT

8.1

P r e f l i g h t Operations

In accordance w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e animal t e s t
program (NASA-STG working paper N o . 158), t h e MR-2 v e h i c l e had a chimpanzee occupant t o p r o v i d e animal v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h e s u c c e s s w i t h which t h e Mercury s y s t e m c o u l d be a p p l i e d i n manned f l i g h t . Chimpanzee number 65, f i g u r e 8.1-1, w a s s e l e c t e d by t h e A i r Force Missile Development C e n t e r ' s Aeromedical F i e l d Laboratory group as t h e primary f l i g h t s u b j e c t on t h e b a s i s of a complete p h y s i c a l examination and h i s psychomotor performance r e c o r d . H e weighed 37-1/2 l b s , w a s 3 years 8 m o n t h s o l d , and had no s e r i o u s i l l n e s s i n t h e p a s t s i x months. H i s general condition p r i o r t o f l i g h t w a s e x c e l l e n t . Pulse w a s 120 p e r minute, r e s p i r a t i o n 26 p e r minute, blood p r e s s u r e approximately 130/105 mm fig, Sensor i n s t a l l a t i o n and s u i t i n g s t a r t e d a t -9 h o u r s , 24 minutes on launch day. By -6 hours 54 m i n u t e s , t h e animal w a s i n s t a l l e d i n t h e couch. By -5 hours 54 minutes t h e couch was p l a c e d i n t h e c a p s u l e , and t h e a n i m a l ' s c o n d i t i o n monitored by h a r d l i n e f o r f i v e hours duri n g a number of h o l d s u n t i l j u s t b e f o r e l i f t - o f f . Throughout t h i s p e r i o d h i s p u l s e r a t e remained c o n s t a n t a t approximately 120 p e r m i n u t e . ResRiwation s t a y e d c o n s t a n t a t approximately 30 p e r minute and body t e m p e r a t u r e s t a b i l i z e d a t 99OF. The animal appeared r e l a x e d and showed r e s t i h g v a l u e s s i g n i f i o a n t l y less t h a n those o b t a i n e d d u r i n g c o n t r o l normal work p e r i o d s measured f o u r days p r e v i o u s l y .
8,2

Flight

*oughout t h e e n t i r e f l i g h t p e r i o d t h e animal was subm i t t e d t o two s i m u l t a n e o u s t a s k s upon r i g h t and l e f t hand l e v e r s on a p a n e l in f r o n t of him. A r e d l i g h t above t h e r i g h t lever s i g n a l l e d t h e requirement t o d e p r e s s i t a t l e a s t once e v e r y 20 seconds t o avoid a S l i g h t shock. N o r m a l l y , t h e animal d e p r e s s e s t h e lever approximately 60 times a minute. H e maint a i n e d t h i s r a t e throughout t h e b o o s t and zero g r a v i t y phases of t h e f l i g h t . During t h e r e - e n t r y and p a r a c h u t e flaqg,ernt t h e r a t e f e l l b u t d i d n o t d i s a p p e a r . A b l u e l i g h t abova, t h e l e f t l e v e r s i g n a l l e d t h a t a shock would b e ' g i v e a i n f i v e seconds u n l e s s i t w a s d e p r e s s e d . H performed t h i s r e a c t i o n t e s t e f a u l t l e s s l y respanding r a p i d l y and e f f e c t i v e l y throughout t h e flight.

48

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FIGURE 8 . 1 - 1

CHIMPANZEE BEFORE FLIGHT

8.0
8.2

AEROMEDICAL REPORT (CONT' D)

F l i g h t (Cont'd)

F i g u r e s 8.2-1 through 8.2-6 are 30 second segments t h a t have been e x t r a c t e d from t h e c o n t i n u o u s r e c o r d s t a k e n d u r i n g a c o n t r o l p e r i o d , a t m a x i m u m t h r u s t , immediately a f t e r abort, a f t e r s e v e r a l minutes of &Po g , d u r i n g max r e - e n t r y g , and during parachute descent, respectively. During t h e f i r s t two minutes and twenty seconds, w h i l e t h e g l o a d i n g s i n c r e a s e d , p u l s e and r e s p i r a t i o n also i n c r e a s e d , r - gking ne +,he 17 g esc~ipe thrust. Ecrfng the subsequent six and one-balf minutes of W e i g h t l e s s n e s s , p u l s e and r e s p i r a t i o n deGreased s t e a d i l y by approximately 20 p o i n t s r e t u r n i n g towards p r e l a u n c h r e s t i n g l e v e l s , w h i l e t h e l e v e r r e s p o n s e r a t e appears from p r e l i m i n a r y approximate c h e c k s t o have been m a i n t a i n e d unchanged. The animal w a s d i s t u r b e d by t h e o n s e t of t h e r e - e n t r y a c c e l e r a t i o n , c a p s u l e o s c i l l a t i o n s , and t h e deployment of t h e main c h u t e . During t h e two minutes t h a t these e v e n t s took place, p u l s e and r e s p i r a t i o n rates rose s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i . e . , from 100 t o 160 p e r minute and 35 to 65 per minute, r e s p e c t i v e l y . During t h e subsequent f i v e minute p e r i o d of 1 g d e s c e n t on t h e parac h u t e , t h e p u l s e and r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e d e c l i n e d somewhat.

---

Body temperature d i d not change s i g n i f i c a n t l y and couch of c a b i n p r e s s u r e , p r e s s u r e w a s maintained d e s p i t e 1 0 s ~

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8.3

Recovery

.

A f t e r recovery t h e hatch was removed and t h e couch viewed. Condensedmaistum on t h e i n s i d e of t h e couch l i d precluded clear v i s i o n of t h e animal, b u t movement w a s detected and he was heard making v o c a l sounds. I t is b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e f a n s were s t i l l running. A t 3 h o u r s and 50 minutes t h e ECS hoses t o t h e couch were d i s c o n n e c t e d and f r e s h a i r under p r e s s u r e was i n t r o duced through the ECS i n l e t . The n e a r hand h o l d c o v e r of t h e couch was removed a t 3 hours, 55 minutes, The animal was t a k e n from t h e couch t o t h e s h i p ’ s s i c k bay where a p h y s i c a l examina t i o n w a s performed ( F i g u r e 8.3-1). R e s p i r a t i o n was 32 p e r minute and blood p r e s s u r e , 130/90 mm H a s r e c o r d e d b e f o r e t h e g f l i g h t . The h a i r c o a t , eyes and ears, skin and mucous membrane were normal. S t e t h o s c o p i c examination of t h e h e a r t and lungs r e v e a l e d no abnormal sounds and t h e t o r s o and e x t r e m i t i e s were p a l p a t e d and no f r a c t u r e s or obvious i n j u r i e s were found. N o d r u g s o r o t h e r t h e r a p y were deemed n e c e s s a r y and none were administered. Examination of t h e couch on t h e DONNER f o l l o w i n g pickup showed one t o t w o t e a s p o o n f u l s of very r e c e n t l y d e p o s i t e d I t is b e l i e v e d mucous or vomitus which w a s f l e c k e d w i t h blood. t h a t t h e animal s t r u g g l e d and swallowed a i r w h i l e on h i s s i d e i n t h e water and t h a t he belched up a s m a l l amount when t h e c a p s u l e w a s r i g h t e d d u r i n g t h e h e l i c o p t e r f l i g h t . The blood f l e c k s appear t o have d e r i v e d from a s m a l l s e l f - i n f l i c t e d a b r a s i o n on t h e b r i d g e of t h e nose. T h i s f i n d i n g is c o n s i d e r e d a postf l i g h t o c c u r r e n c e and i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e f l i g h t i t s e l f .
A t 0830 EST on t h e f o l l o w i n g day, a n o t h e r p h y s i c a l examina % 2 ~ : ’ @ $ t j j ~ ~ ~ ~ w i n aperformed a t t h e Downrange Land-based i ds 1 ’ Medical F a c i l i t y on Grand Bahama I s l a n d . The r e s u l t s of t h i s more complete examination were t h e same a s t h o s e o b t a i n e d on t h e DONNER. I n a d d i t i o n , a c h e s t x-ray w a s taken. I t showed no a b n o r m a l i t i e s . A t 1300 EST, t h e a n i m a l was t r a n s f e r r e d by a i r c r a f t t o t h e compound a t Hangar S where on February 2 , he was f u r t h e r checked and found t o be normal and f i t f o r work on h i s couch.

57

*'

FIGURE 8.3-1

-

CHIMPANZEE A F T E R F L I G H T 58

8.4

Equipment Performance

The couch f u n c t i o n e d very s a t i s f a c t o r i l y and on recovery was found t o be i n p e r f e c t working o r d e r , i n c l u d i n g t h e psychomotor a p p a r a t u s . The e l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a p h s e n s o r s performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y though t h e r e was t h e expected marked s h i f t of b a s e l i n e d u r i n g v i o l e p t movement. The r e s p i r a t p r y s e n s o r w a s v e r y e f f e c t i v e and t h e r e c t a l t h e r m i s t e r performed w e l l . All telemetry c h a n n e l s o p e r a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t EKG No. 2 c o n t i n u e d t o g i v e t h e same low s i g n a l t h a t had been observed p r i o r t o launch. The couch envirbnmental d o n t r o l s y s t e m w a s very s a t i s f a c t o r y i n s p i t e of t h e m a l f u n c t i o n of t h e c a b i n p r e s s u r i z a t i o n s y s t e m . The animal i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and *. ., _ _ _ _ uenaviorai t e s t apparatus worked weii.

8.5

Primate Performance

Q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e animal w a s n o t d i s t u r b e d by t h e s i x and one-half minutes of w e i g h t l e s s f l i g h t t o which he was s u b j e c t e d . H e t o l e r a t e d t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n of e s c a p e motor f i r i n g a t t h e end of b o o s t e r burning and r e - e n t r y decelerat i o n , c o n t i n u o u s l y performing h i s given t a s k ,

59

9.0 9.1

FLIGHT CONTROL AND MERCURY CONTROL CENTER PERFORMANCE

F l i g h t Control

-

The Mercury Control C e n t e r (MCC) adequately s u p p o r t e d t h e f l i g h t c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n for t h e M - m i s s i o n , however, w i t h R2 r e s p e c t t o i m p l i c a t i o n s o r t h e performance of t h e s e f u n c t i o n s f o r an o r b i t a l mission a number of problems were e v i d e n t . These problems were a s s o c i a t e d b o t h w i t h equipment d e s i g n and o p e r a t i o n a l procedures. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n given i n t h i s s e c t i o n , a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n S e c t i o n 14.

.
60

9.2

Telemeter Reception and Real Time D i s p l a y s

A l l t e l e m e t r y equipment f u n c t i o n e d c o r r e c t l y w i t h t h e f o l lowing e x c e p t i o n s . A t 00:12 t h e MCC TLM 18 l o s t t r a c k and b o t h c a p s u l e t e l e m e t r y l i n k s and b o o s t e r t e l e m e t r y dropped t o less t h a n 1 m i c r o v o l t f o r about 0 . 6 seconds. The Telemetry S u p e r v i s o r immediately s w i t c h e d t o TEL-2 d a t a , b u t was unable t o a v o i d a miscount on t h e decsmmutator which caused a l l t h e c o n t r o l r e l a y s on t h e Mission Event Sequence Panel (MESP) t o l a t c h up. The panel w a s reset and c o r r e c t i n d i c a t i o n o b t a i n e d . TWQ f u r t h e r miscounts were o b t a i n e d , a t 02:19 and 02:35, w i t h t h e same r e s u l t a s above.

The problem of an erroneous d i s p l a y r e s u l t i n g from a m i s ce-d~t + h a r lv u r r ml ~*wne. lrm-..re~ nn w y k-P--+In4-4--4---A u n u ~ auu -*--have been taken t o i n c o r p o r a t e a n automatic s i g n a l l e v e l sens i n g d e v i c e t o e l i m i n a t e a miscount from g i v i n g a n i n c o r r e c t i n d i c a t i o n on t h e MESP, and t o t h e Goddard computers. A t 02:18 t h e s o u r c e of d a t a was switched from TEL-2 t o GBP u n t i l 0 3 ~ 1 3 , r e t u r n e d t o MCC d a t a s o u r c e a t 0 3 ~ 1 3 n t i l 07:23, t h e n t o GBI u u n t i l l o s s of s i g n a l a t 10:23, i n o r d e r to d i s p l a y t h e b e s t s i g n a l a v a i l a b l e . The h e a r t r a t e and r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e d e r i v e d from t e l e m e t e r e d EKG and r e s p i r a t i o n gave erroneous r e a d i n g s throughout t h e f l i g h t . However, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was d e r i v e d w i t h some t i m e delay from t h e s t r i p c h a r t s and a u d i o s i g n a l . T h i s problem is being i n v e s t i g a t e d and s t e p s w i l l be t a k e n t o improve t h i s d i s p l a y .
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9.3

Communications

I n t e ~ o o m m u n i c a t i o n sw i t h i n t h e c o n t r o l c e n t e r , and a l l communications w i t h t h e blockhouse, t h e medical f a c i l i t i e s a t t h e Cape, G B I , and t h e Goddard f a c i l i t i e s were e x c e l l e n t d u r i n g t h e mission. During t h e countdown, a l i n e t o Goddard became noisy which n e c e s s i t a t e d s w i t c h i n g t o a n a l t e r n a t e l i n k . Communication between t h e MCC and Recovery Task Force was good a t a l l times. During t h e post recovery phase a l a c k of adequate u p d a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t e d between t h e MCC and p e r s o n n e l i n t h e recovery area.

.
61

9.3

Communications (Cont ' d )

a

U F r e c e p t i o n a t TEL-2 w a s good throughout t h e m i s s i o n and H w a s used f o r t h e A i r t o Ground v o i c e l i n k by t h e MCC. A problem w i t h U F r e c e p t i o n by t h e MCC TLM-18 a n t e n n a w a s d e t e c t e d p r i o r H t o l i f t o f f . A r e a d a b l e s i g n a l c o u l d be o b t a i n e d by s l e w i n g t h e TLM-18 a n t e n n a t o g i v e o f f - a x i s s i g n a l r e c e p t i o n . Because of t h e narrow beamwidth, such a c t i o n w a s l i m i t e d s i n c e it d e t e r i o H r a t e d t h e t e l e m e t r y reception. This r e s u l t e d i n t h e U F communication r e c e i v e d by the MCC TLM-18 b e i n g u n r e a d a b l e u h t i l 01:30. A f t e r t h i s t i m e , UHF r e c e p t i o n w a s good u n t i l l o s s of s i g n a l . The s i g n a l a t GBI was unreadable a t a l l times d u r i n g t h e f l i g h t e x c e p t f o r a 20-second p e r i o d between 02:30 and
02:m.
9.4

Computer O p e r a t i o n and Trajectory D i s p l a y s

Launch computing subskstem checkout on X-1 day and on launch day p r i o r t o T-0 i n d i c a t e d correct f u n c t i o n i n g of a l l equipment. During t h e s e t e s t s b o t h computers a t Goddard were u t i l i z e d , with f r e q u e n t s w i t c h i n g of d a t a o u t p u t from "A': t o 'fBc' computer. A t a l l 3 i m e s t h e t r a n s i t i o n w a s smooth and s a t i s f a c t o r y . During launch a l l computing equipment and d i s plays functioned s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Both computers a t Goddard were i n o p e r a t i o n . The need t o s w i t c h o u t p u t d i d n o t a r i s e , t h e r e f o r e t h e 'tAY computer was used throughout t h e mission. The l o s s of A U A d a t a and subsequent s w i t c h i n g t o Cape FPS-16 Z S j u s t p r i o r t o a b o r t gave e r r a t i c d i s p l a y s a t t h i s t i m e . This problem is b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a smooth t r a n s i t i o n when d a t a sources are s w i t c h e d . Changes i n t h e computer program w i l l be made i n an attempt t o minimize t h e need f o r manual o v e r r i d e s i g n a l s t o t h e computer. Because of t h e except i o n a l overspeed c o n d i t i o n s a t k a i n e d , t h e m a x i m u m s c a l i n g f a c t o r s i n t h e computer program +ere exceeded. These had been provided t o correspond w i t h m a x i m u m p l o t b o a r d t r a v e r s e . A computer program change w i l l be made t o h s u r e d i g i t a l t r a j e c t o r y d i s p l a y s on t h e F l i g h t Dynamics O f f i c e r ' s c o n s o l e are n o t l i m i t e d by p l o t b o a r d t r a v e r s e c a p a b i l i t y . Change of p l o t b o a r d s c a l e w i l l a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n .

9.5

Mercury Network P a r t i c i p a t i o n

.

Advantage w a s t a k e n of t h e o p p o r t u n i t y provided by t h e MR-2 f l i g h t t o e x e r c i s e , i n a p a s s i v e manner, t h e f a c i l i t i e s of t h e Bermuda S t a t i o n , t h e s t a t i o n a t Grand Turk, and one of t h e s h i p s t a t i o n s berthed i n J a c k s o n v i l l e harbor.

9.3

Mercury Network P a r t i c i p a t i o n (Cont' d)

.

Bermuda a c q u i s i t i o n a i d locked on a u t o m a t i c a l l y , e n a b l i n g t e l e m e t r y , 9-band and C-band.radar data, and UHF v o i c e t o be recorded. F i g u r e 9.5-1 shows azimuth, s l a n t r a n g e and e l e v a t i o n a n g l e of t h e trajectory from Bermuda. T i m e s of a c q u i s i t i o n are i n d i c a t e d on t h e f i g u r e , T h i s is beyond t h e e x p e c t e d performance of these s y s t e m s . The data r e c e i v e d w a s c o n s i d e r e d good f o r t h i s range. The s h i p i n J a c k s o n v i l l e a l s o a c q u i r e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y ; t e l e m e t r y and UHF v o i c e w a s r e c e i v e d . D a t a was r e c e i v e d by t h e Grand Turk S t a t i o n , t h e q u a l i t y of which is unknown a t t h i s t i m e . T h e s e e v e n t s are c o n s i d e r e d encour a g i n g , and s u g g e s t t h a t t h e problem of a c u i s i t i o n by Bermuda, so e s s e n t i a i i n an A t i a s mission, may not prove t o be as f o r m i d a b l e as had been o r i g i n a l l y conceived.

.
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10.0 * 1 0 . 1 Recovery Plan

RECOVERY

.

Recovery f o r c e s were p r e p o s i t i o n e d i n t h e planned l a n d i n g areas as shown i n F i g u r e 10.1-1. The f i v e a i r b o r n e a i r c r a f t on S t a t i o n s 1 through S t a t i o n 5 provided t h e primary c a p a b i l i t y f o r l o c a t i n g t h e c a p s u l e through t h e u s e of e l e c t r o n i c d i r e c t i o n In t h e p r i m a r y and secondary l a n d i n g areas, f i n d i q g equipment. t h e d e s t r o y e r s i n Q o s i t i o n s DD1 through DD6, and h e l i c o p t e r s - from t h e LSD had t h e c a p q b i l i t y of r e t r i e v i n g t h e c a p a u f e . In t h e e v e n t of a l a n d i n g i n t h e launch s i t e recovery a r e a , ' h e l i . c o p t e r s o p e r a t i n g from-Cape Canaveral provided t h e primary mgans of c a p s u l e retrXGua1. Three l a n d convoys provided a L-elr**+ I . uauaup 4 Au bAAG of 2 land l a n d i n g in the Cape Canaverai area. %?&e. LARC v e h i c l e i n each land convoy had, amphibious andLrough t e r r a i n maneuvering c a p a b i l i t y t o retrb'eve Che c a w u l e . The A S v e s s e l and two T-boats provided altaackup i n t h e W e p t of 8 R water landingLlaxid had t h e c a p a b i l i t y a f r e t r i e v i h g t h e c a p s u l e from t h e o f f s h o r e p o r t i o n of t h e 1 a u n o h : s i t e l a n d i n g area.
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The Recovery Task FarcelCommander was l o c a t e d in t h e Merc?wy .Control Center and the primary means of communicating w i t h t h e , r e c o v e r y f o r c e s was by v o i c e r a d i o . The downrange Recovery Area Cammander was on b o a r 4 t h e d e s t r o y e r i n S t a t i o n 5 . The k , c h s i t e Recovery Area Commander w a s l o c a t e d i'a a h e l i wq b c o p t e r @ r k o r n e ,%B t h e v i c i n i t y of Cape Canaveral

.

65

ff6

10.2

Recovery Operations

A t t h e t i m e of launch t h e p r e d i c t e d l a n d i n g p o i n t based upon wind i n f o r m a t i o n t a k e n a t approximately -6 hours w a s about e i g h t m i l e s downrange of t h e nominal no wind l a n d i n g p o s i t i o n (see F i g u r e 1 0 , l - l ) o The three downrange s h i p s adj u s t e d t h e i r prelaunch p o s i t i o n about s i x m i l e s t o t h e east t o account f o r t h e p r e d i c t e d wind e f f e c t s . Launch s i t e recovery f o r c e s were p o s i t i o n e d t o cover t h e p r e d i c t e d l a n d i n g c o r r i d o r (based on measured winds) which s t a r t e d about 2 , 6 0 0 f e e t s o u t h w e s t of t h e launch pad and passed across t h e beach t o seaward about 3,500 f e e t s o u t h of t h e launch pad.
Adequate countdown informaxion w a s r e c e i v e d by t h e downr a n g e recovery f o r c e s and t h e y were a b l e t o a d j u s t t o a l l h o l d s i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner. A t 3 minutes t h e recovery f o r c e s were informed of t h e t i m e of l i f t - o f f and a t 1 minutes t h e y 1 were alerted t o a p o s s i b l e o v e r f l i g h t of t h e planned l a n d i n g area. A t 17 minutes t h e i n i t i a l c a l c u l a t e d l a n d i n g p o s i t i o n and s e a r c h area w a s e s t a b l i s h e d a t 26O21'N, 74"lO'W based on IP-709 computer r e s u l t s . A t approximately 12 minutes downrange a i r c r a f t r e c e i v e d UHF-DF s i g n a l s from t h e recovery beacon apjiarently w h i l e t h e c a p s u l e w a s descending on t h e main parac h u t e . A f t e r h o l d i n g t h e s i g n a l for from two t o three minutes and o b t a i n i n g good i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and b e a r i n g s , t h e s i g n a l w a s l o s t by a l l a i r c r a f t . This l o s s of s i g n a l could have been caused by any one or a l l of t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : Capsule descending below l i n e of s i g h t , change i n s i g n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as c a p s u l e approached water, o r l o s s i n t r a n s m i s s i o n immediately a f t e r l a n d i n g when, based o n r e s u l t s from p r e v i o u s l a n d i n g dynamics tests i t c a n be expected t h a t t h e t o p of t h e c a p s u l e w i l l be t e m p o r a r i l y immersed under water. With t h e h e l p of t h e e s t a b l i s h e d search a r e a , t h e a i r c r a f t were q u i c k l y a b l e t o UHF-DF contact, and o r i e n t t h e i r s e a r c h downrange, - e s t a b l i s h home i n on t h e c a p s u l e . The a i r c r a f t from S t a t i o n 3 r e p o r t e d v i s u a l s i g h t i n g and on t o p a t 44 minutes. Other a i r c r a f t a r r i v e d on t h e s c e n e s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . D e s t r o y e r s from S t a t i o n s 5 and 6 and t h e LSD proceeded toward t h e l a n d i n g p o s i t i o n a t b e s t speed. V i s u a l s u r v e i l l a n c e of t h e c a p s u l e while r e t r i e v a l f o r c e s were on t h e way i n d i c a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s :

Time Prom Launch

Flotation Attitude Upright and normal Appeared t o be l i s t i n g L i s t r a n g l e e s t i m a t e d a t 40° from v e r t i c a l L i s t a n g l e e s t i m a t e d a t 80° from v e r t i c a l

.

45 min t o 1 hour, 26 n i n 1 hour 26 min 1 hour 51 min
2 hours 6 min

67

7

10.2

Becovery O p e r a t i o n s (Cont ' d)
A photograph of t h e c a p s u l e taken from an a i r c r a f t d u r i n g

t h e f i r s t t i m e p e r i o d is shown as F i g u r e 10.2-1,

and d u r i n g

t h e l a s t t i m e p e r i o d as Figure 10.2-2. H e l i c o p t e r s were launched t o a r r i v e a t t h e l a n d i n g p o s i t i o n as e a r l y as p r a c t i c a b l e , s h i p s c o n t i n u e d t o c l o s e a t m a x i m u m speed and t h e f i r s t u n i t on s c e n e w a s d i r e c t e d t o r e t r i e v e . A t 2 hours 56 minutes, t h e c a p s u l e w a s r e t r i e v e d from t h e water by h e l i c o p t e r and p l a c e d on t h e LSD at 3 hours 47 minutes ( F i g u r e 10.2-3).

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10.2.1

R e t r i e v a l Observations

The h e l i c o p t e r s and a l s o t h e d e s t r o y e r a r r i v i n g on s c e n e observed t h e l i s t angle So have i n c r e a s e d t o about 90° s h o r t l y b e f o r e pickup was made. The open end of t h e c y l i n d r i c a l p a r t of t h e c a p s u l e was mostly submerged w i t h t h e t o p of t h e unsubmerged p o r t i o n a n e s t i m a t e d 5 t o 8 i n c h e s o u t of t h e water. Upon a r r i v a l on t h e c a p s u l e scene t h e d e s t r o y e r measured t h e following conditions: Wave h e i g h t Wind

3 to 4 feet

20 k n o t s (and d i m i n i s h i n g )

Uprrn pickuy? b t h e helizsptelr. o b s e r v e r s aboard j r t h e d e s t r o y e r (which w a s 150 y a r d s away) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e heat s h i e l d w a s missing. The pickup h e l i c o p t e r p i l o t r e p o r t e d t h a t what he thought to be a l a r g e p o r t i o n of t h e l a n d i n g s k i r t w a s t o r n s o t h a t i t w a s hanging down and t h a t t h i s l a r g e p i e c e t o r e completely away s h o r t l y a f t e r l i f t o f f ,.

The h e l i c o p t e r p i l o t had t o d i p h i s recovery hook b e n e a t h t h e water s u r f a c e t o engage t h e nylon l i f t i n g l o o p , however, hookup w a s made w i t h i n l t w s minutes. The h e l i c o p t e r p i l o t r e p o r t e d t h a t n o t h i n g unusual w a s n o t i c e d c o n c e r n i n g h i s f e e l of t h e h e l i c o p t e r ' s response w h i l e t h e c a p s u l e w a s b e i n g l i f t e d o u t of t h e water. Pieces of t h e s k i r t were observed t o tear away p e r i o d i c a l l y during t h e r e t u r n f l i g h t . Upon r e t u r n t o t h e LSD an e x c e l l e n t c a p s u l e l a n d i n g w a s e f f e c t e d on t h e r e c e i v i n g p a l l e t and t h e r i g w a s immediately p u l l e d forward t o a l l o w c a p s u l e i n s p e c t i o n and animal removal. Except f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e impact s k i r t w a s t o r n away a few i n c h e s below t h e c a p s u l e , no c a p b u l e damage w a s a p p a r e n t . The h a t c h w a s removed w i t h i n one minute and t h e animal w a s heard making n o i s e s i n d i c a t i v e of h i s being very d c h a l i v e . The c a p s u l e w a s observed t o c o n t a i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e m o u n t of water and t h e water l e v e l w a s e s t i m a t e d at being about f o u r i n c h e s below t h e lower edge of t h e hatch opening, The couch f i t t i n g s were e n e a t h t h e water in t h e c a p s u l e and a l t h o u g h t h i s hampered removal somewhat, t h e couch was removed i n about 25 minutes. The water was t h e n pumped out of t h e c a p s u l e , t h e i n s t r u m e n t p a n e l camera w a s removed, t h e h a t c h w a s r e p l a c e d , and t h e c a p s u l e e x t e r i o r w a s f l u s h e d thoroughly w i t h f r e s h water. The LSD proceeded t o a p o s i t i o n a b o u t 12 m i l e s s o u t h of t h e Grand Bahama Auxiliary A i s Force B a s e where t h e a n i m a l w a s t r a n s f e r r e d by h e l i c o p t e r t o t h e GBI Medical F a c i l i t y a t approximately 0745 EST t h e f o l l o w i n g day. The LSD t h e n proceeded t o a p o s i t i o n about 1 0 m i l e s s o u t h e a s t of Cape Canaveral and t h e c a p s u l e w a s t r a n s f e r r e d by h e l i c o p t e r a t 1700 EST t o a

10.2.1

R e t r i e v a l O b s e r v a t i o n s (Cont ' d)

l o c a t i o n n e a r t h e Cape Canaveral Skid S t r i p . F u r t h e r t r a n s p o r t t o Hangar S w a s accomplished by a LARC v e h i c l e . 10.2.2 Performance of Recovery Aids

The recovery a i d s performed as i n t e n d e d . While t h e c a p s u l e w a s descending on main c h u t e , UHF-DF cont'act w a s made by S R H equipped a i r c r a f t in S t a t i o n s 2 and 3 a t AA r a n g e s of about 97 and 135 n a u t i c a l m i l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A f t e r AA c a p s u l e l a n d i n g , UHF-DF c o n t a c t w a s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e S R H beacon as t h e a i r c r a f t c l o s e d on t h e s e a r c h area a t r a n g e s of fro^ 50 tc 20 miles degendii;g aa aircraft a l t i t u d e and airborne r e c e i v e r equipment a& W-2 a i r c r a f t w a s l o c a t e d approximately 50 n a u t i c a l m i l e s s o u t h e a s t of t h e planned l a n d i n g area ( F i g u r e 10.1-1) i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e UHF-DP r e c e i v e r equipment compatible w i t h b o t h p u l s e d and C t r a n s m i s s i o n s . This a i r c r a f t r e c e i v e d W D i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e U F v o i c e t r a n s m i s s i o n s d u r i n g c a p s u l e F H f l i g h t , and from both t h e p u l s e d and C t r a n s m i s s i o n s when t h e W recovery beacons were i n t h e recovery mode as t h e WV-2.flew toward t h e l a n d i n g area.
e

D e s t r o y e r s i n S t a t i o n s 2 , 5 , and 6 r e c e i v e d readable U F capsule voice transmissions during f l i g h t . H

Accurate r a d a r c h a f f r e p o r t s were r e c e i v e d from AMR radar l o c a t e d a t San Salvador.
The dye marker w a s s t r e a m i n g and v i s i b l e t o t h e recovery f o r c e s i n t h e l a n d i n g area u n t i l c a p s u l e r e t r i e v a l . In a d d i t i o n , smoke w a s dropped by l o c a t i o n a i r c r a f t as a visual. aid.

The f l a s h i n g l i g h t o p e r a t e d and c o n t i n u e d t o f u n c t i o n u n t i l a f t e r t h e c a p s u l e w a s d e l i v e r e d t o t h e recovery ship.

A S o f a r r e p o r t w a s r e c e i v e d a t 1 hour 20 minutes and confirmed t h e IP 709 l a n d i n g p o i n t ( F i g u r e 10.1-1).

73

11.0

CAPSULE POSTFLIGHT INSPECTION

The p o s t f l i g h t v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of c a p s u l e no. 5 rev e a l e d t h a t t h e c a p s u l e w a s g e n e r a l l y i n good c o n d i t i o n , w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g major e x c e p t i o n s :
1. The h e a t s i n k w a s m i s s i n g , as w a s most of t h e f i b e r g l a s s impact s k i r t , which was t o r n a l l t h e way around. A l l of t h e s t a i n l e s s steel s t r a p s w e r e broken itt B proximately t h e same s e c t i o n , i . e . , n e a r t h e lower spot-we cl a t t h e upper attachment. T h i s c a n be s e e n i n F i g u r e 11.0-1. The f i b e r g l a s s s h i e l d benea,th t h e l a r g e p r e s s u r e bulkhead w a s p i e r c e d by f i v e deep c u t s (Fig. 11.0-2), which corresponded i n s p a c i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n s of the heat s h i e l d s t u d s .

P

2. The l a r g e p r e s s u r e bulkhead w a s punctured (Fig. 11.0-3) by t w o of t h e b o l t s on t h e t e r m i n a l block immediately above t h e damaged area on t h e f i b e r g l a s s s h i e l d . The larger of these h o l e s w a s approximately 0.16 i n c h i n d i a m e t e r .

F i g u r e 11.0-1,- Photograph showing broken r e t e n t i o n s t r a p s and t o r n impact l a n d i n g s k i r t .

F I G U R E 11.0-2

V I E W OF CUTS I N F I B E R G L A S S S H I E L D

BENEATH LARGE PREESURE BULKHEAD

11.1 S t r u c t u r e

1. The 537 u m b i l i c a l d i s c o n n e c t w a s s t i l l a t t a c h e d t o t h e c a p s u l e . Both e x p l o s i v e c e l l s had f i r e d , b u t a s h e a r p i n s t i l l h e l d , and t h e l o c k r i n g w a s s t i l l i n p l a c e . The p l u g w a s wedged i n its Socket a t an a n g l e . The exposed w i r i n g and s o c k e t were badly burned, as c a n be s e e n i n F i g u r e 11.1-1.

2. There w a s . no evidence of e x c e s s heat n e a r t h e RCS t h r u s t e r s as had o c c u r r e d in MR-1A. One of t h e aluminum f e e d p i p e s t o t h e r i g h t yaw t h r u s t e r s c o r r o d e d through a f t e r t h e p o s t f l i g h t i n s p e c t i o n began, l e a v i n g a h o l e approximately 1/8 i n c h diameter i n t h e w a l l of t h e t u b e .

3. The escape rocket b l a s t eroded t h e p h e n o l i c a d a p t e r i a t t a c h m e n t r i n g at t h e base of t h e c a p s u l e . The l e f t - h a n d window which was. a l i g n e d with t h e r o c k e t n o z z l e had been p a i n t e d f o r t h i s m i s s i o n , but almost a l l of t h e p a i n t had been a b l a t e d a w a y , and i t s o u t e r s u r f a c e w a s badly s c o u r e d and w a s opaqve. The right-hand window which w a s a l i g n e d between r o c k e t nozzles w a s e s s c e p t i a l l y c l b a r .
4.

The recovekp compartment c o n t a i n e d s o o t y d e p o s i t s i n

areas near t h e cut-out9 f o r t h e capsule-to-tower d i s c o n n e c t s , which appeared t o come from t h e e s c a p e r o c k e t , Smoke was seen doming from t h e recovery compartment f o r a s h o r t time w h i l e t h e c a p s u l e WAS suspended by t h e LARC, and as i t w a s b e i n g r o t a t e d a b o u t its 2 axis. The s o u r c e of t h i s f i r e h a s n o t y e t been determined, b u t is b e l i e v e d t o be i n t h e area of t h e f l a s h i n g
beacon l i g h t .
5 . The c r u s h a b l e couch s u p p o r t b l o c k s were damaged, ( F i g . 11.1-2). T h i s w a s a p p a r e n t l y caused by t h e b l o c k s r o l l i n g o v e r o n t o t h e bulkhead s t i f f e n e r e i t h e r on i n s t a l l a t i o n o r remoyal of t h e couch. These blocks are n o t a t t a c h e d t o t h e c a p s u l e s t r u c t u r e and it is b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s damage d i d n o t r e s u l t from the f l i g h t test.

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11.2

Capsule I n t e r i o r

.

1. When t h e c a p s u l e was r e t u r n e d t o t h e hangar, i t c o n t a i n e d approximately f i v e g a l l o n s of water. C o n s i d e r a b l e s a l t water c o r r o s i o n w a s found. The recovery f o r c e s had rep o r t e d t h a t t h e c a p s u l e contained 18 i n c h e s of water when it w a s u p r i g h t onboard s h i p , T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a b o u t 800 pounds of water.

2.

Switch p o s i t i o n s were as f o l l o w s :
SdtUh
Squib

P o s i ti o n

ASCS Power Gyro Ammeter Batteries R/H Batteries L/H Cabin f a n Cabin l i g h t s Launch c o n t r o l Standby I n v e r t e r Audio Buss UHF S e l e c t UHF/DF Standby B a t t e r y Transmit I s o l a t e d Battery R a t e Indicator Beacon R e t r oj e t t i s o n ASCS Mode S e l e c t Landing Bag Retroheater

Off Off Normal Off On Off Off Off Off ASCS Emergency Reserve
R/T Manual UHF Normal

Manual On
Continuous Arm Normal Auto Off

3.

I n d i c a t o r r e a d i n g s were as f o l l o w s : Indicator Cabin Temperature A t t i t u d e Ind: Pitch Yaw Roll Accelerometer I n t e r i m Glock Coolant Quantity Reading

770
80° 2400

900

+14.5 g
-0.4 g 978 s a . from launch 15 p e r c e n t

11.2

Capsule I n t e r i o r (Cont'd) Indicator Auto Fuel Reading 30 p e r c e n t remaining 10 p e r c e n t remaining ( t a n k s were empty of H202) in gauge

water

e

Manual Fuel

4.

C o n t r o l p o s i t i o n s were as f o l l o w s : Control S u i t Temperature Cabin Temperature Emergency 02 R a t e P o s i ti o n F u l l CCW F u l l CCW
UP

5.

Valve p o s i t i o n s were as f o l l o w s : Valve Inflow Snorkel Outflow Snorkel S u i t Hoses Condition Tripped Tripped Interconnected

6 . The p e r i s c o p e w a s i n t h e extended p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e door locked open. T h i s is a normal c o n d i t i o n .

12.0 12.1

AMR SUPPORT, DATA COVERAGE, AND FILM REVIEW

AMR Support and Data Coverage

.

A l l A t l a n t i c Missile Range (AMR) i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n committed t o s u p p o r t t h e M - mission was manned and o p e r a t i o n a l . T h i s R2 i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n gave r e q u i r e d coverage of t h e f l i g h t and r e s u l t e d i n good o p e r a t i o n a l s u p p o r t and d a t a coverage. The b e s t i n f o r mation a v a i l a b l e a t t h e t i m e of t h i s w r i t i n g r e g a r d i n g instrument a t i o n s t a t u s and d a t a coverage i s p r e s e n t e d below:

OPTICS
TYPE

STATION
1

Metric Engineering Sequential Engineering Sequential Documentary

(Canaveral ) (Canav er a1)

24
38

24
38
2

1
3

2
(Canave r a 1 )
RADAR

1

23

23

A l l r a d a r s a c q u i r e d s i g n a l and t r a c k e d w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of r a d a r 3a.16 (MPS-25) l o c a t e d a t Carter Cay. T h i s r a d a r w a s committed t o s k i n t r a c k and w a s a s s i g n e d t o t h i s t e s t on an e n g i n e e r i n g t r i a l b a s i s o n l y . Combined r a d a r track f o r t h e t e s t w a s o b t a i n e d t o approximately 13:24. Radar r e d u c t i o n p e r s o n n e l have i n d i c a t e d , however, t h a t d a t a recorded on t h e magnetic t a p e of t h e San Salvador FPS-16 (5.16) is n o t of good q u a l i t y and may n o t p r o v i d e u s a b l e trajectory data.

TELEMETRY E x c e l l e n t t e l e m e t r y coverage w a s o b t a i n e d from l i f t - o f f t o l a n d i n g . A combination of t h e Cape TLM-18 a n t e n n a and t h e GBI a n t e n n a s f e e d i n g t h e s u b c a b l e , provided real t i m e t e l e m e t r y t o 10:20. T e r m i n a l t e l e m e t r y coverage was provided by a t e l e m e t r y a i r c r a f t in t h e l a n d i n g area. T h i s a i r c r a f t recorded good q u a l i t y d a t a t o l a n d i n g a t 16:39 w i t h adequate o v e r l a p of t h e Cape-GBI d a t a . Information r e l a t i v e t o t e l e m e t r y r e c e p t i o n by t h e t e l e m e t r y s h i p in t h e l a n d i n g a r e a ' i s n o t a v a i l a b l e a t t h i s w r i t i n g .

83

12.1

AMR Support and Data Coverage (Cont'd)

A UA ZS The A U A o p e r a t o r ' s r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t good s i g n a l ZS w a s o b t a i n e d from.00:25 t o 02:03 a t which t i m e a dropout o c c u r r e d . I n t e r m i t t e n t s i g n a l w a s then r e c e i v e d from 02:48 t o 06:OO.
RANGE SAFETY

No Range S a f e t y commands were t r a n s m i t t e d d u r i n g t h i s t e s t . A " S t a r t R e t r o f i r e " comhand was a c t i v a t e d a t t h e Mercury C o n t r o l Center and w a s t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e FRW-2 t r a n s m i t t e r a t
A A

U%t;%l.

-

A 1

12.2

Film Review 12.2.1 Engineering S e q u e n t i a l

Photographic coverage w a s good, and a l l cameras r e q u e s t e d were u t i l i z e d . Although a l l cameras o p e r a t e d , some were f a c i n g t h e sun and y i e l d e d poor q u a l i t y f i l m due t o overexposure. Four i t e m s were 16mm f i l m s which showed c a p s u l e umb i l i c a l e j e c t i o n and door c l o s u r e , engine i g n i t i o n , and l i f t - o f f t o be normal. A 35mm camera on t h e Cape t r a c k e d a l l t h e way t o a b o r t and a few seconds t h e r e a f t e r . The IGOR a t P a t r i c k , u s i n g b l a c k and w h i t e f i l m , t r a c k e d through a b o r t and followed t h e b o o s t e r f o r a few seconds t h e r e a f t e r . 12.2.2 Onboard Film

The t h r e e onboard camera f i l m s were processed and were of s a t i s f a c t o r y q u a l i t y . The m a j o r i t y of t h e f i l m w i l l produce v a l u a b l e information r e l a t i v e t o t h e behavior of t h e chimpanzee, t h e instrument r e a d i n g s , c a p s u l e o r i e n t a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e e a r t h , and appearance of t h e e a r t h .

-

13.0

CONCLUSIONS

A p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n of d a t a and c i r c u m s t a n c e s conc e r n i n g t h e MR-2 f l i g h t test i n d i c a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g :

1. Booster p r o p e l l a n t consumption was h i g h e r t h a n normal, c a u s i n g a c a p s u l e a b o r t a s a r e s u l t of p r o p e l l a n t d e p l e t i o n b e f o r e a b o r t s y s t e m d i s a r m i n g . Also, t h e a s s o c i a t e d h i g h v e l o c i t y caused an overshoot of t h e planned l a n d i n g p o i n t .
2. E a r l y i n t h e f l i g h t , t h e i n f l o w s n o r k e l v a l v e opened prematurely p r e c l u d i n g t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n of t h e environlnental c o n t r o l s y s t e m i n its primary mode. The s u i t c i r c u i t of t h i s s y s t e m f u n c t i o n e d p r o p e r l y i n an emergency anode, however.

3. Following t h e c a p s u l e a b o r t , a l l other c a p s u l e s y s t e m s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e impact bag, o p e r a t e d a s designed f o r an a b o r t .
4.

momentary problems, not known after the

Because of a series of compounding problems, i n c l u d i n g l o s s of t e l e m e t r y s i g n a l a t a b o r t and p r o c e d u r a l t h e e x a c t sequence of e v e n t s a t t h e t i m e of a b o r t was i n t h e Mercury Control Center u n t i l about one minute automatic a b o r t .

5. A t l a n d i n g , t h e h e a t s i n k s t r u c k t h e lower p a r t of t h e c a p s u l e and punctured t h e main p r e s s u r e bulkhead. After landing, t h e h e a t s i n k s e p a r a t e d from t h e c a p s u l e and sank. The c a p s u l e w a s recovered i n a p a r t i a l l y submerged c o n d i t i o n . A l a r g e amount of water had e n t e r e d t h e c a p s u l e .
6.

Recovery o p e r a t i o n s were s a t i s f a c t o r y .

7 . Post recovery information flow to t h e C o n t r o l Center w a s n o t adequate.

8. The primate occupant of t h e c a p s u l e e x p e r i e n c e d b a l l i s t i c s p a c e f l i g h t w i t h no a p p a r e n t ill e f f e c t s , c o n t i n u o u s l y performing h i s given t a s k , i n s p i t e of h i g h a c c e l e r a t i o n s a t a b o r t and d u r i n g r e - e n t r y .

9.

DOD s u p p o r t was good i n a l l r e s p e c t s .

85

14.0 14.1

APPENDIX

Capsule T e l e m e t r y I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n C M U A E MEASUREMENTS O M T TD MAU E E T E S RMN INSTRUMENT RANGE 3v 7v 95-108'F 10-2000 c p s 120-135 db 0-25 p s i a 0-200°F 40-110°F

3 V o l t DC Reference 0 Reference (ground) 7 V o l t AC Reference Body Temperature (Primate ) V i b r a t i o n (A Link) Noise (B Link) S u i t Pressure Cabin A i r Temperature S u i t I n l e t A i r Temperature Y-axis A c c e l e r a t i o n X-axis A c c e l e r a t i o n Z-axis A c c e l e r a t i o n Pitch Attitude R o l l Attitude Yaw A t t i t u d e H e a t S h i e l d Temperature Edge (A Link) H e a t S h i e l d Temperature Center (B Link open) Outer Skin Temperature (B Link fwd) (A Link aft-open) I n n e r Skin Temperature (B Link) Main 250VA I n v e r t e r Temperature (A Link) S t a t i c Pressure T o t a l Animal Response, Left-Hand T o t a l Animal Response, Righf-Hand Shock Occurrence I n t e r i m Clock (Units) I n t e r i m Clock (Tens) I n t e r i m Clock (Hundreds) I n t e r i m Clock (Thousands) Time of Retro Nitrogen High P r e s s u r e Automatic Manual Nitrogen High P r e s s u r e AC Voltage Monitor (Fans Bus) DC C u r r e n t Monitor Tower S e p a r a t i o n

-

-130° t o -;1800 -700 t o 2400 -looo t o 600°F

-

-

-looo t o 500°F 00 t o 900°F
-10 t o +320°F -20 t o 360°F 0-15 p s i a On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f 0-10 sec 0-100 sec 0-1000 sec 0-10,000 sec On-Of f 0-2400 p s i a 0-2400 p s i a 70-140 VAC 0-35 amps On-Of f

-

86

14.0 MAU E E T E S RMN

APPENDIX (Cont' d) INSTRUMENT RANGE

Capsule S e p a r a t i o n R e t r o A t t i t u d e Camand R e t r o r o c k e t No. 1 F i r e R e t r o r o c k e t No.2 F i r e Retrorocket No. 3 F i r e R e t r o r o c k e t Assy J e t t i s o n Drogue Chute Deploy Antenna F a i r i n g Release Main Chute Deploy ]d.&in Chute Jettissii Reserve Chute Deploy Duration of Blue L i g h t ( C h m Psychomotor) Mayday Tower Escape Rocket F i r e Standby I n v e r t e r ON Standby B a t t e r y ON Calibrate Signal High P r e s s u r e J e t ( P i t c h up) High P r e s s u r e J e t ( P i t c h down) Low P r e s s u r e J e t ( P i t c h up) Low P r e s s u r e J e t ( P i t c h down) High P r e s s u r e J e t (CW R o l l ) High P r e s s u r e J e t (CCW R o l l ) P e r i s c o p e Retract S i g n a l Low P r e s s u r e J e t ( W R o l l ) C Low P r e s s u r e J e t (CCW R o l l ) High P r e s s u r e J e t (Yaw L e f t ) High P r e s s u r e J e t (Yaw Right) Low P r e s s u r e J e t (Yaw $,eft) Low P r e s s u r e J e t (Yaw Right) Cabin P r e s s u r e DC Voltage Monitor Coolant Q u a n t i t y 0.05g Relay A c t i v a t i o n Sync mise

On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f
On-Of f
U ' J UU .
n -

n*l)

I

-

-

On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f On-Of f 0-25 p s i a 0-30 v o l t s 0-500 p s i a . On-Off

CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENTS R e s p i r a t i o n Rate and Depth EKG EKG

87

14.2

M o d i f i c a t i o n s t o Capsule I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n

Various m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e c a p s u l e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s y s t e m were r e q u i r e d and were accomplished by t h e N S Launch O p e r a t i o n s AA U n i t t o a c h i e v e mission o b j e c t i v e s ; t o f a c i l i t a t e c a p s u l e t e s t i n g d u r i n g g a n t r y o p e r a t i o n s ; and t o improve t h e s i g n a l q u a l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and, i n some i n s t a n c e s , e l i m i n a t e a m b i g u i t i e s . The c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h e c a p s u l e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a t launch w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n two groups; Biomedical and General. 14.2.1 Biomedical I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n encountered d u r i n g t h e EKG simlll2tT)r was degantry o p e r a t i o n s t o t h e remote s i t e s .

Considerable problems were prelaunch t e s t i n g p e r i d . A= e l e c t r c n i c s i g n e d , c o n s t r u c t e d , and used d u r i n g t h e check o u t t h e medical i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a t

EKG Amplifiers The EKG a m p l i f i e r s r e c e i v e d w i t h t h e c a p s u l e were n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r f l i g h t . They were red e s i g n e d by N S Launch Operations and d e l i v e r e d e x c e l l e n t EKG AA d a t a d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e f l i g h t . Output l e v e l s were g r e a t l y d i f f e r e n t ( b u t r e a d a b l e ) from a m p l i f i e r t o a m p l i f i e r because a d j u s t m e n t s c o u l d n o t be made on t h e g a n t r y w i t h t h e a c t u a l s u b j e c t connected.

-

R e s p i r a t i o n Rate and Depth Transducer and AmplifierThe r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e and depth t r a n s d u c e r and a m p l i f i e r d e l i v e r e d f o r f l i g h t w e r n o t u s a b l e . These were r e d e s i g n e d by N S Launch AA O p e r a t i o n s and y i e l d e d e x c e l l e n t d a t a from launch t o s p l a s h . Body Temperature Transducer c a l i b r a t e d during t h e e n t i r e f l i g h t .

-

The t r a n s d u c e r w a s

The psychomotor t e s t e r operPsychomotor T e s t e r a t e d p r o p e r l y d u r i n g t h e prelaunch t e s t i n g p e r i o d and d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e f l i g h t . Some m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made by MAC a t t h e Cape t o b r i n g i t i n t o e l e c t r i c a l and v i b r a t i o n s p e c i ' f i c a t i o n s . 14.2.2 General System M o d i f i c a t i o n s

-

The mixer a m p l i f i e r was r e d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e i n creqped v o l t a g e l e v e l s of t h e m u l t i p l e x e d composite FM s i g n a l t o t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r and t o p r o v i d e ' h a r d l i n e s i g n a l s t o t h e blockhouse f o r c o n t i n u o a s s d a t a m o n i t o r i n g d u r i n g p e r i o d s of FU? s i l e n c e . For s y s t e m checks a t remote s i t e s , t h e h a r d l i n e s i g n a l s were used t o modulate t w o a u x i l i a r y t r a n s m i t t e r s tuned t o t h e c a p s u l e f r e q u e n c i e s b u t l o c a t e d i n t h e blockhouse. This t e c h n i q u e proved t o be most s u c c e s s f u l a n d was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n c o n s e r v i n g t h e l i f e of t h e c a p s u l e t r a n s m i t t e r s , which is l i m i t e d t o 50 hours and h a s an unknown t o l e r a n c e f o r c a p s u l e temperatures.

14.2.2

Geneml System Modifications (Cont'd)

The i n p u t c i r c u i t r y t o t h e 1 0 . 5 KC v o l t a g e c o n t r o l l e d o s c i l l a t o r s was modified t o reduce t h e e f f e c t i v e o u t p u t v o l t a g e from t h e onboard commutators. A v o l t a g e d i v i d e r w a s a d j u s t e d t o c o n f i n e t h e s i g n i f i c a n t sidebands t o +6 p e r c e n t d e v i a t i o n , t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g a guard-band of 1 . 5 p e r c e n t d e v i a t i o n f o r o s c i l l a t o r c e n t e r frequency d r i f t . The supply v o l t a g e t o t h e three a c c e l e r o m e t e r s was f i l t e r e d and r e g u l a t e d t o prevent n o i s e on t h e 24v DC bus from a p p e a r i n g on t h e accelerometer o u t p u t s . S i n c e t h e o u t p u t i m pedance of t h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r s i s approximately 10,000 ohms, a 2 Microfarad condenser was connected a c r o s s each accelerometer t o reduce t h e AC impedance, thereby r e d u c i n g t h e commutator sampling e r r o r s which come from t a l k b a c k i n t o t h e a c c e l e r o m e t e r . S a t i s f a c t o r y performance of t h e accelerometers was o b t a i n e d during f l i g h t .
A d e s p i k i n g network was designed and i n s t a l l e d on each of t h e programmer o u t p u t s t o t h e cameras, Lo p r o t e c t t h e programmer c o n t a c t s from l i n e t r a n s i e n t s . A m i r r o r and b r a c k e t assembly was designed and i n s t a l l e d on t h e i n s t r u m e n t panel t o view t h e l e f t - h a n d p o r t h o l e by means of t h e i n s t r u m e n t o b s e r v e r camera.

The r a d i a t i o n f i l m packs used were of a new d e s i g n . These have been renoved and forwarded t o t h e Naval A i r S t a t i o n a t Pensacola, Florida. The i n n e r s k i n temperature pickup (Segment 21A) was removed and i n s t a l l e d on t h e 250 VA main i n v e r t e r . The i n v e r t e r temperature was monitored c o n t i n u o u s l y d u r i n g t h e prelaunch countdown. The i n v e r t e r temperature r o s e s t e a d i l y t o 1920F w i t h o u t any evidence of l e v e l i n g o f f , S i n c e t h e r e was s t i l l c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e remaining u n t i l T-b, t h e c o u n t was r e c y c l e d t o T-120, t h e h a t c h was opened, and c o l d a i r was d i r e c t e d on t h e i n v e r t e r u n t i l t h e t e m p e r a t u r e dropped below llO°F. The count was resumed and c o n t i n u e d u n t i l launch. A t l a u n c h , t h e i n v e r t e r temperature was below 170°F. Figure 14.2-1 i s a t i m e h i s t o r y of these t e m p e r a t u r e r e a d o u t s in t h e p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g launch.

89

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14.2.2

General Bystem Modifications (Cont'd)

The periscope r e t r a c t s i g n a l was modified t o read out t h e c l o s u r e of t h e periscope cover i n s t e a d of monitoring t h e periscope motor current. Earth and Sky camera alignment -data is presented i n Figure 14.2-2.

91

BY

LX

.

6TY

VIEW LOOKING

TOWARD 2'0

VIEW "A"

5O

ROTATED 15O CW WITH RESPECT

TO VIEW "A"
FIGURE 14.2-2

ROTATED 15 CW WITH RESPECT 0' TO VIEW ?'A"

<

EARi:! AND SKY CAMERA ALIGNMENT ' 92

14.3

Computer and Data Flow System Operation

.

The Mercury C o n t r o l C e n t e r p l o t b o a r d and d i g i t a l d i s p l a y s a c t i v a t e d f o r t h i s mission a r e based on computer programs w r i t t e n f o r A t l a s m i s s i o n s . Because of t h i s , t h e y a r e relat i v e l y i n e f f i c i e n t f o r u s e i n Redstone m i s s i o n s s i n c e r e l a t i v e l y complicated o p e r a t i o n a l procedures are n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i r proper operation,

Direct c o p i e s of t h e Mercury C o n t r o l Center p l o t b o a r d s a r e shown i n F i g u r e s 1 4 . 3 - 1 t o 14.3-3. These p l o t b o a r d s were a c t i v a t e d by r e a l t i m e d a t a from t h e A U A and t h e Cape FPS-16 Z S r a d a r p . P o s i t i o n and v e l o c i t y v e c t o r s were t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e Godciard iDm t w m Computer from the iiange SaZe’ay Impact Prediction IBM 709 Computer. The launch computations w e r e t h e n made i n r e a l t i m e and t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e Mercury C o n t r o l Center p l o t boards and d i g i t a l d i s p l a y s . The p l o t b o a r d s and t h e q u a n t i t i e s d i s p l a y e d are i n d i c a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e :

--..

PLOTBOARDS AND QUANTITIES DISPLAYED FIGURE
NO.

PLOTBOARD
NO.

TIME
L i f t - o f f t o manual c l o s u r e of a b o r t i n i t i a t e override s w i t c h and c l o s u r e of a b o r t mode s w i t c h Abort mode s w i t c h t o loss of s i g n a l

QUANTITY

14.3-1

la

Inertial flight-path a n g l e ( r i ) vs. i n e r t i a l v e l o c i t y (Vi)

lb

Height above average s p h e r i c a l e a r t h (r-x) vs. i n e r t i a l v e l o c i t y

(V)
14.3-2 2a Lift-off t o a b o r t initiate switch Crossrange d i s t a n c e (y)vs, downrange d i s t a n c e (d) A l t i t u d e (h) vs. downrange d i s t a n c e (d) A l t i t u d e (h) vs, downrange d i s t a n c e (d)

.
2b Abort mode t o l o s s of s i g n a l

93

'\

14.3
86.

Computer and Data Flow System Operation (Cont'd) PLOTBOARD NO. 4a
TIME

FIGURE 14.3.3

QUANTI 'IY Impact p o i n t f o r immediate a b o r t u s i n g escape tower, (Longitude and L a t it u d e ) Impact p o i n t f o r
ALUAVIAAL

L i f t - o f f t o tower separation

4b

Tower s e p a r a t i o n +,k abort i a i t i a t e switch Abort mode t o l o s s of s i g n a l

m r r C m r r P i rr-

nncI-

ALGUA

nrrrsm-1 u u A u i a A

time. (Longitude and L a t itude)
P r e s e n t p o s i t i o n and impact p o i n t a s i n 4b. (Longitude and Latitude)

4c

The manual s w i t c h e s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e above t a b l e were used as p a r t of t h e o p e r a t i o n a l procedures f o r Mercury-Redstone f l i g h t s i n o r d e r t o a d a p t computer programs w r i t t e n f o r A t l a s m i s s i o n s f o r u s e i n Redstone missions.

These s w i t c h e s (except f o r t h e Abort-Hold-Orbit s w i t c h ) a r e a p a r t of t h e F l i g h t Communicator's c o n s o l e and are used t o conf i r m or r e j e c t e v e n t s i g n a l s from capsule t e l e m e t r y s o t h a t t h e i n p u t t o t h e Goddard 7090 Computer c a n be c o n t r o l l e d , O r d i n a r i l y , t e l e m e t r y s i g n a l s of any event a r e d i r e c t i n p u t s t o t h e computer. I f t h e s i g n a l is found t o be e r r o n e o u s by t h e c o n t r o l c e n t e r p e r s o n n e l t h e o v e r r i d e s w i t c h e s a t t h e Capsule Communicator's Console are used t o c o r r e c t t h e i n p u t . The computer can always c o r r e c t its computations t o provide t h e c o r r e c t d i s p l a y s t o t h e c o n t r o l c e n t e r u n t i l t h e time t h a t t h e Abort-Hold-Orbit s w i t c h ( l o c a t e d i n t h e d a t a s e l e c t i o n room of t h e c o n t r o l c e n t e r ) is changed from Hold t o e i t h e r Abort or O r b i t a t t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e F l i g h t Dynamics O f f i c e r . O r d i n a k i l y t h i s is done f o r an Atlas m i s s i o n a f t e r t h e GO-NO-GO d e c i s i o n is made. Once t h e change is made t o Abort or O r b i t , however, t h e computer is n o t p r e s e n t l y c a p a b l e of r e - e n t e r i n g t h e launch (Hold) mode. Theref o r e i t is v e r y important t o e s t a b l i s h i f an a b o r t t r u l y has o c c u r r e d b e f o r e changing t h e computer mode w i t h t h e Abort-HoldO r b i t switch.

97

14.3

Computer and Data Flow System Operation (Cont'd)

The computer l o g i c u t i l i z e s t e l e m e t r y e v e n t s s i g n a l s and manual o v e r r i d e s of t h e s e s i g n a l to c o n t r o l t h e o u t p u t t o t h e Mercury C o n t r o l Center. The s i g n a l s used f o r t h e Redstone m i s s i o n and t h e s i g n a l s o u r c e a r e i n d i c a t e d below i n t h e o r d e r t h a t they were normally expected t o o c c u r :
EVENT AND ORDER OF OCCURRENCE
1. 2.

SOURCE

TIME
A t lift-off

Lift-off

Manual o v e r r i d e s w i t c h Direct telemetry i n t o computer Manual o v e r r i d e s w i t c h Manual o v e r r i d e s w i t c h Direct t e l e m e t r y i n t o computer

Tower s e p a r a t i o n
Abort I n i t i a t e Posigrade f i r i n g Capsule separation Abort-Hold-Orbit Switch t o a b o r t mode Retrofire Escape r o c k e t f i r e

3. 4.
5.
6.

A t engine c u t o f f A t capsule separation

Manual 3 p o s i t i o n s w i t c h A f t e r c a p s u l e separation D i r e c t telemetry i n t o computer Direct t e l e m e t r y i n t o computer

7.
8.

The l i f t - o f f manual o v e r r i d e and t h e p o s i g r a d e manual overr i d e s w i t c h were planned t o be used i n t h i s m i s s i o n s i n c e t h e s e s i g n a l s were n o t y e t a v a i l a b l e from c a p s u l e t e l e m e t r y or o t h e r sources. The a b o r t i n i t i a t e o v e r r i d e s w i t c h was planned t o be used
?

i n t h i s mission a s an engine c u t o f f s i g n a l t o r e p l a c e t h e normal SECO s i g n a l r e c e i v e d i n A t l a s m i s s i o n s . A c u t o f f s i g n a l was n o t a v a i l a b l e t o t h e computer from Redstone t e l e m e t r y , a n d a SECO
o v e r r i d e s w i t c h had n o t y e t been provided i n t h e c o n t r o l c e n t e r .

98

14.3

Computer and Data Flow System Operation (Cont'd)

I n t h e a c t u a l f l i g h t t e l e m e t r y was l o s t a t burnout when t h e a b o r t a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d , and as a r e s u l t most of t h e telemet r y e v e n t s were t r a n s m i t t e d e r r o n e o u s l y t o t h e computer. The t e l e m e t r y e v e n t s i g n a l i n d i c a t i n g e s c a p e tower s e p a r a t i o n w a s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t r a n s m i s s i o n and caused t h e computer t o p r e d i c t impact p o i n t s assuming f i r i n g of t h e r e t r o r o c k e t s rather t h a n f i r i n g of t h e escape tower, c a u s i n g t h e c a l c u l a t e d impact p o i n t t o be s h o r t of t h e a c t u a l . S i n c e t h e t e l e m e t r y s i g n a l s i n d i c a t i n g a b o r t i n i t i a t e and c a p s u l e s e p a r a t i o n were a l s o r e c e i v e d , t h e computing program entered and completed the Ca-NO-Ca ccmputak&ons, subsequently t r a n s f e r r i n g program c o n t r o l from t h e launch phase t o t h e h o l d phase. The Redstone computing program d i d n o t c o n t a i n n e c e s s a r y l o g i c t o e n a b l e t r a n s f e r s back t o t h e launch phase from t h e h o l d phase and consequently was locked i n t h e hold phase u n t i l t h e Abort-Hold-Orbit witch was placed i n t h e a b o r t p o s i t i o n . Program l o g i c t o accompoish t h i s t r a n s f e r back t o t h e launch phase had n o t y e t been added t o t h e Redstone program. For t h i s s p e c i f i c t y p e of abort, a n a b o r t w i t h t h e e s c a p e tower d u r i n g which t h e telemetry e v e n t s i n d i c a t e tower s e p a r a t i o n , t h e tower s e p a r a t i o n e v e n t must be manually o v e r r i d d e n t o p r e v e n t e r r o n e o u s computation of t h e impact p o i n t . For t h e M - m i s s i o n R2 t h i s manual o v e r r i d e s h o u l d have o c c u r r e d a t t h e t i m e tower s e p p r a t i o n appeared o r dw-ing t h e n i n e second p e r i o d between t h e appearance of t h e s i g n a l and e n t r y 0f t h e h o l d phase by t h e computing program. The o v e r r i d e w a s a c t u a l l y s e t seven seconds a f t e r t h e a b o r t s w i t c h o r approximately 38 seconds a f t e r t h e appearance of t h e tower s e p a r a t i o n t e l e m e t r y .
I t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t t h i s same s i t u a t i o n can a l s o o c c u r w i t h t h e Mercury-Atlas computing program.

The e v e n t t i m e s a r e noted below:
EVENT

TIME P O RANGE ZERO RM 02: 18 02 :18 02:21.17 02 :52.73 02 :59.54

A c t u a l Abort I n i t i a t e (Telemetry) Escape Rocket F i r e (Telemetry) Tower s e p a r a t i o n (erroneous e v e n t from t e l e m e t r y a t loss of s i g n a l ) Abort-Hold-Orbit s w i t c h set t o a b o r t manually Tower s e p a r a t i o n manually o v e r r i d d e n t o no e v e n t 99

14.3

Computer and D a t a Flow System Operation (Cont'd)

In a d d i t i o n t o t h e l o s s of t e l e m e t r y when t h e e s c a p e r o c k e t f i r e d , t h e sequence of e v e n t s i n t h e m i s s i o n were f u r t h e r confused by a loss of AZUSA data f i v e seconds b e f o r e b o o s t e r f u e l d e p l e t i o n . The d a t a source w a s t h e n s w i t c h e d t o t h e Cape FPS-16 r a d a r and t h i s r a d a r l o s t lock when t h e e s c a p e r o c k e t f i r e d and d i d n o t r e g a i n lock u n t i l e i g h t seconds l a t e r . The e f f e c t s of t h e complete dropout of d a t a immediately a t e n g i n e In a d d i t i o n , burnout c a n be s e e n i n F i g u r e s 14.3-1 t o 14.3-3. t h e Goddard computer used €hese noisy d a t a t o compute an e r r o n e o u s burn o u t v e l o c i t y of 9,220 f e e t p e r second.
many cimultaneou=ly s c c ~ r r i n gex/en+,= r e s u l t e d i n a poor p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e c o n t r o l c e n t e r p e r s o n n e l , t h e computing s y s t e m performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n t h a t i t d i d what i t w a s t o l d t o do. X t is e v i d e n t , however, t h a t i n o r d e r t o i n s u r e adequate p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o t h e Mercury C o n t r o l Center p e r s o n n e l f o r f u t u r e m i s s i o n s , m o d i f i c a t i o n s s h o u l d be made t o t h e o p e r a t i o n a l procedures and t o t h e computer program for s p e c i f i c Redstone u s e .
-- - thnijgh A 1 - -- -

i

100

FLIGHT EVALUATION TEAM The F l i g h t E v a l u a t i o n Team f o r t h e M - f l i g h t from whose R2 a n a l y s i s t h i s r e p o r t is based c o n s i s t e d of t h e f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e :
I

R%&kd.r-d . .Arbic . C
Sam T. Beddingfield .John A. behuncik

C. C. K r a f t

H. R. Largent
P.

e. .Maloney
lager

" n h n ,D. T
VIIU

Arthur ld. Busch

Vernon M i t c h e l l
A. A . Morse

T. G. Broughton
Nancy K. Carter Donald C. Cheatbam Raymond R. Clemens Paul C. Donnelly
D r . Marion Grunzke

Major D a n i e l Moseley
F. T. P i e r c e , Jr. F. H. Samonski, Jr.
J . M. S a t t e r f i e l d

G. M. Simpson, Jr.

Robert D. Harrington
D r . J. D. Henry

T. H. Skopinski

Robert F. Thompson James M. Towey Kenneth L. Turner C h a r l e s I . Tynan, Jr.

John J a n o k a i t i s Sidney C. Jones

W. J . Kapryan

In a d d i t i o n , W. J . Kapryan a s s i s t e d in e d i t i n g t h e material c o n c e r n i n g c a p s u l e measurements and s y s t e m s performance.

101

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